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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411804/maternal-position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Kate F Walker, Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton, Nia W Jones
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia in labour prolongs the second stage and increases instrumental delivery. It has been suggested that a more upright maternal position during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright or recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
November 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411789/antiretroviral-resistance-testing-in-hiv-positive-people
#2
REVIEW
Theresa Aves, Joshua Tambe, Reed Ac Siemieniuk, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromises treatment effectiveness, often leading to virological failure and mortality. Antiretroviral drug resistance tests may be used at the time of initiation of therapy, or when treatment failure occurs, to inform the choice of ART regimen. Resistance tests (genotypic or phenotypic) are widely used in high-income countries, but not in resource-limited settings. This systematic review summarizes the relative merits of resistance testing in treatment-naive and treatment-exposed people living with HIV...
November 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408162/perioperative-alcohol-cessation-intervention-for-postoperative-complications
#3
REVIEW
Julie Wm Egholm, Bolette Pedersen, Ann Merete Møller, Johanna Adami, Carsten B Juhl, Hanne Tønnesen
BACKGROUND: Risky consumption of alcohol is a global problem. More than 3.3 million deaths annually are associated with risky use of alcohol, and global alcohol consumption continues to increase. People who have high alcohol consumption often require planned and emergency surgical procedures.Risky drinking is associated with increased postoperative complications such as infections, cardiopulmonary complications, and bleeding episodes. Alcohol causes disorders of the liver, pancreas, and nervous system...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407624/sinonasal-debridement-versus-no-debridement-for-the-postoperative-care-of-patients-undergoing-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Sharon Tzelnick, Uri Alkan, Moshe Leshno, Peter Hwang, Ethan Soudry
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is often recommended for symptomatic patients with recurrent acute or chronic rhinosinusitis who have failed conservative treatment. Postoperative care has been felt to be critical for both maintaining the surgical patency of the operated sinuses and improving patient symptoms. Debridement of the sinonasal cavities is one such postoperative care measure that has frequently been studied in the literature, often with conflicting conclusions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of postoperative sinonasal debridement versus no debridement following endoscopic sinus surgery...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407621/effect-of-testing-for-cancer-on-cancer-or-venous-thromboembolism-vte-related-mortality-and-morbidity-in-people-with-unprovoked-vte
#5
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, Su Ern Yeoh, Cathryn Broderick, Gerard Stansby, Roshan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a collective term for two conditions: deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A proportion of people with VTE have no underlying or immediately predisposing risk factors and the VTE is referred to as unprovoked. Unprovoked VTE can often be the first clinical manifestation of an underlying malignancy. This has raised the question of whether people with an unprovoked VTE should be investigated for an underlying cancer. Treatment for VTE is different in cancer and non-cancer patients and a correct diagnosis would ensure that people received the optimal treatment for VTE to prevent recurrence and further morbidity...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407616/cannabis-for-the-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Tahir S Kafil, Tran M Nguyen, John K MacDonald, Nilesh Chande
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated condition of transmural inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The endocannabinoid system provides a potential therapeutic target for cannabis and cannabinoids and animal models have shown benefit in decreasing inflammation. However, there is also evidence to suggest transient adverse events such as weakness, dizziness and diarrhea, and an increased risk of surgery in people with CD who use cannabis...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406640/rutosides-for-treatment-of-post-thrombotic-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Joanne R Morling, Cathryn Broderick, Su Ern Yeoh, Dinanda N Kolbach
BACKGROUND: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a long-term complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that is characterised by pain, swelling, and skin changes in the affected limb. One in three patients with DVT will develop post-thrombotic sequelae within five years. Rutosides are a group of compounds derived from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), a traditional herbal remedy for treating oedema formation in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). However, it is not known whether rutosides are effective and safe in the treatment of PTS...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406639/rutosides-for-prevention-of-post-thrombotic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Joanne R Morling, Su Ern Yeoh, Dinanda N Kolbach
BACKGROUND: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a long-term complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that is characterised by pain, swelling, and skin changes in the affected limb. One in three patients with DVT will develop post-thrombotic sequelae within five years. The current standard care for the prevention of PTS following DVT is elastic compression stockings. Rutosides are a group of compounds derived from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), a traditional herbal remedy for treating oedema formation in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406638/cannabis-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#9
REVIEW
Tahir S Kafil, Tran M Nguyen, John K MacDonald, Nilesh Chande
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and cannabinoids are often promoted as treatment for many illnesses and are widely used among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Few studies have evaluated the use of these agents in UC. Further, cannabis has potential for adverse events and the long-term consequences of cannabis and cannabinoid use in UC are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of patients with UC. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, WHO ICTRP, AMED, PsychINFO, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403286/ketogenic-diets-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Cerian F Jackson, Rebecca Bresnahan, Robert G Levy, Paul N Cooper
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets (KDs), being high in fat and low in carbohydrates, have been suggested to reduce seizure frequency in people with epilepsy. At present, such diets are mainly recommended for children who continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (drug-resistant epilepsy). Recently, there has been interest in less restrictive KDs, including the modified Atkins diet (MAD), and the use of these diets has extended into adult practice. This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and last updated in 2016...
November 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399208/percutaneous-vertebroplasty-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fracture
#11
REVIEW
Rachelle Buchbinder, Renea V Johnston, Kobi J Rischin, Joanne Homik, C Allyson Jones, Kamran Golmohammadi, David F Kallmes
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty remains widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures although our 2015 Cochrane review did not support its role in routine practice. OBJECTIVES: To update the available evidence of the benefits and harms of vertebroplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. SEARCH METHODS: We updated the search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase and trial registries to 15 November 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures, comparing vertebroplasty with placebo (sham), usual care, or another intervention...
