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Nayan M Deori, Avinash Kale, Pawan K Maurya, Shirisha Nagotu
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles essential for optimum functioning of a eukaryotic cell. Biogenesis of these organelles and the diverse functions performed by them have been extensively studied in the past decade. Their ability to perform functions depending on the cell type and growth conditions is unique and remarkable. Oxidation of fatty acids and reactive oxygen species metabolism are the two most important functions of these ubiquitous organelles. They are often referred to as both source and sink of reactive oxygen species in a cell...
July 2, 2018: Biogerontology
Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Kai Kaarniranta
The aging process is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation and the accumulation of senescent cells into tissues. Diverse stresses can trigger cellular senescence, a cell fate characterized by cell-cycle arrest and flat morphology. Oncogenic signaling can also induce cellular senescence which has been termed oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). Senescent cells display a pro-inflammatory phenotype which has been called the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The secretomes associated with SASP contain colony-stimulating factors and chemokines which stimulate the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) by enhancing myelopoiesis in bone marrow and spleen...
June 29, 2018: Biogerontology
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
June 15, 2018: Biogerontology
Tamas Fulop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Biogerontology
Alexey Golubev, Andrei Panchenko, Vladimir Anisimov
Parametric models for survival data help to differentiate aging from other lifespan determinants. However, such inferences suffer from small sizes of experimental animal samples and variable animals handling by different labs. We analyzed control data from a single laboratory where interventions in murine lifespan were studied over decades. The minimal Gompertz model (GM) was found to perform best with most murine strains. However, when several control datasets related to a particular strain are fitted to GM, strikingly rigid interdependencies between GM parameters emerge, consistent with the Strehler-Mildvan correlation (SMC)...
June 4, 2018: Biogerontology
Tim Eakin, Tarynn M Witten
In this paper we extend the previous work of Witten and her team on defining a classical physics-driven model of survival in aging populations (Eakin, Bull Math Biol 56(6):1121-1141, 1994; Eakin and Witten, Mech Aging Dev 78(2):85-101, 1995; Witten and Eakin, Exp Gerontol 32(2):259-285, 1997) by revisiting the concept of a force of aging and introducing the concepts of a momentum of aging, a kinetic energy and a potential energy of an aging population. We further extend the analysis beyond the deterministic Newtonian mechanics of a macroscopic population as a whole by considering the probabilistic nature of survival of individual population cohort members, thus producing new statistical physics-based concepts of entropy and of a gerontological "temperature"...
May 10, 2018: Biogerontology
Bauyrzhan Umbayev, Abdul-Razak Masoud, Andrey Tsoy, Dauren Alimbetov, Farkhad Olzhayev, Alla Shramko, Aiym Kaiyrlykyzy, Yuliya Safarova, Terence Davis, Sholpan Askarova
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell source for cellular therapy and tissue engineering and are currently being tested in a number of clinical trials for various diseases. However, like other somatic cells, MSCs age, and this senescence is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cell function. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 activity in cellular senescence processes. In the present study, we have examined aging-associated Cdc42 activity in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 in ADMSCs from aged rats...
July 2018: Biogerontology
Arpan Kumar Maiti, B C Spoorthi, Nimai Chandra Saha, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi
Although reactive oxygen species mediated oxidative stress is a well-documented mechanism of aging, recent evidences indicate involvement of nitrosative stress in the same. As mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as one of the primary features of aging, the present study was designed to understand the involvement of nitrosative stress by studying the impact of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ, a peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) scavenger, on mitochondrial functions. Four groups of rats were included in this study: Group I: Young-6 months (-MitoQ), Group II: Aged-22 months (- MitoQ), Group III: Young-6 months (+ MitoQ), Group IV: Aged-22 months (+ MitoQ)...
July 2018: Biogerontology
Erica C Lorenzo, Jenna M Bartley, Laura Haynes
CD4+ T cells are important for generating high quality and robust immune responses to influenza infection. Immunosenescence that occurs with aging, however, compromises the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into functional subsets resulting in a multitude of dysregulated responses namely, delayed viral clearance and prolonged inflammation leading to increased pathology. Current research employing animal models and human subjects has provided new insights into the description and mechanisms of age-related CD4+ T cell changes...
April 3, 2018: Biogerontology
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Esperanza Cuadrado, Juan Riestra-Ayora, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Dietary antioxidants, polyphenols, have been found to be beneficial in protecting against the generation of oxidative stress in various diseases associated with aging. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the number one neurodegenerative disorder on our aged population. Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups according to their age (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) and treated with 100 mg/day/kg body weight of polyphenols were used. Then, cochleae were harvested to measure caspase activities (- 3, - 8 and - 9), caspase-3 gene expression, ATP levels, Bax, BcL-2 and p53 levels...
