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Neurotoxicity Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754307/effects-of-cocaine-self-administration-and-its-extinction-on-the-rat-brain-cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors
#1
Beata Bystrowska, Małgorzata Frankowska, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamioło, Małgorzata Filip
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptor proteins in several brain regions in rats undergoing cocaine self-administration and extinction training. We used a triad-yoked procedure to distinguish between the motivational and pharmacological effects of cocaine. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and the basolateral and basomedial amygdala following cocaine (0...
May 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736827/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad-and-comorbid-major-depression-with-gad-are-characterized-by-enhanced-nitro-oxidative-stress-increased-lipid-peroxidation-and-lowered-lipid-associated-antioxidant-defenses
#2
Michael Maes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira, Drozdstoy St Stoyanov, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, André F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Accumulating evidence shows that nitro-oxidative pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) and maybe anxiety disorders. The current study aims to examine superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and uric acid (UA) in participants with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring or not with BD, MDD, or tobacco use disorder...
May 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730834/vitamin-d-supplementation-reverses-dna-damage-and-telomeres-shortening-caused-by-ovariectomy-in-hippocampus-of-wistar-rats
#3
Cassiana Siebert, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Carolina Gessinger Bertó, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Ritiéle Pinto Coelho, Vanusa Manfredini, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana, Angela T S Wyse
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovariectomy (OVX), a surgical model of menopause, and/or vitamin D (VIT D) supplementation on oxidative status, DNA damage, and telomere length in hippocampus of rats at two ages. Ninety-day-old (adult) or 180-day-old (older) female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SHAM, OVX, VIT D, and OVX + VIT D. Thirty days after OVX, rats were supplemented with VIT D (500 IU/kg) by gavage, for a period of 30 days. Results showed that OVX altered antioxidant enzymes, increasing the activities of catalase in adult rats and superoxide dismutase in older rats...
May 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728920/l-3-n-butylphthalide-regulates-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cell-in-vitro-and-promotes-neurogenesis-in-app-ps1-mouse-model-by-regulating-bdnf-trkb-creb-akt-pathway
#4
Hui Lei, Yu Zhang, Longjian Huang, Shaofeng Xu, Jiang Li, Lichao Yang, Ling Wang, Changhong Xing, Xiaoliang Wang, Ying Peng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, along with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. The cognitive deficit is considered to be due to the dysfunction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Although L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP) has been shown beneficial effects in multiple AD animal models, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of L-NBP on neurogenesis both in vitro and in vivo...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713997/identification-of-taar5-agonist-activity-of-alpha-neta-and-its-effect-on-mismatch-negativity-amplitude-in-awake-rats
#5
Aleksander A Aleksandrov, Veronika M Knyazeva, Anna B Volnova, Elena S Dmitrieva, Olga Korenkova, Stefano Espinoza, Andrey Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a well-defined component of human event-related potentials that reflects the pre-attentive, stimulus-discrimination process and is associated with involuntary switching of attention. MMN-like responses detected in animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanisms of this process that involves several neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. Trace amines are believed to play a significant role in neuromodulation of synaptic transmission. The present study aimed to determine the role of trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) in the MMN-like response in rats...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713996/the-effects-of-exposure-to-mephedrone-during-adolescence-on-brain-neurotransmission-and-neurotoxicity-in-adult-rats
#6
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Adam Wojtas, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. In animal studies, high repeated doses of mephedrone given to adolescent but not adult mice or rats induced toxic changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713995/full-protection-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-brain-damage-by-ly293558-and-caramiphen-combination-treatment-in-adult-rats
#7
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Marcio De Araujo Furtado, Maria F M Braga
