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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416148/alterations-in-autonomic-cerebrovascular-control-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Dong-Il Kim, Can Ozan Tan
Among chronic cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) is an up-to four-fold increase in the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, suggesting that individuals with SCI cannot maintain stable cerebral perfusion. In able-bodied individuals, the cerebral vasculature is able to regulate cerebral perfusion in response to swings in arterial pressure (cerebral autoregulation), blood gases (cerebral vasoreactivity), and neural metabolic demand (neurovascular coupling). This ability depends, at least partly, on intact autonomic function, but high thoracic and cervical spinal cord injuries result in disruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic cerebrovascular control...
April 4, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#2
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347639/neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-mouse-pelvic-ganglia-effects-of-neurotrophins-and-bladder-tissue
#3
Mari Ekman, Baoyi Zhu, Karl Swärd, Bengt Uvelius
Neurotrophic factors regulate survival and growth of neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated via both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons located in the major pelvic ganglion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the sprouting rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites from the female mouse ganglion. The pelvic ganglion was dissected out and attached to a petri dish and cultured in vitro...
March 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391987/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-reactivity-to-psychological-stress-neurophysiological-substrates-and-links-to-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Annie T Ginty, Thomas E Kraynak, James P Fisher, Peter J Gianaros
Psychologically stressful experiences evoke changes in cardiovascular physiology that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But what are the neural circuits and intermediate physiological pathways that link stressful experiences to cardiovascular changes that might in turn confer disease risk? This question is important because it has broader implications for our understanding of the neurophysiological pathways that link stressful and other psychological experiences to physical health. This review highlights selected findings from brain imaging studies of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and CVD risk...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344023/cardiac-vagal-control-in-a-knock-in-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-a-troponin-mutation
#5
Dong-Yun Zhan, Cheng-Kun Du, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Sachio Morimoto, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada, Mikiyasu Shirai, James T Pearson
The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac vagal nerve activity and identify the abnormality of cardiac vagal control in heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using a knock-in mouse model with a ΔK210 mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene. The effects of electrical stimulation of the cervical vagal nerve at 5 and 10Hz (peripheral vagal control) and α2-adrennoceptor stimulation by intravenous medetomidine at 0.1mg/kg (central vagal control) were examined in wild-type (WT) mice and DCM mice...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325598/sudomotor-dysfunction-as-a-measure-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#6
Lynn Ang, Mamta Jaiswal, Brian Callaghan, David Raffel, Morton B Brown, Rodica Pop-Busui
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether measuring the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), as an indirect measure of sudomotor function, may be also a reliable surrogate for early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: Longitudinal study included 37 type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (mean age 38±13years, duration 15±7years, HbA1c 7.9±1.1%, no known complications at baseline), and 40 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Mean hands ESC (ESChands) and feet (ESCfeet) were measured with the SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, France)...
March 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238671/cardiac-autonomic-ganglia-ablation-suppresses-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-intermittent-hypoxia
#7
Xiaomei Yu, Zhibing Lu, Wenbo He, Bo He, Ruisong Ma, Jing Xie, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with hypoxia in which cardiac autonomic nerve system (ANS) plays an important role. Our previous studies indicated that ANS is activated in an intermittent hypoxia model and contributes to AF initiation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cardiac ganglionated plexus (GP) ablation on AF in this model. METHODS AND RESULTS: In thirteen anesthetized male dogs, GP ablation was applied after 1h of intermittent hypoxia in the first group (n=7) and before that in the second group (n=6)...
February 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242182/desipramine-increases-cardiac-parasympathetic-activity-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-mechanism-in-rats
#8
Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Atsunori Kamiya, Masaru Sugimachi
Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α2-adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg(-1)) were examined in anesthetized rats...
February 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228335/alterations-in-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Fin Biering-Sørensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Nan Liu, Lasse Malmqvist, Jill Maria Wecht, Andrei Krassioukov
A spinal cord injury (SCI) interferes with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect on the cardiovascular system will depend on the extent of damage to the spinal/central component of ANS. The cardiac changes are caused by loss of supraspinal sympathetic control and relatively increased parasympathetic cardiac control. Decreases in sympathetic activity result in heart rate and the arterial blood pressure changes, and may cause arrhythmias, in particular bradycardia, with the risk of cardiac arrest in those with cervical or high thoracic injuries...
February 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209424/changes-in-sympathetic-neurovascular-function-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Hussain Al Dera, James A Brock
The effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on sympathetic neurovascular transmission have generally been ignored. This review describes changes in sympathetic nerve-mediated activation of arterial vessels to which ongoing sympathetic activity has been reduced or silenced following spinal cord transection in rats. In all vessels studied in rats, SCI markedly enhanced their contractile responses to nerve activity. However, the mechanisms that augment neurovascular transmission differ between the rat tail artery and mesenteric artery...
