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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229255/nordic-walking-training-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-in-association-with-a-drop-in-body-iron-stores-in-elderly-women
#1
Jakub Kortas, Agnieszka Kuchta, Krzysztof Prusik, Katarzyna Prusik, Ewa Ziemann, Sandra Labudda, Agnieszka Ćwiklińska, Ewa Wieczorek, Maciej Jankowski, Jedrzej Antosiewicz
Excess body iron accumulation and oxidative stress has been associated with ageing. Regular exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and induce some changes in iron metabolism. However, the effects of exercise on both of these parameters have been poorly investigated. In our study, 35 elderly women participated in 12 weeks of Nordic walking (NW) training (three times a week). We demonstrated that the training caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde advanced oxidation protein products-markers of oxidative stress but had no effects on paraoxonase 1 activity...
February 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220304/immunosenescence-and-cancer
#2
Graham Pawelec
Age is a major risk factor for solid cancers, hitherto conventionally viewed in the context of the cell biology of carcinogenesis. However, if cancers are immunogenic, the immune system could protect against tumorigenesis ("immunosurveillance"), and vaccination or other immunomodulatory treatments should be therapeutically beneficial, as has been recently dramatically documented in a fraction of patients with certain tumors responding to immune checkpoint blockade. This begs the question that if immunity decreases with age ("immunosenescence"), this may contribute to increased cancer disease in the elderly and a lower likelihood of clinical benefit from immunotherapy...
February 20, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185019/biological-ageing-and-clinical-consequences-of-modern-technology
#3
Marios Kyriazis
The pace of technology is steadily increasing, and this has a widespread effect on all areas of health and society. When we interact with this technological environment we are exposed to a wide variety of new stimuli and challenges, which may modulate the stress response and thus change the way we respond and adapt. In this Opinion paper I will examine certain aspects of the human-computer interaction with regards to health and ageing. There are practical, everyday effects which also include social and cultural elements...
February 9, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160113/multidimensional-predictors-of-physical-frailty-in-older-people-identifying-how-and-for-whom-they-exert-their-effects
#4
Yew Y Ding, Jouni Kuha, Michael Murphy
Physical frailty in older people is an escalating health and social challenge. We investigate its physical, psychological, and social predictors, including how and for whom these conditions exert their effects. For 4638 respondents aged 65-89 years from wave 2 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we examine prediction of future physical frailty by physical, psychological, and social conditions using latent growth curve analysis with multiple indicators. In addition, we explore their indirect effects through disease and physiologic decline, and repeat these analyses after stratification by gender, age group, and selected conditions which are possible moderators...
February 3, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116571/in-memory-of-dr-olivier-toussaint
#5
EDITORIAL
Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, João Pedro de Magalhães
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093691/middle-age-enhances-expression-of-innate-immunity-genes-in-a-female-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Marcin Golec, Matthias Wielscher, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Klemens Vierlinger, Czesława Skórska, Sophia Huetter, Jolanta Sitkowska, Barbara Mackiewicz, Anna Góra-Florek, Rolf Ziesche, Hagai Yanai, Vadim E Fraifeld, Janusz Milanowski, Jacek Dutkiewicz
The lungs are highly sensitive to tissue fibrosis, with a clear age-related component. Among the possible triggers of pulmonary fibrosis are repeated inhalations of fine organic particles. How age affects this response, is still far from being fully understood. We examined the impact of middle-age on gene expression in pulmonary fibrosis, using the novel "inhalation challenge set" mouse model. Our results demonstrate that the response of female mice to exposure of Pantoea agglomerans extract primarily involves various immune-related pathways and cell-cell/cell-extracellular matrix interactions...
January 16, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074309/helicobacter-pylori-induced-premature-senescence-of-extragastric-cells-may-contribute-to-chronic-skin-diseases
#8
Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk
Helicobacter pylori, one of the most frequently observed bacterium in the human intestinal flora, has been widely studied since Marshall and Warren documented a link between the presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract and gastritis and gastric ulcers. Interestingly, H. pylori has also been found in several other epithelial tissues, including the eyes, ears, nose and skin that may have direct or indirect effects on host physiology and may contribute to extragastric diseases, e.g. chronic skin diseases...
January 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039571/identification-of-a-previously-undetected-metabolic-defect-in-the-complex-ii-caenorhabditis-elegans-mev-1-mutant-strain-using-respiratory-control-analysis
#9
Sheng Fong, Li Fang Ng, Li Theng Ng, Philip K Moore, Barry Halliwell, Jan Gruber
Hypometabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ageing and ageing-related diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers the opportunity to study "living mitochondria" in a small (~1 mm) animal replete with a highly stereotypical, yet complex, anatomy and physiology. Basal oxygen consumption rate is often employed as a proxy for energy metabolism in this context. This parameter is traditionally measured using single-chamber Clark electrodes without the addition of metabolic modulators...
