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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636204/aerobic-exercise-training-for-adults-with-fibromyalgia
#1
REVIEW
Julia Bidonde, Angela J Busch, Candice L Schachter, Tom J Overend, Soo Y Kim, Suelen M Góes, Catherine Boden, Heather Ja Foulds
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. OBJECTIVES: • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise)...
June 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631809/anabolic-steroids-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#4
REVIEW
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631805/drug-therapy-for-chronic-idiopathic-axonal-polyneuropathy
#5
REVIEW
Janna Warendorf, Alexander Fje Vrancken, Ivo N van Schaik, Richard Ac Hughes, Nicolette C Notermans
BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is an insidiously progressive sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy that affects elderly people. Although severe disability or handicap does not occur, CIAP reduces quality of life. CIAP is diagnosed in 10% to 25% of people referred for evaluation of polyneuropathy. There is a need to gather and review emerging evidence on treatments, as the number of people affected is likely to increase in ageing populations. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and previously updated in 2006, 2008, 2011 and 2013...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631387/umeclidinium-bromide-versus-placebo-for-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#6
REVIEW
Han Ni, Aung Htet, Soe Moe
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor quality of life, reduced survival, and accelerated decline in lung function, especially associated with acute exacerbations, leading to high healthcare costs. Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic improvement, and umeclidinium is one of the new long-acting muscarinic antagonists approved for treatment of patients with stable COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with stable COPD...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631310/zinc-supplementation-for-the-treatment-of-measles-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Ajibola A Awotiwon, Olabisi Oduwole, Anju Sinha, Charles I Okwundu
BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631307/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-erysipelas-and-cellulitis
#8
REVIEW
Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628280/combination-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-infection-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626858/antibiotics-for-acute-bronchitis
#11
REVIEW
Susan M Smith, Tom Fahey, John Smucny, Lorne A Becker
BACKGROUND: The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and to assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11 (accessed 13 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2017), Embase (1974 to 13 January 2017), and LILACS (1982 to 13 January 2017)...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625021/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-elective-hysterectomy
#12
REVIEW
Reuben Olugbenga Ayeleke, Selma Mourad, Jane Marjoribanks, Karim A Calis, Vanessa Jordan
BACKGROUND: Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic...
June 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617932/effect-of-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-the-development-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Almudena Areosa Sastre, Robin Wm Vernooij, Magali González-Colaço Harmand, Gabriel Martínez
BACKGROUND: Prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia is an important public health goal. Epidemiological evidence shows a relationship between cognitive impairment and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of dementia increases with duration of disease. This updated systematic review investigated the effect on cognitive function of the type of treatment and level of metabolic control in people with Type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different strategies for managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus on cognitive function and the incidence of dementia...
June 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616956/tramadol-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Rudolf Martin Duehmke, Sheena Derry, Philip J Wiffen, Rae F Bell, Dominic Aldington, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a review of tramadol for neuropathic pain, published in 2006; updating was to bring the review in line with current standards. Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, may be central or peripheral in origin. Peripheral neuropathic pain often includes symptoms such as burning or shooting sensations, abnormal sensitivity to normally painless stimuli, or an increased sensitivity to normally painful stimuli...
June 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616955/niacin-for-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#15
REVIEW
Stefan Schandelmaier, Matthias Briel, Ramon Saccilotto, Kelechi K Olu, Armon Arpagaus, Lars G Hemkens, Alain J Nordmann
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is known to decrease LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. The evidence of benefits with niacin monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of niacin therapy versus placebo, administered as monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of mortality, CVD events, and side effects...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613416/topical-antimicrobial-agents-for-treating-foot-ulcers-in-people-with-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Jo C Dumville, Benjamin A Lipsky, Christopher Hoey, Mario Cruciani, Marta Fiscon, Jun Xia
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are at high risk for developing foot ulcers, which often become infected. These wounds, especially when infected, cause substantial morbidity. Wound treatments should aim to alleviate symptoms, promote healing, and avoid adverse outcomes, especially lower extremity amputation. Topical antimicrobial therapy has been used on diabetic foot ulcers, either as a treatment for clinically infected wounds, or to prevent infection in clinically uninfected wounds...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613408/pre-admission-antibiotics-for-suspected-cases-of-meningococcal-disease
#17
REVIEW
Thambu D Sudarsanam, Priscilla Rupali, Prathap Tharyan, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Kurien Thomas
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure, and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613395/clozapine-dose-for-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Selvizhi Subramanian, Birgit A Völlm, Nick Huband
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech)...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#19
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613384/communication-skills-training-for-mental-health-professionals-working-with-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
REVIEW
Alexia Papageorgiou, Yoon K Loke, Michelle Fromage
BACKGROUND: Research evidence suggests that both mental health professionals and people with severe mental health illness such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder find it difficult to communicate with each other effectively about symptoms, treatments and their side effects so that they reach a shared understanding about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Effective use of communication skills in mental health interactions could be associated with increased patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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