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Seminars in Reproductive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278536/distinct-roles-of-cervical-epithelia-and-stroma-in-pregnancy-and-parturition
#1
Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy, Mala Mahendroo
Through pregnancy the cervix must simultaneously remain competent for pregnancy maintenance and yet become progressively compliant to ensure on time parturition. Cervical changes precede not only term but also preterm birth. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the cervix maintains the delicate balance between competence and compliance is required to prevent the potential for lifelong health complications that can result from a premature birth. Recent advances and accumulating evidence support distinct roles for the cervical epithelia and stroma in sustaining competence...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278535/recent-advances-in-uterine-fibroid-etiology
#2
Michelle M McWilliams, Vargheese M Chennathukuzhi
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyoma (UL), are monoclonal tumors of the smooth muscle tissue layer (myometrium) of the uterus. Although ULs are considered benign, uterine fibroids are the source of major quality-of-life issues for approximately 25% of all women, who suffer from clinically significant symptoms of UL. Despite the prevalence of UL, there is no treatment option for UL which is long term, cost-effective, and leaves fertility intact. The lack of understanding about the etiology of UL contributes to the scarcity of medical therapies available...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278534/transcription-and-splicing-factor-tdp-43-role-in-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-testis
#3
Prabhakara P Reddi
TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding Protein of 43 kD) is a transcription factor and RNA-binding protein with diverse functions. We cloned TDP-43 from the mouse testis in a screen for promoter-binding proteins and showed that it functions as a transcriptional repressor. TDP-43 plays a role in maintaining the precise pattern of spatiotemporal expression of the spermatid-specific Acrv1 gene during spermatogenesis by facilitating RNA polymerase II pausing at the promoter. We also showed that TDP-43 plays a partial role in preventing somatic cell expression of the Acrv1 gene by acting as an insulator-binding protein...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278533/fertility-preservation-in-2016-where-are-we
#4
Anu David, Lisa Jeannette Green, Ariella Shikanov
This review focuses on advances in the field of fertility preservation achieved over the past few decades. The main purpose of fertility preservation is to help young cancer survivors retain their fertility by restoring either their ability to procreate or simply their reproductive endocrine function. Although different options are available in this regard, successful fertility preservation is yet to reach its full potential. Herein, we review the most significant work conducted over the past five decades and present new methodologies...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278532/genetics-of-reproductive-aging-from-gonadal-dysgenesis-through-menopause
#5
Swapna Desai, Aleksandar Rajkovic
Reproduction is essential for the survival of the species and is influenced by external factors such as smoking and exposure to chemotherapy as well as chronic disorders such as obesity and autoimmunity. Reproductive senescence, such as menopause, is also dependent on multiple intrinsic genetic factors. Reproductive aging is not isolated from an overall aging process, and several studies strongly support the link between the early age of menopause and mortality. The extreme form of reproductive aging is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) with prevalence ranging from 1 to 5% of the female population...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278531/of-mice-and-men-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification
#6
Deepti Lava Kumar, Tony DeFalco
Specification of mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of sperm and eggs, involves three major molecular events: repression of the somatic program, reacquisition of pluripotency, and reprogramming to a unique epigenetic ground state. Gene knockout studies in mouse models, along with global transcriptome analyses, have revealed the key signaling pathways and transcription factors essential for PGC specification. Knowledge obtained from these studies has been utilized extensively to develop robust in vitro PGC induction models not only in mice but also in humans...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278530/developmental-origins-of-hypothalamic-cells-controlling-reproduction
#7
Matthew Joseph Biehl, Lori Therese Raetzman
The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the most critical modulator of reproductive function. Genetic or environmental insults to the HPG axis during developmental windows can persist into adulthood, and processes such as gonadal hormone synthesis, timing of puberty, and fertility can be affected. At the level of the hypothalamus, multiple regions develop at different times and are under the control of a concert of signaling pathways and transcription factors required for their patterning and maturation...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278529/innovations-in-reproductive-sciences
#8
T Rajendra Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278528/t-rajendra-kumar-phd
#9
Serdar Bulun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278527/the-importance-of-facts-and-the-role-of-academic-publishers-in-today-s-world-a-publisher-s-view
#10
Daniel Schiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212593/micrornas-and-endometriosis-distinguishing-drivers-from-passengers-in-disease-pathogenesis
#11
Warren B Nothnick
Endometriosis is a disease common in women of reproductive age, characterized by pelvic pain and infertility. Despite its prevalence, the factors and mechanisms which contribute to the development and survival of ectopic lesions remain uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate posttranscriptional gene regulation which have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases including that of endometriosis. This review summarizes the results of initial studies describing differentially expressed miRNAs between endometriotic lesion tissue and eutopic endometrium...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212592/novel-insights-into-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-action-in-the-pituitary-gonadotrope
#12
