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Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432831/oncopeltus-fasciatus-as-an-evo-devo-research-organism
#2
REVIEW
Ariel D Chipman
The large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus was one of the main study insects for a range of biological questions throughout much of the 20(th) century. Its importance waned with the introduction of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism. The evo-devo revolution of the turn of the century re-introduced Oncopeltus into the scientific community, and it has proved increasingly useful, mostly within a comparative context for evolution driven research. The last few years have seen a number of significant contributions to our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes in insects, and in arthropods in general, arise from work on Oncopeltus...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432826/ploidy-has-little-effect-on-timing-early-embryonic-events-in-the-haplo-diploid-wasp-nasonia
#3
Deanna Arsala, Jeremy A Lynch
The nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio plays a prominent role in the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in many animals. The effect of the N/C ratio on cell-cycle lengthening and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, where haploid embryos experience an additional division prior to completing cellularization and triploid embryos cellularize precociously by one division. In this study, we set out to understand how the obligate difference in ploidy in the haplodiploid wasp, Nasonia, affects the MZT and which aspects of the Drosophila MZT are conserved...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432817/factors-involved-in-early-polarization-of-the-anterior-posterior-axis-in-the-milkweed-bug-oncopeltus-fasciatus
#4
Neta Ginzburg, Mira Cohen, Ariel D Chipman
The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432816/rhodnius-prolixus-from-classical-physiology-to-modern-developmental-biology
#5
REVIEW
Rodrigo Nunes-da-Fonseca, Mateus Berni, Vitória Tobias-Dos-Santos, Attilio Pane, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect and a primary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas disease. Over the past century, Rhodnius has been the subject of intense investigations, which have contributed to unveil important aspects of metabolism and physiology in insects. Recent technological innovations are helping dissect the genetic and molecular underpinnings of Rhodnius embryogenesis and organogenesis, thus fostering the use of this important species in the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432809/the-honeybee-as-a-model-insect-for-developmental-genetics
#6
REVIEW
A G Cridge, M R Lovegrove, J G Skelly, S E Taylor, G E L Petersen, R C Cameron, P K Dearden
Honeybees are an important component of modern agricultural systems, and a fascinating and scientifically engrossing insect. Honeybees are not commonly used as model systems for understanding development in insects despite their importance in agriculture. Honeybee embryogenesis, while being superficially similar to Drosophila, is molecularly very different, especially in axis formation and sex determination. In later development, much of honeybee biology is modified by caste development, an as yet poorly understood, but excellent, system to study developmental plasticity...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401685/characterization-of-new-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-2-regulatory-alleles
#7
Tapan A Shah, Youhua Zhu, Nadia N Shaikh, Marie A Harris, Stephen E Harris, Melissa B Rogers
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2, HGNC:1069, GeneID: 650) is a classical morphogen; a molecule that acts at a distance and whose concentration influences cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Key events requiring precise Bmp2 regulation include heart specification and morphogenesis and neural development. In mesenchymal cells, the concentration of BMP2 influences myogenesis, adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Because the amount, timing, and location of BMP2 synthesis influence pattern formation and organogenesis, the mechanisms that regulate Bmp2 are crucial...
April 12, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371069/specific-and-spatial-labeling-of-p0-cre-versus-wnt1-cre-in-cranial-neural-crest-in-early-mouse-embryos
#8
Guiqian Chen, Mohamed Ishan, Jingwen Yang, Satoshi Kishigami, Tomokazu Fukuda, Greg Scott, Manas K Ray, Chenming Sun, Shi-You Chen, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Yuji Mishina, Hong-Xiang Liu
P0-Cre and Wnt1-Cre mouse lines have been widely used in combination with loxP-flanked mice to label and genetically modify neural crest (NC) cells and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre has been regarded as the gold standard and there have been concerns about the specificity of P0-Cre because it is not clear about the timing and spatial distribution of the P0-Cre transgene in labeling NC cells at early embryonic stages. We re-visited P0-Cre and Wnt1-Cre models in the labeling of NC cells in early mouse embryos with a focus on cranial NC...
March 29, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319357/par3-in-chick-lens-placode-development
#9
Maraysa de Oliveira Melo, Ricardo Moraes Borges, Chao Yun Irene Yan
The lens originates from a simple cuboidal epithelium, which, on its basal side, contacts the optic vesicle, whilst facing the extraembryonic environment on its apical side. As this epithelium changes into the pseudostratified lens placode, its cells elongate and become narrower at their apical ends. This is due to the formation of an apical actin network, whose appearance is restricted to cells of the placodal region, as a result of region-specific signaling mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the polarity protein PAR3 and the phosphorylation state of its Threonine 833 (T833) aPKC-binding site in the recruitment of aPKC and in the establishment of actin network in the chick lens placode...
March 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316121/foxd4-is-essential-for-establishing-neural-cell-fate-and-for-neuronal-differentiation
#10
Jonathan H Sherman, Beverly A Karpinski, Matthew S Fralish, Justin M Cappuzzo, Devinder S Dhindsa, Arielle G Thal, Sally A Moody, Anthony S LaMantia, Thomas M Maynard
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an ortholog of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ESC to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation...
March 18, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296185/chip-ldb1-interacts-with-tailup-islet1-to-regulate-cardiac-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#11
Kathrin Werner, Cornelia Donow, Petra Pandur
The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Tailup (Tup) is a component of the complex cardiac transcriptional network governing specification and differentiation of cardiac cells in Drosophila. LIM-domain containing factors are known to interact with the adaptor molecule Chip/Ldb1 to form higher order protein complexes to regulate gene expression thereby determining a cell's developmental fate. However, with respect to Drosophila heart development, it has not been investigated yet, whether Chip and tup interact to regulate the generation of different cardiac cell types...
