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Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734068/evolution-of-antero-posterior-patterning-of-the-limb-insights-from-the-chick
#1
REVIEW
Matthew Towers
The developing limbs of chicken embryos have served as pioneering models for understanding pattern formation for over a century. The ease with which chick wing and leg buds can be experimentally manipulated, while the embryo is still in the egg, has resulted in the discovery of important developmental organisers, and subsequently, the signals that they produce. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is produced by mesenchyme cells of the polarizing region at the posterior margin of the limb bud and specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (the axis running from the thumb to the little finger)...
July 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722203/interaction-of-spoonbill-with-prospero-in-drosophila-implications-in-neuroblast-development
#2
LETTER
Bipin K Tripathi, Rituparna Das, Ashim Mukherjee, Mousumi Mutsuddi
Identification of Spoon as a suppressor of SCA8 associated neurodegeneration provides us a hint about its role in neuronal development and maintenance. However, a detailed molecular characterization of spoon has not yet been reported. Here, we describe spatial expression pattern of Spoon during Drosophila development. Quantitative Real Time-PCR and fluorescent RNA-RNA in situ hybridization indicate that Spoon is expressed at relatively high levels in larval brain and photoreceptors of eye-antennal discs. Immunostaining reveals that Spoon is subcellularly localized in the cytoplasm and is also membrane bound...
July 19, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722198/male-germline-recombination-of-a-conditional-allele-by-the-widely-used-dermo1-cre-twist2-cre-transgene
#3
LETTER
Yun He, Xiumei Sun, Li Wang, Yuji Mishina, Jun-Lin Guan, Fei Liu
Conditional gene knockout using the Cre/loxP system is instrumental in advancing our understanding of the function of genes in a wide range of disciplines. It is becoming increasingly apparent in the literature that some Cre transgenes mediated recombination occurs in unexpected tissues. Dermo1-Cre (Twist2-Cre) has been widely used to target skeletal lineage cells as well as other mesoderm-derived cells. Here we report that Dermo1-Cre exhibits spontaneous male germline recombination activity leading to a Cre-mediated recombination of a floxed Ptk2 (Protein tyrosine kinase 2, also known as Fak [Focal adhesion kinase]) allele but not a floxed Rb1cc1 (RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1, also known as Fip200 [FAK-family Interacting Protein of 200 kDa]) allele at high frequency...
July 19, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653473/rab11-is-required-for-tubulogenesis-of-malpighian-tubules-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
LETTER
Praween Kumar Choubey, Jagat Kumar Roy
Intracellular vesicular trafficking is one of the important tools in maintaining polarity, adhesion, and shape of epithelial cells. Rab11, a subfamily of the Ypt/Rab gene family of ubiquitously expressed GTPases and a molecular marker of recycling endosomes, transports different components of plasma membrane. Here we report that Rab11 affects tubulogenesis of Malpighian tubules (MTs). MTs are simple polarized epithelial tubular structures, considered as functional analogue of human Kidney. Rab11 has pleiotropic effects on MTs development as down-regulation of Rab11 in principal cells of MTs from embryonic stages of development, results in reduced endoreplication, clustering of cells, disorganized cytoskeleton and disruption of polarity leading to shortening of MTs in third instar larvae...
June 27, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653435/rice-crispr-rapidly-increased-cut-ends-by-an-exonuclease-cas9-fusion-in-zebrafish
#5
Thomas P Clements, Bhavna Tandon, Hendrik A Lintel, Joseph H McCarty, Daniel S Wagner
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in diverse organisms has resulted in an explosion of genome modification efforts. To expand the toolbox of applications, we have created an E. coli Exonuclease I (sbcB) - Cas9 fusion that has altered enzymatic activity in zebrafish embryos. This Cas9 variant has increased mutation efficiency and favors longer deletions relative to wild type Cas9. We anticipate that this variant will allow for more efficient screening for F0 phenotypes and mutation of a larger spectrum of genomic targets including deletion of regulatory regions and creating loss of function mutations in transcription units with poor sequence conservation such as lncRNAs where larger deletions may be required for loss of function...
June 27, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646547/a-dual-fluorescence-reporter-in-the-eomes-locus-for-live-imaging-and-medium-term-lineage-tracing
#6
Simone Probst, Ray A Daza, Natalie Bader, Jonas F Hummel, Matthias Weiß, Yakup Tanriver, Robert F Hevner, Sebastian J Arnold
The T-box transcription factor Eomes (also known as Tbr2) shows short-lived expression in various localized domains of the embryo, including epiblast cells during gastrulation and intermediate progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex. In these tissues Eomes fulfills crucial roles for lineage specification of progenitors. To directly observe Eomes-dependent cell lineages in the living embryo, we generated a novel dual-fluorescence reporter allele that expresses a membrane-bound tdTomato protein for investigation of cell morphology and a nuclear GFP for cell tracing...
