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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415296/reproduction-and-mortality-rates-in-ecologically-distinct-species-of-murid-rodents
#1
Eugene Novikov, Ekaterina Kondratuk, Tatiana Titova, Pavel Zadubrovsky, Inna Zadubrovskaya, Mikhail Potapov, Olga Potapova, Ludmila Proskurnyak, Galina Nazarova
The trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance is one of the most studied concepts of modern evolutionary ecology. This theory predicts a negative relationship between maximum species longevity and total reproductive output. However, studies performed on natural animal populations have found contradictory results, probably due to the unlikelihood of wild animals gaining both maximum longevity and maximum potential fecundity. A comparison of the mortality rates and reproductive output of four ecologically distinct rodent species of Cricetidae family that were maintained in the laboratory in controlled conditions revealed the different life-history tactics of subterranean social mole voles and three related aboveground species: hydrophilic water voles, arid dwarf hamsters and steppe lemmings...
November 11, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415295/uropygial-gland-size-a-marker-of-phenotypic-quality-that-shows-no-senescence-in-a-long-lived-seabird
#2
Janek Urvik, Kalev Rattiste, Peeter Hõrak, Richard Meitern, Tuul Sepp
Studies of senescence in the wild have traditionally focused on traits like survival or fecundity. Although efforts to measure other salient phenotypic traits and markers of relevant physiological processes are rapidly increasing, traits related to self-maintenance remain understudied in the context of aging. Uropygial or preen gland is a holocrine gland, exclusive to birds, directly linked to self-maintenance of the quality of plumage. We measured the size of uropygial glands of common gulls (Larus canus) in a cross sectional manner in order to test whether it shows the similar age-related decline as reproductive traits previously recorded in this species...
November 10, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382466/extensive-growth-is-followed-by-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-the-continuously-expanding-adult-zebrafish-retina
#3
Jessie Van Houcke, Emiel Geeraerts, Sophie Vanhunsel, An Beckers, Lut Noterdaeme, Marijke Christiaens, Ilse Bollaerts, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
The development of effective treatments for age-related neurodegenerative diseases remains one of the biggest medical challenges today, underscoring the high need for suitable animal model systems to improve our understanding of aging and age-associated neuropathology. Zebrafish have become an indispensable complementary model organism in gerontology research, yet their growth-control properties significantly differ from those in mammals. Here, we took advantage of the clearly defined and highly conserved structure of the fish retina to study the relationship between the processes of growth and aging in the adult zebrafish central nervous system (CNS)...
October 31, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374677/caloric-restriction-improves-the-redox-homeostasis-in-the-aging-male-rat-heart-even-when-started-in-middle-adulthood-and-when-the-body-weight-is-stable
#4
B Simsek, K Yanar, A D Kansu, A Belce, S Aydin, U Çakatay
Evidence indicates that maintenance of redox homeostasis is fundamental for cellular longevity. Caloric-restriction (CR) is said to decrease the formation of oxidatively modified cellular macromolecules and improve health. On the other hand, some studies indicate that many CR studies are flawed, because ad libitum fed rats are not well-controlled. Thus, it is claimed that purported beneficial effects of CR could be not due to real CR effect, but due to control animals going obese. Also, it remains to be elucidated whether effects of CR could be observed even when CR is started in mid-adulthood...
October 29, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306289/age-related-changes-in-mitochondrial-membrane-composition-of-nothobranchius-furzeri-comparison-with-a-longer-living-nothobranchius-species
#5
Pedro F Almaida-Pagan, Carmen Ortega-Sabater, Alejandro Lucas-Sanchez, Daniel Gonzalez-Silvera, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Maria Angeles Rol de Lama, Pilar Mendiola, Jorge de Costa
Membrane compositions, particularly of mitochondria, could be critical factors in the mechanisms of growth and aging, especially during phases of high oxidative stress that result in molecular damage. Changes affecting lipid class or fatty acid (FA) compositions could affect phospholipid (PL) properties and alter mitochondrial function. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane PL compositions were analysed throughout the life-cycle of Nothobranchius furzeri, a species with explosive growth and one of the shortest-lived vertebrates...
