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Arthritis Research

Patrick H Dessein, Barry I Joffe, Anne E Stanwix
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience excess cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and dietary intervention on CVD risk in inflammatory arthritis. Twenty-two patients (17 women; 15 with RA and seven with spondyloarthropathy) who were insulin resistant (n = 20), as determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment, and/or were dyslipidemic (n = 11) were identified. During the third month after initiation of DMARD therapy, body weight, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin resistance, and lipids were re-evaluated...
2002: Arthritis Research
Oliver Distler, Angela Del Rosso, Roberto Giacomelli, Paola Cipriani, Maria L Conforti, Serena Guiducci, Renate E Gay, Beat A Michel, Pius Brühlmann, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Steffen Gay, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
To examine whether the lack of sufficient neoangiogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is caused by a decrease in angiogenic factors and/or an increase in angiostatic factors, the potent proangiogenic molecules vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor, and the angiostatic factor endostatin were determined in patients with SSc and in healthy controls. Forty-three patients with established SSc and nine patients with pre-SSc were included in the study. Serum levels of VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor and endostatin were measured by ELISA...
2002: Arthritis Research
Eiji Takeuchi, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Eiji Umemoto, Tetsuya Tomita, Kenrin Shi, Koichiro Takahi, Ryuji Suzuki, Takahiro Ochi, Masayuki Miyasaka
Nurse-like stromal cell lines from the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-SNC) produce, on coculture with lymphocytes, large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present paper, we analyze the molecular events necessary for the induction of cytokine release from RA-SNC cells, and particularly the roles played by cell adhesion and the transmigration (also known as pseudoemperipolesis) of lymphocytes. For this purpose, the effects of various mAbs on the binding and transmigration of a human B-cell line, MC/car, were examined using a cloned RA-SNC line, RA-SNC77...
2002: Arthritis Research
Thomas Dörner, Peter E Lipsky
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathologic features and the production of typical autoantibodies. In addition, characteristic changes in the distribution of peripheral B cell subsets and differences in use of immunoglobulin variable-region genes are also features of pSS. Comparison of B cells from the blood and parotid gland of patients with pSS with those of normal donors suggests that there is a depletion of memory B cells from the peripheral blood and an accumulation or retention of these antigen-experienced B cells in the parotids...
2002: Arthritis Research
Anne I Bolstad, Roland Jonsson
Sjögren's syndrome is a multisystem inflammatory rheumatic disease that is classified into primary and secondary forms, with cardinal features in the eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and mouth (xerostomia). The aetiology behind this autoimmune exocrinopathy is probably multifactorial and influenced by genetic as well as by environmental factors that are as yet unknown. A genetic predisposition to Sjögren's syndrome has been suggested on the basis of familial aggregation, animal models and candidate gene association studies...
2002: Arthritis Research
Judith van Holten, Christine Plater-Zyberk, Paul P Tak
IFN-beta treatment is emerging as a potentially effective form of therapy in various immune-mediated conditions. The present review addresses the possible role of IFN-beta in immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Several placebo-controlled trials are discussed, as are the available immunological data that are relevant to this field. Review of these data provides evidence that IFN-beta has some beneficial therapeutic effect in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and might also have antirheumatic potential...
2002: Arthritis Research
Anthony M Reginato, Bjorn R Olsen
Osteoarthritis (OA), one of the most common age-related chronic disorders of articular cartilage, joints, and bone tissue, represents a major public health problem. Genetic studies have identified multiple gene variations associated with an increased risk of OA. These findings suggest that there is a large genetic component to OA and that the disorder belongs in the multigenetic, multifactorial class of genetic diseases. Studies of chondrodysplasias and associated hereditary OA have provided a better understanding of the role of structural genes in the maintenance and repair of articular cartilage, in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and gene expression, and in the pathogenesis of OA...
2002: Arthritis Research
Edward F Rosloniec, Kary Latham, Yajaira B Guedez
T-cell responses to antigens are classified on the basis of the cytokines they produce as either Th1 (IFN-gamma, IL-2) or Th2 (IL-4, IL-10), with these Th types being indicative of either cell-mediated or antibody-mediated responses, respectively. Using this classification, T-cell responses in MHC-class-II-restricted autoimmune diseases appear to be predominantly of the Th1 type, based on the presence of high levels of IFN-gamma. This simplistic classification has recently been challenged, however, as disease incidence and severity are frequently elevated in animals that have a deficient IFN-gamma response...
2002: Arthritis Research
Milja Möttönen, Pia Isomäki, Reijo Luukkainen, Olli Lassila
Interleukin (IL)-12, being a major cytokine that induces T helper (Th) 1 differentiation and inflammatory response, has been postulated to be an important mediator of synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the regulation of IL-12 production in RA has not been elucidated. Our knowledge is mainly based on studies of the production of IL-12p40 and not the functional IL-12p70 heterodimer. We have studied the CD154-induced IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 production by synovial fluid (SF) macrophages from patients with RA...
2002: Arthritis Research
Kimio Masuda, Riako Masuda, Michel Neidhart, Beat R Simmen, Beat A Michel, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Renate E Gay, Steffen Gay
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular profile of proliferating rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RA-SF). Total RNA was extracted from two cultures of RA-SF (low-density [LD] proliferating cells and high-density [HD] nonproliferating cells) and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to compare differential gene expression of these two cultures. Subtracted cDNA was subcloned, and nucleotide sequences were analyzed to identify each clone. Differential expression of distinct clones was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR...
