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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936791/nmda-receptors-and-no-cgmp-signaling-pathway-mediate-the-diazepam-induced-sensitization-to-withdrawal-signs-in-mice
#1
Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Jolanta Orzelska-Gorka, Anna Serefko, Jolanta Kotlińska
The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of N-methyl-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists-memantine and ketamine and the drugs modifying the NO:cGMP pathway-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), the endogenous precursor of NO-L-arginine, and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor-methylene blue (MB) on the development of sensitization to withdrawal signs precipitated after chronic, interrupted treatment with diazepam, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, in mice. To develop the sensitization, the mice were divided into groups: continuously and sporadically (with two diazepam-free periods) treated with diazepam (15 mg/kg, sc)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929435/neuroprotective-effects-of-galantamine-on-nerve-agent-induced-neuroglial-and-biochemical-changes
#3
RamaRao Golime, Meehir Palit, J Acharya, D K Dubey
Neuroprotection from nerve agent such as soman-induced neural damage is a major challenge for existing drugs. Nerve agent exposure can cause many neural effects in survivors arising mainly due to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition or death within minutes. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the nerve agent-induced multiple neurological effects is useful to develop better and safe drugs. The present study aimed to understand the molecular response during soman exposure and to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of galantamine on nerve agent-induced neurotoxic changes...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929385/l-serine-a-naturally-occurring-amino-acid-with-therapeutic-potential
#4
REVIEW
J S Metcalf, R A Dunlop, J T Powell, S A Banack, P A Cox
In human neuroblastoma cell cultures, non-human primates and human beings, L-serine is neuroprotective, acting through a variety of biochemical and molecular mechanisms. Although L-serine is generally classified as a non-essential amino acid, it is probably more appropriate to term it as a "conditional non-essential amino acid" since, under certain circumstances, vertebrates cannot synthesize it in sufficient quantities to meet necessary cellular demands. L-serine is biosynthesized in the mammalian central nervous system from 3-phosphoglycerate and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the amino acids glycine and cysteine...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929339/intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cerebral-hypometabolism-neuronal-loss-and-astrogliosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#5
Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rodents leads to cognitive impairments and several pathological changes like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is hardly any research about the effect of ICV-STZ on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves cognition in AD patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we treated the ICV-STZ rats with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks, then monitored (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake using a high-resolution small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and studied the expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunohistochemical staining...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921378/chemistry-and-chemical-equilibrium-dynamics-of-bmaa-and-its-carbamate-adducts
#6
Pedro Diaz-Parga, Joy J Goto, V V Krishnan
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions...
September 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914428/anhydroecgonine-methyl-ester-aeme-a-product-of-cocaine-pyrolysis-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-induces-striatal-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#7
Elisa Fraga Gomes, Ingryd Fortes Souza Lipaus, Cleciane Waldetário Martins, Andrezza Menezes Araújo, Josidéia Barreto Mendonça, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Evandro Carlos Lebarch, Lívia Carla de Melo Rodrigues, Ester Miyuki Nakamura-Palacios
When burning crack cocaine, the pyrolysis of cocaine generates anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME has been shown to be highly neurotoxic but its effects on cognitive function and oxidative stress are still unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effects of AEME on spatial working memory and on parameters of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. First, 18 well-trained rats in 8-arm radial maze (8-RM) procedures received acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of AEME at doses of 10, 32, or 100 μg or saline (SAL) in a counterbalanced order and were tested 5 min later in 1-h delayed tasks in the 8-RM...
