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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093691/middle-age-enhances-expression-of-innate-immunity-genes-in-a-female-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
Marcin Golec, Matthias Wielscher, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Klemens Vierlinger, Czesława Skórska, Sophia Huetter, Jolanta Sitkowska, Barbara Mackiewicz, Anna Góra-Florek, Rolf Ziesche, Hagai Yanai, Vadim E Fraifeld, Janusz Milanowski, Jacek Dutkiewicz
The lungs are highly sensitive to tissue fibrosis, with a clear age-related component. Among the possible triggers of pulmonary fibrosis are repeated inhalations of fine organic particles. How age affects this response, is still far from being fully understood. We examined the impact of middle-age on gene expression in pulmonary fibrosis, using the novel "inhalation challenge set" mouse model. Our results demonstrate that the response of female mice to exposure of Pantoea agglomerans extract primarily involves various immune-related pathways and cell-cell/cell-extracellular matrix interactions...
January 16, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074309/helicobacter-pylori-induced-premature-senescence-of-extragastric-cells-may-contribute-to-chronic-skin-diseases
#3
Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk
Helicobacter pylori, one of the most frequently observed bacterium in the human intestinal flora, has been widely studied since Marshall and Warren documented a link between the presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract and gastritis and gastric ulcers. Interestingly, H. pylori has also been found in several other epithelial tissues, including the eyes, ears, nose and skin that may have direct or indirect effects on host physiology and may contribute to extragastric diseases, e.g. chronic skin diseases...
January 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039571/identification-of-a-previously-undetected-metabolic-defect-in-the-complex-ii-caenorhabditis-elegans-mev-1-mutant-strain-using-respiratory-control-analysis
#4
Sheng Fong, Li Fang Ng, Li Theng Ng, Philip K Moore, Barry Halliwell, Jan Gruber
Hypometabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ageing and ageing-related diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers the opportunity to study "living mitochondria" in a small (~1 mm) animal replete with a highly stereotypical, yet complex, anatomy and physiology. Basal oxygen consumption rate is often employed as a proxy for energy metabolism in this context. This parameter is traditionally measured using single-chamber Clark electrodes without the addition of metabolic modulators...
December 30, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039570/different-transcriptional-profiling-between-senescent-and-non-senescent-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells-hcaecs-by-omeprazole-and-lansoprazole-treatment
#5
Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Marco Malavolta, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Mauro Provinciali, Marcello G Maggio, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio
Recent evidence suggests that high dose and/or long term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in older patients, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not known. Taking into account that the senescent endothelial cells have been implicated in the genesis or promotion of age-related cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized an active role of PPIs in senescent cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in gene expression occurring in senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) following Omeprazole (OPZ) or Lansoprazole (LPZ) treatment...
December 30, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028686/biomarkers-of-chondriome-topology-and-function-implications-for-the-extension-of-healthy-aging
#6
David W Hollar
Multiple theories of aging (e.g., free radical, error catastrophe, mitochondrial) are complementary but fail to provide adequate models that comprehensively predict lifelong aging processes and that are valid across species. Hayflick (PLoS Genet 3(12):2351-2354, 2007) described six universal characteristics of aging that focus upon post-reproductive molecular entropy. Here we present a thermodynamic potential model of aging in which the energetic and topological properties of the mitochondrion drive functional and structural stabilities within living systems...
December 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013399/keeping-up-with-the-red-queen-the-pace-of-aging-as-an-adaptation
#7
Peter Lenart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků
For decades, a vast majority of biogerontologists assumed that aging is not and cannot be an adaptation. In recent years, however, several authors opposed this predominant view and repeatedly suggested that not only is aging an adaptation but that it is the result of a specific aging program. This issue almost instantaneously became somewhat controversial and many important authors produced substantial works refuting the notion of the aging program. In this article we review the current state of the debate and list the most important arguments proposed by both sides...
December 24, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933408/twelve-weeks-progressive-resistance-training-combined-with-protein-supplementation-beyond-habitual-intakes-increases-upper-leg-lean-tissue-mass-muscle-strength-and-extended-gait-speed-in-healthy-older-women
#8
Peter Francis, William Mc Cormack, Clodagh Toomey, Catherine Norton, Jean Saunders, Emmet Kerin, Mark Lyons, Philip Jakeman
The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885527/insights-into-mortality-patterns-and-causes-of-death-through-a-process-point-of-view-model
#9
James J Anderson, Ting Li, David J Sharrow
Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation...
November 24, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#10
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
November 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853905/an-antidiabetic-polyherbal-phytomedicine-confers-stress-resistance-and-extends-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Laxmi Rathor, Aakanksha Pant, Harshika Awasthi, Dayanandan Mani, Rakesh Pandey
An Ayurvedic polyherbal extract (PHE) comprising six herbs viz. Berberis aristata, Cyperus rotundus, Cedrus deodara, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica is mentioned as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent in 'Charaka Samhita', the classical text of Ayurveda. Previously, antidiabetic drug metformin was found to elicit antiaging effects and PHE was also found to exhibit antidiabetic effects in humans. Therefore, we screened it for its in vivo antioxidant antiaging effect on stress and lifespan using human homologous Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
November 16, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804052/exploring-the-power-of-yeast-to-model-aging-and-age-related-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Ana V Oliveira, Rita Vilaça, Cláudia N Santos, Vítor Costa, Regina Menezes
Aging is a multifactorial process determined by molecular, cellular and systemic factors and it is well established that advancing age is a leading risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, the close association of aging and neurodegenerative disorders has placed aging as the greatest social and economic challenge of the 21st century, and age-related diseases have also become a key priority for countries worldwide. The growing need to better understand both aging and neurodegenerative processes has led to the development of simple eukaryotic models amenable for mechanistic studies...
