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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363005/polyphenols-protect-against-age-associated-apoptosis-in-female-rat-cochleae
#1
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Esperanza Cuadrado, Juan Riestra-Ayora, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Dietary antioxidants, polyphenols, have been found to be beneficial in protecting against the generation of oxidative stress in various diseases associated with aging. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the number one neurodegenerative disorder on our aged population. Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups according to their age (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) and treated with 100 mg/day/kg body weight of polyphenols were used. Then, cochleae were harvested to measure caspase activities (- 3, - 8 and - 9), caspase-3 gene expression, ATP levels, Bax, BcL-2 and p53 levels...
January 23, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340835/repurposed-fda-approved-drugs-targeting-genes-influencing-aging-can-extend-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-rotifers
#2
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340834/limited-daily-feeding-and-intermittent-feeding-have-different-effects-on-regional-brain-energy-homeostasis-during-aging
#3
Kosara Smiljanic, Smilja Todorovic, Aleksandra Mladenovic Djordjevic, Tim Vanmierlo, Dieter Lütjohann, Sanja Ivkovic, Selma Kanazir
Albeit aging is an inevitable process, the rate of aging is susceptible to modifications. Dietary restriction (DR) is a vigorous nongenetic and nonpharmacological intervention that is known to delay aging and increase healthspan in diverse species. This study aimed to compare the impact of different restricting feeding regimes such as limited daily feeding (LDF, 60% AL) and intermittent feeding (IF) on brain energy homeostasis during aging. The analysis was focused on the key molecules in glucose and cholesterol metabolism in the cortex and hippocampus of middle-aged (12-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) male Wistar rats...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335817/repurposing-existing-drugs-for-new-ampk-activators-as-a-strategy-to-extend-lifespan-a-computer-aided-drug-discovery-study
#4
Sepideh Mofidifar, Farzin Sohraby, Milad Bagheri, Hassan Aryapour
Dietary restriction is one of the several ways which could putatively extend organisms' lifespan, ranging from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rodents, by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an ATP/AMP sensor. Extensive researches have shown that aging reduces sensibility of AMPK and eventually causes energy imbalance in cells. Research in mammals' AMPK depicts that this signaling molecule could control autophagy, improve cellular stress resistance and suppress inflammatory responses. Hence, in this study we performed a drug repurposing of 1908 FDA-approved drugs in order to discover putative safe activators of AMPK and to find new applications for existing drugs...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#5
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e.g., bioenergetics pathway, antioxidants system, plasticity)...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270911/a-network-based-meta-analysis-for-characterizing-the-genetic-landscape-of-human-aging
#6
Hagen Blankenburg, Peter P Pramstaller, Francisco S Domingues
Great amounts of omics data are generated in aging research, but their diverse and partly complementary nature requires integrative analysis approaches for investigating aging processes and connections to age-related diseases. To establish a broader picture of the genetic and epigenetic landscape of human aging we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of 6600 human genes by combining 35 datasets that cover aging hallmarks, longevity, changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, and different age-related diseases...
December 21, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255944/natural-plant-hormones-cytokinins-increase-stress-resistance-and-longevity-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Alena Kadlecová, Tomáš Jirsa, Ondřej Novák, Jan Kammenga, Miroslav Strnad, Jiří Voller
Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in many processes in plants, including growth, differentiation and leaf senescence. However, they also have various activities in animals. For example, kinetin and trans-zeatin can reduce levels of several aging markers in human fibroblasts. Kinetin can also protect mice against oxidative and glyoxidative stress, and prolong fruit flies' lifespan. Additionally, several cytokinins are currently used in cosmetics. To extend knowledge of the breadth of cytokinins' activities, we examined effects of natural cytokinin bases on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
December 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189912/cell-wall-biosynthesis-impairment-affects-the-budding-lifespan-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#8
Mateusz Molon, Olga Woznicka, Jacek Zebrowski
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is one of the most widely used model in studies of cellular and organismal biology, including as aging and proliferation. Although several constraints of aging and budding lifespan have been identified, these processes have not yet been fully understood. Previous studies of aging in yeast have focused mostly on the molecular basics of the underlying mechanisms, while physical aspects, particularly those related to the cell wall, were rather neglected. In this paper, we examine for the first time, to our knowledge, the impact of cell wall biosynthesis disturbances on the lifespan in the budding yeast...
November 30, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185166/echinacoside-a-phenylethanoid-glycoside-from-cistanche-deserticola-extends-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-protects-from-a%C3%AE-induced-toxicity
#9
Wei Chen, Hong-Ru Lin, Cong-Min Wei, Xiao-Hua Luo, Meng-Lu Sun, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Xin-Yan Chen, Hong-Bing Wang
Cistanche deserticola has been found to exert protection against aging and age-related diseases, but mechanisms underlying its longevity effects remain largely unclear. Here, the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify lifespan extending and protective effects against β-amyloid (Aβ) induced toxicity by echinacoside (ECH), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from C. deserticola. Our results showed that ECH extends the mean lifespan of worms and increases their survival under oxidative stress...