March 15, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253541/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-cadherin-function-and-regulation-in-the-neural-crest
#12
REVIEW
Lisa A Taneyhill, Andrew T Schiffmacher
Our increasing comprehension of neural crest cell development has reciprocally advanced our understanding of cadherin expression, regulation, and function. As a transient population of multipotent stem cells that significantly contribute to the vertebrate body plan, neural crest cells undergo a variety of transformative processes and exhibit many cellular behaviors, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), motility, collective cell migration, and differentiation. Multiple studies have elucidated regulatory and mechanistic details of specific cadherins during neural crest cell development in a highly contextual manner...
March 2, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236362/mechano-sensitive-regulation-of-gene-expression-during-the-embryonic-development
#13
REVIEW
Fedor M Eroshkin, Andrey G Zaraisky
Cell movements during embryogenesis produce mechanical tensions that shape the embryo and can also regulate gene expression, thereby affecting cell differentiation. Increasing evidence indicates that mechanosensitive regulation of gene expression plays important roles during embryogenesis by coupling the processes of morphogenesis and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that "translate" mechanical stimuli into gene expression...
February 25, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196404/a-p57-conditional-mutant-allele-that-allows-tracking-of-p57-expressing-cells
#14
Despoina Mademtzoglou, Sonia Alonso-Martin, Ted Hung-Tse Chang, Keren Bismuth, Bernadette Drayton-Libotte, Frédéric Aurade, Frédéric Relaix
p57(Kip2) (p57) is a maternally expressed imprinted gene regulating growth arrest which belongs to the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. While initially identified as a cell cycle arrest protein through inhibition of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, p57 activity has also been linked to differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. In addition, p57 has recently been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and cell fate decisions in stem cells. Yet, p57 function in adult tissues remains poorly characterized due to the perinatal lethality of p57 knock-out mice...
February 14, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176446/generation-and-characterization-of-mice-for-conditional-inactivation-of-zeb1
#15
Simone Brabletz, María Lasierra Losada, Otto Schmalhofer, Julia Mitschke, Angela Krebs, Thomas Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler
The multizinc finger containing transcription factor ZEB1 plays crucial roles during various aspects of mammalian development and tumorigenesis. Best studied in human tumors, ZEB1 is activating the embryo-derived program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aberrant activation of EMT confers an invasive metastasizing phenotype with acquisition of stem cell properties and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Although ZEB1 has very important functions in tumor progression, not much is known about its role in physiological contexts and during development and homeostasis...
February 8, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170160/generation-of-an-inducible-mouse-model-to-reversibly-silence-stat3
#16
Mariah G Alorro, Thomas P Pierce, Moritz F Eissmann, Christine Dijkstra, Ross A Dickins, Matthias Ernst, Michael Buchert, Frederic Masson
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor that has many essential roles during inflammation, development and cancer. Stat3 is therefore an attractive therapeutic target in many diseases. While current Stat3 knockout mouse models led to a better understanding of the role of Stat3, the irreversible nature of Stat3 ablation does not model the effects of transient Stat3 therapeutic inhibition, and does not inform on potential dosage effects of Stat3. Using RNAi technology, we have generated a new mouse model allowing the inducible and reversible silencing of Stat3 in vivo, which mirrors the effects of specific Stat3 therapeutic interference...
February 7, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142224/effects-of-sulforaphane-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#17
Zhenxian Han, Qian Xu, Changfu Li, Hong Zhao
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur compound with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SFN on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC). NSCs were exposed to SFN at the concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 µM. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay and lactate dehydogenase (LDH) release assay. The proliferation of NSCs was evaluated with neurosphere formation assay and Ki-67 staining. The level of Tuj-1 was evaluated with immunostaining and Western blot to assess NSC neuronal differentiation...
January 31, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109039/nkx2-5-regulates-endothelin-converting-enzyme-1-during-pharyngeal-arch-patterning
#18
Jennifer M Iklé, Andre L P Tavares, Marisol King, Hailei Ding, Sophie Colombo, Beth A Firulli, Anthony B Firulli, Kimara L Targoff, Deborah Yelon, David E Clouthier
In gnathostomes, dorsoventral (D-V) patterning of neural crest cells (NCC) within the pharyngeal arches is crucial for the development of hinged jaws. One of the key signals that mediate this process is Endothelin-1 (EDN1). Loss of EDN1 binding to the Endothelin-A receptor (EDNRA) results in loss of EDNRA signaling and subsequent facial birth defects in humans, mice and zebrafish. A rate-limiting step in this crucial signaling pathway is the conversion of immature EDN1 into a mature active form by Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE1)...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026149/arctigenin-protects-against-neuronal-hearing-loss-by-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#19
Xinghua Huang, Mo Chen, Yan Ding, Qin Wang
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935206/developmental-transcriptional-regulation-by-sumoylation-an-evolving-field
#20
REVIEW
Juan Monribot-Villanueva, Mario Zurita, Martha Vázquez
SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational protein modification that affects the intracellular localization, stability, activity, and interactions of its protein targets. The SUMOylation pathway influences several nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. The expression of many genes, in particular those involved in development is finely tuned in space and time by several groups of proteins. There is growing evidence that transcriptional regulation mechanisms involve direct SUMOylation of transcriptional-related proteins such as initiation and elongation factors, and subunits of chromatin modifier and remodeling complexes originally described as members of the trithorax and Polycomb groups in Drosophila...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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