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Neurotoxicity Research

Vitor Castania, Ana Carolina Issy, João Walter Silveira, Frederico Rogério Ferreira, Simoneide S Titze-de-Almeida, Fernando F B Resende, Nádia Rubia Ferreira, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida, Helton L A Defino, Elaine Del Bel
Intervertebral disk degeneration is a progressive and debilitating disease with multifactorial causes. Nitric oxide (NO) might contribute to the cell death pathway. We evaluated the presence of the constitutive form of the neuronal NOS (nNOS) in both health and degenerated intervertebral disk through qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the potential role of nNOS modulation in the tail needle puncture model of intervertebral disk degeneration. Male Wistar rats were submitted to percutaneous disk puncture with a 21-gauge needle of coccygeal vertebras...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski, Lukasz Zielonka, Michal Dabrowski, Jaroslaw Calka
T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, which may affect the synthesis of DNA and RNA and causes various pathological processes. Till now, the influence of T-2 toxin on the enteric nervous system (ENS) located in the wall of gastrointestinal tract has not been studied. On the other hand, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of enteric neuronal factors, whose exact functions in the intestines still remain not fully explained. The present study describes the influence of low doses of T-2 toxin on CART-positive neuronal structures in porcine stomach, duodenum, and descending colon...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Martin Valis, Jiri Masopust, Oldrich Vysata, Jakub Hort, Rafael Dolezal, Jiri Tomek, Jan Misik, Kamil Kuca, Jana Zdarova Karasova
Although some studies have described the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil in the peripheral compartment, studies focused on drug transport across the blood-brain barrier are still very rare. To our knowledge, the fluctuation in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of donepezil after administration of the drug has not been described in the literature so far. We recruited 16 patients regularly taking a standard therapeutic dose of donepezil (10 mg per day). All patients (Caucasian race) were treated for at least three months with a stable dose of 10 mg per day prior to sample collection...
October 7, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Bin Liu, Junming Xia, Yali Chen, Jun Zhang
Neonatal exposure to volatile anesthetics causes apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain, possibly leading to neurocognitive deficits in adulthood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress might be associated with sevoflurane (sevo)-induced neuroapoptosis. However, the signaling pathway regulating sevo-induced neuroapoptosis is not understood. We investigated the effects of neonatal sevo exposure on ER signaling pathway activation. Seven-day-old mouse pups were divided into control (C) and sevo (S; 3 % sevo exposure, 6 h) groups...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez
The generation of new neurons during adulthood involves local precursor cell migration and terminal differentiation in the dentate gyrus. These events are influenced by the hippocampal microenvironment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is relevant for hippocampal neuronal development and behavior. Interestingly, studies that have been performed in controlled in vitro systems that involve isolated precursor cells that were derived from the dentate gyrus (AHPCs) have shown that BDNF induces the activation of the TrkB receptor and, consequentially, might activate signaling pathways that favor survival and neuronal differentiation...
September 24, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
A Tapia-Bustos, R Perez-Lobos, V Vío, C Lespay-Rebolledo, E Palacios, A Chiti-Morales, D Bustamante, M Herrera-Marschitz, P Morales
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is associated to delayed cell death, affecting neurocircuitries of basal ganglia and hippocampus, and long-term neuropsychiatric disabilities. Several compensatory mechanisms have been suggested to take place, including cell proliferation and neurogenesis. There is evidence that PA can increase postnatal neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ), modulated by dopamine, by still unclear mechanisms. We have studied here the effect of selective dopamine receptor agonists on cell death, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in organotypic cultures from control and asphyxia-exposed rats...
September 16, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Martín Galvalisi, José Pedro Prieto, Marcela Martínez, Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Cecilia Scorza
Oral, intraperitoneal, or intravenous have been the common routes of administration used to study the behavioral and neurochemical pharmacology of caffeine, one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. We have reported that caffeine is an active adulterant frequently found in coca-paste (CP)-seized samples, a highly addictive form of smokable cocaine. The role of caffeine in the psychostimulant and neurochemical effects induced by CP remains under study. No preclinical animal studies have been performed so far to characterize the effects of caffeine when it is administered through the pulmonary inhalation route...
September 8, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Anna Czarnecka, Krzysztof Milewski, Radosław Jaźwiec, Magdalena Zielińska
Alterations in brain nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP synthesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). An increased asymmetrically dimethylated derivative of L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthases, was observed in plasma of HE patients and animal models. It is not clear whether changes in brain ADMA reflect its increased local synthesis therefore affecting NO/cGMP pathway, or are a consequence of its increased peripheral blood content. We measured extracellular concentration of ADMA and symmetrically dimethylated isoform (SDMA) in the prefrontal cortex of control and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced HE rats...
September 8, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Joaquín Martí, Vanesa Molina, M C Santa-Cruz, José P Hervás
Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats...
September 6, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Anna K Wójtowicz, Konrad A Szychowski, Agnieszka Wnuk, Małgorzata Kajta
Dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is one of the most commonly used phthalate esters. DBP is widely used as a plasticizer in a variety of household industries and consumer products. Because phthalates are not chemically bound to products, they can easily leak out to enter the environment. DBP can pass through the placental and blood-brain barriers due to its chemical structure, but little is known about its mechanism of action in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DBP in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures...
