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Kowshik Kukkemane, Anita Jagota
The aging brain is linked to accumulation of oxidative stress and increase in damage to biomolecules which in turn may cause or promote circadian dysfunction by disruption of biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Age associated alterations in clock gene expression in the SCN has been reported earlier. In the present study we have examined therapeutic effects of the antioxidant curcumin on age induced alterations in daily rhythms and levels of core clock genes in SCN of young [3 months (m)], middle (12 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats...
January 3, 2019: Biogerontology
James W Curtsinger
Artificial selection for increased life span in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster sometimes produces long-lived populations that exhibit greater fecundity than unselected controls. The absence of a trade-off between survival and reproduction in these cases might be an artefact of the rich diet of typical lab culture; if nutritional resources are not limiting then there may be no need to trade off. Here I test the rich diet hypothesis by estimating genetic correlations between survival and age-specific fecundity in three nutritional environments...
January 3, 2019: Biogerontology
Miles D Witham
Sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength-is a major public health issue. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of falls, disability, dependency, institutionalization, hospital stay and early death. Finding interventions to stabilize, reverse or prevent sarcopenia is therefore a key goal for clinical ageing research. If patients are to eventually benefit from discovery science on ageing skeletal muscle, we need to build a translational pipeline that facilitates progress from laboratory science and epidemiology, through feasibility testing to early-phase, and eventually late-phase clinical trials...
December 27, 2018: Biogerontology
Michael R Deschenes, Hannah L Tufts, Alexa L Noronha, Shuhan Li
It is known that both exercise and aging influence neuromuscular performance; however their effects on post-exercise recovery are largely unknown. To examine how exercise training and aging might affect post-exercise recovery, the function of muscles taken from young, and aged male rats assigned to exercise, or control conditions was assessed with ex vivo procedures using indirect (nerve endings), and direct (sarcolemma) stimulation at different times (Initial, Final min of, and Recovery i.e. 1 min post, from 5 min of stimulation)...
December 17, 2018: Biogerontology
Yang Zhou, Shousheng Ni, Lili Song, Xia Wang, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
Current studies have generated disputes on the age-related change in the concentration of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and its role in the genesis of rejuvenation conditions. In this study we showed for the first time that both GDF11 gene expression and its protein abundance decreased with age in the fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We also showed that rGDF11 fed was indeed absorbed by the fish. Importantly, we demonstrated that dietary intake of recombinant GDF11 had little influences on the body weight and length of aging N...
December 5, 2018: Biogerontology
Lian-Wei Yang, Ming Song, Yu-Lin Li, Ya-Peng Liu, Chun Liu, Lu Han, Zhi-Hao Wang, Wei Zhang, Yan-Qiu Xing, Ming Zhong
Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) plays a role in aging adipose tissue dysfunction by directly promoting chronic inflammation. The JNK/p53 pathway was reported as a potential mechanism that mediates SASP. In this study, we investigated the effects of L-carnitine, an inhibitor of the JNK/p53 pathway in adipose tissue SASP and dysfunction. Young and aging rat were given L-carnitine by gavage. Next, we detected the senescence, cytokines expression, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance of adipose tissue...
December 5, 2018: Biogerontology
Ilya Solovev, Eugenia Shegoleva, Alexander Fedintsev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Alexey Moskalev
Diet restriction is one of the most accurately confirmed interventions which extend lifespan. Genes coding circadian core clock elements are known to be the key controllers of cell metabolism especially in aging aspect. The molecular mechanisms standing behind the phenomenon of diet-restriction-mediated life extension are connected to circadian clock either. Here we investigate the effects of protein-rich and low-protein diets on lifespan observed in fruit flies overexpressing core clock genes (cry, per, Clk, cyc and tim)...
November 24, 2018: Biogerontology
Ravi Kumar, Anamika Sharma, Amita Kumari, Ashu Gulati, Yogendra Padwad, Rohit Sharma
The phytochemical epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been reported to alleviate age-associated immune disorders and organ dysfunction. However, information regarding the mechanistic role of EGCG in the suppression of cellular senescence is limited. The present study thus assessed the effects and underlying mechanisms of EGCG in the inhibition of senescence as well as its potential to selectively eliminate senescent cells (senolytics) using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Premature senescence was established in cells by repeated exposure of H2 O2 at a sub-lethal concentration (150 μM)...
November 19, 2018: Biogerontology
O V Lushchak, H S Karaman, I A Kozeretska, A K Koliada, O G Zabuga, A V Pisaruk, N M Koshel, L V Mechova, M V Inomistova, N M Khranovska, A M Vaiserman
There is increasing evidence that stress during development can affect adult-life health status and longevity. In the present study, we examined life span (LS), fly weight, fecundity and expression levels of longevity-associated genes (Hsp70, InR, dSir2, dTOR and dFOXO) in adult Drosophila melanogaster flies reared in normal [low density (LD), ~ 300-400 eggs per jar] or crowded [high density (HD), more than 3000 eggs per jar] conditions by using the order (day) of emergence as an index of the developmental duration (HD1-5 groups)...