April 2018: Biogerontology
Sepideh Mofidifar, Farzin Sohraby, Milad Bagheri, Hassan Aryapour
Dietary restriction is one of the several ways which could putatively extend organisms' lifespan, ranging from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rodents, by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an ATP/AMP sensor. Extensive researches have shown that aging reduces sensibility of AMPK and eventually causes energy imbalance in cells. Research in mammals' AMPK depicts that this signaling molecule could control autophagy, improve cellular stress resistance and suppress inflammatory responses. Hence, in this study we performed a drug repurposing of 1908 FDA-approved drugs in order to discover putative safe activators of AMPK and to find new applications for existing drugs...
April 2018: Biogerontology
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e...
April 2018: Biogerontology
Alena Kadlecová, Tomáš Jirsa, Ondřej Novák, Jan Kammenga, Miroslav Strnad, Jiří Voller
Cytokinins are phytohormones that are involved in many processes in plants, including growth, differentiation and leaf senescence. However, they also have various activities in animals. For example, kinetin and trans-zeatin can reduce levels of several aging markers in human fibroblasts. Kinetin can also protect mice against oxidative and glyoxidative stress, and prolong fruit flies' lifespan. Additionally, several cytokinins are currently used in cosmetics. To extend knowledge of the breadth of cytokinins' activities, we examined effects of natural cytokinin bases on the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 2018: Biogerontology
Eleni Mavrogonatou, Angeliki Konstantinou, Dimitris Kletsas
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory mediator overexpressed in the skin as a response to ultraviolet radiation, as well as in chronic non-healing wounds. On the other hand, senescent fibroblasts have been shown to accumulate in the skin under these stressful conditions. Accordingly, here we assessed the putative implication of TNF-α in the induction of premature senescence of human adult dermal fibroblasts. We showed that TNF-α led to a rapid transient p38 MAPK activation, while elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only occurred after a chronic exposure to TNF-α...
March 26, 2018: Biogerontology
Marina Ezcurra
High-throughput molecular studies are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome we need robust experimental models that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses arisen from large-scale 'meta-omic' projects...
March 19, 2018: Biogerontology
Maria Lorenzi, Stefano Bonassi, Teresa Lorenzi, Silvia Giovannini, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Sarcopenia and frailty are associated with several important health-related adverse events, including disability, loss of independence, institutionalization and mortality. Sarcopenia can be considered a biological substrate of frailty, and the prevalence of both these conditions progressively increases with age. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and implicated in cellular ageing, shorten with age, and are associated with various age-related diseases. In addition, telomere length (TL) is widely considered a molecular/cellular hallmark of the ageing process...
March 16, 2018: Biogerontology
Oyuna S Kozhevnikova, Darya V Telegina, Vasiliy A Devyatkin, Nataliya G Kolosova
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease resulting in a loss of central vision in the elderly. It is currently assumed that impairment of autophagy may be one of the key mechanisms leading to AMD. Here we estimated the influence of age-related autophagy alterations in the retina on the development of AMD-like retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Significant changes in the expression of the autophagy proteins were absent at the age preceding the development of retinopathy (age 20 days)...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
Stephen Frenk, Jonathan Houseley
Ageing leads to dramatic changes in the physiology of many different tissues resulting in a spectrum of pathology. Nonetheless, many lines of evidence suggest that ageing is driven by highly conserved cell intrinsic processes, and a set of unifying hallmarks of ageing has been defined. Here, we survey reports of age-linked changes in basal gene expression across eukaryotes from yeast to human and identify six gene expression hallmarks of cellular ageing: downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins; downregulation of the protein synthesis machinery; dysregulation of immune system genes; reduced growth factor signalling; constitutive responses to stress and DNA damage; dysregulation of gene expression and mRNA processing...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
Egija Zole, Renāte Ranka
In the last decades, studies about ageing have become more essential as our population grows older. The incidence of age-related diseases increases, which pose challenges both for societies and individuals in terms of life quality and economic impact. Understanding ageing and ageing-related processes will help us to slow down or even prevent these diseases and provide opportunities for healthy ageing; additionally, we all want to live longer. Ageing is a consequence of the interaction between processes that occur over time and genetics interacting with various disease states and an individual's lifestyle...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
Hagen Blankenburg, Peter P Pramstaller, Francisco S Domingues
Great amounts of omics data are generated in aging research, but their diverse and partly complementary nature requires integrative analysis approaches for investigating aging processes and connections to age-related diseases. To establish a broader picture of the genetic and epigenetic landscape of human aging we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of 6600 human genes by combining 35 datasets that cover aging hallmarks, longevity, changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, and different age-related diseases...
February 2018: Biogerontology
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