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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229557/interventions-for-promoting-habitual-exercise-in-people-living-with-and-beyond-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca R Turner, Liz Steed, Helen Quirk, Rosa U Greasley, John M Saxton, Stephanie Jc Taylor, Derek J Rosario, Mohamed A Thaha, Liam Bourke
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Liibrary 2013, Issue 9. Despite good evidence for the health benefits of regular exercise for people living with or beyond cancer, understanding how to promote sustainable exercise behaviour change in sedentary cancer survivors, particularly over the long term, is not as well understood. A large majority of people living with or recovering from cancer do not meet current exercise recommendations...
September 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221749/prophylactic-platelet-transfusions-prior-to-surgery-for-people-with-a-low-platelet-count
#2
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Reem Malouf, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Sally Hopewell, Janet Birchall
BACKGROUND: People with thrombocytopenia often require a surgical procedure. A low platelet count is a relative contraindication to surgery due to the risk of bleeding. Platelet transfusions are used in clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people with thrombocytopenia. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to surgery. Alternatives to platelet transfusion are also used prior surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions prior to surgery for people with a low platelet count...
September 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221745/bronchoscopy-guided-antimicrobial-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Kamini Jain, Claire Wainwright, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections are the mainstay of management of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. When sputum samples are unavailable, treatment relies mainly on cultures from oropharyngeal specimens; however, there are concerns regarding the sensitivity of these to identify lower respiratory organisms.Bronchoscopy and related procedures (including bronchoalveolar lavage) though invasive, allow the collection of lower respiratory specimens from non-sputum producers...
September 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215847/art-therapy-for-people-with-dementia
#4
REVIEW
Sunita R Deshmukh, John Holmes, Alastair Cardno
BACKGROUND: Art therapy is defined by the British Association of Art Therapists as: "a form of psychotherapy that uses art media as its primary mode of communication. Clients who are referred to an art therapist need not have experience or skill in art. The art therapist is not primarily concerned with making an aesthetic or diagnostic assessment of the client's image. The overall aim of its practitioners is to enable a client to change and grow on a personal level through the use of art materials in a safe and facilitating environment"...
September 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211952/methods-for-blood-loss-estimation-after-vaginal-birth
#5
REVIEW
Virginia Diaz, Edgardo Abalos, Guillermo Carroli
BACKGROUND: Almost 358,000 women die each year in childbirth, mainly in low-income countries. More than half of all maternal deaths occur within 24 hours of giving birth; severe bleeding in the postpartum period is the single most important cause. Depending on the rate of blood loss and other factors, such as pre-existing anaemia, untreated postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) can lead to hypovolaemic shock, multi-organ dysfunction, and maternal death, within two to six hours.This review investigated different methods for estimating blood loss...
September 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209805/mesh-versus-non-mesh-for-inguinal-and-femoral-hernia-repair
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen Lockhart, Douglas Dunn, Shawn Teo, Jessica Y Ng, Manvinder Dhillon, Edward Teo, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001.Hernias are protrusions of all or part of an organ through the body wall that normally contains it. Groin hernias include inguinal (96%) and femoral (4%) hernias, and are often symptomatic with discomfort. They are extremely common, with an estimated lifetime risk in men of 27%. Occasionally they may present as emergencies with complications such as bowel incarceration, obstruction and strangulation. The definitive treatment of all hernias is surgical repair, inguinal hernia repair being one of the most common surgical procedures performed...
September 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204235/patient-mediated-interventions-to-improve-professional-practice
#7
REVIEW
Marita S Fønhus, Therese K Dalsbø, Marit Johansen, Atle Fretheim, Helge Skirbekk, Signe A Flottorp
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals are important contributors to healthcare quality and patient safety, but their performance does not always follow recommended clinical practice. There are many approaches to influencing practice among healthcare professionals. These approaches include audit and feedback, reminders, educational materials, educational outreach visits, educational meetings or conferences, use of local opinion leaders, financial incentives, and organisational interventions...