September 15, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900849/neuroprotective-effects-of-kinetin-against-glutamate-induced-oxidative-cytotoxicity-in-ht22-cells-involvement-of-nrf2-and-heme-oxygenase-1
#8
Yunpeng Wei, Dan Liu, Yin Zheng, Chaoshuang Hao, Honglian Li, Wuqing Ouyang
Oxidative stress is considered as one of key factors related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), while kinetin (KT) has been reported to exert anti-oxidative activities as well as neuroprotective effects both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, the neuroprotective effects of KT against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in HT22 cells were investigated. To evaluate the anti-oxidative capabilities of KT itself, several anti-oxidative assays in vitro were conducted. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of KT, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium influx, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell death were measured by flow cytometry...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900826/comparative-examination-of-temporal-glyoxalase-1-variations-following-perforant-pathway-transection-excitotoxicity-and-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#9
Philipp Pieroh, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Beat Alessandri, Mojgan Dabbagh Nazari, Angela Ehrlich, Chalid Ghadban, Constance Hobusch, Gerd Birkenmeier, Faramarz Dehghani
Following acute neuronal lesions, metabolic imbalance occurs, the rate of glycolysis increases, and methylglyoxal (MGO) forms, finally leading to metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. The glyoxalase system is the main detoxification system for MGO and is impaired following excitotoxicity and stroke. However, it is not known yet whether alterations of the glyoxalase system are also characteristic for other neuronal damage models. Neuronal damage was induced in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures by transection of perforant pathway (PPT; 5 min to 72 h) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 50 μM for 4 h) or in vivo after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2 h to 14 days)...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879461/perinatal-exposure-to-the-cyanotoxin-%C3%AE-n-m%C3%A3-thylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-results-in-long-lasting-behavioral-changes-in-offspring-potential-involvement-of-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Anthony Laugeray, Asma Oummadi, Clément Jourdain, Justyne Feat, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Arnaud Menuet, Karen Plé, Marion Gay, Sylvain Routier, Stéphane Mortaud, Gilles J Guillemin
We recently demonstrated that perinatal exposure to the glutamate-related herbicide, glufosinate ammonium, has deleterious effects on neural stem cell (NSC) homeostasis within the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ), probably leading to ASD-like symptoms in offspring later in life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether perinatal exposure to another glutamate-related toxicant, the cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), might also trigger neurodevelopmental disturbances. With this aim, female mice were intranasally exposed to low doses of BMAA, 50 mg kg(-1) three times a week from embryonic days 7-10 to postnatal day 21...
September 6, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879408/neuromelanin-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-fenton-reaction-to-calcium-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Rainer Knörle
Neuromelanin is supposed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. A common theory is the formation of reactive oxygen species through the Fenton reaction catalyzed by neuromelanin-bound iron ions and subsequent death of the dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. From a physicochemical point of view, this pathway is rather implausible: a highly reactive radical built within a powerful radical scavenger would more promptly be inactivated before it might diffuse within the cell to reach a target to exert its deleterious potential...
September 6, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875469/a-panel-of-autoantibodies-against-neural-proteins-as-peripheral-biomarker-for-pesticide-induced-neurotoxicity
#12
Heba Allah Abd El Rahman, Mohamed Salama, Seham A Gad El-Hak, Mona A El-Harouny, Passent ElKafrawy, Mohamed B Abou-Donia
In the present study, we screened the sera of subjects chronically exposed to mixtures of pesticides (composed mainly of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and others) and developed neurological symptoms for the presence of autoantibodies against cytoskeletal neural proteins. OPs have a well-characterized clinical profile resulting from acute cholinergic crisis. However, some of these compounds cause neuronal degeneration and demyelination known as organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) and/or organophosphorus compound-induced chronic neurotoxicity (OPICN)...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875442/erratum-to-assessing-cyanobacterial-harmful-algal-blooms-as-risk-factors-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Nathan Torbick, Beth Ziniti, Elijah Stommel, Ernst Linder, Angeline Andrew, Tracie Caller, Jim Haney, Walter Bradley, Patricia L Henegan, Xun Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875237/uncoupling-protein-2-inhibition-exacerbates-glucose-fluctuation-mediated-neuronal-effects
#14
Susana Cardoso, Raquel M Seiça, Paula I Moreira
Though glucose fluctuations have been considered as an adverse factor for the development of several diabetes-related complications, their impact in the central nervous system is still not fully elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of neuronal cells to different glycemic exposures alongside to elucidate the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in regulating such responses. To achieve our goals, primary cortical neurons were submitted to constant high (HG)/low (LG) or glucose level variations (GVs), and the pharmacological inhibition of UCP2 activity was performed using genipin...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871412/rage-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-is-involved-in-ages-induced-upregulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-influx-transport-in-an-in-vitro-bbb-model
#15
Fang Chen, Arijit Ghosh, Mei Hu, Yan Long, Hongbin Sun, Lingyi Kong, Hao Hong, Susu Tang
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for regulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) homeostasis in the diabetic brain. In this study, we used an in vitro BBB model consisting of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (MBCECs) to investigate whether advanced glycation end products (AGEs) increase Aβ influx transport across the BBB and the underlying mechanisms. We found that AGEs induced Aβ influx transport across the BBB in concentration- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by increased RAGE expression and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), and decreased nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)...
