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Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319357/par3-in-chick-lens-placode-development
#1
Maraysa de Oliveira Melo, Ricardo Moraes Borges, Chao Yun Irene Yan
The lens originates from a simple cuboidal epithelium, which, on its basal side, contacts the optic vesicle, whilst facing the extraembryonic environment on its apical side. As this epithelium changes into the pseudostratified lens placode, its cells elongate and become narrower at their apical ends. This is due to the formation of an apical actin network, whose appearance is restricted to cells of the placodal region, as a result of region-specific signaling mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the polarity protein PAR3 and the phosphorylation state of its Threonine 833 (T833) aPKC-binding site in the recruitment of aPKC and in the establishment of actin network in the chick lens placode...
March 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316121/foxd4-is-essential-for-establishing-neural-cell-fate-and-for-neuronal-differentiation
#2
Jonathan H Sherman, Beverly A Karpinski, Matthew S Fralish, Justin M Cappuzzo, Devinder S Dhindsa, Arielle G Thal, Sally A Moody, Anthony S LaMantia, Thomas M Maynard
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation, and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an orthologue of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ES cell to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation...
March 18, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296185/chip-ldb1-interacts-with-tailup-islet1-to-regulate-cardiac-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#3
Kathrin Werner, Cornelia Donow, Petra Pandur
The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Tailup (Tup) is a component of the complex cardiac transcriptional network governing specification and differentiation of cardiac cells in Drosophila. LIM-domain containing factors are known to interact with the adaptor molecule Chip/Ldb1 to form higher order protein complexes to regulate gene expression thereby determining a cell's developmental fate. However, with respect to Drosophila heart development, it has not been investigated yet, whether Chip and tup interact to regulate the generation of different cardiac cell types...
March 15, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253541/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-cadherin-function-and-regulation-in-the-neural-crest
#4
REVIEW
Lisa A Taneyhill, Andrew T Schiffmacher
Our increasing comprehension of neural crest cell development has reciprocally advanced our understanding of cadherin expression, regulation, and function. As a transient population of multipotent stem cells that significantly contribute to the vertebrate body plan, neural crest cells undergo a variety of transformative processes and exhibit many cellular behaviors, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), motility, collective cell migration, and differentiation. Multiple studies have elucidated regulatory and mechanistic details of specific cadherins during neural crest cell development in a highly contextual manner...
March 2, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236362/mechano-sensitive-regulation-of-gene-expression-during-the-embryonic-development
#5
REVIEW
Fedor M Eroshkin, Andrey G Zaraisky
Cell movements during embryogenesis produce mechanical tensions that shape the embryo and can also regulate gene expression, thereby affecting cell differentiation. Increasing evidence indicates that mechano-sensitive regulation of gene expression plays important roles during embryogenesis by coupling the processes of morphogenesis and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that "translate" mechanical stimuli into gene expression...
February 25, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196404/a-p57-conditional-mutant-allele-that-allows-tracking-of-p57-expressing-cells
#6
Despoina Mademtzoglou, Sonia Alonso-Martin, Ted Hung-Tse Chang, Keren Bismuth, Bernadette Drayton-Libotte, Frédéric Aurade, Frédéric Relaix
p57(Kip2) (p57) is a maternally expressed imprinted gene regulating growth arrest which belongs to the CIP/KIP family of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors. While initially identified as a cell cycle arrest protein through inhibition of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, p57 activity has also been linked to differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. In addition, p57 has recently been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and cell fate decisions in stem cells. Yet, p57 function in adult tissues remains poorly characterized due to the perinatal lethality of p57 knock-out mice...
February 14, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176446/generation-and-characterization-of-mice-for-conditional-inactivation-of-zeb1
#7
Simone Brabletz, María Lasierra Losada, Otto Schmalhofer, Julia Mitschke, Angela Krebs, Thomas Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler
The multi-zinc finger containing transcription factor ZEB1 plays crucial roles during various aspects of mammalian development and tumorigenesis. Best studied in human tumors, ZEB1 is activating the embryo-derived program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aberrant activation of EMT confers an invasive metastasizing phenotype with acquisition of stem cell properties and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Although ZEB1 has very important functions in tumor progression, not much is known about its role in physiological contexts and during development and homeostasis...
February 8, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170160/generation-of-an-inducible-mouse-model-to-reversibly-silence-stat3
#8
Mariah G Alorro, Thomas P Pierce, Moritz F Eissmann, Christine Dijkstra, Ross A Dickins, Matthias Ernst, Michael Buchert, Frederick Masson
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor that has many essential roles during inflammation, development and cancer. Stat3 is therefore an attractive therapeutic target in many diseases. While current Stat3 knockout mouse models led to a better understanding of the role of Stat3, the irreversible nature of Stat3 ablation does not model the effects of transient Stat3 therapeutic inhibition, and does not inform on potential dosage effects of Stat3. Using RNAi technology, we have generated a new mouse model allowing the inducible and reversible silencing of Stat3 in vivo, which mirrors the effects of specific Stat3 therapeutic interference...
February 7, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142224/effects-of-sulforaphane-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#9
Zhenxian Han, Qian Xu, Changfu Li, Hong Zhao
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur compound with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SFN on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC). NSCs were exposed to SFN at the concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 µM. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay and lactate dehydogenase (LDH) release assay. The proliferation of NSCs was evaluated with neurosphere formation assay and Ki-67 staining. The level of Tuj-1 was evaluated with immunostaining and Western blot to assess NSC neuronal differentiation...
