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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443710/postnatal-administration-of-homocysteine-induces-cerebellar-damage-in-rats-protective-effect-of-folic-acid
#1
Hakimeh Koohpeyma, Iran Goudarzi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Mohammad Shabani
A widely held view suggests that homocysteine (Hcy) can contribute to neurodegeneration through promotion of oxidative stress. There is evidence that homocysteine is toxic to cerebellar Purkinje neurons in vitro; however, in vivo action of Hcy on Purkinje cell has not been investigated so far. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the Hcy effects on neonatal rat cerebellum and cerebellar oxidative stress. We also evaluated the folic acid effects on biochemical alterations elicited by hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) in the cerebellum...
November 15, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430393/effects-of-cannabidiol-on-diabetes-outcomes-and-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-comorbidities-in-middle-aged-rats
#2
Amanda Nunes Santiago, Marco Aurélio Mori, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, Humberto Milani, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira
Diabetes and aging are risk factors for cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It has beneficial effects on both cerebral ischemic diseases and diabetes. We have recently reported that diabetes interacted synergistically with aging to increase neuroinflammation and memory deficits in rats subjected to CCH. The present study investigated whether CBD would alleviate cognitive decline and affect markers of inflammation and neuroplasticity in the hippocampus in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to CCH...
November 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426393/low-molecular-weight-sulfated-chitosan-neuroprotective-effect-on-rotenone-induced-in-vitro-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Venkatesan Manigandan, Jagatheesan Nataraj, Ramachandran Karthik, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Ramachandran Saravanan, Arokyasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
The present investigation was an attempt to study the effect of low molecular weight sulfated chitosan (LMWSC) on in vitro rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by evaluating cell viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with 100 nm rotenone resulted in neuronal cell death, redox imbalanced mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA fragmentation, condensation, and apoptotic cellular morphology. Rotenone exposure enhanced the expression of preapoptotic (cytochrome C (cyto c), caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bax) and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) markers...
November 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417317/guanosine-protects-striatal-slices-against-6-ohda-induced-oxidative-damage-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-atp-depletion
#4
Naiani Ferreira Marques, Caio Marcos Massari, Carla Inês Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta which induces severe motor symptoms. 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin widely used in PD animal models due to its high affinity by dopamine transporter, its rapid non-enzymatic auto-oxidation which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and for induced mitochondrial dysfunction. We previously reported an in vitro protocol of 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in brain regions slices, as a simple and sensitive assay to screen for protective compounds related to PD...
November 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406926/prolonged-exposure-to-silver-nanoparticles-results-in-oxidative-stress-in-cerebral-myelin
#5
Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Witold Strużyński, Lidia Strużyńska
Currently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently used in a wide range of medical and consumer products. Substantial usage of AgNPs is considered to create substantive risks to both the environment and the human health. Since there is increasing evidence that the main mechanism of toxicity of AgNPs relates to oxidative stress, in the current study we investigate oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters in myelin isolated from adult rat brain subjected to a low dose of AgNPs. Animals were exposed for 2 weeks to 0...
November 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402773/carbenoxolone-reverses-the-amyloid-beta-1-42-oligomer-induced-oxidative-damage-and-anxiety-related-behavior-in-rats
#6
Sheetal Sharma, Neha Sharma, Avneet Saini, Bimla Nehru
The characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta inside the brain mainly consisting of Aβ 40 and 42 aggregates. Soluble aggregates of Aβ 42 are reported to be more toxic and exert their neurotoxicity by the induction of oxidative damage and cognitive deficits such as anxiety-like behavior. These alterations emerge due to the induction of gap junction communication through increased activity and expression of connexins such as connexin43 (Cx43) leading to the release of small neurotoxic molecules...
November 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377956/methcathinone-and-3-fluoromethcathinone-stimulate-spontaneous-horizontal-locomotor-activity-in-mice-and-elevate-extracellular-dopamine-and-serotonin-levels-in-the-mouse-striatum
#7
Jakub Wojcieszak, Dariusz Andrzejczak, Adam Wojtas, Krystyna Gołembiowska, Jolanta B Zawilska
Methcathinone (MC) and 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC) are well-known members of the synthetic cathinone derivatives, the second most abused group of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). They are considered as methamphetamine-like cathinones, as they elicit their psychostimulatory effects via inhibition of monoamine uptake and enhanced release. The present study examines the effects of MC and 3-FMC on the spontaneous locomotor activity of mice and extracellular levels of dopamine and serotonin in the mouse striatum...
October 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374909/ameliorative-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-or-coenzyme-q10-on-phenytoin-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-role-of-vegf-and-bdnf-trkb-creb-pathway
#8
Marwa M Nagib, Mariane G Tadros, Rania M Rahmo, Nagwa Ali Sabri, Amani E Khalifa, Somaia I Masoud
Phenytoin is one of the most well-known antiepileptic drugs that cause cognitive impairment which is closely related to cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial growth factor, has a documented role in neurogenesis and neuronal survival and cognitive impairment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of powerful antioxidants: α-Toc and CoQ10 alone or combined in the preservation of brain tissues and the maintenance of memory formation in phenytoin-induced cognitive impairment in rats...
