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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733707/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-inhibit-kat-ii-activity-in-the-brain-its-possible-clinical-applications
#1
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of the most frequently recommended antihypertensive drugs. Apart from their activity towards the circulatory system, ARBs also penetrate the blood-brain barrier and display neuroprotective effects. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan produced by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the brain. Antagonism towards all ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is the main mechanism of KYNA action. An elevated brain level of KYNA is linked with memory impairment and psychotic symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730349/manganese-mediated-decrease-in-levels-of-c-ret-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-vitro
#2
Mayuko Y Kumasaka, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Hiromasa Ninomiya, Machiko Iida, Xiang Li, Reina Oshino, Hiroko Tanihata, Masafumi Yoshinaga, Masashi Kato
Previous studies showed that overexposure to manganese causes parkinsonism, a disorder of dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies also showed that activity of c-RET kinase controls dopamine production through regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, suggesting the involvement of c-RET in the development of parkinsonism. To our knowledge, however, there is no report showing a correlation between manganese-mediated parkinsonism and c-RET. In this study, we examined the effect of manganese on the expression and/or activation levels of c-RET and TH in human TH-expressing cells (TGW cells)...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721631/1-trichloromethyl-1-2-3-4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-taclo-alters-cell-cycle-progression-in-human-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#3
Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Doris Feineis, Gerhard Bringmann, Bernd L Fiebich, Ravi Shankar Akundi
1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, abbreviated as TaClo, is an endogenous neurotoxin capable of formation in the brain through the condensation of neuronal tryptamine with ingested exogenous toxins such as trichloroethylene or chloral hydrate. Due to its structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and similar ability to inhibit mitochondrial complex I, TaClo has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown the cytotoxicity of TaClo in various cell culture models...
July 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707266/6-ohda-lesioned-adult-zebrafish-as-a-useful-parkinson-s-disease-model-for-dopaminergic-neuroregeneration
#4
Yuganthini Vijayanathan, Fei Tieng Lim, Siong Meng Lim, Chiau Ming Long, Maw Pin Tan, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Conventional mammalian models of neurodegeneration are often limited by futile axonogenesis with minimal functional recuperation of severed neurons. The emergence of zebrafish, a non-mammalian model with excellent neuroregenerative properties, may address these limitations. This study aimed to establish an adult zebrafish-based, neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model and subsequently validate the regenerative capability of dopaminergic neurons (DpN). The DpN of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were lesioned by microinjecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin (6...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699141/epi-perineural-and-schwann-cells-as-well-as-perineural-sheath-integrity-are-affected-following-2-4-d-exposure
#5
Marzieh Sharifi Pasandi, Farshad Hosseini Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Gholami, Hossein Salehi, Nowruz Najafzadeh, Mohammad Mazani, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Ali Niapour
2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a worldwide-known hormone herbicide. However, there are increasing concerns about its exposure and risks of developing pathological conditions for the peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the toxicity of 2,4-D on peripheral nerve's cellular components. The epi/perineural and Schwann cells and a total of three cell lines were treated with 2,4-D. The viability of cells at different doses of 2,4-D was measured by MTT assay...
