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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143941/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-metabolism-and-ageing-shared-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Guillermo López-Lluch, Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Daniel J Moreno Fernández-Ayala, Plácido Navas
Mitochondria are key in the metabolism of aerobic organisms and in ageing progression and age-related diseases. Mitochondria are essential for obtaining ATP from glucose and fatty acids but also in many other essential functions in cells including aminoacids metabolism, pyridine synthesis, phospholipid modifications and calcium regulation. On the other hand, the activity of mitochondria is also the principal source of reactive oxygen species in cells. Ageing and chronic age-related diseases are associated with the deregulation of cell metabolism and dysfunction of mitochondria...
August 24, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054761/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-as-inducers-of-premature-cellular-senescence-and-ageing
#2
REVIEW
Dominick G A Burton, Richard G A Faragher
Cellular senescence is now considered as a major mechanism in the development and progression of various diseases and this may include metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. The presence of obesity and diabetes is a major risk factor in the development of additional health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and cancer. Since senescent cells can drive disease development, obesity and diabetes can potentially create an environment that accelerates cell senescence within other tissues of the body...
July 27, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101381/detecting-senescent-fate-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-combined-cytofluorimetric-and-ultrastructural-approach
#3
Manuela Dicarlo, Gabriella Teti, Iolanda Iezzi, Giorgia Cerqueni, Sandra Manzotti, Mirella Falconi, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte
Senescence can impair the therapeutic potential of stem cells. In this study, senescence-associated morphofunctional changes in periosteum-derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) from old and young individuals were investigated by combining cytofluorimetry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a large number of G0/G1 phase cells in PDPCs from old subjects and a progressive accumulation of G0/G1 cells during passaging in cultures from young subjects. Cytofluorimetry documented significant changes in light scattering parameters and closely correlated with the ultrastructural features, especially changes in mitochondrial shape and autophagy, which are consistent with the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of ageing...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097900/the-secretory-phenotype-of-senescent-astrocytes-isolated-from-wistar-newborn-rats-changes-with-anti-inflammatory-drugs-but-does-not-have-a-short-term-effect-on-neuronal-mitochondrial-potential
#4
Luis Ángel Maciel-Barón, Sandra Lizbeth Morales-Rosales, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Roxana Haydee Rodríguez-Barrera, Jorge Antonio García-Álvarez, Armando Luna-López, Viviana Isabel Pérez, Claudio Torres, Mina Königsberg
In the central nervous system (CNS), senescent astrocytes have been associated with neurodegeneration. Senescent cells secrete a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory factors, which are collectively called Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). The SASP components can vary depending on the cell type, senescence inducer and time. The SASP has been mainly studied in fibroblasts and epithelial cells, but little is known in the context of the CNS. Here, the SASP profile in senescent astrocytes isolated from Wistar newborn rats induced to senescence by oxidative stress or by proteasome inhibition was analyzed...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084046/age-related-loss-of-vglut1-excitatory-but-not-vgat-inhibitory-immunoreactive-terminals-on-motor-neurons-in-spinal-cords-of-old-sarcopenic-male-mice
#5
Vidya S Krishnan, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds, Stuart I Hodgetts, Alan R Harvey
Age-related changes in ventral lumbar spinal cord (L3-L5) were compared in young [3 month, (M)] and old (27 M) C57BL/6J male mice. The aged mice had previously been shown to exhibit sarcopenia and changes to peripheral nerve morphology. The putative connectivity of β-III tubulin positive α-motor neurons was compared in immunostained transverse sections using excitatory and inhibitory terminal markers vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) immunostaining was used to monitor changes in astrocyte and microglial phenotype respectively...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073441/the-effect-of-dietary-lipid-on-gut-microbiota-in-a-senescence-accelerated-prone-mouse-model-samp8
#6
Kazushi Yamamoto, Mamoru Kushida, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
