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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134561/cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-agonist-acea-protects-neurons-from-death-and-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-apoptotic-pathway-signaling
#1
Talita A Vrechi, Fernanda Crunfli, Andressa P Costa, Andréa S Torrão
Neurodegeneration is the result of progressive destruction of neurons in the central nervous system, with unknown causes and pathological mechanisms not yet fully elucidated. Several factors contribute to neurodegenerative processes, including neuroinflammation, accumulation of neurotoxic factors, and misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Endocannabinoid signaling has been pointed out as an important modulatory system in several neurodegeneration-related processes, inhibiting the inflammatory response and increasing neuronal survival...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#2
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127580/sigma-1-receptor-agonists-induce-oxidative-stress-in-mitochondria-and-enhance-complex-i-activity-in-physiological-condition-but-protect-against-pathological-oxidative-stress
#3
Nino Goguadze, Elene Zhuravliova, Didier Morin, Davit Mikeladze, Tangui Maurice
The sigma1 receptor (σ1R) is a chaperone protein residing at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs), where it modulates Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and mitochondria by interacting with inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). The σ1R is highly expressed in the central nervous system and its activation stimulates neuromodulation and neuroprotection, for instance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models in vitro and in vivo. σ1R effects on mitochondria pathophysiology and the downstream signaling are still not fully understood...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124681/synergistic-toxicity-of-the-neurometabolites-quinolinic-acid-and-homocysteine-in-cortical-neurons-and-astrocytes-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti-Brendler, Felipe Schmitz, Fernanda Ferreira, Carlos Alexandre Netto, Angela T S Wyse
The brain of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) develops progressive neurodegeneration linked to the formation of proteins aggregates. However, their single actions cannot explain the extent of brain damage observed in this disorder, and the characterization of co-adjuvant involved in the early toxic processes evoked in AD is essential. In this line, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and homocysteine (Hcy) appear to be involved in the AD neuropathogenesis. Herein, we investigate the effects of QUIN and Hcy on early toxic events in cortical neurons and astrocytes...
November 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124680/the-antiepileptic-drug-levetiracetam-protects-against-quinolinic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-the-rat-striatum
#5
Maricela Dircio-Bautista, Ana Laura Colín-González, Gabriela Aguilera, Marisol Maya-López, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Esperanza García, Isaac Túnez, Abel Santamaría
Levetiracetam (LVT) is a relatively novel antiepileptic drug (AED) known to act through binding with the synaptic vesicular 2A (SV2A) protein, thus modulating the presynaptic neurotransmitter release. The tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN) acts as an excitotoxin when its brain concentrations reach toxic levels under pathological conditions. Since increased neuronal excitability induced by QUIN recruits degenerative events in the brain, and novel AED is also expected to exert neuroprotective effects in their pharmacological profiles, in this work the effect of LVT (54 mg/kg, i...
November 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119451/pristimerin-inhibits-lps-triggered-neurotoxicity-in-bv-2-microglia-cells-through-modulating-irak1-traf6-tak1-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-signaling-pathways-in-vitro
#6
Bin Hui, Liping Zhang, Qinhua Zhou, Ling Hui
Microglia plays a prominent role in the brain's inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations and secreting inflammatory molecules. However, hyperactivated microglial is neurotoxic and plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, possesses antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect and the molecular mechanism of pristimerin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in microglia remain to be revealed...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103192/lipid-peroxidation-and-immune-biomarkers-are-associated-with-major-depression-and-its-phenotypes-including-treatment-resistant-depression-and-melancholia
#7
Magdalena Sowa-Kućma, Krzysztof Styczeń, Marcin Siwek, Paulina Misztak, Rafał J Nowak, Dominika Dudek, Janusz K Rybakowski, Gabriel Nowak, Michael Maes
To examine immune-inflammatory and oxidative (I&O) biomarkers in major depression (MDD) and its related phenotypes, we recruited 114 well-phenotyped depressed patients and 50 healthy controls and measured serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 60 and 80 kDa (sTNF-R1/R2), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Obtained results indicate that MDD is characterized by increased sIL-1RA, sTNF-R1, and TBARS concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101721/restoration-of-cognitive-performance-in-mice-carrying-a-deficient-allele-of-8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-by-x-ray-irradiation
#8
Tim Hofer, Nur Duale, Martine Muusse, Dag Marcus Eide, Hildegunn Dahl, Fernando Boix, Jannike M Andersen, Ann Karin Olsen, Oddvar Myhre
Environmental stressors inducing oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation may influence cognitive function and neuronal plasticity. Recent studies have shown that transgenic mice deficient of DNA glycosylases display unexpected cognitive deficiencies related to changes in gene expression in the hippocampus. The main objectives of the present study were to determine learning and memory performance in C57BL/6NTac 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1)(+/-) (heterozygote) and Ogg1(+/+) (wild type, WT) mice, to study whether a single acute X-ray challenge (0...