July 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-promotes-mitochondrial-toxicity
#6
REVIEW
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Margarita Trejo, Hoai T Ton, Gerard P Ahern, Italo Mocchetti
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695546/knockdown-of-myo-inositol-transporter-smit1-normalizes-cholinergic-and-glutamatergic-function-in-an-immortalized-cell-line-established-from-the-cerebral-cortex-of-a-trisomy-16-fetal-mouse-an-animal-model-of-human-trisomy-21-down-syndrome
#7
Ana María Cárdenas, Paola Fernández-Olivares, Ignacio Díaz-Franulic, Arlek M González-Jamett, Takeshi Shimahara, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Raúl Caviedes, Pablo Caviedes
The Na(+)/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) is overexpressed in human Down syndrome (DS) and in trisomy 16 fetal mice (Ts16), an animal model of the human condition. SMIT1 overexpression determines increased levels of intracellular myo-inositol, a precursor of phophoinositide synthesis. SMIT1 is overexpressed in CTb cells, an immortalized cell line established from the cerebral cortex of a Ts16 mouse fetus. CTb cells exhibit impaired cytosolic Ca(2+) signals in response to glutamatergic and cholinergic stimuli (increased amplitude and delayed time-dependent kinetics in the decay post-stimulation), compared to our CNh cell line, derived from the cerebral cortex of a euploid animal...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674788/the-bold-and-the-beautiful-a-neurotoxicity-comparison-of-new-world-coral-snakes-in-the-micruroides-and-micrurus-genera-and-relative-neutralization-by-antivenom
#8
Daryl C Yang, James Dobson, Chip Cochran, Daniel Dashevsky, Kevin Arbuckle, Melisa Benard, Leslie Boyer, Alejandro Alagón, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Bryan G Fry
Coral snake envenomations are well characterized to be lethally neurotoxic. Despite this, few multispecies, neurotoxicity and antivenom efficacy comparisons have been undertaken and only for the Micrurus genus; Micruroides has remained entirely uninvestigated. As the USA's supplier of antivenom has currently stopped production, alternative sources need to be explored. The Mexican manufacturer Bioclon uses species genetically related to USA species, thus we investigated the efficacy against Micrurus fulvius (eastern coral snake), the main species responsible for lethal envenomations in the USA as well as additional species from the Americas...
July 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664263/erratum-to-acute-neuroinflammation-promotes-cell-responses-to-1800%C3%A2-mhz-gsm-electromagnetic-fields-in-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#9
Julie Lameth, Annie Gervais, Catherine Colin, Philippe Lévêque, Thérèse M Jay, Jean-Marc Edeline, Michel Mallat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656549/kanamycin-damages-early-postnatal-but-not-adult-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#10
Kelei Gao, Dalian Ding, Hong Sun, Jerome Roth, Richard Salvi
Although aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin are widely used clinically to treat life-threatening bacterial infections, ototoxicity remains a significant dose-limiting side effect. The prevailing view is that the hair cells are the primary ototoxic target of aminoglycosides and that spiral ganglion neurons begin to degenerate weeks or months after the hair cells have died due to lack of neurotrophic support. To test the early developmental aspects of this issue, we compared kanamycin-induced hair cell and spiral ganglion pathology in rat postnatal day 3 cochlear organotypic cultures with adult whole cochlear explants...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656548/treadmill-exercise-attenuates-%C3%AE-synuclein-levels-by-promoting-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-possibly-via-sirt1-in-the-chronic-mptp-p-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Jung-Hoon Koo, Joon-Yong Cho
Accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) is significantly correlated with the presence of progressive motor deficits, which is the main symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although physical exercise reduces α-Syn levels, the molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise decreases α-Syn remain unclear. We hypothesized that treadmill exercise (TE) decreases α-Syn levels by improving mitochondrial function and promoting autophagy via the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway in the chronic 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine with probenecid (MPTP/P)-induced mouse model of PD...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656547/severe-hyperhomocysteinemia-decreases-creatine-kinase-activity-and-causes-memory-impairment-neuroprotective-role-of-creatine
#12
Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Cassiana Siebert, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Eduardo Peil Marques, Jaqueline Carletti, Lenir Orlandi Pereira, Angela T S Wyse
In the present study, we investigate the effect of severe hyperhomocysteinemia on biochemical (creatine kinase activity), behavioral (memory tests), and histological assessments (hippocampal volume). A possible neuroprotective role of creatine on hyperhomocysteinemia effects was also evaluated. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in neonate rats (starting at 6 days of age) by treatment with homocysteine (0.3-0.6 μmol/g body weight) for 23 days. Creatine (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered concomitantly with homocysteine...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#13
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643233/assessing-environmental-exposure-to-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-in-complex-sample-matrices-a-comparison-of-the-three-most-popular-lc-ms-ms-methods
#14
Teesha C Baker, Fiona J M Tymm, Susan J Murch
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a naturally occurring non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, accumulated through natural food webs, found in mammalian brain tissues. Recent evidence indicates an association between BMAA and neurological disease. The accurate detection and quantification of BMAA in food and environmental samples are critical to understanding BMAA metabolism and limiting human exposure. To date, there have been more than 78 reports on BMAA in cyanobacteria and human samples, but different methods give conflicting data and divergent interpretations in the literature...
