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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885527/insights-into-mortality-patterns-and-causes-of-death-through-a-process-point-of-view-model
#1
James J Anderson, Ting Li, David J Sharrow
Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation...
November 24, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#2
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
November 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853905/an-antidiabetic-polyherbal-phytomedicine-confers-stress-resistance-and-extends-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Laxmi Rathor, Aakanksha Pant, Harshika Awasthi, Dayanandan Mani, Rakesh Pandey
An Ayurvedic polyherbal extract (PHE) comprising six herbs viz. Berberis aristata, Cyperus rotundus, Cedrus deodara, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica is mentioned as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent in 'Charaka Samhita', the classical text of Ayurveda. Previously, antidiabetic drug metformin was found to elicit antiaging effects and PHE was also found to exhibit antidiabetic effects in humans. Therefore, we screened it for its in vivo antioxidant antiaging effect on stress and lifespan using human homologous Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
November 16, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804052/exploring-the-power-of-yeast-to-model-aging-and-age-related-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Ana V Oliveira, Rita Vilaça, Cláudia N Santos, Vítor Costa, Regina Menezes
Aging is a multifactorial process determined by molecular, cellular and systemic factors and it is well established that advancing age is a leading risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, the close association of aging and neurodegenerative disorders has placed aging as the greatest social and economic challenge of the 21st century, and age-related diseases have also become a key priority for countries worldwide. The growing need to better understand both aging and neurodegenerative processes has led to the development of simple eukaryotic models amenable for mechanistic studies...
November 1, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787741/lifetime-regular-exercise-affects-the-incident-of-different-arrhythmias-and-improves-organismal-health-in-aging-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Lan Zheng, Qiu Fang Li, Liu Ni, Hui Wang, Xiang Cheng Ruan, Xiu Shan Wu
We used Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model system to study the impact of exercise training initiated early in life on cardiac function using a well-established model of inherent myogenic properties of the heart and discussed the changes on myosin, a myocardial contractile protein. We also explored the effect of early physical exercise on organismal aging by analyzing the wake-sleep pattern using a Drosophila activity monitor system. We found that a variety of arrhythmias are part of the heart spectrum in old flies after a lifetime of physical exercise as evidenced by reducing the incidence of fibrillations and increasing the occurrence of bradycardias...
October 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771833/human-aging-finite-lives-and-the-idealization-of-clocks
#6
Jan Baars
Aging and time are interconnected because aging is basically living seen in a temporal perspective. This makes 'time' an important concept in trying to explain aging. However, throughout modernity time has increasingly been identified as clock time: perfectly fit to measure 'age' as time since birth but failing to explain 'age' as an indicator of aging processes and even less adequate to grasp the lived time of human beings. Moreover, the clock as a cultural idol of instrumentalist perfection has led to approaching human aging in terms of maintenance and repair, inspiring a neglect and depreciation of human vulnerability...
October 22, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757766/telomere-length-is-regulated-by-fgf-2-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-affects-the-life-span-of-its-differentiated-progenies
#7
Yu Zou, Huei Jinn Tong, Mingming Li, Kai Soo Tan, Tong Cao
The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to proliferate indefinitely is attributed to its high telomerase activity and associated long telomere. However, factors regulating telomere length in hESCs remain largely uncharacterized. The aims of this study were, to identify factors which modulate telomere length of hESCs, and to determine if the telomere length of hESCs influences cellular senescence of its differentiated progeny cells. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression, telomerase activity and telomere length of hESCs cultured in different culture systems were compared...
October 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752791/l-lysine-suppresses-myofibrillar-protein-degradation-and-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-of-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8
#8
Tomonori Sato, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Sarcopenia is a condition of the loss of muscle mass that is associated with aging and that increases the risk for bedridden state, thereby warranting studies of interventions that attenuate sarcopenia. Here the effects of 2-month dietary L-lysine (Lys) supplementation (1.5-3.0 %) on myofibrillar protein degradation and major proteolytic systems were investigated in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). At 36 weeks of age, skeletal muscle and lean body mass was reduced in SAMP8 when compared with control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1)...