October 29, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362086/sirna-blocking-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-attenuates-pathology-in-annonacin-induced-tauopathy-in-mice
#9
Mohamed Salama, Sara El-Desouky, Aziza Alsayed, Mahmoud El-Hussiny, Khaled Magdy, Emad Fekry, Osama Shabka, Sabry A El-Khodery, Mohamed A Youssef, Mohamed Sobh, Wael Mohamed
Tauopathy is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. It is characterized by abnormal aggregates of pathological phosphotau and somatodendritic redistribution. One suggested strategy for treating tauopathy is to stimulate autophagy, hence, getting rid of these pathological protein aggregates. One key controller of autophagy is mTOR. Since stimulation of mTOR leads to inhibition of autophagy, inhibitors of mTOR will cause stimulation of autophagy process. In this report, tauopathy was induced in mice using annonacin...
October 25, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343424/novel-alpha-synuclein-oligomers-formed-with-the-aminochrome-glutathione-conjugate-are-not-neurotoxic
#10
Sandro Huenchuguala, Birgitta Sjödin, Bengt Mannervik, Juan Segura-Aguilar
Aminochrome induces neurotoxic alpha-synuclein oligomer formation relevant to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress produces aminochrome from dopamine, but conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione transferase M2-2 significantly decreases aminochrome-induced toxicity and alpha-synuclein oligomer formation. Notably, in the presence of the aminochrome-glutathione conjugate, previously unknown species of alpha-synuclein oligomers are formed. These aminochrome-glutathione oligomers of alpha-synuclein differ from formerly characterized oligomers and (i) have high molecular weight, and are stable and SDS-resistant, as determined by the Western blot method, (ii) show positive NBT-quinone-protein staining, which indicates the formation of alpha-synuclein adducts containing aminochrome...
October 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328586/dynamic-changes-in-the-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-predict-all-cause-mortality-after-intravenous-thrombolysis-in-stroke-patients
#11
Jijun Shi, Yuanyuan Liu, Yiteng Liu, Huihui Liu, Jiaping Xu, Xia Zhang, Shoujiang You, Yongjun Cao
Little is known about the prognostic value of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the effect of dynamic changes in the eGFR on mortality in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aim to investigate the association between the eGFR and dynamic changes in the eGFR after IVT with all-cause mortality in AIS patients. A total of 391 AIS patients treated with IVT between May 2010 and May 2017 were included in the final analysis. Serum creatinine was measured at admission and within 24 h after IVT...
October 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328585/low-grade-inflammation-aggravates-rotenone-neurotoxicity-and-disrupts-circadian-clock-gene-expression-in-rats
#12
Huan Li, Sheng Song, Yuan Wang, Chun Huang, Feng Zhang, Jie Liu, Jau-Shyong Hong
A single injection of LPS produced low-grade neuroinflammation leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice several months later. Whether such a phenomenon occurs in rats and whether such low-grade neuroinflammation would aggravate rotenone (ROT) neurotoxicity and disrupts circadian clock gene/protein expressions were examined in this study. Male rats were given two injections of LPS (2.5-7.5 mg/kg), and neuroinflammation and dopamine neuron loss were evident 3 months later. Seven months after a single LPS (5 mg/kg) injection, rats received low doses of ROT (0...
October 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328584/neuregulin1-attenuates-h-2-o-2-induced-reductions-in-eaac1-protein-levels-and-reduces-h-2-o-2-induced-oxidative-stress
#13
Jun-Ho Lee, Ji-Young Yoo, Han-Byeol Kim, Hong-Il Yoo, Dae-Yong Song, Sun Seek Min, Tai-Kyoung Baik, Ran-Sook Woo
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) exhibits potent neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effects and underlying mechanisms of NRG1 against H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress in primary rat cortical neurons. The expression level of the excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) protein was measured by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) were determined to examine cell death and the antioxidant properties of NRG1 in primary rat cortical neurons...
October 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317430/glycyrrhizic-acid-ameliorates-mitochondrial-function-and-biogenesis-against-aluminum-toxicity-in-pc12-cells
#14
Marzieh Rashedinia, Jamileh Saberzadeh, Tannaz Khosravi Bakhtiari, Solmaz Hozhabri, Rita Arabsolghar
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the most effective ingredient in the root of licorice, with important pharmacological effects. We investigate the effects of GA on mitochondrial function and biogenesis in the aluminum toxicity in PC12 cell line. After pretreatment of PC12 cells with different concentrations of GA (5-100 μM), and specific concentration of aluminum maltolate (Almal,1000 μM) for 48 h, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondria mass, cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, and the ATP level of the cells were measured...