November 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398672/insecticide-treated-nets-for-preventing-malaria
#12
REVIEW
Joseph Pryce, Marty Richardson, Christian Lengeler
BACKGROUND: A previous version of this Cochrane Review identified that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are effective at reducing child mortality, parasite prevalence, and uncomplicated and severe malaria episodes. Insecticide-treated nets have since become a core intervention for malaria control and have contributed greatly to the dramatic decline in disease incidence and malaria-related deaths seen since the turn of the millennium. However, this time period has also seen a rise in resistance to pyrethroids (the insecticide used in ITNs), raising questions over whether the evidence from trials conducted before resistance became widespread can be applied to estimate the impact of ITNs on malaria transmission today...
November 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395694/communication-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-minimally-verbal-children
#13
REVIEW
Amanda Brignell, Karen V Chenausky, Huan Song, Jianwei Zhu, Chen Suo, Angela T Morgan
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has an estimated prevalence of around 1.7% of the population. People with ASD often also have language difficulties, and about 25% to 30% of children with ASD either fail to develop functional language or are minimally verbal. The ability to communicate effectively is an essential life skill, and difficulties with communication can have a range of adverse outcomes, including poorer academic achievement, behavioural difficulties and reduced quality of life...
November 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390397/graduated-compression-stockings-for-prevention-of-deep-vein-thrombosis
#14
REVIEW
Ashwin Sachdeva, Mark Dalton, Timothy Lees
BACKGROUND: Hospitalised patients are at increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower limb and pelvic veins, on a background of prolonged immobilisation associated with their medical or surgical illness. Patients with DVT are at increased risk of developing a pulmonary embolism (PE). The use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) in hospitalised patients has been proposed to decrease the risk of DVT. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2000, and last updated in 2014...
November 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388303/insecticide-space-spraying-for-preventing-malaria-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Joseph Pryce, Leslie Choi, Marty Richardson, David Malone
BACKGROUND: Space spraying is the dispersal of a liquid fog of insecticide into an outdoor area to kill adult insects. It has been regularly used in public health and pest control programmes, including use as an emergency response to malaria epidemics. This Cochrane Review aims to assist the decision-making of malaria vector control programmes by summarizing the evidence of the impact of space spraying on malaria transmission. OBJECTIVES: The review's primary objective was to evaluate the impact of space spraying on malaria transmission, or the incremental impact when applied in combination with other malaria control methods, in comparison to equivalent conditions with no space spraying intervention...
November 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388297/follow-up-services-for-improving-long-term-outcomes-in-intensive-care-unit-icu-survivors
#16
REVIEW
Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Sharon R Lewis, Andrew F Smith, Joanne McPeake, Phil Alderson
BACKGROUND: The intensive care unit (ICU) stay has been linked with a number of physical and psychological sequelae, known collectively as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Specific ICU follow-up services are relatively recent developments in health systems, and may have the potential to address PICS through targeting unmet health needs arising from the experience of the ICU stay. There is currently no single accepted model of follow-up service and current aftercare programmes encompass a variety of interventions and materials...
November 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387126/caseworker-assigned-discharge-plans-to-prevent-hospital-readmission-for-acute-exacerbations-in-children-with-chronic-respiratory-illness
#17
REVIEW
Kerry K Hall, Helen L Petsky, Anne B Chang, KerryAnn F O'Grady
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory conditions are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Children with chronic health conditions have increased morbidity associated with their physical, emotional, and general well-being. Acute respiratory exacerbations (AREs) are common in children with chronic respiratory disease, often requiring admission to hospital. Reducing the frequency of AREs and recurrent hospitalisations is therefore an important goal in the individual and public health management of chronic respiratory illnesses in children...
November 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383288/vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-for-preventing-dementia-or-delaying-cognitive-decline-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
REVIEW
Jenny McCleery, Rajesh P Abraham, David A Denton, Anne Ws Rutjes, Lee-Yee Chong, Aalya S Al-Assaf, Daniel J Griffith, Shireen Rafeeq, Hakan Yaman, Muzaffar A Malik, Marcello Di Nisio, Gabriel Martínez, Robin Wm Vernooij, Naji Tabet
BACKGROUND: Vitamins and minerals have many functions in the nervous system which are important for brain health. It has been suggested that various different vitamin and mineral supplements might be useful in maintaining cognitive function and delaying the onset of dementia. In this review, we sought to examine the evidence for this in people who already had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on cognitive function and the incidence of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment...
November 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383287/subpial-transection-surgery-for-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Balaji Krishnaiah, Sridharan Ramaratnam, Lakshmi Narasimhan Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Nearly 30% of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite using several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Such patients are regarded as having refractory, or uncontrolled, epilepsy. While there is no universally accepted definition of uncontrolled, or medically refractory, epilepsy, for the purposes of this review we will consider seizures as drug resistant if they have failed to respond to a minimum of two AEDs. Specialists consider that early surgical intervention may prevent seizures at a younger age, which in turn may improve the intellectual and social status of children...
November 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380586/action-observation-for-upper-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Lorenna Rdm Borges, Aline Bgs Fernandes, Luciana Protásio Melo, Ricardo O Guerra, Tania F Campos
BACKGROUND: Action observation (AO) is a physical rehabilitation approach that facilitates the occurrence of neural plasticity through the activation of the mirror-neural system, promoting motor recovery in people with stroke. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether action observation enhances motor function and upper limb motor performance and cortical activation in people with stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 4 September 2017), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (24 October 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 24 October 2017), Embase (1974 to 24 October 2017) and five additional databases...
October 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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