February 11, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254195/bdnf-and-ampa-receptors-in-the-cnts-modulate-the-hyperglycemic-reflex-after-local-carotid-body-nacn-stimulation
#11
R Cuéllar, S Montero, S Luquín, J García-Estrada, V Melnikov, A Virgen-Ortiz, M Lemus, M Pineda-Lemus, E de Álvarez-Buylla
The application of sodium cyanide (NaCN) to the carotid body receptors (CBR) (CBR stimulation) induces rapid blood hyperglycemia and an increase in brain glucose retention. The commissural nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) is an essential relay nucleus in this hyperglycemic reflex; it receives glutamatergic afferents (that also release brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) from the nodose-petrosal ganglia that relays CBR information. Previous work showed that AMPA in NTS blocks hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention after CBR stimulation...
February 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173996/perifornical-hypothalamic-pathway-to-the-adrenal-gland-role-for-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-glucose-counter-regulatory-response
#12
A Sabetghadam, W S Korim, A J M Verberne
Adrenaline is an important counter-regulatory hormone that helps restore glucose homeostasis during hypoglycaemia. However, the neurocircuitry that connects the brain glucose sensors and the adrenal sympathetic outflow to the chromaffin cells is poorly understood. We used electrical microstimulation of the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) combined with adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) recording to examine the relationship between the RVLM, the PeH and ASNA...
February 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717709/cns-sites-activated-by-renal-pelvic-epithelial-sodium-channels-enacs-in-response-to-hypertonic-saline-in-awake-rats
#13
REVIEW
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530600/can-we-predict-the-blood-pressure-response-to-renal-denervation
#14
REVIEW
Gregory D Fink, Jeremiah T Phelps
Renal denervation (RDN) is a new therapy used to treat drug-resistant hypertension in the clinical setting. Published human trials show substantial inter-individual variability in the blood pressure (BP) response to RDN, even when technical aspects of the treatment are standardized as much as possible between patients. Widespread acceptance of RDN for treating hypertension will require accurate identification of patients likely to respond to RDN with a fall in BP that is clinically significant in magnitude, well-maintained over time and does not cause adverse consequences...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527558/integration-of-renal-sensory-afferents-at-the-level-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-dictating-sympathetic-outflow
#15
REVIEW
Hong Zheng, Kaushik P Patel
The sympathetic nervous system has been identified as a major contributor to the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, both in experimental animal models and patients. The kidneys have a dense afferent sensory innervation positioning it to be the origin of multimodal input to the central nervous system. Afferent renal nerve (ARN) signals are centrally integrated, and their activation results in a general increase in sympathetic tone, which is directed toward the kidneys as well as other peripheral organs innervated by the sympathetic nerves...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514571/eppur-si-muove-the-dynamic-nature-of-physiological-control-of-renal-blood-flow-by-the-renal-sympathetic-nerves
#16
REVIEW
Alicia M Schiller, Peter Ricci Pellegrino, Irving H Zucker
Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202248/possible-role-of-adrenoceptors-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-corticotropin-releasing-factor-induced-sympatho-adrenomedullary-outflow-in-rats
#17
Shoshiro Okada, Naoko Yamaguchi
AIMS: A functional interaction between the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and noradrenergic neurons in the brain has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the interrelationship between the central CRF-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines and adrenoceptor activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) using urethane-anesthetized rats. MAIN METHODS: In rats under urethane anesthesia, a femoral venous line was inserted for infusion of saline, and a femoral arterial line was inserted for collecting blood samples...
March 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010995/profiling-subjective-symptoms-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-cybersickness
#18
Alireza Mazloumi Gavgani, Keith V Nesbitt, Karen L Blackmore, Eugene Nalivaiko
Our aim was to expand knowledge of cybersickness - a subtype of motion sickness provoked by immersion into a moving computer-generated virtual reality. Fourteen healthy subjects experienced a 15-min rollercoaster ride presented via a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), for 3 consecutive days. Heart rate, respiration, finger and forehead skin conductance were measured during the experiment; this was complemented by a subjective nausea rating during the ride and by Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire before, immediately after and then 1, 2 and 3h post-ride...
March 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839717/vagal-cardiac-efferent-innervation-in-f344-rats-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#19
Zixi Jack Cheng
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which is a physiological consequence of obstructive sleep apnea, reduces baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). Previously, we showed that the heart rate (HR) response to electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent nerve was significantly increased following CIH in F344 rats. Since vagal cardiac efferent from the nucleus ambiguus (NA) project to cardiac ganglia and regulate HR, we hypothesized that vagal cardiac efferent innervation of cardiac ganglia is reorganized. Young adult F344 rats were exposed either to room air (RA) or to intermittent hypoxia for 35-50days...
March 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161248/how-is-chronic-pain-related-to-sympathetic-dysfunction-and-autonomic-dysreflexia-following-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Edgar T Walters
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and neuropathic pain occur after severe injury to higher levels of the spinal cord. Mechanisms underlying these problems have rarely been integrated in proposed models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several parallels suggest significant overlap of these mechanisms, although the relationships between sympathetic function (dysregulated in AD) and nociceptive function (dysregulated in neuropathic pain) are complex. One general mechanism likely to be shared is central sensitization - enhanced responsiveness and synaptic reorganization of spinal circuits that mediate sympathetic reflexes or that process and relay pain-related information to the brain...
January 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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