September 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199594/topical-and-systemic-antifungal-therapy-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#8
REVIEW
Karen Head, Steve Sharp, Lee-Yee Chong, Claire Hopkins, Carl Philpott
BACKGROUND: This review adds to a series of reviews looking at primary medical management options for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Chronic rhinosinusitis is common and characterised by inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses leading to nasal blockage, nasal discharge, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. The condition can occur with or without nasal polyps. Antifungals have been suggested as a treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic and topical antifungal agents in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, including those with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) and, if possible, AFRS exclusively...
September 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199097/antigen-specific-active-immunotherapy-for-ovarian-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Sterre T Paijens, Ninke Leffers, Toos Daemen, Wijnand Helfrich, H Marike Boezen, Ben J Cohlen, Cornelis Jm Melief, Marco de Bruyn, Hans W Nijman
BACKGROUND: This is the second update of the review first published in the Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 2) and later updated (2014, Issue 9).Despite advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis of ovarian cancer remains poor. Antigen-specific active immunotherapy aims to induce tumour antigen-specific anti-tumour immune responses as an alternative treatment for ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective• To assess the clinical efficacy of antigen-specific active immunotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer as evaluated by tumour response measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and/or cancer antigen (CA)-125 levels, response to post-immunotherapy treatment, and survival differences◦ In addition, we recorded the numbers of observed antigen-specific humoral and cellular responsesSecondary objective• To establish which combinations of immunotherapeutic strategies with tumour antigens provide the best immunological and clinical results SEARCH METHODS: For the previous version of this review, we performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2009, Issue 3), in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE and Embase databases, and clinicaltrials...
September 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198548/antibiotics-for-acute-rhinosinusitis-in-adults
#10
REVIEW
Marieke B Lemiengre, Mieke L van Driel, Dan Merenstein, Helena Liira, Marjukka Mäkelä, An Im De Sutter
BACKGROUND: Acute rhinosinusitis is an acute infection of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses that lasts less than four weeks. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis is generally based on clinical signs and symptoms in ambulatory care settings. Technical investigations are not routinely performed, nor are they recommended in most countries. Some trials show a trend in favour of antibiotics, but the balance of benefit versus harm is unclear.We merged two Cochrane Reviews for this update, which comprised different approaches with overlapping populations, resulting in different conclusions...
September 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196554/homeopathic-medicinal-products-for-preventing-and-treating-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Kate Hawke, Mieke L van Driel, Benjamin J Buffington, Treasure M McGuire, David King
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs annually. Although these infections are self-limiting, symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten illness duration. Most have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in childhood ARTI management if evidence for effectiveness is established...
September 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191961/oropharyngeal-colostrum-in-preventing-mortality-and-morbidity-in-preterm-infants
#12
REVIEW
Amna Widad A Nasuf, Shalini Ojha, Jon Dorling
BACKGROUND: Placing a small volume of colostrum directly onto the buccal mucosa of preterm infants during the early neonatal period may provide immunological and growth factors that stimulate the immune system and enhance intestinal growth. These benefits could potentially reduce the risk of infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and improve survival and long-term outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine if early (within the first 48 hours of life) oropharyngeal administration of mother's own fresh or frozen/thawed colostrum can reduce rates of NEC, late-onset invasive infection, and/or mortality in preterm infants compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191554/interventions-for-preventing-falls-in-older-people-in-care-facilities-and-hospitals
#13
REVIEW
Ian D Cameron, Suzanne M Dyer, Claire E Panagoda, Geoffrey R Murray, Keith D Hill, Robert G Cumming, Ngaire Kerse
BACKGROUND: Falls in care facilities and hospitals are common events that cause considerable morbidity and mortality for older people. This is an update of a review first published in 2010 and updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce the incidence of falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (August 2017); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2017, Issue 8); and MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and trial registers to August 2017...