September 4, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852990/detection-of-the-cyanotoxins-l-bmaa-uptake-and-accumulation-in-primary-neurons-and-astrocytes
#16
Vanessa X Tan, Claire Mazzocco, Bianca Varney, Dominique Bodet, Tristan A Guillemin, Alban Bessede, Gilles J Guillemin
We show for the first time that a newly developed polyclonal antibody (pAb) can specifically target the cyanotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and can be used to enable direct visualization of BMAA entry and accumulation in primary brain cells. We used this pAb to investigate the effect of acute and chronic accumulation, and toxicity of both BMAA and its natural isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), separately or in combination, on primary cultures of rat neurons. We further present evidence that co-treatment with BMAA and DAB increased neuronal death, as measured by MAP2 fluorescence level, and appeared to reduce BMAA accumulation...
August 30, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844119/the-role-of-hint1-in-methamphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#17
Ju-Ping Li, Peng Liu, Gang Lei, Zheng Chu, Fei Liu, Chao-Feng Shi, Yong-Hui Dang, Teng Chen
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder in humans; yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Recent studies suggested that the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) may play significant roles in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases including drug addiction. In our present study, we used different batches of mice to establish the different stages of methamphetamine (METH)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to explore the dynamic changes throughout the process of addiction in different brain regions, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), corpus striatum (CPu), and hippocampus (Hip)...
August 26, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844085/targeting-sentinel-proteins-and-extrasynaptic-glutamate-receptors-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-preventing-the-effects-elicited-by-perinatal-asphyxia
#18
Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Ronald Perez-Lobos, Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo, Andrea Tapia-Bustos, Emmanuel Casanova-Ortiz, Paola Morales, Jose-Luis Valdes, Diego Bustamante, Bruce K Cassels
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a relevant cause of death at the time of labour, and when survival is stabilised, associated with short- and long-term developmental disabilities, requiring inordinate care by health systems and families. Its prevalence is high (1 to 10/1000 live births) worldwide. At present, there are few therapeutic options, apart from hypothermia, that regrettably provides only limited protection if applied shortly after the insult.PA implies a primary and a secondary insult. The primary insult relates to the lack of oxygen, and the secondary one to the oxidative stress triggered by re-oxygenation, formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species, and overactivation of glutamate receptors and mitochondrial deficiencies...
August 26, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842862/neurotoxicity-of-the-cyanotoxin-bmaa-through-axonal-degeneration-and-intercellular-spreading
#19
Vanessa X Tan, Benjamin Lassus, Chai K Lim, Philippe Tixador, Josquin Courte, Alban Bessede, Gilles J Guillemin, Jean-Michel Peyrin
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is implicated in neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, particularly in ALS-Parkinson Dementia Complex. Neurotoxic properties of BMAA have been partly elucidated, while its transcellular spreading capacity has not been examined. Using reconstructed neuronal networks in microfluidic chips, separating neuronal cells into two subcompartments-(1) the proximal, containing first-order neuronal soma and dendrites, and (2) a distal compartment, containing either only axons originating from first-order neurons or second-order striatal neurons-creates a cortico-striatal network...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842833/ceramide-and-its-related-neurochemical-networks-as-targets-for-some-brain-disorder-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Justyna Brodowicz, Edmund Przegaliński, Christian P Müller, Malgorzata Filip
Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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