August 31, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Fengyi Liang, Xie Wang, Suet Hui Ow, Wangxue Chen, Wei Chen Ong
As a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, demalonylase, and desuccinylase, sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) in host cells has been reportedly observed in the mitochondria, in the cytosol/cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Various functional roles of SIRT5 have also been described in cellular metabolism, energy production, detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, but some of the reported results are seemingly inconsistent or even contradictory to one another. Using immunocytochemistry, molecular biology, gene transfection, and flow cytometry, we investigated the expression, subcellular distribution, and possible functional roles of SIRT5 in regulating apoptosis and oxidative stress of cultured SH-EP neuroblastoma cells...
August 30, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Lidawani Lambuk, Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Khairul Nizam Bin Rozali, Puneet Agarwal, Nor Salmah Bakar, Methil Kannan Kutty, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Anna Krasilnikova, Alexander Spasov, Alexander Ozerov, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate excitotoxicity plays a major role in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. The toxic effects of glutamate on RGCs are mediated by the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Accordingly, NMDA receptor antagonists have been suggested to inhibit excitotoxicity in RGCs and delay the progression and visual loss in glaucoma patients. The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential neuroprotective effect of Mg acetyltaurate (MgAT) on RGC death induced by NMDA...
August 27, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Yousuke Watanabe, Tomoaki Murakami, Masashi Kawashima, Yasuko Hasegawa-Baba, Sayaka Mizukami, Nobuya Imatanaka, Yumi Akahori, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Valproic acid (VPA) is used to establish models of experimental autism. The present study investigated the developmental exposure effect of VPA on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in accordance with the exposure scheme of OECD Test Guideline 426 adopted for developmental neurotoxicity. Pregnant rats were administered drinking water containing 0, 667, or 2000 ppm VPA from gestational day 6 until day 21 post-delivery. In the subgranular zone (SGZ) and granule cell layer (GCL) of offspring, the number of granule cell lineage subpopulations remained unchanged upon weaning...
August 26, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Caroline S Martinez, Caroline D C Alterman, Franck M Peçanha, Dalton V Vassallo, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes, Marta Miguel, Giulia A Wiggers
Aluminum (Al) is a significant environmental contaminant. While a good deal of research has been conducted on the acute neurotoxic effects of Al, little is known about the effects of longer-term exposure at human dietary Al levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day Al exposure at low doses for comparison with a model of exposure known to produce neurotoxicity in rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two major groups: (1) low aluminum levels, and (2) a high aluminum level...
July 29, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Gabriel Henrique Hawthorne, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci, Mariza Bortolanza, Vitor Tumas, Ana Carolina Issy, Elaine Del-Bel
Nanoparticles might be produced and manipulated to present a large spectrum of properties. The physicochemical features of the engineered nanomaterials confer to them different features, including the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The main objective of this review is to present the state-of-art research in nano manipulation concerning Parkinson's disease (PD). In the past few years, the association of drugs with nanoparticles solidly improved treatment outcomes. We systematically reviewed 28 studies, describing their potential contributions regarding the role of nanomedicine to increase the efficacy of known pharmacological strategies for PD treatment...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Marta Kruk-Slomka, Barbara Budzynska, Tomasz Slomka, Izabela Banaszkiewicz, Grazyna Biala
A growing body of psychiatric research has emerged, focusing on the role of endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders. For example, the endocannabinoid system, via cannabinoid CB (CB1 and CB2) receptors, is able to control the function of many receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors connected strictly with psychosis or other schizophrenia-associated symptoms. The aim of the present research was to investigate the impact of the CB1 receptor ligands on the symptoms typical for schizophrenia...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Agnieszka Wąsik, Irena Romańska, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) may involve endogenous and exogenous factors. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ), which was shown to be neurotoxic for dopaminergic neurons, is one of such factors, thus it can be used to construct an animal model of PD. In contrast, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ) produce neuroprotective effects acting as monoamino oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and free radical scavengers that reduce oxidative stress in the mammalian brain...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Natalia Kasica, Piotr Podlasz, Maria Sundvik, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, Jerzy Kaleczyc
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, with known antiapoptotic functions. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated the ameliorative role of PACAP-38 in chicken hair cells under oxidative stress conditions, but its effects on living hair cells is now yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the protective role of PACAP-38 in hair cells found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sense organs-neuromasts. To induce oxidative stress the 5-day postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Nady Braidy, Helene Rossez, Chai K Lim, Bat-Erdene Jugder, Bruce J Brew, Gilles J Guillemin
The kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) is a major degradative pathway of the amino acid, L-tryptophan (TRP), that ultimately leads to the anabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. TRP catabolism results in the production of several important metabolites, including the major immune tolerance-inducing metabolite KYN, and the neurotoxin and excitotoxin quinolinic acid. Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to mediate immunoregulatory roles that mediated by TRP catabolism. However, characterization of the KP in human DCs has so far only been partly delineated...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Patrycja Kleczkowska, Irena Smaga, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny
Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS)...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
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