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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774505/mitigating-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aged-rat-brain-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq
#1
Arpan Kumar Maiti, B C Spoorthi, Nimai Chandra Saha, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi
Although reactive oxygen species mediated oxidative stress is a well-documented mechanism of aging, recent evidences indicate involvement of nitrosative stress in the same. As mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as one of the primary features of aging, the present study was designed to understand the involvement of nitrosative stress by studying the impact of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ, a peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) scavenger, on mitochondrial functions. Four groups of rats were included in this study: Group I: Young-6 months (-MitoQ), Group II: Aged-22 months (- MitoQ), Group III: Young-6 months (+ MitoQ), Group IV: Aged-22 months (+ MitoQ)...
May 17, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748778/mechanics-of-population-aging-and-survival
#2
Tim Eakin, Tarynn M Witten
In this paper we extend the previous work of Witten and her team on defining a classical physics-driven model of survival in aging populations (Eakin, Bull Math Biol 56(6):1121-1141, 1994; Eakin and Witten, Mech Aging Dev 78(2):85-101, 1995; Witten and Eakin, Exp Gerontol 32(2):259-285, 1997) by revisiting the concept of a force of aging and introducing the concepts of a momentum of aging, a kinetic energy and a potential energy of an aging population. We further extend the analysis beyond the deterministic Newtonian mechanics of a macroscopic population as a whole by considering the probabilistic nature of survival of individual population cohort members, thus producing new statistical physics-based concepts of entropy and of a gerontological "temperature"...
May 10, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616390/the-impact-of-aging-on-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-influenza-infection
#3
REVIEW
Erica C Lorenzo, Jenna M Bartley, Laura Haynes
CD4+ T cells are important for generating high quality and robust immune responses to influenza infection. Immunosenescence that occurs with aging, however, compromises the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into functional subsets resulting in a multitude of dysregulated responses namely, delayed viral clearance and prolonged inflammation leading to increased pathology. Current research employing animal models and human subjects has provided new insights into the description and mechanisms of age-related CD4+ T cell changes...
April 3, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582209/long-term-exposure-to-tnf-%C3%AE-leads-human-skin-fibroblasts-to-a-p38-mapk-and-ros-mediated-premature-senescence
#4
Eleni Mavrogonatou, Angeliki Konstantinou, Dimitris Kletsas
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory mediator overexpressed in the skin as a response to ultraviolet radiation, as well as in chronic non-healing wounds. On the other hand, senescent fibroblasts have been shown to accumulate in the skin under these stressful conditions. Accordingly, here we assessed the putative implication of TNF-α in the induction of premature senescence of human adult dermal fibroblasts. We showed that TNF-α led to a rapid transient p38 MAPK activation, while elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only occurred after a chronic exposure to TNF-α...
March 26, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557050/dissecting-cause-and-effect-in-host-microbiome-interactions-using-the-combined-worm-bug-model-system
#5
Marina Ezcurra
High-throughput molecular studies are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome we need robust experimental models that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses arisen from large-scale 'meta-omic' projects...
March 19, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549539/a-review-of-telomere-length-in-sarcopenia-and-frailty
#6
REVIEW
Maria Lorenzi, Stefano Bonassi, Teresa Lorenzi, Silvia Giovannini, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Sarcopenia and frailty are associated with several important health-related adverse events, including disability, loss of independence, institutionalization and mortality. Sarcopenia can be considered a biological substrate of frailty, and the prevalence of both these conditions progressively increases with age. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and implicated in cellular ageing, shorten with age, and are associated with various age-related diseases. In addition, telomere length (TL) is widely considered a molecular/cellular hallmark of the ageing process...