January 31, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093895/identification-of-a-conserved-cis-regulatory-element-controlling-mid-diencephalic-expression-of-mouse-six3
#10
LETTER
Bumwhee Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Duc Tri Lam, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Yongsu Jeong
The sine oculis homeobox protein Six3 plays pivotal roles in the development of the brain and craniofacial structures. In humans, SIX3 haploinsufficiency results in holoprosencephaly, a defect in anterior midline formation. Although much is known about the evolutionarily conserved functions of Six3, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the expression pattern of Six3 remains relatively unexplored. To understand how the transcription of Six3 is controlled during embryogenesis, we screened ∼300 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the Six3 locus for cis-acting regulatory elements capable of directing reporter gene expression to sites of Six3 transcription in transgenic mouse embryos...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109039/nkx2-5-regulates-endothelin-converting-enzyme-1-during-pharyngeal-arch-patterning
#11
Jennifer M Iklé, Andre L P Tavares, Marisol King, Hailei Ding, Sophie Colombo, Beth A Firulli, Anthony B Firulli, Kimara L Targoff, Deborah Yelon, David E Clouthier
In gnathostomes, dorsoventral (D-V) patterning of neural crest cells (NCC) within the pharyngeal arches is crucial for the development of hinged jaws. One of the key signals that mediate this process is Endothelin-1 (EDN1). Loss of EDN1 binding to the Endothelin-A receptor (EDNRA) results in loss of EDNRA signaling and subsequent facial birth defects in humans, mice and zebrafish. A rate-limiting step in this crucial signaling pathway is the conversion of immature EDN1 into a mature active form by Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE1)...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026149/arctigenin-protects-against-neuronal-hearing-loss-by-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#12
Xinghua Huang, Mo Chen, Yan Ding, Qin Wang
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935206/developmental-transcriptional-regulation-by-sumoylation-an-evolving-field
#13
REVIEW
Juan Monribot-Villanueva, Mario Zurita, Martha Vázquez
SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational protein modification that affects the intracellular localization, stability, activity, and interactions of its protein targets. The SUMOylation pathway influences several nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. The expression of many genes, in particular those involved in development is finely tuned in space and time by several groups of proteins. There is growing evidence that transcriptional regulation mechanisms involve direct SUMOylation of transcriptional-related proteins such as initiation and elongation factors, and subunits of chromatin modifier and remodeling complexes originally described as members of the trithorax and Polycomb groups in Drosophila...
March 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132423/xenopus-an-ideal-model-organism-to-study-laterality-in-conjoined-twins
#14
REVIEW
Matthias Tisler, Axel Schweickert, Martin Blum
Conjoined twins occur at low frequency in all vertebrates including humans. Many twins fused at the chest or abdomen display a very peculiar laterality defect: while the left twin is normal with respect to asymmetric organ morphogenesis and placement (situs solitus), the organ situs is randomized in right twins. Although this phenomenon has fascinated already some of the founders of experimental embryology in the 19th and early 20th century, such as Dareste, Fol, Warynsky and Spemann, its embryological basis has remained enigmatic...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132422/probing-the-biology-of-cell-boundary-conditions-through-confinement-of-xenopus-cell-free-cytoplasmic-extracts
#15
REVIEW
Jessica G Bermudez, Hui Chen, Lily C Einstein, Matthew C Good
Cell-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs and embryos have for decades provided a biochemical system with which to interrogate complex cell biological processes in vitro. Recently, the application of microfabrication and microfluidic strategies in biology has narrowed the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies by enabling formation of cell-size compartments containing functional cytoplasm. These approaches provide numerous advantages over traditional biochemical experiments performed in a test tube...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#16
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#17
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095651/transcriptional-dynamics-of-tail-regeneration-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#18
LETTER
Jessica Chang, Julie Baker, Andrea Wills
In contrast to humans, many amphibians are able to rapidly and completely regenerate complex tissues, including entire appendages. Following tail amputation, Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles quickly regenerate muscle, spinal cord, cartilage, vasculature and skin, all properly patterned in three dimensions. To better understand the molecular basis of this regenerative competence, we performed a transcriptional analysis of the first 72 h of tail regeneration using RNA-Seq. Our analysis refines the windows during which many key biological signaling processes act in regeneration, including embryonic patterning signals, immune responses, bioelectrical signaling and apoptosis...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095648/amphibase-a-new-genomic-resource-for-non-model-amphibian-species
#19
REVIEW
Taejoon Kwon
More than five thousand genes annotated in the recently published Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis genomes do not have a candidate orthologous counterpart in other vertebrate species. To determine whether these sequences represent genuine amphibian-specific genes or annotation errors, it is necessary to analyze them alongside sequences from other amphibian species. However, due to large genome sizes and an abundance of repeat sequences, there are limited numbers of gene sequences available from amphibian species other than Xenopus...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095647/new-generation-mass-spectrometry-expands-the-toolbox-of-cell-and-developmental-biology
#20
REVIEW
Camille Lombard-Banek, Erika P Portero, Rosemary M Onjiko, Peter Nemes
Systems cell biology understanding of development requires characterization of all the molecules produced in the biological system. Decades of research and new-generation sequencing provided functional information on key genes and transcripts. However, there is less information available on how differential gene expression translates into the domains of functionally important proteins, peptides, and metabolites, and how changes in these molecules impact development. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the current technology of choice for the detection and quantification of large numbers of proteins and metabolites, because it requires no use of antibodies, functional probes, or a priori knowledge of molecules produced in the system...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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