June 24, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639397/ovarian-polarity-and-cell-shape-determination-by-btk29a-in-drosophila
#7
Noriko Hamada-Kawaguchi, Daisuke Yamamoto
Drosophila Btk29A is a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, the ortholog of which causes X-linked agammagluburinemia in humans when mutant. In Btk29A(ficP) mutant ovaries, multiple defects are observed: extra polar cells form ectopically; osk mRNA fails to accumulate posteriorly in mature oocytes; the shape and alignment of follicle cells are grossly distorted. All these phenotypes are rescued by selectively overexpressing the type 2 isoform of wild-type Btk29A in follicle cells. Expression of certain proteins enriched in adherens junctions is markedly affected in Btk29A(ficP) mutants; the anterior-posterior gradient normally observed in the expression of DE-Cadherin and Armadillo are lost and Canoe is sequestered from adherens junctions...
June 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589709/generation-of-nkx2-5-creer-transgenic-mice-for-inducible-cre-expression-in-developing-hearts
#8
Sara Ranjbarvaziri, Shuin Park, Ngoc B Nguyen, William B Gilmore, Peng Zhao, Reza Ardehali
Nkx2-5 is a homeobox-containing transcriptional regulator that serves as one of the earliest markers of cardiac lineage commitment. To study the role of Nkx2-5-expressing progenitors at specific time points in cardiac development, we have generated a novel and inducible NKX2-5 mouse line by knocking in a CreER cassette into the Nkx2-5 genomic locus, while preserving the endogenous Nkx2-5 gene to avoid haploinsufficiency. We evaluated the specificity and efficiency of CreER activity after 4-OHT injection by crossing Nkx2-5(CreER/+) mice with a Rosa26(tdT/+) reporter strain...
June 7, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509407/il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-osteogenesis-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-activating-foxd3-microrna-496-to-repress-wnt-signaling
#9
Jian Huang, Liang Chen
IL-1β, a major cytokine of proinflammatory response, has been implicated in bone loss. However, its effects on mesenchymal progenitor cells-associated bone regeneration remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA for the regulation of osteogenesis by IL-1β in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSC). Our data suggested Homo sapiens (hsa)-miR-496 is induced by IL-1β in hBMMSC and mediates the decreased β-catenin expression. Reporter assays using the 3'-UTR of β-catenin demonstrated sequence-dependent gene suppression with hsa-miR-496...
May 16, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464429/short-hairpin-rna-is-more-effective-than-long-hairpin-rna-in-eliciting-pointed-loss-of-function-phenotypes-in-drosophila
#10
LETTER
Rosa Bartoletti, Benjamin Capozzoli, Joneisha Moore, Jaynie Moran, Brandy Shrawder, Pavithra Vivekanand
Pointed (Pnt) is a transcriptional activator that functions downstream of the highly conserved Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signaling pathway. Pnt is an ETS family transcription factor and encodes for two proteins, PntP1 and PntP2. However, while PntP1 is constitutively active, PntP2 is only active after being phosphorylated by MAPK in the RTK pathway. As mutations in pnt perturb the development of several tissues, we wanted to examine the effect and efficacy of using RNAi to target Pnt. We have expressed pnt RNAi in the eyes, oocyte, and heart cells using three different RNAi lines: Valium20, Valium10, and VDRC...
May 2, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509431/golga5-is-dispensable-for-mouse-embryonic-development-and-postnatal-survival
#11
LETTER
Lynessa J McGee, Alex L Jiang, Yu Lan
Golgins are a family of coiled-coil proteins located at the cytoplasmic surface of the Golgi apparatus and have been implicated in maintaining Golgi structural integrity through acting as tethering factors for retrograde vesicle transport. Whereas knockdown of several individual golgins in cultured cells caused Golgi fragmentation and disruption of vesicle trafficking, analysis of mutant mouse models lacking individual golgins have discovered tissue-specific developmental functions. Recently, homozygous loss of function of GOLGA2, of which previous in vitro studies suggested an essential role in maintenance of Golgi structure and in mitosis, has been associated with a neuromuscular disorder in human patients, which highlights the need for understanding the developmental roles of the golgins in vivo...
