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Neurotoxicity Research

Katarzyna Skowrońska, Marta Obara-Michlewska, Anna Czarnecka, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Magdalena Zielińska, Jan Albrecht
Astrocytes express N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) but its functions in these cells are not well defined. This study shows that the sustained exposure (8-72 h) of mouse astrocytes to NMDA decreases the expression of the functional astroglia-specific proteins, glutamine synthetase (GS), and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and also reduces GS activity. Similar to rat astrocytes (Obara-Michlewska et al. Neurochem Int 88:20-25, 2015), the exposure of mouse astrocytes to NMDA also decreased the expression of the inward rectifying potassium channel Kir4...
September 15, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Macarena S Arrázola, Trinovita Andraini, Marion Szelechowski, Lionel Mouledous, Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin, Noélie Davezac, Pascale Belenguer, Claire Rampon, Marie-Christine Miquel
Generation of new neurons is a tightly regulated process that involves several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among them, a metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, together with mitochondrial remodeling, has emerged as crucial actors of neurogenesis. However, although accumulating data raise the importance of mitochondrial morphology and function in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development, information regarding the contribution of mitochondria to adult neurogenesis processes remains limited...
September 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Catalina Meléndez, Patricia Muñoz, Juan Segura-Aguilar
Aminochrome has been reported to induce lysosomal dysfunction by inhibiting the vacuolar H-type ATPase localized in lysosome membrane. DT-diaphorase has been proposed to prevent aminochrome neurotoxicity but it is unknown whether this enzyme prevents aminochrome-induced lysosomal dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the protective role of DT-diaphorase in lysosomal dysfunction by generating a cell line (SH-SY5YsiNQ7) with a stable expression of a siRNA against DT-diaphorase with only 10% expression of mRNA enzyme...
September 10, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Significant body of evidence suggests that abnormal kynurenic acid (KYNA) level is involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders. In the brain, KYNA is synthesized from kynurenine (KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs), predominantly by KAT II isoenzyme. Blockage of ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is a main cellular effect of KYNA. High KYNA levels have been linked with psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animals and humans. As immunological imbalance and impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission are one of the crucial processes in neurological pathologies, we aimed to analyze the effect of anti-inflammatory agents, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): celecoxib, niflumic acid, and parecoxib, on KYNA synthesis and KAT II activity in rat brain in vitro...
September 3, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Kwan-Woo Kim, Chi-Su Yoon, Youn-Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh
We previously reported that desoxo-narchinol A and narchinol B from Nardostachys jatamansi DC (Valerianaceae) inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 and primary microglial cells. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of desoxo-narchinol A and narchinol B. These two compounds inhibited the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, by repressing the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α, nuclear translocation of the p65/p50 heterodimer, and DNA-binding activity of the p65 subunit...
August 31, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Joanna Miszkiel, Joanna Jastrzębska, Małgorzata Filip, Edmund Przegaliński
Manipulation of the serotonin (5-HT)1B receptors can modify the behavioral effects of amphetamine including its reinforcing properties. Focus of this study was to examine changes in 5-HT1B receptor protein expression in several brain structures linked to substance drug disorder in different stages of amphetamine addiction-single session of amphetamine self-administration, 20 consecutive days of amphetamine self-administration, and 3 and 14 days of extinction from chronic drug intake. "Yoked" procedure was employed to set apart pharmacological and motivational effects of amphetamine intoxication...
August 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Andrzej Wróbel, Urszula Doboszewska, Ewa Rechberger, Małgorzata Bańczerowska-Górska, Piotr Czuczwar, Ewa Poleszak, Jarosław Dudka, Piotr Wlaź, Paweł Miotła, Edyta Wlaźlak, Tomasz Rechberger
Overactive bladder (OAB) coexists with depression in women. Here, we assessed the effects of a 1-week treatment with blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, on changes in behavior and detrusor overactivity (DO) symptoms induced by a 6-week administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA), with the aid of the forced swim test (FST), spontaneous locomotor activity test, and in vivo cystometric investigations in female Wistar rats. 13-cis-RA-induced depressive-like behavior and DO symptoms were associated with increased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) level in the plasma, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (Hp), Barrington's nucleus (BN), and urinary bladder...
