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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189912/cell-wall-biosynthesis-impairment-affects-the-budding-lifespan-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#1
Mateusz Molon, Olga Woznicka, Jacek Zebrowski
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is one of the most widely used model in studies of cellular and organismal biology, including as aging and proliferation. Although several constraints of aging and budding lifespan have been identified, these processes have not yet been fully understood. Previous studies of aging in yeast have focused mostly on the molecular basics of the underlying mechanisms, while physical aspects, particularly those related to the cell wall, were rather neglected. In this paper, we examine for the first time, to our knowledge, the impact of cell wall biosynthesis disturbances on the lifespan in the budding yeast...
November 30, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185166/echinacoside-a-phenylethanoid-glycoside-from-cistanche-deserticola-extends-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-protects-from-a%C3%AE-induced-toxicity
#2
Wei Chen, Hong-Ru Lin, Cong-Min Wei, Xiao-Hua Luo, Meng-Lu Sun, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Xin-Yan Chen, Hong-Bing Wang
Cistanche deserticola has been found to exert protection against aging and age-related diseases, but mechanisms underlying its longevity effects remain largely unclear. Here, the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify lifespan extending and protective effects against β-amyloid (Aβ) induced toxicity by echinacoside (ECH), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from C. deserticola. Our results showed that ECH extends the mean lifespan of worms and increases their survival under oxidative stress...
November 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185165/immune-parameters-associated-with-mortality-in-the-elderly-are-context-dependent-lessons-from-sweden-holland-and-belgium
#3
Graham Pawelec
The pioneering Swedish OCTO/NONA-Immune longitudinal studies led by Anders Wikby in Jönköping in the 1990s established a cluster of simple baseline immune parameters associated with excess mortality in 85 year-old non-institutionalized individuals over 2, 4 and 6-year follow-up. We dubbed this cluster the "Immune Risk Profile" (IRP) consisting of poor proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens, accumulations of CD8+ CD28- T-cells resulting in an inverted CD4:8 ratio, decreased amounts of B-cells, and seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
November 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177687/epigenetic-factors-polycomb-pc-and-suppressor-of-zeste-su-z-2-negatively-regulate-longevity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Vasanthi Dasari, Surabhi Srivastava, Shagufta Khan, Rakesh K Mishra
The process of aging is a hallmark of the natural life span of all organisms and individuals within a population show variability in the measures of age related performance. Longevity and the rate of aging are influenced by several factors such as genetics, nutrition, stress, and environment. Many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging and there is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors regulate these genes to control life span. Polycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) protein complexes maintain the expression profiles of developmentally important genes and regulate many cellular processes...
November 27, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177769/mutual-interactions-between-telomere-heterogeneity-and-cell-culture-growth-dynamics-shape-stochasticity-of-cell-aging
#5
Lucia Nanić, Nikolina Škrobot Vidaček, Sanda Ravlić, Eva Šatović, Miljenko Huzak, Ivica Rubelj
Mathematical modeling and computational simulations are often used to explain the stochastic nature of cell aging. The models published thus far are based on the molecular mechanisms of telomere biology and how they dictate the dynamics of cell culture proliferation. However, the influence of cell growth conditions on telomere dynamics has been widely overlooked. These conditions include interactions with surrounding cells through contact inhibition, gradual accumulation of non-dividing cells, culture propagation and other cell culture maintenance factors...
November 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#6
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086101/why-do-we-age-insights-into-biology-and-evolution-of-ageing
#7
EDITORIAL
David Weinkove, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081010/accumulation-of-glycated-proteins-suggesting-premature-ageing-in-lamin-b-receptor-deficient-mice
#8
Frank Hause, Dietmar Schlote, Andreas Simm, Katrin Hoffmann, Alexander Navarrete Santos
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accompanied by increased free radical activity which contributes to ageing and the development or worsening of degenerative diseases. Apart from other physiological factors, AGEs are also an important biomarker for premature ageing. Here we report protein modifications (glycation) in a mouse model of lamin B receptor deficient ic (J) /ic (J) mice displaying skin defects similar to those of classical progeria. Therefore, we analysed AGE-modifications in protein extracts from various tissues of ic (J) /ic (J) mice...
