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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019767/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019766/omega-3-fatty-acids-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#2
REVIEW
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Tracey J Brown, Julii S Brainard, Priti Biswas, Gabrielle C Thorpe, Helen J Moore, Katherine Ho Deane, Fai K AlAbdulghafoor, Carolyn D Summerbell, Helen V Worthington, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Researchers have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from oily fish (long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as from plants (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) benefit cardiovascular health. Guidelines recommend increasing omega-3-rich foods, and sometimes supplementation, but recent trials have not confirmed this. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increased intake of fish- and plant-based omega-3 for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CVD) events, adiposity and lipids...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019765/omega-6-fats-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Lee Hooper, Lena Al-Khudairy, Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Karen Rees, Julii S Brainard, Tracey J Brown, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alex T O'Brien, Lauren E Winstanley, Daisy H Donaldson, Fujian Song, Katherine Ho Deane
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019748/de-escalation-techniques-for-managing-non-psychosis-induced-aggression-in-adults
#4
REVIEW
Sally Spencer, Paula Johnson, Ian C Smith
BACKGROUND: Aggression occurs frequently within health and social care settings. It can result in injury to patients and staff and can adversely affect staff performance and well-being. De-escalation is a widely used and recommended intervention for managing aggression, but the efficacy of the intervention as a whole and the specific techniques that comprise it are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of de-escalation techniques for managing non-psychosis-induced aggression in adults in care settings, in both staff and service users...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019463/continuation-versus-discontinuation-of-antiplatelet-therapy-for-bleeding-and-ischaemic-events-in-adults-undergoing-non-cardiac-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet agents are recommended for people with myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndromes, transient ischaemic attack or stroke, and for those in whom coronary stents have been inserted. People who take antiplatelet agents are at increased risk of adverse events when undergoing non-cardiac surgery because of these indications. However, taking antiplatelet therapy also introduces risk to the person undergoing surgery because the likelihood of bleeding is increased...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016540/vaginal-preparation-with-antiseptic-solution-before-cesarean-section-for-preventing-postoperative-infections
#6
REVIEW
David M Haas, Sarah Morgan, Karenrose Contreras, Savannah Enders
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by obstetricians. Infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery can have a tremendous impact on the postpartum woman's return to normal function and her ability to care for her baby. Despite the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative infectious morbidity still complicates cesarean deliveries. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010 and subsequently updated in 2012, and twice in 2014...
July 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011347/nurses-as-substitutes-for-doctors-in-primary-care
#7
REVIEW
Miranda Laurant, Mieke van der Biezen, Nancy Wijers, Kanokwaroon Watananirun, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Anneke Jah van Vught
BACKGROUND: Current and expected problems such as ageing, increased prevalence of chronic conditions and multi-morbidity, increased emphasis on healthy lifestyle and prevention, and substitution for care from hospitals by care provided in the community encourage countries worldwide to develop new models of primary care delivery. Owing to the fact that many tasks do not necessarily require the knowledge and skills of a doctor, interest in using nurses to expand the capacity of the primary care workforce is increasing...
July 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004572/antiplatelet-and-anticoagulant-agents-for-primary-prevention-of-thrombosis-in-individuals-with-antiphospholipid-antibodies
#8
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, El┼╝bieta Paszek, Wiktoria Lesniak, Dorota Wloch-Kopec, Katarzyna Jasinska, Anetta Undas
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that have prothrombotic activity. Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications (recurrent miscarriage, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation) and thrombotic events (both arterial and venous). The most common thrombotic events include brain ischaemia (stroke or transient ischaemic attack) and deep vein thrombosis...
July 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004571/parent-training-interventions-for-parents-with-intellectual-disability
#9
REVIEW
Esther Coren, Kerry Ramsbotham, Manfred Gschwandtner
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Intellectual disabilities do not inevitably cause parenting difficulties, but it may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care, which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability. Compared with other parents, those with intellectual disabilities are more likely to be involved in care proceedings...
July 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001476/nivolumab-for-adults-with-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-rapid-review-using-the-software-robotreviewer
#10
REVIEW
Marius Goldkuhle, Maria Dimaki, Gerald Gartlehner, Ina Monsef, Philipp Dahm, Jan-Peter Glossmann, Andreas Engert, Bastian von Tresckow, Nicole Skoetz
BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a cancer of the lymphatic system, and involves the lymph nodes, spleen and other organs such as the liver, lung, bone or bone marrow, depending on the tumour stage. With cure rates of up to 90%, HL is one of the most curable cancers worldwide. Approximately 10% of people with HL will be refractory to initial treatment or will relapse; this is more common in people with advanced stage or bulky disease. Standard of care for these people is high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), but only 55% of participants treated with high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT are free from treatment failure at three years, with an overall survival (OS) of about 80% at three years...
July 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998494/calcium-channel-blockers-for-preventing-cardiomyopathy-due-to-iron-overload-in-people-with-transfusion-dependent-beta-thalassaemia
#11
REVIEW
Alina Sadaf, Babar Hasan, Jai K Das, Steven Colan, Najveen Alvi
BACKGROUND: Beta thalassaemia is a common inherited blood disorder. The need for frequent blood transfusions in this condition poses a difficult problem to healthcare systems. The most common cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiac dysfunction from iron overload. The use of iron chelation therapy has reduced the severity of systemic iron overload but specific, non-toxic treatment is required for removal of iron from the myocardium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium channel blockers combined with standard iron chelation therapy in people with transfusion-dependent beta thalassaemia on the amount of iron deposited in the myocardium, on parameters of heart function, and on the incidence of severe heart failure or arrhythmias and related morbidity and mortality...