August 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Gabriel Teixeira de Macedo, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Aaron B Bowman, Julia Bornhorst, Tanja Schwerdtle, Felix A Antunes Soares, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg), an abundant environmental pollutant, has long been known to adversely affect neurodevelopment in both animals and humans. Several reports from epidemiological studies, as well as experimental data indicate sex-specific susceptibility to this neurotoxicant; however, the molecular bases of this process are still not clear. In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), to investigate sex differences in response to MeHg toxicity during development. Worms at different developmental stage (L1, L4, and adult) were treated with MeHg for 1 h...
August 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Megan N Huizenga, Patrick A Forcelli
The developing brain is uniquely susceptible to drug-induced increases in programmed cell death or apoptosis. Many compounds, including anticonvulsant drugs, anesthetic agents, and ethanol, when administered in a narrow postnatal window in rodents, result in increased pruning of neurons. Here, we report that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) triggers widespread neurodegeneration in the immature (postnatal day, P7) rat brain, an effect consistent with a prior report in neonatal mice. We found that the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) exerts a neuroprotective effect against DMSO-induced cell death...
August 24, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Agnieszka Wąsik, Irena Romańska, Agnieszka Zelek-Molik, Irena Nalepa, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by a progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Intranigral administration of the UPS inhibitor lactacystin is used to obtain a valuable animal model for investigating putative neuroprotective treatments for PD. 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ) is an endogenous amine that displays neuroprotective properties...
August 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Anna K Wójtowicz, Agnieszka M Sitarz-Głownia, Małgorzata Szczęsna, Konrad A Szychowski
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer in various plastic compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and products including baby toys, packaging films and sheets, medical tubing, and blood storage bags. Epidemiological data suggest that phthalates increase the risk of the nervous system disorders; however, the impact of DEHP on the brain cells and the mechanisms of its action have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), as well as Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 mRNA and protein expression in primary mouse cortical neurons and glial cells in the in vitro mono-cultures...
August 18, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Wen-Juan Zhang, Wen-Yu Cao, Yan-Qing Huang, Yan-Hui Cui, Bo-Xuan Tu, Lai-Fa Wang, Guang-Jing Zou, Yu Liu, Zhao-Lan Hu, Rong Hu, Chang-Qi Li, Xiao-Wei Xing, Fang Li
Stress plays a crucial role in several psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used acute stress (AS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) models to develop anxiety-like behavior and investigate the role of miR-150 in the hippocampi of mice. Corticosterone levels as well as glutamate receptors in the hippocampus were evaluated. We found that anxiety-like behavior was induced after either AS or CRS, as determined by the open-field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze test (EPM)...
August 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Xiao-Hui Chen, Dong-Tai Chen, Xiong-Mei Huang, Yong-Hua Chen, Jia-Hao Pan, Xiao-Chun Zheng, Wei-An Zeng
Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a widely used sedative in anesthesia and critical care units, and it exhibits neuroprotective activity. However, the precise mechanism of Dex-exerted neuroprotection is not clear. Increased neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) contributes to oxidative stress and neuronal damage in various hypoxia-related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated whether Dex regulated neuronal NOX2 to exert its protective effects under hypoxic conditions. Well-differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to mimic a neuronal model of chemical hypoxia-mediated neurotoxicity...