November 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185165/immune-parameters-associated-with-mortality-in-the-elderly-are-context-dependent-lessons-from-sweden-holland-and-belgium
#10
Graham Pawelec
The pioneering Swedish OCTO/NONA-Immune longitudinal studies led by Anders Wikby in Jönköping in the 1990s established a cluster of simple baseline immune parameters associated with excess mortality in 85 year-old non-institutionalized individuals over 2, 4 and 6-year follow-up. We dubbed this cluster the "Immune Risk Profile" (IRP) consisting of poor proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens, accumulations of CD8+ CD28- T-cells resulting in an inverted CD4:8 ratio, decreased amounts of B-cells, and seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
November 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177687/epigenetic-factors-polycomb-pc-and-suppressor-of-zeste-su-z-2-negatively-regulate-longevity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Vasanthi Dasari, Surabhi Srivastava, Shagufta Khan, Rakesh K Mishra
The process of aging is a hallmark of the natural life span of all organisms and individuals within a population show variability in the measures of age related performance. Longevity and the rate of aging are influenced by several factors such as genetics, nutrition, stress, and environment. Many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging and there is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors regulate these genes to control life span. Polycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) protein complexes maintain the expression profiles of developmentally important genes and regulate many cellular processes...
November 27, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177769/mutual-interactions-between-telomere-heterogeneity-and-cell-culture-growth-dynamics-shape-stochasticity-of-cell-aging
#12
Lucia Nanić, Nikolina Škrobot Vidaček, Sanda Ravlić, Eva Šatović, Miljenko Huzak, Ivica Rubelj
Mathematical modeling and computational simulations are often used to explain the stochastic nature of cell aging. The models published thus far are based on the molecular mechanisms of telomere biology and how they dictate the dynamics of cell culture proliferation. However, the influence of cell growth conditions on telomere dynamics has been widely overlooked. These conditions include interactions with surrounding cells through contact inhibition, gradual accumulation of non-dividing cells, culture propagation and other cell culture maintenance factors...
November 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#13
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086101/why-do-we-age-insights-into-biology-and-evolution-of-ageing
#14
EDITORIAL
David Weinkove, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081010/accumulation-of-glycated-proteins-suggesting-premature-ageing-in-lamin-b-receptor-deficient-mice
#15
Frank Hause, Dietmar Schlote, Andreas Simm, Katrin Hoffmann, Alexander Navarrete Santos
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accompanied by increased free radical activity which contributes to ageing and the development or worsening of degenerative diseases. Apart from other physiological factors, AGEs are also an important biomarker for premature ageing. Here we report protein modifications (glycation) in a mouse model of lamin B receptor deficient ic (J) /ic (J) mice displaying skin defects similar to those of classical progeria. Therefore, we analysed AGE-modifications in protein extracts from various tissues of ic (J) /ic (J) mice...
October 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052784/exercise-and-bone-health-across-the-lifespan
#16
Lívia Santos, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
With ageing, bone tissue undergoes significant compositional, architectural and metabolic alterations potentially leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder, which is characterised by progressive bone weakening and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Although this metabolic disease is conventionally associated with ageing and menopause, the predisposing factors are thought to be established during childhood and adolescence. In light of this, exercise interventions implemented during maturation are likely to be highly beneficial as part of a long-term strategy to maximise peak bone mass and hence delay the onset of age- or menopause-related osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884409/chronic-exposure-to-rapamycin-and-episodic-serum-starvation-modulate-ageing-of-human-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#17
Lakshman Sodagam, Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk, Suresh I S Rattan
Mild stress-induced activation of stress response (SR) pathways, such as autophagy, heat shock response, oxidative SR, DNA damage response, and inflammatory response, can be potentially health beneficial. Using the model system of cellular ageing and replicative senescence in vitro, we have studied the ageing modulatory effects of the two conditions, rapamycin and serum starvation. Chronic exposure to 0.1, 1 and 10 nM rapamycin positively modulated the survival, growth, morphology, telomere length, DNA methylation levels, 8-oxo-dG level in DNA, N(6)-methyl-adenosine level in RNA, and ethanol stress tolerance of serially passaged normal human skin fibroblasts...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825141/sex-as-a-determinant-of-age-related-changes-in-rat-spinal-cord-inflammation-oxidation-state
#18
Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Marija Stojanović, Lidija Simić, Biljana Bufan, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Slavica Ražić, Gordana Leposavić
To close the gap in our knowledge of sex influence on age-related changes in inflammation-oxidation state in spinal cord (SC) relevant to inflammation/oxidative-stress associated neuropathologies, 2-3 month-old (young) and 18-20 month-old (old) rats, exhibiting increased level of IL-6, a commonly used marker of inflamm-aging, were examined for inflammatory/redox status, and the underlying regulatory networks' molecules expression. With age, rat SC microglia became sensitized ("primed"), while SC tissue shifted towards mild inflammatory state, with increased levels of proinflammatory IL-1β (key marker of microglial systemic inflammation-induced neurotoxicity), which was more prominent in males...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808816/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-cognitive-function-in-chinese-adult-twins
#19
Chunsheng Xu, Dongfeng Zhang, Yili Wu, Xiaocao Tian, Zengchang Pang, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Multiple loci or genes have been identified using genome-wide association studies mainly in western countries but with inconsistent results. No similar studies have been conducted in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. The paper aimed to identify the specific genetic variants associated with cognitive function in middle and old-aged Chinese dizygotic twins (DZ). Cognitive function was measured on 139 pairs of DZ by Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The subjects were genotyped at 1048575 SNP positions...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741183/reproduction-ageing-and-longevity-in-two-species-of-laboratory-rodents-with-different-life-histories
#20
Eugene Novikov, I Zadubrovskaya, P Zadubrovskiy, T Titova
Social subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family are known to have extended longevity and some signs of negligible senescence, although the manifestation of these traits depends on the reproductive status of individuals. Such enormous life history peculiarities are usually explained by the specificity of a subterranean way of life. If so, all subterranean rodents, regardless of their taxonomic position, are expected to have higher maximum lifespans and shorter senescence periods than the related above-ground species...
October 2017: Biogerontology
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