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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117918/lack-of-soluble-circulating-cardiodepressant-factors-in-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#1
Chiara Sonnino, Benjamin W Van Tassell, Stefano Toldo, Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, F Gerard Moeller, Antonio Abbate
Circulating cardiodepressant factors were found to mediate cardiac dysfunction in patients with sepsis and acute systolic heart failure. To investigate the presence of circulating cardiodepressant factors in patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC), plasma samples were collected from 4 patients with TC, 3 with septic shock, 5 with acute systolic heart failure and 4 healthy controls and injected intraperitoneally in mice. The cardiodepressant effects are measured with transthoracic echocardiography. Plasma injection from control and TC subjects had no effects on left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) whereas plasma from the other two groups induced a significant reduction in LVEF...
November 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104018/the-influence-of-midazolam-on-heart-rate-arises-from-cardiac-autonomic-tones-alterations-in-burmese-pythons-python-molurus
#2
Ivã Guidini Lopes, Vinicius Araújo Armelin, Victor Hugo da Silva Braga, Luiz Henrique Florindo
The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam is a compound widely used as a tranquilizer and sedative in mammals and reptiles. It is already known that this benzodiazepine produces small to intermediate heart rate (HR) alterations in mammals, however, its influence on reptiles' HR remains unexplored. Thus, the present study sought to verify the effects of midazolam on HR and cardiac modulation in the snake Python molurus. To do so, the snakes' HR, cardiac autonomic tones, and HR variability were evaluated during four different experimental stages...
October 28, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108935/effect-of-the-stroop-test-performed-in-supine-position-on-the-heart-rate-variability-in-both-genders
#3
Rastislav Vazan, Diana Filcikova, Boris Mravec
The effect of Stroop test (ST)-induced stress on autonomic nervous system activity is often examined via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV may be significantly affected by interfering factors, including vocalization and inappropriate body position. Surprisingly, published studies ignore these issues, so the aim of our study was to test the innovative procedure for correct HRV measurement in individuals exposed to ST. Moreover, we examined possible gender differences in HRV and heart rate (HR) during ST...
October 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104019/symptomatic-therapy-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#4
REVIEW
Guido Rohrer, Günter U Höglinger, Johannes Levin
Multiple system atrophy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the association of autonomic failure and a movement disorder that consist of either a hypokinetic movement disorder or a cerebellar syndrome or both. In addition to these core characteristics other movement disorders (e.g. dystonia, myoclonus, spasticity), and neuropsychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, cognitive dysfunction) may occur in the course of the disease and can severely impair patients' quality of live. To date no causal therapy is available and therefore symptomatic treatment plays a pivotal role in patient care...
October 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111419/diagnosis-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#5
REVIEW
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias...
October 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107740/autonomic-function-testing-compliance-and-consequences
#6
Thorsten Kamlarczyk Rasmussen, John Hansen, Phillip A Low, Paola Sandroni, Wolfgang Singer, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Astrid Juhl Terkelsen
BACKGROUND: The deep breathing test (DB) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) are used to detect autonomic dysfunction. The VM induces sympathetically mediated changes in blood pressure (phase II late, phase IV, and recovery time) and both tests induce vagally mediated heart rate changes. There is limited information on effects of key variables, compliance with testing and the effects of non-compliance This study has twin goals of evaluating compliance with standard instructions and the effects of changes in key variables...
October 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102382/the-heart-in-parkinson-s-disease-opening-pandora-s-box
#7
LETTER
Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza, Josef Finsterer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029974/altered-cardiac-gene-expression-of-noradrenaline-enzymes-transporter-and-%C3%AE-adrenoceptors-in-rat-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Sladjana Dronjak, Bojana Stefanovic, Predrag Jovanovic, Natasa Spasojevic, Milica Jankovic, Ivica Jeremic, Markus Hoffmann
Baseline sympathetic activity was found to be elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and it is related to increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Although many studies have highlighted the association between RA and increased cardiac sympathetic activity, the underlying mechanistic links remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to understand how diseases-triggered changes in gene expression may result in maladaptive physiological changes. Our results suggest that the equilibrium between noradrenaline synthesis, release and reuptake was disrupted in the ventricles of arthritic rats...
October 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108934/cardiovascular-control-is-associated-with-pair-bond-success-in-male-prairie-voles
#9
Robert Lewis, Brek Wilkins, Bruce Benjamin, J Thomas Curtis
Social support structures reduce mortality and morbidity in humans, but the mechanisms underlying these reductions are not fully understood. The prevailing hypothesis is that social support buffers stress and reduces allostatic load, thereby increasing longevity. However, the possibility that affiliative social interactions confer health benefits independent of stress buffering is understudied. We examined autonomic function in prairie voles - arguably the premier species for modeling human social affiliation - to assess the possibility that the formation of strong social bonds alters autonomic function and contributes to health benefits...