November 1, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787741/lifetime-regular-exercise-affects-the-incident-of-different-arrhythmias-and-improves-organismal-health-in-aging-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Lan Zheng, Qiu Fang Li, Liu Ni, Hui Wang, Xiang Cheng Ruan, Xiu Shan Wu
We used Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model system to study the impact of exercise training initiated early in life on cardiac function using a well-established model of inherent myogenic properties of the heart and discussed the changes on myosin, a myocardial contractile protein. We also explored the effect of early physical exercise on organismal aging by analyzing the wake-sleep pattern using a Drosophila activity monitor system. We found that a variety of arrhythmias are part of the heart spectrum in old flies after a lifetime of physical exercise as evidenced by reducing the incidence of fibrillations and increasing the occurrence of bradycardias...
October 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614960/daily-no-rhythms-in-peripheral-clocks-in-aging-male-wistar-rats-protective-effects-of-exogenous-melatonin
#14
Ch Vinod, Anita Jagota
In mammals suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), acts as a light entrainable master clock and by generation of temporal oscillations regulates the peripheral organs acting as autonomous clocks resulting in overt behavioral and physiological rhythms. SCN also controls synthesis and release of melatonin (hormonal message for darkness) from pineal. Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as an important neurotransmitter in generating the phase shifts of circadian rhythms and participates in sleep-wake processes, maintenance of vascular tone as well as signalling and regulating inflammatory processes...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511372/mild-heat-treatments-induce-long-term-changes-in-metabolites-associated-with-energy-metabolism-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Pernille Sarup, Simon Metz Mariendal Petersen, Niels Chr Nielsen, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
Heat-induced hormesis, the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. Yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the long-term effects of repeated mild heat treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488377/elevated-extension-of-longevity-by-cyclically-heat-stressing-a-set-of-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-drosophila-melanogaster-throughout-their-adult-life
#16
Federico H Gomez, Pablo Sambucetti, Fabian M Norry
An extremely high (about 100 %) increase in longevity is reported for a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster subjected to a cyclic heat stress throughout the adult life. Previous work showed that both longevity and heat sensitivity highly differed among RILs. The novel heat stress treatment used in this study consisted of 5 min at 38 °C applicated approximately every 125 min throughout the adult life starting at the age of 2 days. In spite of the exceptionally high increase in longevity in a set of RILs, the same heat stress treatment reduced rather than increased longevity in other RILs, suggesting that heat-induced hormesis is dependent on the genotype and/or the genetic background...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484416/repurposing-fda-approved-drugs-for-anti-aging-therapies
#17
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Bharath Srinivasan, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
There is great interest in drugs that are capable of modulating multiple aging pathways, thereby delaying the onset and progression of aging. Effective strategies for drug development include the repurposing of existing drugs already approved by the FDA for human therapy. FDA approved drugs have known mechanisms of action and have been thoroughly screened for safety. Although there has been extensive scientific activity in repurposing drugs for disease therapy, there has been little testing of these drugs for their effects on aging...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465500/age-dependent-differential-expression-of-death-associated-protein-6-daxx-in-various-peripheral-tissues-and-different-brain-regions-of-c57bl-6-male-mice
#18
Mélissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Mélissa Laroche, Marie-Josée Demers, Catherine Duclos, Jean-Bernard Denault, Guillaume Grenier, Sean-Patrick Riechers, Erich E Wanker, Rona K Graham
Death-associated protein 6 (DAXX) is a ubiquitous protein implicated in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, tumorigenesis, development and transcription. The role of DAXX is however ambiguous and many contradictory results regarding its function in apoptosis upon various cellular stresses are described in the literature. In order to have a better understanding of the role of DAXX throughout the entire organism under physiological stress conditions, we have characterized the mRNA levels, protein expression and the proteolytic processing of DAXX in the normal aging process in peripheral organs and brain regions in C57BL/6 male mice...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447179/protective-role-of-the-apolipoprotein-e2-allele-in-age-related-disease-traits-and-survival-evidence-from-the-long-life-family-study
#19
Alexander M Kulminski, Nalini Raghavachari, Konstantin G Arbeev, Irina Culminskaya, Liubov Arbeeva, Deqing Wu, Svetlana V Ukraintseva, Kaare Christensen, Anatoliy I Yashin
The apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a classic example of a gene exhibiting pleiotropism. We examine potential pleiotropic associations of the apoE2 allele in three biodemographic cohorts of long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses from the Long Life Family Study, and intermediate mechanisms, which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival...
November 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771833/human-aging-finite-lives-and-the-idealization-of-clocks
#20
Jan Baars
Aging and time are interconnected because aging is basically living seen in a temporal perspective. This makes 'time' an important concept in trying to explain aging. However, throughout modernity time has increasingly been identified as clock time: perfectly fit to measure 'age' as time since birth but failing to explain 'age' as an indicator of aging processes and even less adequate to grasp the lived time of human beings. Moreover, the clock as a cultural idol of instrumentalist perfection has led to approaching human aging in terms of maintenance and repair, inspiring a neglect and depreciation of human vulnerability...
October 22, 2016: Biogerontology
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