Acute exposure to nerve agents induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. LY293558, an antagonist of AMPA and GluK1 kainate receptors is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant against soman; however, some neuronal damage is still present after treatment of soman-exposed rats with LY293558. Here, we have tested whether combining LY293558 with an NMDA receptor antagonist can eliminate the residual damage. For this purpose, we chose caramiphen (CRM), an antimuscarinic compound with NMDA receptor antagonistic properties...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713994/dimethyl-fumarate-limits-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-and-improves-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#8
Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Amanda Della Giustina, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Khiany Mathias, Drielly Florentino, Aloir Neri de Oliveira Junior, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olivia Laurentino, Taina Trombetta, Maria Luiza Gomes, Amanda Valnier Steckert, Ana Paula Moreira, Patricia Fernanda Schuck, Jucelia Jeremias Fortunato, Tatiana Barichello, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, often associated with acute central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, which results in long-term cognitive impairment. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an important agent against inflammatory response and reactive species in CNS disorders. Evaluate the effect of DMF on acute and long-term brain dysfunction after experimental sepsis in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. The groups were divided into sham (control) + vehicle, sham + NAC, sham + DMF, CLP + vehicle, CLP + NAC, and CLP + DMF...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687202/attenuation-of-aluminum-chloride-induced-neuroinflammation-and-caspase-activation-through-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-by-hesperidin-in-wistar-rats
#9
Arokiasamy Justin-Thenmozhi, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Ramaraj Kiruthika, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Anupom Borah, Musthafa Mohamed Essa
Hesperidin, a flavanoglycone abundantly present in citrus fruits, is reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Previous reports from our laboratory indicated the neuroprotective effect of hesperidin against aluminum chloride (AlCl3 )-induced memory loss, acetylcholine esterase hyperactivity, oxidative stress, and enhanced expression of amyloid β protein biosynthesis-related markers. However, their role on AlCl3 -induced inflammation, caspase activation, Tau pathology, altered Akt/GSK 3β signaling pathway, and Aβ clearance marker has not yet been fully elucidated...
April 23, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680979/phencyclidine-and-scopolamine-for-modeling-amnesia-in-rodents-direct-comparison-with-the-use-of-barnes-maze-test-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-test-in-mice
#10
Natalia Malikowska-Racia, Adrian Podkowa, Kinga Sałat
Nowadays cognitive impairments are a growing unresolved medical issue which may accompany many diseases and therapies, furthermore, numerous researchers investigate various neurobiological aspects of human memory to find possible ways to improve it. Until any other method is discovered, in vivo studies remain the only available tool for memory evaluation. At first, researchers need to choose a model of amnesia which may strongly influence observed results. Thereby a deeper insight into a model itself may increase the quality and reliability of results...
April 21, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679291/role-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway-in-nmda-preconditioning-different-mechanisms-for-seizures-and-hippocampal-neuronal-degeneration-induced-by-quinolinic-acid
#11
Leandra C Constantino, Luisa B Binder, Samuel Vandresen-Filho, Giordano G Viola, Fabiana K Ludka, Mark W Lopes, Rodrigo B Leal, Carla I Tasca
N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is evoked by the administration of a subtoxic dose of NMDA and is protective against neuronal excitotoxicity. This effect may involve a diversity of targets and cell signaling cascades associated to neuroprotection. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK pathways play a major role in neuroprotective mechanisms. However, their involvement in NMDA preconditioning was not yet fully investigated...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667128/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-protects-and-prevents-paraquat-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration-in-knockdown-dj-1-%C3%AE-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667127/bilateral-olfactory-mucosa-damage-induces-the-disappearance-of-olfactory-glomerulus-and-reduces-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-5gaba-a-rs-in-the-hippocampus-in-early-postnatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Xiaomin Zheng, Liang Liang, Changchun Hei, Wenjuan Yang, Tingyuan Zhang, Kai Wu, Yi Qin, Qing Chang
Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#14
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629512/-l-theanine-decreases-orofacial-dyskinesia-induced-by-reserpine-in-rats
#15
Hung-Sheng Soung, Mao-Hsien Wang, Kuo-Chi Chang, Cheng-Neng Chen, Yi Chang, Chih-Chuan Yang, Hsiang-Chien Tseng
Reserpine (RES)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) has been used as an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia (TD) for decades, due to its strong pathophysiological association with striatal oxidative stress and neural cytoarchitecture alteration. L -Theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on RES-induced behavioral and neurochemical dysfunction in rats...
