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Advances in Physiology Education

Jack A Rall
One of the most iconic images in biology is the cross-striated appearance of a skeletal muscle fiber. The repeating band pattern shows that all of the sarcomeres are the same length. All of the A bands are the same length and are located in the middle of the sarcomeres. Furthermore, all of the myofibrils are transversely aligned across the muscle fiber. It has been known for 300 yr that skeletal muscle is striated, but only in the last 40 yr has a molecular understanding of the striations emerged. In the 1950s it was discovered that the extraction of myosin from myofibrils abolished the A bands, and the myofibrils were no longer striated...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Rong Wang, Chuanyong Liu, Tian Ma
This study compared the effect of a virtual laboratory, a living tissue laboratory, and a blended laboratory on student learning about the generation and conduction of neural action potentials and perceptions about life science. Sixty-three second-year medical students were randomly assigned to one of three groups (living tissue laboratory, virtual laboratory, and blended group). The students conducted the practical activity, and then they were given a postlaboratory quiz and an attitude survey. The blended group euthanized fewer animals and spent less time to finish the animal experiment than the living tissue group did...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Mari K Hopper, Daniela A Brake
A large, multicampus, public medical school underwent curricular renewal, emphasizing a student-centered approach with 50% of all course contact time devoted to active learning. Determining the impact of active learning on student engagement and higher order skill (HOS) proficiency was the primary aim of this study. Following Institutional Review Board approval, two cohort groups of first-year medical students were enrolled. The first cohort ( n = 54) included students before curriculum reform in the legacy curriculum (LC)...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, M Faadiel Essop, Emmanuel Bourdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Luiz Fernando Quintanilha, Gustavo Nunes Costa, Marcio Ramos Coutinho
In the field of medical education, it is possible to consider that the acquisition of professional competences can gain new contours when considering the use of active methodologies. It is important to analyze the perception of the students about the use of them in medical courses, as well as to reflect on their challenges and potentials. In the present study, a semistructured questionnaire of student perception was applied immediately after the execution of different types of active methodologies in the discipline of physiology in two medical courses...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Harry J Witchel, Joseph H Guppy, Claire F Smith
Student self-assessment using computer-based quizzes has been shown to increase subject memory and engagement. Some types of self-assessment quizzes can be associated with a dilemma between 1) medical students who want the self-assessment quiz to be clearly related to upcoming summative assessments or curated by the exam-setters, and 2) university administrators and ethics committees who want clear guarantees that the self-assessment quizzes are not based on the summative assessments or made by instructors familiar with the exam bank of items...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Feifei Shang, Chuan-Yong Liu
The rapid development of mobile phones and communication networks is profoundly changing the lives of people in China. With the gradual growth of Wi-Fi on college and university campuses, Chinese schools are setting off a wave of teaching reform combining online material with traditional classroom instruction. We adapted a Chinese University massive open online course physiology course into a private university online course, specifically designed for second-semester bachelor's level nursing students at Taishan Medical University...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Fabíola da Silva Albuquerque, Temilce Simões de Assis, Francisco Antônio de Oliveira Júnior, Maria Regina de Freitas, Rita de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Vinícius José Baccin Martins, Larissa Suelen da Silva Lins, Juliany Santiago de Araújo, Nattan Almeida E Sousa, Rachel Linka Beniz Gouveia
A group of teachers from Northeast Brazil developed a model of membrane potentials and action potential and tested the hypothesis that using the peer-instruction model would provide a better performance for students in reading traditional texts and lectures. The results were obtained from 357 students from 20 different courses in 9 different undergraduate programs. All students attended two 100-min theoretical lecture and, at the end of the second lecture, were asked to answer a multiple-choice question (a pretest)...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Pâmela B Mello-Carpes, Ana Lloret
February 11th is the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. To mark this day, research centers and universities were invited by the Spanish Neuroscience Association to organize a symposium. Twenty-five centers in Spain participated in the event, with the intent of giving visibility to the existing problem of the scarcity of women compared with men in (neuro)science in positions of responsibility and command. Fourteen neuroscientists, all staff members of the University of Valencia, arranged the meeting...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Marcelo Alcantara Holanda, Nathalia Parente de Sousa, Luana Torres Melo, Liégina Silveira Marinho, Helder Veras Ribeiro-Filho, Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Bastos, Armênio Aguiar Dos Santos, Rodrigo José Bezerra de Siqueira
Undergraduate biomedical students often have difficulties in understanding basic concepts of respiratory physiology, particularly respiratory mechanics. In this study, we report the use of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to improve and consolidate the knowledge about physiological aspects of normal regional distribution of ventilation in humans. Initially, we assessed the previous knowledge of a group of medical students ( n = 39) about regional differences in lung ventilation. Thereafter, we recorded the regional distribution of ventilation through surface electrodes on a healthy volunteer adopting four different decubitus positions: supine, prone, and right and left lateral...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Chaya Gopalan, Georgia Bracey, Megan Klann, Cynthia Schmidt