October 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284204/development-of-a-human-apoe-knock-in-mouse-model-for-study-of-cognitive-function-after-cancer-chemotherapy
#15
Andrew P Speidell, Tamar Demby, Yichien Lee, Olga Rodriguez, Christopher Albanese, Jeanne Mandelblatt, G William Rebeck
Cancer-related cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients exposed to multi-agent chemotherapy regimens is associated with the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele. However, it is difficult to determine the effects of specific agents on cognitive impairment in human studies. We describe the development of a human APOE knock-in congenic C57BL/6J mouse model to study cancer-related cognitive impairment. Female APOE3 and APOE4 homozygous mice were either left untreated or treated with the most commonly used breast cancer therapeutic agent, doxorubicin...
October 4, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276718/hydroxyurea-exposure-and-development-of-the-cerebellar-external-granular-layer-effects-on-granule-cell-precursors-bergmann-glial-and-microglial-cells
#16
Lucía Rodríguez-Vázquez, Olga Vons, Oliver Valero, Joaquín Martí
The current paper presents a histological analysis of the cell death in the cerebellar external granular layer (EGL) following the treatment with a single dose (2 mg/g) of hydroxyurea (HU). The rats were examined at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, and 15, and sacrificed at appropriate times ranging from 6 to 48 h after treatment administration. Studies were done in each cortical lobe (anterior, central, posterior, and inferior). The quantification of several parameters, such as density of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, TUNEL, vimentin, and tomato lectin-stained cells, revealed that HU compromises the viability of EGL cells...
October 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276717/mild-exercise-differently-affects-proteostasis-and-oxidative-stress-on-motor-areas-during-neurodegeneration-a-comparative-study-of-three-treadmill-running-protocols
#17
Karla P Melo, Carolliny M Silva, Michael F Almeida, Rodrigo S Chaves, Tania Marcourakis, Sandra M Cardoso, Marilene Demasi, Luis E S Netto, Merari F R Ferrari
Proteostasis and oxidative stress were evaluated in motor cortex and spinal cord of aged Lewis rats exposed to 1 mg/kg/day of rotenone during 4 or 8 weeks, prior or after practicing three protocols of mild treadmill running. Results demonstrated that exercise done after the beginning of neurodegeneration reverted the increased oxidative stress (measured by H2 O2 levels and SOD activity), increased neuron strength, and improved proteostasis in motor cortex. Spinal cord was not affected. Treadmill running practiced before neurodegeneration protected cortical motor neurons of the rotenone-exposed rats; but in this case, oxidative stress was not altered, whereas proteasome activity was increased and autophagy decreased...
October 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267269/comparing-the-effects-of-chlorogenic-acid-and-ilex-paraguariensis-extracts-on-different-markers-of-brain-alterations-in-rats-subjected-to-chronic-restraint-stress
#18
María Eduarda de Lima, Ana Z Ceolin Colpo, Marisol Maya-López, Edgar Rangel-López, Hugo Becerril-Chávez, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Laura Sánchez-Chapul, Isaac Túnez, Vanderlei Folmer, Abel Santamaría
Positive influence of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on human health issues has been attributed to its frequent consumption in South American countries and is assumed to be due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, including chlorogenic acid (CGA); however, hard evidence about its positive effects under chronic stress conditions is still required. In this study, the effects of yerba mate extracts (IpE), and its main compound chlorogenic acid (CGA), on behavioral and morphological endpoints of brain damage induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS) to rats were evaluated and compared...
September 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267268/antidepressant-like-activity-of-typical-antidepressant-drugs-in-the-forced-swim-test-and-tail-suspension-test-in-mice-is-augmented-by-dmpx-an-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-antagonist
#19
Ewa Poleszak, Aleksandra Szopa, Karolina Bogatko, Elżbieta Wyska, Sylwia Wośko, Katarzyna Świąder, Urszula Doboszewska, Aleksandra Wlaź, Andrzej Wróbel, Piotr Wlaź, Anna Serefko
Unsatisfactory therapeutic effects of currently used antidepressants force to search for new pharmacological treatment strategies. Recent research points to the relationship between depressive disorders and the adenosinergic system. Therefore, the main goal of our studies was to evaluate the effects of DMPX (3 mg/kg, i.p.), which possesses selectivity for adenosine A2A receptors versus A1 receptors, on the activity of imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), escitalopram (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and reboxetine (2 mg/kg, i...
September 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267267/neuroprotective-effect-of-myxobacterial-extracts-on-quinolinic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-primary-human-neurons
#20
Mona Dehhaghi, Vanessa Tan, Benjamin Heng, Nady Braidy, Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Gilles J Guillemin
Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxin, gliotoxin, and proinflammatory molecule involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Myxobacteria have been known as a rich source of secondary metabolites with diverse structures and mode of actions. In this study, we examined the potential neuroprotective effects of myxobacterial extracts on QUIN-induced excitotoxicity in primary human neurons. For this purpose, primary cultures of human neurons were pre-incubated with myxobacterial extracts and subsequently treated with QUIN at a pathophysiological concentration of 550 nM...
September 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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