October 17, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734200/increase-in-tumor-suppressor-arf-compensates-gene-dysregulation-in-in-vitro-aged-adipocytes
#9
Arif U Hasan, Koji Ohmori, Takeshi Hashimoto, Kazuyo Kamitori, Fuminori Yamaguchi, Kumi Konishi, Takahisa Noma, Junsuke Igarashi, Tetsuo Yamashita, Katsuya Hirano, Masaaki Tokuda, Tetsuo Minamino, Akira Nishiyama, Masakazu Kohno
Deterioration of adipocyte function due to increased oxidative stress predisposes patients to metabolic disorders in advanced age. However, the roles of tumor suppressors in such conditions remain largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to address their dynamics in aged adipocytes using a long-term culture model. We compared 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 17-19 days (long-term) with those at 8-10 days (short-term) after initiation of adipogenic induction for mimicking 'aged' and 'young' adipocytes, respectively. H2O2 release and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced in long-term cultured adipocytes, which is suggestive of enhanced oxidative stress in this group...
October 12, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614960/daily-no-rhythms-in-peripheral-clocks-in-aging-male-wistar-rats-protective-effects-of-exogenous-melatonin
#10
Ch Vinod, Anita Jagota
In mammals suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), acts as a light entrainable master clock and by generation of temporal oscillations regulates the peripheral organs acting as autonomous clocks resulting in overt behavioral and physiological rhythms. SCN also controls synthesis and release of melatonin (hormonal message for darkness) from pineal. Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as an important neurotransmitter in generating the phase shifts of circadian rhythms and participates in sleep-wake processes, maintenance of vascular tone as well as signalling and regulating inflammatory processes...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511372/mild-heat-treatments-induce-long-term-changes-in-metabolites-associated-with-energy-metabolism-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Pernille Sarup, Simon Metz Mariendal Petersen, Niels Chr Nielsen, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
Heat-induced hormesis, the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. Yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the long-term effects of repeated mild heat treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488377/elevated-extension-of-longevity-by-cyclically-heat-stressing-a-set-of-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-drosophila-melanogaster-throughout-their-adult-life
#12
Federico H Gomez, Pablo Sambucetti, Fabian M Norry
An extremely high (about 100 %) increase in longevity is reported for a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster subjected to a cyclic heat stress throughout the adult life. Previous work showed that both longevity and heat sensitivity highly differed among RILs. The novel heat stress treatment used in this study consisted of 5 min at 38 °C applicated approximately every 125 min throughout the adult life starting at the age of 2 days. In spite of the exceptionally high increase in longevity in a set of RILs, the same heat stress treatment reduced rather than increased longevity in other RILs, suggesting that heat-induced hormesis is dependent on the genotype and/or the genetic background...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484416/repurposing-fda-approved-drugs-for-anti-aging-therapies
#13
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Bharath Srinivasan, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
There is great interest in drugs that are capable of modulating multiple aging pathways, thereby delaying the onset and progression of aging. Effective strategies for drug development include the repurposing of existing drugs already approved by the FDA for human therapy. FDA approved drugs have known mechanisms of action and have been thoroughly screened for safety. Although there has been extensive scientific activity in repurposing drugs for disease therapy, there has been little testing of these drugs for their effects on aging...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465500/age-dependent-differential-expression-of-death-associated-protein-6-daxx-in-various-peripheral-tissues-and-different-brain-regions-of-c57bl-6-male-mice
#14
Mélissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Mélissa Laroche, Marie-Josée Demers, Catherine Duclos, Jean-Bernard Denault, Guillaume Grenier, Sean-Patrick Riechers, Erich E Wanker, Rona K Graham
