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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#1
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429309/%C3%AE-ketoadipic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-cause-disturbance-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-in-brain-of-adolescent-rats
#2
Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Ângela Zanatta, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of α-ketoadipic (KAA) and α-aminoadipic (AAA) acids is the biochemical hallmark of α-ketoadipic aciduria. This inborn error of metabolism is currently considered a biochemical phenotype with uncertain clinical significance. Considering that KAA and AAA are structurally similar to α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, respectively, we investigated the in vitro effects of these compounds on glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain of adolescent rats. Bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were also investigated because they represent fundamental systems for brain development and functioning...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421529/suppression-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-by-ketamine-pre-treatment-is-absent-in-the-methylazoxymethanol-mam-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Tibor Stark, Vincenzo Micale
Ketamine may prove to be a potential candidate in treating the widespread drug addiction/substance abuse epidemic among patients with schizophrenia. Clinical studies have shown ketamine to reduce cocaine and heroin cravings. However, the use of ketamine remains controversial as it may exacerbate the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the effects of ketamine on drug addiction in schizophrenia using the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate rat model on operant IV methamphetamine (METH) self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#4
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417315/disruption-of-energy-transfer-and-redox-status-by-sulfite-in-hippocampus-striatum-and-cerebellum-of-developing-rats
#5
Leonardo de Moura Alvorcem, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Nícolas Manzke Glänzel, Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Felipe Schmitz, Angela T S Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Patients with sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency present severe brain abnormalities, whose pathophysiology is not yet elucidated. We evaluated the effects of sulfite and thiosulfate, metabolites accumulated in SO deficiency, on creatine kinase (CK) activity, mitochondrial respiration and redox status in hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of developing rats. Our in vitro results showed that sulfite and thiosulfate decreased CK activity, whereas sulfite also increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in all brain structures evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405935/4-chlorodiazepam-protects-mitochondria-in-t98g-astrocyte-cell-line-from-glucose-deprivation
#6
Eliana Baez, Gina Paola Guio-Vega, Valentina Echeverria, Daniel Andres Sandoval-Rueda, George E Barreto
The translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is considered an important regulator of steroidogenesis and a potential therapeutic target in neurological disorders. Previous evidence suggests that TSPO ligands can protect cells during injury and prevent apoptosis in central nervous system (CNS) cells. However, its actions on astrocytic cells under metabolic injury are not well understood. In this study, we explored whether 4'-chlorodiazepam (Ro5-4864), a TSPO ligand, might protect astrocyte mitochondria under glucose deprivation...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405934/a-brief-review-of-neurotoxicity-induced-by-melamine
#7
REVIEW
Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393332/cocaine-administration-and-its-withdrawal-enhance-the-expression-of-genes-encoding-histone-modifying-enzymes-and-histone-acetylation-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Małgorzata Frankowska, Joanna Jastrzębska, Karolina Wydra, Joanna Miszkiel, Marek Sanak, Małgorzata Filip
Chronic exposure to cocaine, craving, and relapse are attributed to long-lasting changes in gene expression arising through epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms. Although several brain regions are involved in these processes, the prefrontal cortex seems to play a crucial role not only in motivation and decision-making but also in extinction and seeking behavior. In this study, we applied cocaine self-administration and extinction training procedures in rats with a yoked triad to determine differentially expressed genes in prefrontal cortex...
April 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391556/microtubule-targeting-agents-eribulin-and-paclitaxel-differentially-affect-neuronal-cell-bodies-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#9
Sarah J Benbow, Krystyna M Wozniak, Bridget Kulesh, April Savage, Barbara S Slusher, Bruce A Littlefield, Mary Ann Jordan, Leslie Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of anticancer treatment with microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs). The frequency of severe CIPN, which can be dose limiting and even life threatening, varies widely among different MTAs. For example, paclitaxel induces a higher frequency of severe CIPN than does eribulin. Different MTAs also possess distinct mechanisms of microtubule-targeted action. Recently, we demonstrated that paclitaxel and eribulin differentially affect sciatic nerve axons, with paclitaxel inducing more pronounced neurodegenerative effects and eribulin inducing greater microtubule stabilizing biochemical effects...
April 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367606/antidepressant-like-effect-of-the-endogenous-neuroprotective-amine-1metiq-in-clonidine-induced-depression-behavioral-and-neurochemical-studies-in-rats
#10
Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Irena Romańska, Agnieszka Wąsik, Jerzy Michaluk
Biogenic amines such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin play a well-described role in the treatment of mood disorders especially depression. Animal models are widely used to study antidepressant-like effect in rodents; however, it should be taken into account that pharmacological models do not always answer to the complexity of the disease processes. This study verified the behavioral (forced swim test (FST), locomotor activity test) and neurochemical effects (monoamines metabolism) of a low dose of clonidine (0...