March 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492791/involvement-of-the-autophagic-pathway-in-the-progression-of-amd-like-retinopathy-in-senescence-accelerated-oxys-rats
#7
Oyuna S Kozhevnikova, Darya V Telegina, Vasiliy A Devyatkin, Nataliya G Kolosova
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease resulting in a loss of central vision in the elderly. It is currently assumed that impairment of autophagy may be one of the key mechanisms leading to AMD. Here we estimated the influence of age-related autophagy alterations in the retina on the development of AMD-like retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Significant changes in the expression of the autophagy proteins were absent at the age preceding the development of retinopathy (age 20 days)...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492790/gene-expression-hallmarks-of-cellular-ageing
#8
Stephen Frenk, Jonathan Houseley
Ageing leads to dramatic changes in the physiology of many different tissues resulting in a spectrum of pathology. Nonetheless, many lines of evidence suggest that ageing is driven by highly conserved cell intrinsic processes, and a set of unifying hallmarks of ageing has been defined. Here, we survey reports of age-linked changes in basal gene expression across eukaryotes from yeast to human and identify six gene expression hallmarks of cellular ageing: downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins; downregulation of the protein synthesis machinery; dysregulation of immune system genes; reduced growth factor signalling; constitutive responses to stress and DNA damage; dysregulation of gene expression and mRNA processing...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488130/mitochondria-its-dna-and-telomeres-in-ageing-and-human-population
#9
REVIEW
Egija Zole, Renāte Ranka
In the last decades, studies about ageing have become more essential as our population grows older. The incidence of age-related diseases increases, which pose challenges both for societies and individuals in terms of life quality and economic impact. Understanding ageing and ageing-related processes will help us to slow down or even prevent these diseases and provide opportunities for healthy ageing; additionally, we all want to live longer. Ageing is a consequence of the interaction between processes that occur over time and genetics interacting with various disease states and an individual's lifestyle...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363005/polyphenols-protect-against-age-associated-apoptosis-in-female-rat-cochleae
#10
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Esperanza Cuadrado, Juan Riestra-Ayora, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Dietary antioxidants, polyphenols, have been found to be beneficial in protecting against the generation of oxidative stress in various diseases associated with aging. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the number one neurodegenerative disorder on our aged population. Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups according to their age (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) and treated with 100 mg/day/kg body weight of polyphenols were used. Then, cochleae were harvested to measure caspase activities (- 3, - 8 and - 9), caspase-3 gene expression, ATP levels, Bax, BcL-2 and p53 levels...
April 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335817/repurposing-existing-drugs-for-new-ampk-activators-as-a-strategy-to-extend-lifespan-a-computer-aided-drug-discovery-study
#11
Sepideh Mofidifar, Farzin Sohraby, Milad Bagheri, Hassan Aryapour
Dietary restriction is one of the several ways which could putatively extend organisms' lifespan, ranging from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rodents, by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an ATP/AMP sensor. Extensive researches have shown that aging reduces sensibility of AMPK and eventually causes energy imbalance in cells. Research in mammals' AMPK depicts that this signaling molecule could control autophagy, improve cellular stress resistance and suppress inflammatory responses. Hence, in this study we performed a drug repurposing of 1908 FDA-approved drugs in order to discover putative safe activators of AMPK and to find new applications for existing drugs...
April 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#12
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e...