A great deal of interest has emerged recently in the flipped classroom (FC), a student-centered teaching approach. After attending a presentation by the first author on the FC, a faculty member of a medical school in Mexico arranged for a 3-day workshop for 13 faculty members. The goal of the workshop was to train faculty to use the FC strategy in their classrooms to increase student engagement in learning. The workshop was in the FC style, where the participants would assume the role of students. Pre- and posttraining surveys were administered to examine participants' current teaching practices and to evaluate their perceptions of the FC...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Stephen J Brown, Nicola Power, Alex Bowmar, Shannon Foster
The population diversity of New Zealand is due to the unique fusion of indigenous peoples of Polynesian origin (Māori), western European colonization (Pākehā), and more recent (20th century) immigration from the Pacific region (Pasifika). However, disparities in tertiary education indicate that Māori and Pasifika students are more likely to drop out during their first year of study and are less likely to complete their qualification than their Pākehā peers. Higher levels of course engagement may increase first-year grades, elevate academic performance, and encourage persistence between the first and second years of study...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Marcella Martins de Vasconcelos Vaena, Luiz Anastacio Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Thanapat Vanichnatee, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Punyapat Maprapho, Issarawan Keadkraichaiwat, Nipith Charoenngam, Rungnirand Praditsuwan
An early clinical exposure project conducted by clinical students aimed to promote direct clinical experience to preclinical students. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the project on academic achievement and study attitudes and habits between participating and nonparticipating students before ( test 1) and after the project ( test 2) in the second preclinical year and at the end of the first semester of the first clinical year ( test 3), with a subgroup analysis of the first (lowest) to third (highest) tertile of the score...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Predrag Vujovic, Michael Chirillo, Dee U Silverthorn
Understanding osmolarity and tonicity is one of the more challenging endeavors undertaken by students of the natural sciences. We asked students who completed a course in animal physiology to submit an essay explaining what they found most perplexing about this subject, and what in-class activities proved most useful to them. Students had difficulty distinguishing osmolarity from tonicity and determining tonicity based on the solution's composition. The most useful activities were questions requiring simultaneous consideration of both osmolarity and tonicity...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Patricia A Halpin, Lynelle Golden, Karah Zane Hagins, Steve Waller, Chaya Gopalan
An APS Teaching Section symposium entitled "Examining the Changing Landscape of Course Delivery and Student Learning" was offered at the Experimental Biology conference on April 24th, 2017, in Chicago, IL. The symposium focused on alternative delivery modes of physiology education, from undergraduate to professional programs. Lecture used to be the gold standard and proven method by which students learned, but the course delivery method is rapidly changing. While there is still significant skepticism about the quality and level of student engagement in online learning, it is being offered widely due to increased demand and due to other benefits, such as the flexibility and convenience...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Rafael Bravo, Lierni Ugartemendia, Javier Cubero, Cihangir Uguz, Ana B Rodríguez
Research in the health sciences devotes much attention to overweight and obesity and, consequently, to body composition. In recent years, traditional body measures have been questioned as efficient variables in health sciences due to the fact that they cannot give information about body fat mass. Our aim is to teach how to analyze body composition through anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis to our "Physiology of Vegetative and Reproductive Functions" students, who are studying for their degree in Biology...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Christine A Kauffman, Megan Derazin, Abdo Asmar, Jonathan D Kibble
Studies completed with undergraduate populations have shown that attendance positively correlates with academic performance. A marked decline in classroom attendance within medical school has recently been noticed with the availability of video capture of lectures and other online material. This study compares these in the era of online material. It took place during the second-year Gastrointestinal and Renal Systems module. Attendance was mandatory at team-based learning and case-based learning sessions on new material and voluntary at lectures (29 sessions) and case-based learning on material previously covered (9 sessions)...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Lauren Fragapane, Wei Li, Bertha Ben Khallouq, Zixi J Cheng, David M Harris
High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) is expensive in money and faculty resources. There has been a recent push to increase the use of HFPS for undergraduates to teach basic science. However, it is still unclear if HFPS is superior to other cost-effective modalities for learning, and there have been limited studies comparing HFPS directly with other methods. The purpose of this study was to compare learning between three groups: 1) students who participated in a HFPS after reading material (RS); 2) students who reread material (RR) individually; and 3) students who had no intervention or reading (CON)...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
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