July 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481036/generation-and-characterization-of-a-conditional-allele-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-6
#12
Arianna L Smith, Youssef A Kousa, Akira Kinoshita, Kate Fodor, Baoli Yang, Brian C Schutte
Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is a critical regulator of differentiation, proliferation, and migration of keratinocytes. Mutations in IRF6 cause two autosomal dominant disorders characterized by cleft lip with or without cleft palate. In addition, DNA variation in IRF6 confers significant risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate. IRF6 is also implicated in adult onset development and disease processes, including mammary gland development and squamous cell carcinoma. Mice homozygous for a null allele of Irf6 die shortly after birth due to severe skin, limb, and craniofacial defects, thus impeding the study of gene function after birth...
July 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401685/characterization-of-new-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-2-regulatory-alleles
#13
Tapan A Shah, Youhua Zhu, Nadia N Shaikh, Marie A Harris, Stephen E Harris, Melissa B Rogers
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2, HGNC:1069, GeneID: 650) is a classical morphogen; a molecule that acts at a distance and whose concentration influences cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Key events requiring precise Bmp2 regulation include heart specification and morphogenesis and neural development. In mesenchymal cells, the concentration of BMP2 influences myogenesis, adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Because the amount, timing, and location of BMP2 synthesis influence pattern formation and organogenesis, the mechanisms that regulate Bmp2 are crucial...
July 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371069/specific-and-spatial-labeling-of-p0-cre-versus-wnt1-cre-in-cranial-neural-crest-in-early-mouse-embryos
#14
Guiqian Chen, Mohamed Ishan, Jingwen Yang, Satoshi Kishigami, Tomokazu Fukuda, Greg Scott, Manas K Ray, Chenming Sun, Shi-You Chen, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Yuji Mishina, Hong-Xiang Liu
P0-Cre and Wnt1-Cre mouse lines have been widely used in combination with loxP-flanked mice to label and genetically modify neural crest (NC) cells and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre has been regarded as the gold standard and there have been concerns about the specificity of P0-Cre because it is not clear about the timing and spatial distribution of the P0-Cre transgene in labeling NC cells at early embryonic stages. We re-visited P0-Cre and Wnt1-Cre models in the labeling of NC cells in early mouse embryos with a focus on cranial NC...
June 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316121/foxd4-is-essential-for-establishing-neural-cell-fate-and-for-neuronal-differentiation
#15
Jonathan H Sherman, Beverly A Karpinski, Matthew S Fralish, Justin M Cappuzzo, Devinder S Dhindsa, Arielle G Thal, Sally A Moody, Anthony S LaMantia, Thomas M Maynard
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an ortholog of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ESC to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation...
June 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253541/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-cadherin-function-and-regulation-in-the-neural-crest
#16
REVIEW
Lisa A Taneyhill, Andrew T Schiffmacher
Our increasing comprehension of neural crest cell development has reciprocally advanced our understanding of cadherin expression, regulation, and function. As a transient population of multipotent stem cells that significantly contribute to the vertebrate body plan, neural crest cells undergo a variety of transformative processes and exhibit many cellular behaviors, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), motility, collective cell migration, and differentiation. Multiple studies have elucidated regulatory and mechanistic details of specific cadherins during neural crest cell development in a highly contextual manner...
June 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485022/genesis-special-issue-new-models-for-arthropod-research
#17
EDITORIAL
Helena Araujo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#18
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
May 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432831/oncopeltus-fasciatus-as-an-evo-devo-research-organism
#19
REVIEW
Ariel D Chipman
The large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus was one of the main study insects for a range of biological questions throughout much of the 20(th) century. Its importance waned with the introduction of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism. The evo-devo revolution of the turn of the century re-introduced Oncopeltus into the scientific community, and it has proved increasingly useful, mostly within a comparative context for evolution driven research. The last few years have seen a number of significant contributions to our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes in insects, and in arthropods in general, arise from work on Oncopeltus...
May 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432826/ploidy-has-little-effect-on-timing-early-embryonic-events-in-the-haplo-diploid-wasp-nasonia
#20
Deanna Arsala, Jeremy A Lynch
The nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio plays a prominent role in the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in many animals. The effect of the N/C ratio on cell-cycle lengthening and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, where haploid embryos experience an additional division prior to completing cellularization and triploid embryos cellularize precociously by one division. In this study, we set out to understand how the obligate difference in ploidy in the haplodiploid wasp, Nasonia, affects the MZT and which aspects of the Drosophila MZT are conserved...
May 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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