December 30, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039570/different-transcriptional-profiling-between-senescent-and-non-senescent-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells-hcaecs-by-omeprazole-and-lansoprazole-treatment
#10
Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Marco Malavolta, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Mauro Provinciali, Marcello G Maggio, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio
Recent evidence suggests that high dose and/or long term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in older patients, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not known. Taking into account that the senescent endothelial cells have been implicated in the genesis or promotion of age-related cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized an active role of PPIs in senescent cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in gene expression occurring in senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) following Omeprazole (OPZ) or Lansoprazole (LPZ) treatment...
December 30, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028686/biomarkers-of-chondriome-topology-and-function-implications-for-the-extension-of-healthy-aging
#11
David W Hollar
Multiple theories of aging (e.g., free radical, error catastrophe, mitochondrial) are complementary but fail to provide adequate models that comprehensively predict lifelong aging processes and that are valid across species. Hayflick (PLoS Genet 3(12):2351-2354, 2007) described six universal characteristics of aging that focus upon post-reproductive molecular entropy. Here we present a thermodynamic potential model of aging in which the energetic and topological properties of the mitochondrion drive functional and structural stabilities within living systems...
December 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013399/keeping-up-with-the-red-queen-the-pace-of-aging-as-an-adaptation
#12
Peter Lenart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků
For decades, a vast majority of biogerontologists assumed that aging is not and cannot be an adaptation. In recent years, however, several authors opposed this predominant view and repeatedly suggested that not only is aging an adaptation but that it is the result of a specific aging program. This issue almost instantaneously became somewhat controversial and many important authors produced substantial works refuting the notion of the aging program. In this article we review the current state of the debate and list the most important arguments proposed by both sides...
December 24, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933408/twelve-weeks-progressive-resistance-training-combined-with-protein-supplementation-beyond-habitual-intakes-increases-upper-leg-lean-tissue-mass-muscle-strength-and-extended-gait-speed-in-healthy-older-women
#13
Peter Francis, William Mc Cormack, Clodagh Toomey, Catherine Norton, Jean Saunders, Emmet Kerin, Mark Lyons, Philip Jakeman
The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885527/insights-into-mortality-patterns-and-causes-of-death-through-a-process-point-of-view-model
#14
James J Anderson, Ting Li, David J Sharrow
Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation...
February 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#15
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
February 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853905/an-antidiabetic-polyherbal-phytomedicine-confers-stress-resistance-and-extends-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Laxmi Rathor, Aakanksha Pant, Harshika Awasthi, Dayanandan Mani, Rakesh Pandey
An Ayurvedic polyherbal extract (PHE) comprising six herbs viz. Berberis aristata, Cyperus rotundus, Cedrus deodara, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica is mentioned as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent in 'Charaka Samhita', the classical text of Ayurveda. Previously, antidiabetic drug metformin was found to elicit antiaging effects and PHE was also found to exhibit antidiabetic effects in humans. Therefore, we screened it for its in vivo antioxidant antiaging effect on stress and lifespan using human homologous Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
November 16, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804052/exploring-the-power-of-yeast-to-model-aging-and-age-related-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Ana V Oliveira, Rita Vilaça, Cláudia N Santos, Vítor Costa, Regina Menezes
Aging is a multifactorial process determined by molecular, cellular and systemic factors and it is well established that advancing age is a leading risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, the close association of aging and neurodegenerative disorders has placed aging as the greatest social and economic challenge of the 21st century, and age-related diseases have also become a key priority for countries worldwide. The growing need to better understand both aging and neurodegenerative processes has led to the development of simple eukaryotic models amenable for mechanistic studies...
November 1, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614960/daily-no-rhythms-in-peripheral-clocks-in-aging-male-wistar-rats-protective-effects-of-exogenous-melatonin
#18
Ch Vinod, Anita Jagota
In mammals suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), acts as a light entrainable master clock and by generation of temporal oscillations regulates the peripheral organs acting as autonomous clocks resulting in overt behavioral and physiological rhythms. SCN also controls synthesis and release of melatonin (hormonal message for darkness) from pineal. Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as an important neurotransmitter in generating the phase shifts of circadian rhythms and participates in sleep-wake processes, maintenance of vascular tone as well as signalling and regulating inflammatory processes...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511372/mild-heat-treatments-induce-long-term-changes-in-metabolites-associated-with-energy-metabolism-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Pernille Sarup, Simon Metz Mariendal Petersen, Niels Chr Nielsen, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
Heat-induced hormesis, the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. Yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the long-term effects of repeated mild heat treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488377/elevated-extension-of-longevity-by-cyclically-heat-stressing-a-set-of-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-drosophila-melanogaster-throughout-their-adult-life
#20
Federico H Gomez, Pablo Sambucetti, Fabian M Norry
An extremely high (about 100 %) increase in longevity is reported for a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster subjected to a cyclic heat stress throughout the adult life. Previous work showed that both longevity and heat sensitivity highly differed among RILs. The novel heat stress treatment used in this study consisted of 5 min at 38 °C applicated approximately every 125 min throughout the adult life starting at the age of 2 days. In spite of the exceptionally high increase in longevity in a set of RILs, the same heat stress treatment reduced rather than increased longevity in other RILs, suggesting that heat-induced hormesis is dependent on the genotype and/or the genetic background...
November 2016: Biogerontology
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