July 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995989/clobazam-monotherapy-for-focal-or-generalized-seizures
#12
REVIEW
Ravindra Arya, Nisha Giridharan, Vidhu Anand, Sushil K Garg
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 10, 2014. There is a need to expand monotherapy options available to a clinician for the treatment of new focal or generalized seizures. A Cochrane systematic review for clobazam monotherapy is expected to define its place in the treatment of new-onset or untreated seizures and highlight gaps in evidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability and safety of clobazam as monotherapy in people with new-onset focal or generalized seizures...
July 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993119/mirror-therapy-for-improving-motor-function-after-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Holm Thieme, Nadine Morkisch, Jan Mehrholz, Marcus Pohl, Johann Behrens, Bernhard Borgetto, Christian Dohle
BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy is used to improve motor function after stroke. During mirror therapy, a mirror is placed in the person's midsagittal plane, thus reflecting movements of the non-paretic side as if it were the affected side. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the effectiveness of mirror therapy compared with no treatment, placebo or sham therapy, or other treatments for improving motor function and motor impairment after stroke. We also aimed to assess the effects of mirror therapy on activities of daily living, pain, and visuospatial neglect...
July 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993117/anticoagulation-for-perioperative-thromboprophylaxis-in-people-with-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Charbel F Matar, Lara A Kahale, Maram B Hakoum, Ibrahim G Tsolakian, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Victor Ed Yosuico, Irene Terrenato, Francesca Sperati, Maddalena Barba, Holger Sch├╝nemann, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: The choice of the appropriate perioperative thromboprophylaxis for people with cancer depends on the relative benefits and harms of different anticoagulants. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence for the relative efficacy and safety of anticoagulants for perioperative thromboprophylaxis in people with cancer. SEARCH METHODS: This update of the systematic review was based on the findings of a comprehensive literature search conducted on 14 June 2018 that included a major electronic search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2018, Issue 6), MEDLINE (Ovid), and Embase (Ovid); handsearching of conference proceedings; checking of references of included studies; searching for ongoing studies; and using the 'related citation' feature in PubMed...
July 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990391/injectable-local-anaesthetic-agents-for-dental-anaesthesia
#15
REVIEW
Geoffrey St George, Alyn Morgan, John Meechan, David R Moles, Ian Needleman, Yuan-Ling Ng, Aviva Petrie
BACKGROUND: Pain during dental treatment, which is a common fear of patients, can be controlled successfully by local anaesthetic. Several different local anaesthetic formulations and techniques are available to dentists. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objectives were to compare the success of anaesthesia, the speed of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and systemic and local adverse effects amongst different local anaesthetic formulations for dental anaesthesia. We define success of anaesthesia as absence of pain during a dental procedure, or a negative response to electric pulp testing or other simulated scenario tests...
July 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987845/interventions-for-the-treatment-of-brain-radionecrosis-after-radiotherapy-or-radiosurgery
#16
REVIEW
Caroline Chung, Andrew Bryant, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: Brain radionecrosis (tissue death caused by radiation) can occur following high-dose radiotherapy to brain tissue and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life (QoL) and function. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for this condition, which makes establishing effective treatments challenging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions used for the treatment of brain radionecrosis in adults over 18 years old...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985545/interventions-for-recurrent-corneal-erosions
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie L Watson, Vannessa Leung
BACKGROUND: Recurrent corneal erosion is a common cause of disabling ocular symptoms and predisposes the cornea to infection. It may follow corneal trauma. Measures to prevent the development of recurrent corneal erosion following corneal trauma have not been firmly established. Once recurrent corneal erosion develops, simple medical therapy (standard treatment) may lead to resolution of the episode. However, some people continue to suffer when such therapy fails and repeated episodes of erosion develop...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985541/intraoperative-use-of-low-volume-ventilation-to-decrease-postoperative-mortality-mechanical-ventilation-lengths-of-stay-and-lung-injury-in-adults-without-acute-lung-injury
#18
REVIEW
Joanne Guay, Edward A Ochroch, Sandra Kopp
BACKGROUND: Since the 2000s, there has been a trend towards decreasing tidal volumes for positive pressure ventilation during surgery. This an update of a review first published in 2015, trying to determine if lower tidal volumes are beneficial or harmful for patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefit of intraoperative use of low tidal volume ventilation (less than 10 mL/kg of predicted body weight) compared with high tidal volumes (10 mL/kg or greater) to decrease postoperative complications in adults without acute lung injury...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981164/ketorolac-for-postoperative-pain-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Ewan D McNicol, Emily Rowe, Tess E Cooper
BACKGROUND: Children who undergo surgical procedures in ambulatory and inpatient settings are at risk of experiencing acute pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce moderate to severe pain without many of the side effects associated with opioids. However, NSAIDs may cause bleeding, renal and gastrointestinal toxicity, and potentially delay wound and bone healing. Intravenous administration of ketorolac for postoperative pain in children has not been approved in many countries, but is routinely administered in clinical practise...
July 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975811/psychological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-mental-disorders-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-affected-by-humanitarian-crises
#20
REVIEW
Marianna Purgato, Chiara Gastaldon, Davide Papola, Mark van Ommeren, Corrado Barbui, Wietse A Tol
BACKGROUND: People living in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. Mental disorders with a higher prevalence in these settings include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive, anxiety, somatoform (e.g. medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS)), and related disorders. A range of psychological therapies are used to manage symptoms of mental disorders in this population...
July 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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