2002: Arthritis Research
David J Shealy, Paul H Wooley, Eva Emmell, Amy Volk, Amy Rosenberg, George Treacy, Carrie L Wagner, Lois Mayton, Don E Griswold, Xiao-Yu R Song
Anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) monoclonal antibody was used to treat Tg197 transgenic mice, which constitutively produce human TNF-alpha (hTNF-alpha) and develop a progressive polyarthritic disease. Treatment of both young (7- or 8-week-old) and aged (27- or 28-week-old) mice commenced when at least two limbs showed signs of moderate to severe arthritis. The therapeutic efficacy of anti-TNF-alpha antibody was assessed using various pathological indicators of disease progression. The clinical severity of arthritis in Tg197 mice was significantly reduced after anti-TNF-alpha treatment in comparison with saline-treated mice and in comparison with baseline assessments in both young and aged mice...
2002: Arthritis Research
Beth C Marshall, Richard A McPherson, Eric Greidinger, Robert Hoffman, Stuart P Adler
To confirm an association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and the presence of antibodies to Smith (Sm), to ribonucleoprotein (RNP), and to a component of the U1 ribonucleoproteins (U1-70 kD), we measured antibodies to these protein antigens using an enzyme immunoassay and an immunoblot. The antibodies were measured in the sera of 80 healthy subjects, one-half of whom were naturally CMV seropositive and one-half were CMV seronegative, and in eight subjects immunized with a live attenuated strain of CMV...
2002: Arthritis Research
Patrick H Dessein, Anne E Stanwix, Barry I Joffe
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients experience a markedly increased frequency of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated cardiovascular risk profiles in 79 RA patients and in 39 age-matched and sex-matched osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Laboratory tests comprised ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting lipids. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was determined by the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) in all OA patients and in 39 of the RA patients. Ten RA patients were on glucocorticoids. RA patients exercised more frequently than OA patients (chi2 = 3...
2002: Arthritis Research
Frank A Wollheim
The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12-15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems...
2002: Arthritis Research
Alberto Falchetti
Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA), the two most common age-related chronic disorders of articular joints and skeleton, represent a major public health problem in most developed countries. They are influenced by environmental factors and exhibit a strong genetic component. Large population studies clearly show their inverse relationship; therefore, an accurate analysis of the genetic bases of one of these two diseases may provide data of interest for the other disorder. The discovery of risk and protective genes for OP and OA promises to revolutionize strategies for diagnosing and treating these disorders...
2002: Arthritis Research
Juergen Braun, Joachim Sieper
Therapeutic options for patients with more severe forms of spondyloarthritis (SpA) have been rather limited in recent decades. There is accumulating evidence that anti-tumor-necrosis-factor (anti-TNF) therapy is highly effective in SpA, especially in ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The major anti-TNF-alpha agents currently available, infliximab (Remicade(R)) and etanercept (Enbrel(R)), are approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in many countries. In ankylosing spondylitis there is an unmet medical need, since there are almost no disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) available for severely affected patients, especially those with spinal manifestations...
2002: Arthritis Research
Wendy Thomson, Rachelle Donn
Studies have established the magnitude of the genetic basis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA is a complex genetic condition and the genes that influence susceptibility are actively being sought. A candidate gene approach is being used by several groups. MHC-, cytokine- and T-cell-related genes have all been positively associated with JIA. Here we review some of the latest genetic data, and discuss ways in which JIA genetic research might proceed.
2002: Arthritis Research
Ann-Sofie Hansson, Rikard Holmdahl
Relapsing polychondritis is an autoimmune disease in which an inappropriate immune response destroys cartilage. Cartilage of the ears, larynx and nose rather than spine and joint cartilage is affected by a chronic relapsing and erosive inflammation. Several animal models for relapsing polychondritis have been published in which immunization with various cartilage proteins induces a variety of chondritis symptoms that mimic those seen in patients. In this review we describe the collagens, matrilin-1 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein as potential autoantigens able to trigger the tissue-specific immune response seen both in patients and in animal models for relapsing polychondritis and related autoimmune diseases...
2002: Arthritis Research
Wolfgang Hueber, Paul J Utz, Lawrence Steinman, William H Robinson
Proteomics technologies enable profiling of autoantibody responses using biological fluids derived from patients with autoimmune disease. They provide a powerful tool to characterize autoreactive B-cell responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoantibody profiling may serve purposes including classification of individual patients and subsets of patients based on their 'autoantibody fingerprint', examination of epitope spreading and antibody isotype usage, discovery and characterization of candidate autoantigens, and tailoring antigen-specific therapy...
2002: Arthritis Research
Nobuyuki Udagawa, Shigeru Kotake, Naoyuki Kamatani, Naoyuki Takahashi, Tatsuo Suda
Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed from hemopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage under the control of bone-forming osteoblasts. We have cloned an osteoblast-derived factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Synovial fibroblasts and activated T lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis also express RANKL, which appears to trigger bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis as well. Recent studies have shown that T lymphocytes produce cytokines other than RANKL such as IL-17, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IFN-gamma, which have powerful regulatory effects on osteoclastogenesis...
2002: Arthritis Research
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