August 15, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sofia Fortalezas, Dorinda Marques-da-Silva, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is an active component of many pesticides which has been shown to induce Parkinsonism in animal models. We show that the cytotoxicity of exposure to nanomolar concentrations of rotenone in cultures of mature cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) in serum-free medium is not due to phagocytosis by glial contamination. A concentration as low as 5.65 ± 0.51 nM of rotenone was enough to trigger 50% cell death of mature CGN in culture after 12 h. The addition of serum proteins to the culture medium attenuated rotenone neurotoxicity, and this can account at least in part for the requirement of higher rotenone concentrations to elicit neuronal cytotoxicity reported in previous works...
August 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Laís Silva Fernandes, Neife Aparecida G Dos Santos, Guilherme Luz Emerick, Antonio Cardozo Dos Santos
Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds have been widely used in agriculture, industry, and household, and the neurotoxicity induced by them is still a cause of concern. The main toxic mechanism of OPs is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE); however, the delayed neuropathy induced by OPs (OPIDN) is mediated by other mechanisms such as the irreversible inhibition of 70% of NTE activity (neuropathy target esterase) that leads to axonal degeneration. Liraglutide is a long-lasting GLP-1 analog clinically used as antidiabetic...
August 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Cecilia Scorza, Claudia Piccini, Marcela Martínez Busi, Juan Andrés Abin Carriquiry, Pablo Zunino
A role of the gut microbiota in influencing brain function and emotional disorders has been suggested. However, only a few studies have investigated the gut microbiota in the context of drug addiction.Cocaine can be smoked (i.e., crack or coca paste) and its consumption is associated with a very high abuse liability and toxicity. We have recently reported that cocaine base seized samples contained caffeine and phenacetin as main active adulterants, which may potentiate its motivational, reinforcing, and toxic effects...
July 31, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Konrad A Szychowski, Anna K Wójtowicz, Jan Gmiński
Degradation products of elastin, i.e. elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. EDPs are detectable in cerebrospinal fluid in healthy people and in patients after ischemic stroke. However, to date, no studies concerning the role of EDP in the nervous system were conducted. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) play important roles during the repair phases of cerebral ischemia, particularly during angiogenesis and reestablishment of cerebral blood flow...
July 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sunee Sirivichayakul, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Supaksorn Thika, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Eotaxin is increased in neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenia, and preclinical studies indicate that eotaxin may induce cognitive deficits. This study aims to examine whether peripheral levels of eotaxin impact cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers and formal thought disorder (FTD) and psychopathology in schizophrenia patients. Serum levels of eotaxin were assayed and cognitive tests were performed on a sample of 40 healthy participants and 80 schizophrenia patients. Among healthy participants, eotaxin levels were significantly associated with episodic/semantic memory, executive functions, Mini Mental State Examination, emotion recognition, and sustained attention...
July 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Mateus Grings, Belisa Parmeggiani, Alana Pimentel Moura, Leonardo de Moura Alvorcem, Angela T S Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Sulfite oxidase, molybdenum cofactor, and ETHE1 deficiencies are autosomal recessive disorders that affect the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Patients with these disorders present severe neurological dysfunction and basal ganglia abnormalities, accompanied by high levels of thiosulfate in biological fluids and tissues. Aiming to better elucidate the pathophysiology of basal ganglia damage in these disorders, we evaluated the in vivo effects of thiosulfate administration on bioenergetics, oxidative stress, and neural damage in rat striatum...
July 28, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
B M Cook, K M Wozniak, D A Proctor, R B Bromberg, Y Wu, B S Slusher, B A Littlefield, M A Jordan, L Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein
The reversibility of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a disabling and potentially permanent side effect of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs), is becoming an increasingly important issue as treatment outcomes improve. The molecular mechanisms regulating the variability in time to onset, severity, and time to recovery from CIPN between the common MTAs paclitaxel and eribulin are unknown. Previously (Benbow et al. in Neurotox Res 29:299-313, 2016), we found that after 2 weeks of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in mice, paclitaxel treatment resulted in severe reductions in axon area density, higher frequency of myelin abnormalities, and increased numbers of Schwann cell nuclei in sciatic nerves...
July 26, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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