October 28, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052784/exercise-and-bone-health-across-the-lifespan
#9
Lívia Santos, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
With ageing, bone tissue undergoes significant compositional, architectural and metabolic alterations potentially leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder, which is characterised by progressive bone weakening and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Although this metabolic disease is conventionally associated with ageing and menopause, the predisposing factors are thought to be established during childhood and adolescence. In light of this, exercise interventions implemented during maturation are likely to be highly beneficial as part of a long-term strategy to maximise peak bone mass and hence delay the onset of age- or menopause-related osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965259/sexual-activity-affects-the-redox-profile-along-the-aging-process-in-male-rats
#10
Tiago Boeira Salomon, Mara Silveira Benfato
The disposable soma theory postulates that aging might be the result of tradeoffs between early life reproduction and longevity, thereby involving the costs of reproduction in the expected lifespan. It is known that redox biochemistry plays a major role in these processes. To assess long term effects of reproduction, we analyzed redox rates and the testosterone levels at four different ages, and we performed a principal component analysis between redox measures of five different organs followed by a cluster analysis to determine correlations...
September 30, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884409/chronic-exposure-to-rapamycin-and-episodic-serum-starvation-modulate-ageing-of-human-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#11
Lakshman Sodagam, Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk, Suresh I S Rattan
Mild stress-induced activation of stress response (SR) pathways, such as autophagy, heat shock response, oxidative SR, DNA damage response, and inflammatory response, can be potentially health beneficial. Using the model system of cellular ageing and replicative senescence in vitro, we have studied the ageing modulatory effects of the two conditions, rapamycin and serum starvation. Chronic exposure to 0.1, 1 and 10 nM rapamycin positively modulated the survival, growth, morphology, telomere length, DNA methylation levels, 8-oxo-dG level in DNA, N(6)-methyl-adenosine level in RNA, and ethanol stress tolerance of serially passaged normal human skin fibroblasts...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825141/sex-as-a-determinant-of-age-related-changes-in-rat-spinal-cord-inflammation-oxidation-state
#12
Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Marija Stojanović, Lidija Simić, Biljana Bufan, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Slavica Ražić, Gordana Leposavić
To close the gap in our knowledge of sex influence on age-related changes in inflammation-oxidation state in spinal cord (SC) relevant to inflammation/oxidative-stress associated neuropathologies, 2-3 month-old (young) and 18-20 month-old (old) rats, exhibiting increased level of IL-6, a commonly used marker of inflamm-aging, were examined for inflammatory/redox status, and the underlying regulatory networks' molecules expression. With age, rat SC microglia became sensitized ("primed"), while SC tissue shifted towards mild inflammatory state, with increased levels of proinflammatory IL-1β (key marker of microglial systemic inflammation-induced neurotoxicity), which was more prominent in males...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808816/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-cognitive-function-in-chinese-adult-twins
#13
Chunsheng Xu, Dongfeng Zhang, Yili Wu, Xiaocao Tian, Zengchang Pang, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Multiple loci or genes have been identified using genome-wide association studies mainly in western countries but with inconsistent results. No similar studies have been conducted in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. The paper aimed to identify the specific genetic variants associated with cognitive function in middle and old-aged Chinese dizygotic twins (DZ). Cognitive function was measured on 139 pairs of DZ by Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The subjects were genotyped at 1048575 SNP positions...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741183/reproduction-ageing-and-longevity-in-two-species-of-laboratory-rodents-with-different-life-histories
#14
Eugene Novikov, I Zadubrovskaya, P Zadubrovskiy, T Titova
Social subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family are known to have extended longevity and some signs of negligible senescence, although the manifestation of these traits depends on the reproductive status of individuals. Such enormous life history peculiarities are usually explained by the specificity of a subterranean way of life. If so, all subterranean rodents, regardless of their taxonomic position, are expected to have higher maximum lifespans and shorter senescence periods than the related above-ground species...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677014/a-mild-cold-stress-that-increases-resistance-to-heat-lowers-foxo-translocation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Cédric Polesello, Eric Le Bourg