Gut microbiota change with aging and diet. In a previous study, it was shown that a moderate-fat diet enriched with fish oil had beneficial effects for elderly patients, so we examined the effect of this diet on aging-related changes in gut microbiota in this study. We used 3-month-old male senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8). The mice were fed a normal diet containing 4 g soybean oil/100 g of diet for 6 months and then divided into 4 groups: (1) the Baseline group, ended breeding at 6 months old; (2) the Control group, continued on a normal diet until 15 months old; (3) the MF group, switched to a moderate-fat diet until 15 months old; and (4) the MF + FO group, switched to a moderate-fat diet enriched with fish oil until 15 months old...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968207/peroxisomes-role-in-cellular-ageing-and-age-related-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Nayan M Deori, Avinash Kale, Pawan K Maurya, Shirisha Nagotu
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles essential for optimum functioning of a eukaryotic cell. Biogenesis of these organelles and the diverse functions performed by them have been extensively studied in the past decade. Their ability to perform functions depending on the cell type and growth conditions is unique and remarkable. Oxidation of fatty acids and reactive oxygen species metabolism are the two most important functions of these ubiquitous organelles. They are often referred to as both source and sink of reactive oxygen species in a cell...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959657/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdsc-an-important-partner-in-cellular-tissue-senescence
#8
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Kai Kaarniranta
The aging process is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation and the accumulation of senescent cells into tissues. Diverse stresses can trigger cellular senescence, a cell fate characterized by cell-cycle arrest and flat morphology. Oncogenic signaling can also induce cellular senescence which has been termed oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). Senescent cells display a pro-inflammatory phenotype which has been called the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The secretomes associated with SASP contain colony-stimulating factors and chemokines which stimulate the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) by enhancing myelopoiesis in bone marrow and spleen...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869230/applying-parametric-models-to-survival-data-tradeoffs-between-statistical-significance-biological-plausibility-and-common-sense
#9
Alexey Golubev, Andrei Panchenko, Vladimir Anisimov
Parametric models for survival data help to differentiate aging from other lifespan determinants. However, such inferences suffer from small sizes of experimental animal samples and variable animals handling by different labs. We analyzed control data from a single laboratory where interventions in murine lifespan were studied over decades. The minimal Gompertz model (GM) was found to perform best with most murine strains. However, when several control datasets related to a particular strain are fitted to GM, strikingly rigid interdependencies between GM parameters emerge, consistent with the Strehler-Mildvan correlation (SMC)...
October 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948429/in-memoriam-ladislas-robert-1924-2018
#10
Tamas Fulop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804242/elevated-levels-of-the-small-gtpase-cdc42-induces-senescence-in-male-rat-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Bauyrzhan Umbayev, Abdul-Razak Masoud, Andrey Tsoy, Dauren Alimbetov, Farkhad Olzhayev, Alla Shramko, Aiym Kaiyrlykyzy, Yuliya Safarova, Terence Davis, Sholpan Askarova
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell source for cellular therapy and tissue engineering and are currently being tested in a number of clinical trials for various diseases. However, like other somatic cells, MSCs age, and this senescence is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cell function. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 activity in cellular senescence processes. In the present study, we have examined aging-associated Cdc42 activity in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 in ADMSCs from aged rats...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774505/mitigating-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aged-rat-brain-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq
#12
Arpan Kumar Maiti, B C Spoorthi, Nimai Chandra Saha, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi
Although reactive oxygen species mediated oxidative stress is a well-documented mechanism of aging, recent evidences indicate involvement of nitrosative stress in the same. As mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as one of the primary features of aging, the present study was designed to understand the involvement of nitrosative stress by studying the impact of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ, a peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) scavenger, on mitochondrial functions. Four groups of rats were included in this study: Group I: Young-6 months (-MitoQ), Group II: Aged-22 months (- MitoQ), Group III: Young-6 months (+ MitoQ), Group IV: Aged-22 months (+ MitoQ)...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748778/mechanics-of-population-aging-and-survival
#13
Tim Eakin, Tarynn M Witten
In this paper we extend the previous work of Witten and her team on defining a classical physics-driven model of survival in aging populations (Eakin, Bull Math Biol 56(6):1121-1141, 1994; Eakin and Witten, Mech Aging Dev 78(2):85-101, 1995; Witten and Eakin, Exp Gerontol 32(2):259-285, 1997) by revisiting the concept of a force of aging and introducing the concepts of a momentum of aging, a kinetic energy and a potential energy of an aging population. We further extend the analysis beyond the deterministic Newtonian mechanics of a macroscopic population as a whole by considering the probabilistic nature of survival of individual population cohort members, thus producing new statistical physics-based concepts of entropy and of a gerontological "temperature"...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582209/long-term-exposure-to-tnf-%C3%AE-leads-human-skin-fibroblasts-to-a-p38-mapk-and-ros-mediated-premature-senescence