April 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361268/resveratrol-attenuates-a%C3%AE-induced-early-hippocampal-neuron-excitability-impairment-via-recovery-of-function-of-potassium-channels
#11
Hongqiang Yin, Hui Wang, Hui Zhang, Na Gao, Tao Zhang, Zhuo Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is not only the morphological hallmark but also the initiator of the pathology process of AD. As a natural compound found in grapes, resveratrol shows a protective effect on the pathophysiology of AD, but the underlying mechanism is not very clear. This study was to investigate whether resveratrol could attenuate Aβ-induced early impairment in hippocampal neuron excitability and the underlying mechanism. The excitability and voltage-gated potassium currents were examined in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
March 30, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353032/%C3%AE-synuclein-enhances-cadmium-uptake-and-neurotoxicity-via-oxidative-stress-and-caspase-activated-cell-death-mechanisms-in-a-dopaminergic-cell-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Weelic Chong, Jessica Jiménez, Matthew McIIvin, Mak A Saito, Gunnar F Kwakye
This study examined the role of alpha-synuclein in regulating cadmium (Cd)-induced neurotoxicity using the N27 dopaminergic neuronal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that stably expresses wild-type human α-synuclein (α-Syn) or empty vector (Vec) control. We report that α-Syn significantly increased Cd-induced cytotoxicity as compared to Vec control cells upon 24 h exposure. To explore the cellular mechanisms, we examined oxidative stress, caspase activation, and Cd uptake and intracellular accumulation...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342135/pacap-protects-against-ethanol-and-nicotine-toxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells-implications-for-drinking-smoking-co-morbidity
#13
Sridharan Manavalan, Bruk Getachew, Kebreten F Manaye, Syed J Khundmiri, Antonei B Csoka, Raechel McKinley, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, Yousef Tizabi
The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342134/dopaminergic-neuron-specific-deletion-of-p53-gene-attenuates-methamphetamine-neurotoxicity
#14
Tao Lu, Paul P Kim, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
p53 plays an essential role in the regulation of cell death in dopaminergic (DA) neurons and its activation has been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA). However, how p53 mediates MA neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of DA-specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. Whereas in vivo MA binge exposure reduced locomotor activity in wild-type (WT) mice, this was significantly attenuated in DAT-p53KO mice and associated with significant differences in the levels of the p53 target genes BAX and p21 between WT and DAT-p53KO...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337659/a20-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-parkinson-s-disease-clue-to-a-common-dysregulation-of-anti-inflammatory-pathways
#15
Simona Perga, Serena Martire, Francesca Montarolo, Nicole D Navone, Andrea Calvo, Giuseppe Fuda, Alberto Marchet, Daniela Leotta, Adriano Chiò, Antonio Bertolotto
Chronic inflammation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. In physiological conditions, a chronic inflammatory state is prevented through the termination of the acute inflammatory response once the triggering insult is eliminated. Several mechanisms regulate the resolution of inflammation. Among these, a potent inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory NF-kB signaling known as A20 has emerged as a key player. Recent studies have shown reduced blood levels of A20 in the patients of diverse chronic inflammatory diseases...
March 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321582/exosomes-secreted-from-hek293-app-swe-ind-cells-impair-the-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#16
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity of exosomes to cultured neuroblastoma and neurons in vitro and to mature and newborn neurons in the hippocampus in vivo. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that exosomes, small membranous vesicles secreted from many cell types, contain pathogenic proteins including full-length amyloid precursor protein (flAPP) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites. However, the function of these exosomes in Alzheimer disease (AD) has not been much explored...
March 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321581/neurobehavioural-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice
#17
Vasanth Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayprakash Manickam, Ekambaram Perumal
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, extremely in neurotheranostics. Simultaneously, Fe2O3-NP usage is of alarming concern, as its exposure to living systems causes deleterious effects due to its redox potential. However, study on the neurobehavioural impacts of Fe2O3-NPs is very limited. In this regard, adult male mice were intraperitoneally administered with Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 4 weeks. A significant change in locomotor behaviour and spatial memory was observed in Fe2O3-NP-treated animals...
March 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303546/clathrin-dependent-uptake-of-paraquat-into-sh-sy5y-cells-and-its-internalization-into-different-subcellular-compartments
#18
Fengrui Li, Xiaofei Tian, Xiaoni Zhan, Baojie Wang, Mei Ding, Hao Pang
The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is an exogenous toxin that allows the selective activation of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon to induce injury and also causes its apoptosis in vitro. However, uptake mechanisms between PQ and neurons remain elusive. To address this issue, we undertook a study of PQ endocytosis in a dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line as well as explored the subsequent subcellular location and potential functional analysis of PQ. The PQ was found to bind the SH-SY5Y cell membrane and then became internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway...
March 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285348/n-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine-attenuates-glutamate-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-brain
#19
Seung-Ju Yang, Eun-A Kim, Min-Jun Chang, Jiae Kim, Jung-Min Na, Soo Young Choi, Sung-Woo Cho
In this study, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects of N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693) against in vivo glutamate-induced toxicity in the rat cerebral cortex. Our results showed that pretreatment with KHG26693 significantly attenuated glutamate-induced elevation of lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma, IFN-γ, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, NADPH oxidase, caspase-3, calpain activity, and Bax...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285347/endothelin-1-induces-degeneration-of-cultured-motor-neurons-through-a-mechanism-mediated-by-nitric-oxide-and-pi3k-akt-pathway
#20
S D'Antoni, E Ranno, M Spatuzza, S Cavallaro, M V Catania
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide produced by activated astrocytes and microglia and is implicated in initiating and sustaining reactive gliosis in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously suggested that ET-1 can play a role in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Indeed, we reported that this peptide is abundantly expressed in reactive astrocytes in the spinal cord of SOD1-G93A mice and ALS patients and exerts a toxic effect on motor neurons (MNs) in an in vitro model of mixed spinal cord cultures enriched with reactive astrocytes...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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