November 19, 2018: Biogerontology
Eugene Novikov, Ekaterina Kondratuk, Tatiana Titova, Pavel Zadubrovsky, Inna Zadubrovskaya, Mikhail Potapov, Olga Potapova, Ludmila Proskurnyak, Galina Nazarova
The trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance is one of the most studied concepts of modern evolutionary ecology. This theory predicts a negative relationship between maximum species longevity and total reproductive output. However, studies performed on natural animal populations have found contradictory results, probably due to the unlikelihood of wild animals gaining both maximum longevity and maximum potential fecundity. A comparison of the mortality rates and reproductive output of four ecologically distinct rodent species of Cricetidae family that were maintained in the laboratory in controlled conditions revealed the different life-history tactics of subterranean social mole voles and three related aboveground species: hydrophilic water voles, arid dwarf hamsters and steppe lemmings...
November 11, 2018: Biogerontology
Janek Urvik, Kalev Rattiste, Peeter Hõrak, Richard Meitern, Tuul Sepp
Studies of senescence in the wild have traditionally focused on traits like survival or fecundity. Although efforts to measure other salient phenotypic traits and markers of relevant physiological processes are rapidly increasing, traits related to self-maintenance remain understudied in the context of aging. Uropygial or preen gland is a holocrine gland, exclusive to birds, directly linked to self-maintenance of the quality of plumage. We measured the size of uropygial glands of common gulls (Larus canus) in a cross sectional manner in order to test whether it shows the similar age-related decline as reproductive traits previously recorded in this species...
November 10, 2018: Biogerontology
Jessie Van Houcke, Emiel Geeraerts, Sophie Vanhunsel, An Beckers, Lut Noterdaeme, Marijke Christiaens, Ilse Bollaerts, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
The development of effective treatments for age-related neurodegenerative diseases remains one of the biggest medical challenges today, underscoring the high need for suitable animal model systems to improve our understanding of aging and age-associated neuropathology. Zebrafish have become an indispensable complementary model organism in gerontology research, yet their growth-control properties significantly differ from those in mammals. Here, we took advantage of the clearly defined and highly conserved structure of the fish retina to study the relationship between the processes of growth and aging in the adult zebrafish central nervous system (CNS)...
October 31, 2018: Biogerontology
B Simsek, K Yanar, A D Kansu, A Belce, S Aydin, U Çakatay
Evidence indicates that maintenance of redox homeostasis is fundamental for cellular longevity. Caloric-restriction (CR) is said to decrease the formation of oxidatively modified cellular macromolecules and improve health. On the other hand, some studies indicate that many CR studies are flawed, because ad libitum fed rats are not well-controlled. Thus, it is claimed that purported beneficial effects of CR could be not due to real CR effect, but due to control animals going obese. Also, it remains to be elucidated whether effects of CR could be observed even when CR is started in mid-adulthood...
October 29, 2018: Biogerontology
Eve H Rogers, John A Hunt, Vanja Pekovic-Vaughan
Human adult stem cell research is a highly prolific area in modern tissue engineering as these cells have significant potential to provide future cellular therapies for the world's increasingly aged population. Cellular therapies require a smart biomaterial to deliver and localise the cell population; protecting and guiding the stem cells toward predetermined lineage-specific pathways. The cells, in turn, can provide protection to biomaterials and increase its longevity. The right combination of stem cells and biomaterials can significantly increase the therapeutic efficacy...
December 2018: Biogerontology
Lorna Harries, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Biogerontology
Niharika A Duggal
It is widely accepted that ageing is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system, including reduced numbers of naïve T cells, increased senescent or exhausted T cells, compromise to monocyte, neutrophil and natural killer cell function and an increase in systemic inflammation. In combination these changes result in increased risk of infection, reduced immune memory, reduced immune tolerance and immune surveillance, with significant impacts upon health in old age. More recently it has become clear that the rate of decline in the immune system is malleable and can be influenced by environmental factors such as physical activity as well as pharmacological interventions...
December 2018: Biogerontology
Rachel McCormick, Aphrodite Vasilaki
As we age, there is an age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass and strength, known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia results in a decrease in mobility and independence, as well as an increase in the risk of other morbidities and mortality. Sarcopenia is therefore a major socio-economical problem. The mechanisms behind sarcopenia are unclear and it is likely that it is a multifactorial condition with changes in numerous important mechanisms all contributing to the structural and functional deterioration. Here, we review the major proposed changes which occur in skeletal muscle during ageing and highlight evidence for changes in physical activity and nutrition as therapeutic approaches to combat age-related skeletal muscle wasting...
December 2018: Biogerontology
Guillermo López-Lluch, Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Daniel J Moreno Fernández-Ayala, Plácido Navas
Mitochondria are key in the metabolism of aerobic organisms and in ageing progression and age-related diseases. Mitochondria are essential for obtaining ATP from glucose and fatty acids but also in many other essential functions in cells including aminoacids metabolism, pyridine synthesis, phospholipid modifications and calcium regulation. On the other hand, the activity of mitochondria is also the principal source of reactive oxygen species in cells. Ageing and chronic age-related diseases are associated with the deregulation of cell metabolism and dysfunction of mitochondria...
December 2018: Biogerontology
Dominick G A Burton, Richard G A Faragher
Cellular senescence is now considered as a major mechanism in the development and progression of various diseases and this may include metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. The presence of obesity and diabetes is a major risk factor in the development of additional health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and cancer. Since senescent cells can drive disease development, obesity and diabetes can potentially create an environment that accelerates cell senescence within other tissues of the body...
December 2018: Biogerontology
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
December 2018: Biogerontology
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