Previous studies have shown that subjecting Drosophila melanogaster flies to a mild stress at young or middle age can increase lifespan and resistance to severe stresses throughout life and that the NF-κB-like transcription factor DIF, the 70 kDa heat-shock proteins, and the Drosophila Forkhead box class O (dFOXO) transcription factor could explain some of these effects. The present study showed that two dFOXO mutants do not survive longer heat if previously subjected to a mild cold stress, contrarily to wild-type flies...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597407/resistance-wheel-exercise-from-mid-life-has-minimal-effect-on-sciatic-nerves-from-old-mice-in-which-sarcopenia-was-prevented
#16
Vidya S Krishnan, Zoe White, Jessica R Terrill, Stuart I Hodgetts, Melinda Fitzgerald, Tea Shavlakadze, Alan R Harvey, Miranda D Grounds
The ability of resistance exercise, initiated from mid-life, to prevent age-related changes in old sciatic nerves, was investigated in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Aging is associated with cellular changes in old sciatic nerves and also loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). Mature adult mice aged 15 months (M) were subjected to increasing voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) over a period of 8 M until 23 M of age. This prevented sarcopenia in the old 23 M aged male and female mice...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501895/angiogenesis-is-vegf-independent-in-the-aged-striatum-of-male-rats-exposed-to-acute-hypoxia
#17
Francisco Molina, M Luisa Del Moral, M Ángeles Peinado, Alma Rus
Brain hypoxia is involved in many diseases. The activation of angiogenesis is one of the major adaptive mechanisms to counteract the adverse effects of hypoxia. In a previous work, we have shown that the adult rat striatum promotes angiogenesis in response to hypoxia via upregulation of the most important proangiogenic factor, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the effects of hypoxia on angiogenesis in the aged striatum remain unknown and constitute our aim. Here we show the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the striatum of aged (24-25 months old) Wistar rats exposed to acute hypoxia and analysed during a reoxygenation period ranging from 0 h to 5 days...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501894/influence-of-ageing-on-the-microarchitecture-of-the-spleen-and-lymph-nodes
#18
REVIEW
Vivian M Turner, Neil A Mabbott
The elderly have a decreased response to vaccination and an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The spleen and lymph nodes are important secondary lymphoid organs where immune cells can rapidly respond to pathogenic material in the blood and lymph in order to mount long-term adaptive immune responses to those pathogens. In aged mice and humans structural changes occur to both the spleen and lymph nodes. These structural changes affect the functioning of the immune cells within, which may ultimate result in less effective or decreased immune responses...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466185/tissue-specific-transcription-of-the-neuronal-gene-lim3-affects-drosophila-melanogaster-lifespan-and-locomotion
#19
Olga Y Rybina, Svetlana V Sarantseva, Ekaterina R Veselkina, Olga I Bolschakova, Alexander V Symonenko, Anna V Krementsova, Elena V Ryabova, Natalia V Roshina, Elena G Pasyukova
The identity of neuronal cell types is established and maintained by the expression of neuronal genes coding for ion channels, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides, among others. Some of these genes have been shown to affect lifespan; however, their role in lifespan control remains largely unclear. The Drosophila melanogaster gene Lim3 encodes a transcription factor involved in complicated motor neuron specification networks. We previously identified Lim3 as a candidate gene affecting lifespan. To obtain direct evidence of the involvement of Lim3 in lifespan control, Lim3 overexpression and RNAi knockdown were induced in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila using the GAL4-UAS binary system...
October 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914388/diet-has-independent-effects-on-the-pace-and-shape-of-aging-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
C Ruth Archer, Ugofilippo Basellini, John Hunt, Stephen J Simpson, Kwang Pum Lee, Annette Baudisch
Studies examining how diet affects mortality risk over age typically characterise mortality using parameters such as aging rates, which condense how much and how quickly the risk of dying changes over time into a single measure. Demographers have suggested that decoupling the tempo and the magnitude of changing mortality risk may facilitate comparative analyses of mortality trajectories, but it is unclear what biologically meaningful information this approach offers. Here, we determine how the amount and ratio of protein and carbohydrate ingested by female Drosophila melanogaster affects how much mortality risk increases over a time-standardised life-course (the shape of aging) and the tempo at which animals live and die (the pace of aging)...
September 15, 2017: Biogerontology
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