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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Yao Cheng, Jie Xia, Mingliang Lai, Nansheng Cheng, Sirong He
BACKGROUND: The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: For the initial version of this review, we searched the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), Embase (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015)...
October 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elisa Bruno, Alessandra Nicoletti, Graziella Quattrocchi, Graziella Filippini, Carlo Colosimo, Mario Zappia
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. Treatment primarily consists of pharmacological agents. While primidone and propranolol are well-established treatments in clinical practice, they may be ineffective in 25% to 55% of patients and can produce serious adverse events in a large percentage of them. For these reasons, it is worth evaluating the treatment alternatives for essential tremor. Some specialists have suggested that pregabalin could be a potentially useful agent, but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kerry Dwan, Carrie A Phillipi, Robert D Steiner, Donald Basel
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by a genetic defect resulting in an abnormal type I collagen bone matrix which typically results in multiple fractures with little or no trauma. Bisphosphonates are used in an attempt to increase bone mineral density and reduce these fractures in people with osteogenesis imperfecta. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates in increasing bone mineral density, reducing fractures and improving clinical function in people with osteogenesis imperfecta...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Daniel W Birch, Jerry T Dang, Noah J Switzer, Namdar Manouchehri, Xinzhe Shi, Ghassan Hadi, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carmel T Collins, Jennifer Gillis, Andrew J McPhee, Hiroki Suganuma, Maria Makrides
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants start milk feeds by gavage tube. As they mature, sucking feeds are gradually introduced. Women who choose to breast feed their preterm infant are not always able to be in hospital with their baby and need an alternative approach to feeding. Most commonly, milk (expressed breast milk or formula) is given by bottle. Whether using bottles during establishment of breast feeds is detrimental to breast feeding success is a topic of ongoing debate. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effects of avoidance of bottle feeds during establishment of breast feeding on the likelihood of successful breast feeding, and to assess the safety of alternatives to bottle feeds...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wai Cheng Foong, Jacqueline J Ho, C Khai Loh, Vip Viprakasit
BACKGROUND: Non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it is required when episodes of chronic anaemia occur. This chronic anaemia can impair growth and affect quality of life. People with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia suffer from iron overload due to their body's increased capability of absorbing iron from food sources...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura Deckx, An Im De Sutter, Linda Guo, Nabiel A Mir, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Many treatments for the common cold exist and are sold over-the-counter. Nevertheless, evidence on the effectiveness and safety of nasal decongestants is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, and short- and long-term safety, of nasal decongestants used in monotherapy to alleviate symptoms of the common cold in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 6, June 2016), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to July 2016), Embase (2010 to 15 July 2016), CINAHL (1981 to 15 July 2016), LILACS (1982 to July 2016), Web of Science (1955 to July 2016) and clinical trials registers...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zena Eh Moore, Menno T van Etten, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, which are localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both, occur when people are unable to reposition themselves to relieve pressure on bony prominences. Pressure ulcers are often difficult to heal, painful, and impact negatively on the individual's quality of life. International guidelines suggest bed rest as a component of the treatment strategy to manage pressure ulcers among wheelchair users. The potential benefits and risks need to be considered when assessing the effectiveness of bed rest as an intervention for treating pressure ulcers in this population...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Edna Pereira Gomes Morais, Rachel Riera, Gustavo Jm PorfĂ­rio, Cristiane R Macedo, Vivian Sarmento Vasconcelos, Alexsandra de Souza Pedrosa, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: Caesarean sections (CS) are the most frequent major surgery in the world. A transient impairment of bowel motility is expected after CS. Although this usually resolves spontaneously within a few days, it can cause considerable discomfort, require symptomatic medication and delay hospital discharge, thus increasing costs. Chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period is a simple intervention that may be effective in enhancing recovery of bowel function in other types of abdominal surgeries...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Berlinda Yeoh, Ursula Griebler, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Laura K Busert, Stefan K Lhachimi, Szimonetta Lohner, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels...
October 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Eva Rasmussen-Barr, Ulrike Held, Wilhelmus Ja Grooten, Pepijn Ddm Roelofs, Bart W Koes, Maurits W van Tulder, Maria M Wertli
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica...
October 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joseph Em van Agteren, Kristin V Carson, Leong Ung Tiong, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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