April 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255944/natural-plant-hormones-cytokinins-increase-stress-resistance-and-longevity-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Alena Kadlecová, Tomáš Jirsa, Ondřej Novák, Jan Kammenga, Miroslav Strnad, Jiří Voller
Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in many processes in plants, including growth, differentiation and leaf senescence. However, they also have various activities in animals. For example, kinetin and trans-zeatin can reduce levels of several aging markers in human fibroblasts. Kinetin can also protect mice against oxidative and glyoxidative stress, and prolong fruit flies' lifespan. Additionally, several cytokinins are currently used in cosmetics. To extend knowledge of the breadth of cytokinins' activities, we examined effects of natural cytokinin bases on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270911/a-network-based-meta-analysis-for-characterizing-the-genetic-landscape-of-human-aging
#14
Hagen Blankenburg, Peter P Pramstaller, Francisco S Domingues
Great amounts of omics data are generated in aging research, but their diverse and partly complementary nature requires integrative analysis approaches for investigating aging processes and connections to age-related diseases. To establish a broader picture of the genetic and epigenetic landscape of human aging we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of 6600 human genes by combining 35 datasets that cover aging hallmarks, longevity, changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, and different age-related diseases...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189912/cell-wall-biosynthesis-impairment-affects-the-budding-lifespan-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#15
Mateusz Molon, Olga Woznicka, Jacek Zebrowski
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is one of the most widely used model in studies of cellular and organismal biology, including as aging and proliferation. Although several constraints of aging and budding lifespan have been identified, these processes have not yet been fully understood. Previous studies of aging in yeast have focused mostly on the molecular basics of the underlying mechanisms, while physical aspects, particularly those related to the cell wall, were rather neglected. In this paper, we examine for the first time, to our knowledge, the impact of cell wall biosynthesis disturbances on the lifespan in the budding yeast...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185166/echinacoside-a-phenylethanoid-glycoside-from-cistanche-deserticola-extends-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-protects-from-a%C3%AE-induced-toxicity
#16
Wei Chen, Hong-Ru Lin, Cong-Min Wei, Xiao-Hua Luo, Meng-Lu Sun, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Xin-Yan Chen, Hong-Bing Wang
Cistanche deserticola has been found to exert protection against aging and age-related diseases, but mechanisms underlying its longevity effects remain largely unclear. Here, the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify lifespan extending and protective effects against β-amyloid (Aβ) induced toxicity by echinacoside (ECH), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from C. deserticola. Our results showed that ECH extends the mean lifespan of worms and increases their survival under oxidative stress...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177769/mutual-interactions-between-telomere-heterogeneity-and-cell-culture-growth-dynamics-shape-stochasticity-of-cell-aging
#17
Lucia Nanić, Nikolina Škrobot Vidaček, Sanda Ravlić, Eva Šatović, Miljenko Huzak, Ivica Rubelj
Mathematical modeling and computational simulations are often used to explain the stochastic nature of cell aging. The models published thus far are based on the molecular mechanisms of telomere biology and how they dictate the dynamics of cell culture proliferation. However, the influence of cell growth conditions on telomere dynamics has been widely overlooked. These conditions include interactions with surrounding cells through contact inhibition, gradual accumulation of non-dividing cells, culture propagation and other cell culture maintenance factors...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177687/epigenetic-factors-polycomb-pc-and-suppressor-of-zeste-su-z-2-negatively-regulate-longevity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Vasanthi Dasari, Surabhi Srivastava, Shagufta Khan, Rakesh K Mishra
The process of aging is a hallmark of the natural life span of all organisms and individuals within a population show variability in the measures of age related performance. Longevity and the rate of aging are influenced by several factors such as genetics, nutrition, stress, and environment. Many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging and there is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors regulate these genes to control life span. Polycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) protein complexes maintain the expression profiles of developmentally important genes and regulate many cellular processes...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081010/accumulation-of-glycated-proteins-suggesting-premature-ageing-in-lamin-b-receptor-deficient-mice
#19
Frank Hause, Dietmar Schlote, Andreas Simm, Katrin Hoffmann, Alexander Navarrete Santos
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accompanied by increased free radical activity which contributes to ageing and the development or worsening of degenerative diseases. Apart from other physiological factors, AGEs are also an important biomarker for premature ageing. Here we report protein modifications (glycation) in a mouse model of lamin B receptor deficient ic J /ic J mice displaying skin defects similar to those of classical progeria. Therefore, we analysed AGE-modifications in protein extracts from various tissues of ic J /ic J mice...
February 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965259/sexual-activity-affects-the-redox-profile-along-the-aging-process-in-male-rats
#20
Tiago Boeira Salomon, Mara Silveira Benfato
The disposable soma theory postulates that aging might be the result of tradeoffs between early life reproduction and longevity, thereby involving the costs of reproduction in the expected lifespan. It is known that redox biochemistry plays a major role in these processes. To assess long term effects of reproduction, we analyzed redox rates and the testosterone levels at four different ages, and we performed a principal component analysis between redox measures of five different organs followed by a cluster analysis to determine correlations...
February 2018: Biogerontology
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