October 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017831/translational-therapies-for-multiple-system-atrophy-bottlenecks-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Nadia Stefanova
Over the last decade a prominent amount of studies in preclinical transgenic models of multiple system atrophy (MSA) has been performed. These studies have helped understand mechanisms downstream to the α-synuclein oligodendroglial accumulation relevant to human MSA. However, the successful translation of the preclinical outcomes into a clinical trial has failed. Looking back, we can now identify possible confounders for the failure. Biomarkers of disease progression are mostly missing. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapeutic clinical trials is limited...
October 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986003/postural-tachycardia-in-hypermobile-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-a-distinct-subtype
#11
Mitchell G Miglis, Brittany Schultz, Srikanth Muppidi
INTRODUCTION: It is not clear if patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) differ from patients with POTS due to other etiologies. We compared the results of autonomic testing and healthcare utilization in POTS patients with and without hEDS. METHODS: Patients with POTS+hEDS (n=20) and POTS controls without hypermobility (n=20) were included in the study. All patients underwent autonomic testing, and the electronic medical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medications patients were taking, as well as the number of outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient visits over the prior year...
October 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988803/effects-of-the-bioactive-peptides-ile-pro-pro-and-val-pro-pro-upon-autonomic-neurotransmission-and-blood-pressure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Hidetoshi Miyazaki, Teppei Nakamura, Kohji Ohki, Katsuya Nagai
The bioactive peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) are believed to improve blood pressure and arterial function. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the action of these peptides, we investigated their effects upon autonomic neurotransmission and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both IPP and VPP caused a significant reduction in cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP); however, both of these effects were eliminated following sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy...
September 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967580/autonomic-consequences-of-spinal-cord-injury
#13
EDITORIAL
J Andrew Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967579/distribution-of-fos-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-ventral-part-of-rat-medulla-following-voluntary-treadmill-exercise
#14
Nao Kumada, Satoshi Koba, Eri Hanai, Tatsuo Watanabe
The ventral part of the medulla, which contains important cardiovascular regions, is reportedly activated during exercise. Nevertheless, it was uncertain which region(s) in the ventral medulla are specifically activated by exercise. The present study aimed to demonstrate a general pattern of exercise-specific distribution of excited neuronal cells in the rat ventral medulla. Via immunohistochemical experiments, we mapped tyrosine hydroxylase- and Fos-immunoreactive cells (TH-IR and Fos-IR cells, respectively) on rat medullary coronal sections following a bout of voluntary treadmill exercise, a comparative control period, or after pharmacologically induced-hypotension under anesthesia...
September 22, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941985/stimulation-of-ganglionated-plexus-attenuates-cardiac-neural-remodeling-and-heart-failure-progression-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-heart-failure-post-myocardial-infarction
#15
Da Luo, Huihui Hu, Zhiliang Qin, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Ruisong Ma, Wenbo He, Jing Xie, Zhibing Lu, Bo He, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups...
September 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964689/exercise-training-improves-hypertension-induced-autonomic-dysfunction-without-influencing-properties-of-peripheral-cardiac-vagus-nerve
#16
Octávio Barbosa Neto, Carla Cristina de Sordi, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Rosângela Soares Chriguer, Valdo José Dias da Silva
We examined the vagal transfer function of autonomic heart rate (HR) control in anesthetized sedentary and exercise-trained Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). To this end, male SHR and Wystar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with 48-50weeks of age-old were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SHRS, n=12) and trained (SHRT, n=14) hypertensive rats, sedentary (WKYS, n=13) and trained (WKYT, n=13) normotensive rats. The trained groups were submitted to swimming protocol for 9weeks. Blood pressure (BP), HR, HR variability (HRV), BP variability (BPV), baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac tonus were recorded in baseline conditions...
September 14, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927867/cardiovascular-autonomic-regulation-inflammation-and-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Ahmed M Adlan, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Gregory Y H Lip, Julian F R Paton, George D Kitas, James P Fisher
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) of unknown cause. We tested the hypothesis that low HRV, indicative of cardiac autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, was associated with systemic inflammation and pain. Given the high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in RA, a condition itself associated with low HRV, we also assessed whether the presence of hypertension further reduced HRV in RA. METHODS: In RA-normotensive (n=13), RA-HTN (n=17), normotensive controls (NC; n=17) and HTN (n=16) controls, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded...
September 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916152/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
September 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#19
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887003/effects-of-acupuncture-at-the-st-36-point-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure-in-normal-adults
#20
Kenichi Kimura, Kazuya Ishida, Noriyo Takahashi, Yasushi Toge, Fumihiro Tajima
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of acupuncture on post-ganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. MSNA was measured in 8 healthy adult males by microneurography evaluation of the left peroneal nerve. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were simultaneously recorded. MSNA was evaluated as the burst rate, with total MSNA, BP and HR normalized to their respective baseline values. After 10min of rest in the supine position, acupuncture was applied to the right ST-36 point in the tibialis anterior muscle for 15min, with recovery then monitored over a 20-min period...
September 1, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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