November 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098664/mechanisms-of-l-serine-neuroprotection-in-vitro-include-er-proteostasis-regulation
#9
R A Dunlop, J Powell, G J Guillemin, P A Cox
β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. Recently, chronic dietary exposure to L-BMAA was shown to trigger neuropathology in nonhuman primates consistent with Guamanian ALS/PDC, a paralytic disease that afflicts Chamorro villagers who consume traditional food items contaminated with L-BMAA. However, the addition of the naturally occurring amino acid L-serine to the diet of the nonhuman primates resulted in a significant reduction in ALS/PDC neuropathology...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098663/antibiotics-reduce-retinal-cell-survival-in-vitro
#10
Amy E Lindsey, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Antibiotics such as gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and penicillin (a beta-lactam antibiotic) are routinely used in retinal cell and explant cultures. In many cases, these in vitro systems are testing parameters regarding photoreceptor transplantation or preparing cells for transplantation. In vivo, milligram doses of gentamicin are neurotoxic to the retina. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics to retina in vitro and whether smaller doses of gentamicin are toxic to retinal cells. To test toxicity, retinal cells were dissociated from tiger salamander, placed in culture, and treated with either 20 μg/ml gentamicin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml antibiotic/antimycotic, 0...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086391/methionine-administration-in-pregnant-rats-causes-memory-deficit-in-the-offspring-and-alters-ultrastructure-in-brain-tissue
#11
Bruna Martins Schweinberger, André Felipe Rodrigues, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Francieli Rohden, Silvia Barbosa, Paula Rigon da Luz Soster, Wania Aparecida Partata, Maria Cristina Faccioni-Heuser, Angela T S Wyse
In the present work, we evaluated the effect of gestational hypermethioninemia on locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, and exploratory behavior of rat offspring through the following behavior tests: open field, object recognition, and inhibitory avoidance. Histological analysis was also done in the brain tissue of pups. Wistar female rats received methionine (2.68 μmol/g body weight) by subcutaneous injections during pregnancy. Control rats received saline. Histological analyses were made in brain tissue from 21 and 30 days of age pups...
October 30, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076060/multiple-administration-of-endogenous-amines-tiq-and-1metiq-protects-against-a-6-ohda-induced-essential-fall-of-dopamine-release-in-the-rat-striatum-in-vivo-microdialysis-study
#12
Agnieszka Wąsik, Irena Romańska, Agnieszka Zelek-Molik, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Parkinson's disease (PD) represents one of the neurodegenerative disorders which are caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Different toxins, e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), are used to model PD in animals. 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin which damages catecholaminergic neurons via production of oxygen radicals. Tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) are endogenous amines which are present in the mammalian brain. Some of them, like TIQ and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), demonstrate neuroprotective properties...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071560/sevoflurane-affects-oxidative-stress-and-alters-apoptosis-status-in-children-and-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#13
Xue Zhou, Dihan Lu, Wen-da Li, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Yu Yang, Xi Chen, Zhi-Bin Zhou, Jiang-Hong Ye, Xia Feng
Anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in immature animals has raised concerns about similar effects occurring in young children. Our study investigated two commonly used anesthetics-sevoflurane and propofol-for neurotoxicity in young children. Forty-seven children (aged 12-36 months) undergoing hypospadias repair surgery were randomized to receive sevoflurane (SG, n = 24) or propofol (PG, n = 23) general anesthesia. Venous blood was collected at three different times-immediately after induction, 2 h, and 3 days after surgery...
October 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064068/dexamethasone-inhibits-copper-induced-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-by-a-metallothionein-dependent-mechanism
#14
Fleur A McLeary, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Jessica Kinder, Michael Goulding, Tien K Khoo, George D Mellick, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Intracellular aggregates of α-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), being linked to neurotoxicity. Multiple triggers of α-synuclein aggregation have been implicated, including raised copper. The potential protective role of the endogenous copper-/zinc-binding proteins, metallothioneins (MT), has been explored in relation to copper-induced α-synuclein aggregation. Up-regulated endogenous expression of MT was induced in SHSY-5Y cells by the synthetic glucocorticoid analogue, dexamethasone...