October 9, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298458/dual-roles-of-mitochondrial-fusion-gene-fzo1-in-yeast-age-asymmetry-and-in-longevity-mediated-by-a-novel-atg32-dependent-retrograde-response
#6
James C Jiang, Stefan W Stumpferl, S Michal Jazwinski
The replicative lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae models the aging of stem cells. Age asymmetry between the mother and daughter cells is established during each cell division, such that the daughter retains the capacity for self-renewal while this ability is diminished in the mother. The segregation of fully-functional mitochondria to daughter cells is one mechanism that underlies this age asymmetry. In this study, we have examined the role of mitochondrial dynamics in this phenomenon. Mitochondrial dynamics involve the processes of fission and fusion...
October 8, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284122/carbohydrate-restricted-diet-promotes-skin-senescence-in-senescence-accelerated-prone-mice
#7
Qiming Wu, Shuang E, Kazushi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
This study used senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) to examine the effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on aging and skin senescence, to determine how long-term carbohydrate restriction affects the aging process. Three-week-old male SAMP8 mice were divided into three groups after 1 week of preliminary feeding: one was given a controlled diet, the other was given a high-fat diet, and the third was given a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Ad libitum feeding was administered until the mice reached 50 weeks of age...
October 3, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255225/social-environment-improves-immune-function-and-redox-state-in-several-organs-from-prematurely-aging-female-mice-and-increases-their-lifespan
#8
Antonio Garrido, Julia Cruces, Noemí Ceprián, Isabel Corpas, Jesús A Tresguerres, Mónica De la Fuente
Aging is associated with a chronic oxidative stress (increase of oxidants and decrease of antioxidants), which contributes to immunosenescence and therefore shorter longevity. Nevertheless, a positive social network has been related to the adequate maintenance of health and deceleration of aging. Adult prematurely aging mice (PAM) are characterized by their inadequate stress response to a T-maze, showing premature immunosenescence and oxidative stress establishment. These impairments contribute to shorter life spans in comparison to exceptional non-PAM (ENPAM)...
September 25, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255224/metformin-as-a-geroprotector-experimental-and-clinical-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Veronika Piskovatska, Nadiya Stefanyshyn, Kenneth B Storey, Alexander M Vaiserman, Oleh Lushchak
Apart from being a safe, effective and globally affordable glucose-lowering agent for the treatment of diabetes, metformin has earned much credit in recent years as a potential anti-aging formula. It has been shown to significantly increase lifespan and delay the onset of age-associated decline in several experimental models. The current review summarizes advances in clinical research on the potential role of metformin in the field of geroprotection, highlighting findings from pre-clinical studies on known and putative mechanisms behind its beneficial properties...
September 25, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255223/amino-acids-and-amino-acid-sensing-implication-for-aging-and-diseases
#10
Serena Dato, Eneida Hoxha, Paolina Crocco, Francesca Iannone, Giuseppe Passarino, Giuseppina Rose
Biogerontological research indicates nutrition as one of the major determinants of healthy aging, due to the role of nutrients in maintaining the dynamic-homeostasis of the organism. In this frame, the importance of proteins and constitutive amino acids (AAs), and in particular of functional AAs is emerging. The ability to sense and respond to changes in AAs availability is mediated by a complex network of dynamic players, crucial for an efficient regulation of their downstream effects. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the involvement of AA sensing mechanisms in aging and age-related diseases, focusing our attention on mTORC1 and AA transporters...