Jessica L Brown, Mark Roberson
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction via a series of hormones regulating gonadal function through interconnected feedback loops. Secretion of hypothalamic-derived gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) integrates inputs from higher brain centers to coordinate the activity of the pituitary gonadotrope and the biosynthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins which ultimately regulate gonadal function. Failure of GnRH to serve as the central integrator of this system has been associated with hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism and clinical infertility, while pharmacological application of GnRH analogs and gonadotropins have important implications of the treatment of such infertility...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076877/ultrasound-imaging-for-ovarian-and-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis
#13
Caterina Exacoustos, Errico Zupi, Emilio Piccione
The main challenges of imaging for endometriosis are the detection of nonovarian disease and the evaluation of the extension of the disease into pelvic structures. Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) has been proposed as the first-line imaging technique because it allows extensive exploration of the pelvis. The "typical" endometrioma is a unilocular cyst with homogeneous low-level echogenicity (ground glass echogenicity) of the cyst fluid. The use of color Doppler helps avoid classifying malignancies as endometriomas, defining the presence of vascular flow in papillations...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049216/cancer-implications-for-patients-with-endometriosis
#14
Mary Ann Wilbur, Ie-Ming Shih, James H Segars, Amanda N Fader
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of viable endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterus. It is a common disease, occurring in 5 to 15% of all women. Endometriosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility and often requires surgical intervention for definitive treatment. Although it is a benign gynecologic condition, endometriosis shares pathophysiologic features with cancer. In recent years, both histologic and epidemiologic evidence has accumulated, suggesting that ovarian endometriosis may give rise to malignant ovarian tumors, primarily those that are epithelial in origin, known as endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) including ovarian clear cell carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and the least common, seromucinous tumors...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049215/surgical-management-of-endometriosis-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain
#15
Rebecca Flyckt, Suejin Kim, Tommaso Falcone
Surgical approaches to endometriosis patients with chronic pelvic pain are multimodal and require individualization. Laparoscopic approaches are preferred over laparotomy when conservatively treating endometriosis via excision or ablation/fulguration of lesions. The available data support cystectomy over fenestration or fulguration for endometriomas; however, there may be associated decreases in ovarian reserve with endometrioma treatment. Presacral neurectomy may be useful in patients with midline pain and LUNA is not effective for the treatment of pelvic pain related to endometriosis...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049214/relating-chronic-pelvic-pain-and-endometriosis-to-signs-of-sensitization-and-myofascial-pain-and-dysfunction
#16
Jacqueline V Aredo, Katrina J Heyrana, Barbara I Karp, Jay P Shah, Pamela Stratton
Chronic pelvic pain is a frustrating symptom for patients with endometriosis and is frequently refractory to hormonal and surgical management. While these therapies target ectopic endometrial lesions, they do not directly address pain due to central sensitization of the nervous system and myofascial dysfunction, which can continue to generate pain from myofascial trigger points even after traditional treatments are optimized. This article provides a background for understanding how endometriosis facilitates remodeling of neural networks, contributing to sensitization and generation of myofascial trigger points...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002850/medical-management-of-endometriosis-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain
#17
Mohamed A Bedaiwy, Catherine Allaire, Paul Yong, Sukinah Alfaraj
Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. Traditional medical therapies are hormonal in nature, including estrogen-progestin contraceptives, progestins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Other hormonal options are androgens and aromatase inhibitors, with research also suggesting a possible role for GnRH antagonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators. Other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, further work is required for nonhormonal therapies such as antiangiogenic and immune-modulating drugs...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992932/endometriosis-in-the-adolescent-patient
#18
Mallory A Stuparich, Nicole M Donnellan, Joseph S Sanfilippo
The recognition and management of endometriosis in the adolescent patient is challenging. A strong clinical suspicion for endometriosis should be maintained in the adolescent who suffers from acyclic pelvic pain as well as absenteeism from school and lack of participation in daily activities. Risk factors include the presence of an obstructive Mullerian anomaly, a family history of endometriosis, and conditions that prolong exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens. Empiric medical therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and combined oral contraceptive pills may be considered in most adolescents with endometriosis...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992931/extrapelvic-endometriosis
#19
Anne C Davis, Jeffrey M Goldberg
Extrapelvic endometriosis is a rare and complex phenomenon. The pathologic mechanism of intrapelvic endometriosis is generally accepted as being largely due to retrograde menstruation through the fallopian tubes; however, the mechanism by which extrapelvic endometriosis forms has proven to be much more elusive. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic techniques, and treatment recommendations for extrapelvic endometriosis of the umbilicus, abdominal wall, thorax, and vulva...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975335/tommaso-falcone-md-frcs-c-facog
#20
Serdar Bulun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
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