#14
Eleni Mavrogonatou, Angeliki Konstantinou, Dimitris Kletsas
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory mediator overexpressed in the skin as a response to ultraviolet radiation, as well as in chronic non-healing wounds. On the other hand, senescent fibroblasts have been shown to accumulate in the skin under these stressful conditions. Accordingly, here we assessed the putative implication of TNF-α in the induction of premature senescence of human adult dermal fibroblasts. We showed that TNF-α led to a rapid transient p38 MAPK activation, while elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only occurred after a chronic exposure to TNF-α...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549539/a-review-of-telomere-length-in-sarcopenia-and-frailty
#15
REVIEW
Maria Lorenzi, Stefano Bonassi, Teresa Lorenzi, Silvia Giovannini, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Sarcopenia and frailty are associated with several important health-related adverse events, including disability, loss of independence, institutionalization and mortality. Sarcopenia can be considered a biological substrate of frailty, and the prevalence of both these conditions progressively increases with age. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and implicated in cellular ageing, shorten with age, and are associated with various age-related diseases. In addition, telomere length (TL) is widely considered a molecular/cellular hallmark of the ageing process...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492791/involvement-of-the-autophagic-pathway-in-the-progression-of-amd-like-retinopathy-in-senescence-accelerated-oxys-rats
#16
Oyuna S Kozhevnikova, Darya V Telegina, Vasiliy A Devyatkin, Nataliya G Kolosova
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease resulting in a loss of central vision in the elderly. It is currently assumed that impairment of autophagy may be one of the key mechanisms leading to AMD. Here we estimated the influence of age-related autophagy alterations in the retina on the development of AMD-like retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Significant changes in the expression of the autophagy proteins were absent at the age preceding the development of retinopathy (age 20 days)...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488130/mitochondria-its-dna-and-telomeres-in-ageing-and-human-population
#17
REVIEW
Egija Zole, Renāte Ranka
In the last decades, studies about ageing have become more essential as our population grows older. The incidence of age-related diseases increases, which pose challenges both for societies and individuals in terms of life quality and economic impact. Understanding ageing and ageing-related processes will help us to slow down or even prevent these diseases and provide opportunities for healthy ageing; additionally, we all want to live longer. Ageing is a consequence of the interaction between processes that occur over time and genetics interacting with various disease states and an individual's lifestyle...
July 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907918/farnesyltransferase-inhibitor-and-rapamycin-correct-aberrant-genome-organisation-and-decrease-dna-damage-respectively-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-fibroblasts
#18
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
June 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616390/the-impact-of-aging-on-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-influenza-infection
#19
REVIEW
Erica C Lorenzo, Jenna M Bartley, Laura Haynes
CD4+ T cells are important for generating high quality and robust immune responses to influenza infection. Immunosenescence that occurs with aging, however, compromises the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into functional subsets resulting in a multitude of dysregulated responses namely, delayed viral clearance and prolonged inflammation leading to increased pathology. Current research employing animal models and human subjects has provided new insights into the description and mechanisms of age-related CD4+ T cell changes...
April 3, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363005/polyphenols-protect-against-age-associated-apoptosis-in-female-rat-cochleae
#20
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Esperanza Cuadrado, Juan Riestra-Ayora, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Dietary antioxidants, polyphenols, have been found to be beneficial in protecting against the generation of oxidative stress in various diseases associated with aging. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the number one neurodegenerative disorder on our aged population. Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups according to their age (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) and treated with 100 mg/day/kg body weight of polyphenols were used. Then, cochleae were harvested to measure caspase activities (- 3, - 8 and - 9), caspase-3 gene expression, ATP levels, Bax, BcL-2 and p53 levels...
April 2018: Biogerontology
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