April 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629511/repeated-administration-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-elevates-the-levels-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-nigrostriatal-system-possible-relevance-to-neurotoxicity
#16
Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Nicola Simola
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that the amphetamine-related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces dopaminergic damage in the mouse brain, and that this effect is most marked in the nigrostriatal system. Moreover, it has been suggested that the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) may participate in the dopaminergic damage induced by MDMA. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the levels of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which catalyzes the production of NO, in mice treated with regimens of MDMA that induce progressive and persistent neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system...
April 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627918/protective-effect-of-moderate-exogenous-electric-field-stimulation-on-activating-netrin-1-dcc-expression-against-mechanical-stretch-induced-injury-in-spinal-cord-neurons
#17
Meili Liu, Chuanwei Yin, Zhengtai Jia, Kun Li, Zhifa Zhang, Yuchen Zhao, Xianghui Gong, Xiaoyu Liu, Ping Li, Yubo Fan
Nerve cells detect and respond to electric field stimulation and extrinsic chemical guidance cues during development and regeneration; therefore, the development and optimization of an approach for functional neuronal regeneration are necessary for a nerve injury. In this study, we proposed using electric field stimulation to repair a nerve injury triggered by serious mechanical stretch loading. A device that provides continuous mechanical stretch and constant electric field stimulation was designed. Primary dissociated spinal cord neurons were stimulated by mechanical stretch (tensile strain 2...
April 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626319/clearance-of-amyloid-beta-and-tau-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-mechanisms-to-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Shu-Hui Xin, Lin Tan, Xipeng Cao, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Pathological proteins of AD mainly contain amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Their deposition will lead to neuron damage by a series of pathways, and then induce memory and cognitive impairment. Thus, it is pivotal to understand the clearance pathways of Aβ and tau in order to delay or even halt AD. Aβ clearance mechanisms include ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-lysosome, proteases, microglial phagocytosis, and transport from the brain to the blood via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), arachnoid villi and blood-CSF barrier, which can be named blood circulatory clearance...
April 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619629/effect-of-kynurenic-acid-on-pupae-viability-of-drosophila-melanogaster-cinnabar-and-cardinal-eye-color-mutants-with-altered-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolism
#19
Valeriya Navrotskaya, Artur Wnorowski, Waldemar Turski, Gregory Oxenkrug
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is one of the metabolites of evolutionary conserved tryptophan (Trp)/kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway. Elevation of KYNA contributes to development of psychosis in schizophrenia but attenuates neurodegeneration in Drosophila model of Huntington's disease. We have reported that KYNA increased lethality of pupae of wild-type flies, but not of vermilion (v) mutants with impaired formation of Kyn from Trp, suggesting that KYNA toxicity depends on its interaction with downstream Kyn metabolites [i...
April 4, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611151/perinatal-glyphosate-based-herbicide-exposure-in-rats-alters-brain-antioxidant-status-glutamate-and-acetylcholine-metabolism-and-affects-recognition-memory
#20
Cristina Eugenia Gallegos, Carlos Javier Baier, Mariana Bartos, Cristina Bras, Sergio Domínguez, Nina Mónaco, Fernanda Gumilar, María Sofía Giménez, Alejandra Minetti
Glyphosate-based herbicides (Gly-BHs) lead the world pesticide market. Although are frequently promoted as safe and of low toxicity, several investigations question its innocuousness. Previously, we described that oral exposure of rats to a Gly-BH during pregnancy and lactation decreased locomotor activity and anxiety in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of this herbicide. Pregnant Wistar rats were supplied orally with 0.2 and 0.4% of Gly-BH (corresponding to 0...
April 2, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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