Death-associated protein 6 (DAXX) is a ubiquitous protein implicated in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, tumorigenesis, development and transcription. The role of DAXX is however ambiguous and many contradictory results regarding its function in apoptosis upon various cellular stresses are described in the literature. In order to have a better understanding of the role of DAXX throughout the entire organism under physiological stress conditions, we have characterized the mRNA levels, protein expression and the proteolytic processing of DAXX in the normal aging process in peripheral organs and brain regions in C57BL/6 male mice...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447179/protective-role-of-the-apolipoprotein-e2-allele-in-age-related-disease-traits-and-survival-evidence-from-the-long-life-family-study
#15
Alexander M Kulminski, Nalini Raghavachari, Konstantin G Arbeev, Irina Culminskaya, Liubov Arbeeva, Deqing Wu, Svetlana V Ukraintseva, Kaare Christensen, Anatoliy I Yashin
The apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a classic example of a gene exhibiting pleiotropism. We examine potential pleiotropic associations of the apoE2 allele in three biodemographic cohorts of long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses from the Long Life Family Study, and intermediate mechanisms, which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259535/ampk-and-hif-signaling-pathways-regulate-both-longevity-and-cancer-growth-the-good-news-and-the-bad-news-about-survival-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathways are evolutionarily-conserved survival mechanisms responding to two fundamental stresses, energy deficiency and/or oxygen deprivation. The AMPK and HIF pathways regulate the function of a survival network with several transcription factors, e.g. FOXO, NF-κB, NRF2, and p53, as well as with protein kinases and other factors, such as mTOR, ULK1, HDAC5, and SIRT1. Given that AMPK and HIF activation can enhance not only healthspan and lifespan but also cancer growth in a context-dependent manner; it seems that cancer cells can hijack certain survival factors to maintain their growth in harsh conditions...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241672/middle-age-has-a-significant-impact-on-gene-expression-during-skin-wound-healing-in-male-mice
#17
Hagai Yanai, David Benjamin Lumenta, Klemens Vierlinger, Manuela Hofner, Hugo-Benito Kitzinger, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Christa Nöhammer, Marco Chilosi, Vadim E Fraifeld
The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125427/absence-of-collagen-xviii-in-mice-causes-age-related-insufficiency-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium-proteostasis
#18
Niko Kivinen, Szabolcs Felszeghy, Aino I Kinnunen, Niko Setälä, Mari Aikio, Kati Kinnunen, Reijo Sironen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Anu Kauppinen, Kai Kaarniranta
Collagen XVIII has the structural properties of both collagen and proteoglycan. It has been found at the basement membrane/stromal interface where it is thought to mediate their attachment. Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment from collagen XVIII C-terminal end has been reported to possess anti-angiogenic properties. Age-related vision loss in collagen XVIII mutant mice has been accompanied with a pathological accumulation of deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have recently demonstrated that impaired proteasomal and autophagy clearance are associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075594/pre-and-post-conditioning-hormesis-in-elderly-mice-rats-and-humans-its-loss-and-restoration
#19
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese
This paper assessed differences and similarities in the capacity for preconditioning (PC) and post-conditioning (PostC) to prevent ischemic reperfusion (IR) damage to the heart in the old/elderly as compared to young adult mice, rats, and humans. While PC reliably reduces myocardial ischemia-induced heart damage by about 30-60 % in young adult (2-3 months old) mice and rats, such protection begins to diminish in middle age (1 year old) and is fully lost in the old and elderly (≥18 months). Common rearing practices (i...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040825/ageing-with-elegans-a-research-proposal-to-map-healthspan-pathways
#20
Walter Luyten, Peter Antal, Bart P Braeckman, Jake Bundy, Francesca Cirulli, Christopher Fang-Yen, Georg Fuellen, Armand Leroi, Qingfei Liu, Patricia Martorell, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Michael Ristow, Nadine Saul, Liliane Schoofs, Karsten Siems, Liesbet Temmerman, Tina Smets, Alicja Wolk, Suresh I S Rattan
Human longevity continues to increase world-wide, often accompanied by decreasing birth rates. As a larger fraction of the population thus gets older, the number of people suffering from disease or disability increases dramatically, presenting a major societal challenge. Healthy ageing has therefore been selected by EU policy makers as an important priority ( http://www.healthyageing.eu/european-policies-and-initiatives ); it benefits not only the elderly but also their direct environment and broader society, as well as the economy...
August 2016: Biogerontology
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