June 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643232/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#15
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Marco Sifringer, Ivo Bendix, Christoph Bührer
Phenobarbital is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures but may induce neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Methylxanthine caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea in newborn infants and appears to be neuroprotective, as shown by antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in oxidative stress models in newborn rodents and reduced rates of cerebral palsy in human infants treated with caffeine. We hypothesized that caffeine may counteract the proapoptotic effects of phenobarbital in newborn rats...
June 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639241/huntington-s-disease-and-mitochondria
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Kamran Ghaedi
Huntington's disease (HD) as an inherited neurodegenerative disorder leads to neuronal loss in striatum. Progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbance are the main clinical symptoms of the HD. This disease is caused by expansion of the CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin which encodes Huntingtin protein (Htt). Various cellular and molecular events play role in the pathology of HD. Mitochondria as important organelles play crucial roles in the most of neurodegenerative disorders like HD...
June 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634653/assessing-the-combined-toxicity-of-bmaa-and-its-isomers-2-4-dab-and-aeg-in-vitro-using-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Brendan J Main, Kenneth J Rodgers
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631256/vulnerability-to-a-metabolic-challenge-following-perinatal-asphyxia-evaluated-by-organotypic-cultures-neonatal-nicotinamide-treatment
#18
R Perez-Lobos, C Lespay-Rebolledo, A Tapia-Bustos, E Palacios, V Vío, D Bustamante, P Morales, M Herrera-Marschitz
The hypothesis of enhanced vulnerability following perinatal asphyxia was investigated with a protocol combining in vivo and in vitro experiments. Asphyxia-exposed (AS) (by 21 min water immersion of foetuses containing uterine horns) and caesarean-delivered control (CS) rat neonates were used at P2-3 for preparing triple organotypic cultures (substantia nigra, neostriatum and neocortex). At DIV 18, cultures were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 (0.25-45 mM), added to the culture medium for 18 h...
June 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623460/spreading-of-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Zhong-Yue Lv, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
The senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the two major pathological hallmarks of AD, which are composed of β-amyloid protein and Tau protein. So the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and Tau oligomers (oTau) are the majority in the pathology of AD. Recently, the spreading of Aβ and oTau in the brain of AD patients has received heated value. In this review, we summarize recent research progress and aim to figure out the spreading mechanism of Aβ and Tau in AD via introduction of the formation, release, uptake, diffusion between different brain regions, and the propagation principle of Aβ and Tau...
June 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612296/kinesin-5-blocker-monastrol-protects-against-bortezomib-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#20
Ilja Bobylev, Dominik Peters, Maulik Vyas, Mohammed Barham, Ines Klein, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Wolfram F Neiss, Helmar C Lehmann
Neurotoxicity is a relevant side effect of bortezomib treatment. Previous reports have shown that the development of peripheral neuropathy caused by anti-neoplastic agents may be a result of reduced axonal transport. Based on evidence from prior studies that the kinesin-5 inhibitor monastrol enhances axonal transport and improves neuronal regeneration, we focused on the neuroprotective role of monastrol during the chemotherapeutic treatment with bortezomib. Prolonged treatment of C57BL/6 mice with bortezomib induced a length-dependent small-fiber neuropathy with axonal atrophy and loss of sensory nerve fibers...
June 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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