September 25, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229407/telomere-and-its-role-in-the-aging-pathways-telomere-shortening-cell-senescence-and-mitochondria-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Yukun Zhu, Xuewen Liu, Xuelu Ding, Fei Wang, Xin Geng
Aging is a biological process characterized by a progressive functional decline in tissues and organs, which eventually leads to mortality. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA repeat sequences at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes protecting chromosome ends from degradation and illegitimate recombination, play a crucial role in cell fate and aging. Due to the mechanism of replication, telomeres shorten as cells proliferate, which consequently contributes to cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 18, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374678/adult-stem-cell-maintenance-and-tissue-regeneration-around-the-clock-do-impaired-stem-cell-clocks-drive-age-associated-tissue-degeneration
#12
REVIEW
Eve H Rogers, John A Hunt, Vanja Pekovic-Vaughan
Human adult stem cell research is a highly prolific area in modern tissue engineering as these cells have significant potential to provide future cellular therapies for the world's increasingly aged population. Cellular therapies require a smart biomaterial to deliver and localise the cell population; protecting and guiding the stem cells toward predetermined lineage-specific pathways. The cells, in turn, can provide protection to biomaterials and increase its longevity. The right combination of stem cells and biomaterials can significantly increase the therapeutic efficacy...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288632/the-biology-of-ageing-and-the-omics-revolution
#13
EDITORIAL
Lorna Harries, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269199/reversing-the-immune-ageing-clock-lifestyle-modifications-and-pharmacological-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Niharika A Duggal
It is widely accepted that ageing is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system, including reduced numbers of naïve T cells, increased senescent or exhausted T cells, compromise to monocyte, neutrophil and natural killer cell function and an increase in systemic inflammation. In combination these changes result in increased risk of infection, reduced immune memory, reduced immune tolerance and immune surveillance, with significant impacts upon health in old age. More recently it has become clear that the rate of decline in the immune system is malleable and can be influenced by environmental factors such as physical activity as well as pharmacological interventions...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259289/age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-changes-to-life-style-as-a-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Rachel McCormick, Aphrodite Vasilaki
As we age, there is an age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass and strength, known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia results in a decrease in mobility and independence, as well as an increase in the risk of other morbidities and mortality. Sarcopenia is therefore a major socio-economical problem. The mechanisms behind sarcopenia are unclear and it is likely that it is a multifactorial condition with changes in numerous important mechanisms all contributing to the structural and functional deterioration. Here, we review the major proposed changes which occur in skeletal muscle during ageing and highlight evidence for changes in physical activity and nutrition as therapeutic approaches to combat age-related skeletal muscle wasting...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143941/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-metabolism-and-ageing-shared-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Guillermo López-Lluch, Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Daniel J Moreno Fernández-Ayala, Plácido Navas
Mitochondria are key in the metabolism of aerobic organisms and in ageing progression and age-related diseases. Mitochondria are essential for obtaining ATP from glucose and fatty acids but also in many other essential functions in cells including aminoacids metabolism, pyridine synthesis, phospholipid modifications and calcium regulation. On the other hand, the activity of mitochondria is also the principal source of reactive oxygen species in cells. Ageing and chronic age-related diseases are associated with the deregulation of cell metabolism and dysfunction of mitochondria...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054761/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-as-inducers-of-premature-cellular-senescence-and-ageing
#17
REVIEW
Dominick G A Burton, Richard G A Faragher
Cellular senescence is now considered as a major mechanism in the development and progression of various diseases and this may include metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. The presence of obesity and diabetes is a major risk factor in the development of additional health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and cancer. Since senescent cells can drive disease development, obesity and diabetes can potentially create an environment that accelerates cell senescence within other tissues of the body...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907918/farnesyltransferase-inhibitor-and-rapamycin-correct-aberrant-genome-organisation-and-decrease-dna-damage-respectively-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-fibroblasts
#18
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616390/the-impact-of-aging-on-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-influenza-infection
#19
REVIEW
Erica C Lorenzo, Jenna M Bartley, Laura Haynes
CD4+ T cells are important for generating high quality and robust immune responses to influenza infection. Immunosenescence that occurs with aging, however, compromises the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into functional subsets resulting in a multitude of dysregulated responses namely, delayed viral clearance and prolonged inflammation leading to increased pathology. Current research employing animal models and human subjects has provided new insights into the description and mechanisms of age-related CD4+ T cell changes...
December 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557050/dissecting-cause-and-effect-in-host-microbiome-interactions-using-the-combined-worm-bug-model-system
#20
Marina Ezcurra
High-throughput molecular studies are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome we need robust experimental models that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses arisen from large-scale 'meta-omic' projects...
December 2018: Biogerontology
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