October 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063289/salsolinol-an-unintelligible-and-double-faced-molecule-lessons-learned-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experiments
#15
REVIEW
Magdalena Kurnik-Łucka, Pertti Panula, Andrzej Bugajski, Krzysztof Gil
Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) is a tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative whose presence in humans was first detected in the urine of Parkinsonian patients on L-DOPA (L-dihydroxyphenylalanine) medication. Thus far, multiple hypotheses regarding its physiological/pathophysiological roles have been proposed, especially related to Parkinson's disease or alcohol addiction. The aim of this review was to outline studies related to salsolinol, with special focus on in vivo and in vitro experimental models...
October 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038922/lower-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-gray-matter-of-amygdala-hippocampus-nucleus-accumbens-circuit-in-methamphetamine-users-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#16
Yadi Li, Wenhua Zhou, Haibo Dong, Wenwen Shen, Jianbing Zhang, Feng Li, Lingjun Zhang
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal ventral subiculum, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) comprise the amygdala-hippocampus-NAc (AHN) circuit, which is implicated in drug seeking and reward. The goal of this study was to evaluate microstructural changes and relevant clinical features of the AHN circuit gray matter (GM) in methamphetamine (MA) users using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty MA users and 30 age-matched normal volunteers underwent 3-T MR imaging to obtain structural T1-weighted images and DTI data...
October 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019159/alpha-lipoamide-ameliorates-motor-deficits-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-parkinson-s-disease-model-induced-by-6-hydroxydopamine
#17
Bo Zhou, Min Wen, Xin Lin, Yun-Hua Chen, Yun Gou, Yong Li, Yi Zhang, Hong-Wei Li, Lei Tang
The precise mechanisms underlying neuronal injury in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not yet fully elucidated; however, evidence from the in vitro and in vivo PD models suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a major role in PD pathogenesis. Alpha lipoamide, a neutral amide derivative of the lipoic acid, is a better cofactor for mitochondrial dehydrogenase with a stronger protective effect on mitochondria than lipoic acid. Identification of these protective effects of alpha lipoamide on mitochondria, together with the evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in PD, we speculate that alpha lipoamide may exert a protective effect in PD by regulating the mitochondrial function...
October 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993979/methamphetamine-augments-concurrent-astrocyte-mitochondrial-stress-oxidative-burden-and-antioxidant-capacity-tipping-the-balance-in-hiv-associated-neurodegeneration
#18
Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade
Methamphetamine (METH) use, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 comorbidity, exacerbates neurocognitive decline. Oxidative stress is a probable neurotoxic mechanism during HIV-1 central nervous system infection and METH abuse, as viral proteins, antiretroviral therapy and METH have each been shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial homeostasis and overall oxidative burden in astrocytes are not well understood in the context of HIV-1 infection and METH abuse...
October 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975519/developmental-exposure-to-pesticides-alters-motor-activity-and-coordination-in-rats-sex-differences-and-underlying-mechanisms
#19
B Gómez-Giménez, V Felipo, A Cabrera-Pastor, A Agustí, V Hernández-Rabaza, M Llansola
It has been proposed that developmental exposure to pesticides contributes to increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, such as attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD) and to alterations in coordination skills. However, the mechanisms involved in these alterations remain unclear. We analyzed the effects on spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination of developmental exposure to a representative pesticide of each one of the four main chemical families: organophosphates (chlorpyrifos), carbamates (carbaryl), organochlorines (endosulfan), and pyrethroids (cypermethrin)...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975502/l-serine-mediated-neuroprotection-includes-the-upregulation-of-the-er-stress-chaperone-protein-disulfide-isomerase-pdi
#20
R A Dunlop, J T Powell, J S Metcalf, G J Guillemin, P A Cox
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly evolutionarily conserved response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which functions to return cells to homeostasis or send them into apoptosis, depending on the degree of cellular damage. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) has been shown to induce ER stress in a variety of models and has been linked to several types of neurodegenerative disease including Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC). L-Serine, an amino acid critical for cellular metabolism and neurological signaling, has been shown to be protective against L-BMAA-induced neurotoxicity in both animal and cell culture models...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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