September 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188566/impact-of-public-release-of-performance-data-on-the-behaviour-of-healthcare-consumers-and-providers
#14
REVIEW
David Metcalfe, Arturo J Rios Diaz, Olubode A Olufajo, M Sofia Massa, Nicole Abm Ketelaar, Signe A Flottorp, Daniel C Perry
BACKGROUND: It is becoming increasingly common to publish information about the quality and performance of healthcare organisations and individual professionals. However, we do not know how this information is used, or the extent to which such reporting leads to quality improvement by changing the behaviour of healthcare consumers, providers, and purchasers. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of public release of performance data, from any source, on changing the healthcare utilisation behaviour of healthcare consumers, providers (professionals and organisations), and purchasers of care...
September 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188565/short-course-versus-long-course-therapy-of-the-same-antibiotic-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adolescent-and-adult-outpatients
#15
REVIEW
Jesús López-Alcalde, Ricardo Rodriguez-Barrientos, Jesús Redondo-Sánchez, Javier Muñoz-Gutiérrez, José María Molero García, Carmen Rodríguez-Fernández, Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Jaime Marin-Cañada, Jose Casanova-Colominas, Amaya Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Virginia Hernandez Santiago, Manuel Gómez-García
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects, but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients)...
September 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187450/dornase-alfa-for-cystic-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Connie Yang, Mark Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Dornase alfa is currently used as a mucolytic to treat pulmonary disease (the major cause of morbidity and mortality) in cystic fibrosis. It reduces mucus viscosity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of dornase alfa in cystic fibrosis is associated with improved mortality and morbidity compared to placebo or other medications that improve airway clearance, and to identify any adverse events associated with its use...
September 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184244/withdrawn-topical-and-systemic-antifungal-therapy-for-the-symptomatic-treatment-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#17
REVIEW
Peta-Lee Sacks, Richard J Harvey, Janet Rimmer, Richard M Gallagher, Raymond Sacks
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the nose and sinuses. Since fungi were postulated as a potential cause of CRS in the late 1990s, there has been increasing controversy about the use of both topical and systemic antifungal agents in its management. Although interaction between the immune system and fungus has been demonstrated in CRS, this does not necessarily imply that fungi are the cause of CRS or that antifungals will be effective its management...
September 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184243/head-to-head-trials-of-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#18
REVIEW
Axel Kaehne, Stephen J Milan, Lambert M Felix, Emer Sheridan, Paul A Marsden, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is defined by abnormal dilation of the airways related to a pathological mechanism of progressive airway destruction that is due to a 'vicious cycle' of recurrent bacterial infection, inflammatory mediator release, airway damage, and subsequent further infection. Antibiotics are the main treatment option for reducing bacterial burden in people with exacerbations of bronchiectasis and for longer-term eradication, but their use is tempered against potential adverse effects and concerns regarding antibiotic resistance...
September 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178872/pharmacist-services-for-non-hospitalised-patients
#19
REVIEW
Mícheál de Barra, Claire L Scott, Neil W Scott, Marie Johnston, Marijn de Bruin, Nancy Nkansah, Christine M Bond, Catriona I Matheson, Pamela Rackow, A Jess Williams, Margaret C Watson
BACKGROUND: This review focuses on non-dispensing services from pharmacists, i.e. pharmacists in community, primary or ambulatory-care settings, to non-hospitalised patients, and is an update of a previously-published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pharmacists' non-dispensing services on non-hospitalised patient outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, two other databases and two trial registers in March 2015, together with reference checking and contact with study authors to identify additional studies...
September 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175845/electromechanical-and-robot-assisted-arm-training-for-improving-activities-of-daily-living-arm-function-and-arm-muscle-strength-after-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Jan Mehrholz, Marcus Pohl, Thomas Platz, Joachim Kugler, Bernhard Elsner
BACKGROUND: Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched January 2018), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2018), Embase (1980 to January 2018), CINAHL (1982 to January 2018), AMED (1985 to January 2018), SPORTDiscus (1949 to January 2018), PEDro (searched February 2018), Compendex (1972 to January 2018), and Inspec (1969 to January 2018)...
September 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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