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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941985/stimulation-of-ganglionated-plexus-attenuates-cardiac-neural-remodeling-and-heart-failure-progression-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-heart-failure-post-myocardial-infarction
#1
Da Luo, Huihui Hu, Zhiliang Qin, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Ruisong Ma, Wenbo He, Jing Xie, Zhibing Lu, Bo He, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups...
September 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927867/cardiovascular-autonomic-regulation-inflammation-and-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Ahmed M Adlan, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Gregory Y H Lip, Julian F R Paton, George D Kitas, James P Fisher
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) of unknown cause. We tested the hypothesis that low HRV, indicative of cardiac autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, was associated with systemic inflammation and pain. Given the high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in RA, a condition itself associated with low HRV, we also assessed whether the presence of hypertension further reduced HRV in RA. METHODS: In RA-normotensive (n=13), RA-HTN (n=17), normotensive controls (NC; n=17) and HTN (n=16) controls, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded...
September 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916152/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
September 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#4
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887003/effects-of-acupuncture-at-the-st-36-point-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure-in-normal-adults
#5
Kenichi Kimura, Kazuya Ishida, Noriyo Takahashi, Yasushi Toge, Fumihiro Tajima
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of acupuncture on post-ganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. MSNA was measured in 8 healthy adult males by microneurography evaluation of the left peroneal nerve. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were simultaneously recorded. MSNA was evaluated as the burst rate, with total MSNA, BP and HR normalized to their respective baseline values. After 10min of rest in the supine position, acupuncture was applied to the right ST-36 point in the tibialis anterior muscle for 15min, with recovery then monitored over a 20-min period...
September 1, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870754/clinical-and-non-clinical-depression-and-anxiety-in-young-people-a-scoping-review-on-heart-rate-variability
#6
REVIEW
Melissa Paniccia, David Paniccia, Scott Thomas, Tim Taha, Nick Reed
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, has emerged as a physiological indicator for emotional regulation and psychological well-being. HRV is understudied in the context of depression and anxiety in young people (10-24years old). Main objectives: (1) describe the nature and breadth of reviewed studies; and (2) synthesize main findings in the context of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression and/or anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919363/thoracic-spinal-cord-and-cervical-vagosympathetic-neuromodulation-obtund-nodose-sensory-transduction-of-myocardial-ischemia
#7
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, David Gibbons, Matthew Hammer, Donald B Hoover, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation therapy involving either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or spinal cord stimulation (SCS) represents emerging bioelectronic therapies for heart disease. The objective of this study was to determine if VNS and/or SCS modulate primary cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Using extracellular recordings in 19 anesthetized canines, of 88 neurons evaluated, 36 ventricular-related nodose ganglia sensory neurons were identified by their functional activity responses to epicardial touch, chemical activation of their sensory neurites (epicardial veratridine) and great vessel (descending aorta or inferior vena cava) occlusion...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844537/baroreflex-autonomic-control-in-human-spinal-cord-injury-physiology-measurement-and-potential-alterations
#8
REVIEW
Adina E Draghici, J Andrew Taylor
The arterial baroreflex is a primary regulator of autonomic outflow to effectively regulate acute changes in blood pressure. After a spinal cord injury (SCI), regulation of autonomic function is disrupted, although the damage of the autonomic pathways may not necessarily be related to the severity of injury (i.e. level and completeness). Nonetheless, it can be assumed that there would be greater loss of sympathetic innervation with higher level of injury and that cardiac parasympathetic control would remain intact regardless of injury level...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843459/site-and-type-of-craniopharyngiomas-impact-differently-on-24-hour-circadian-rhythms-and-surgical-outcome-a-neurophysiological-evaluation
#9
M Foschi, L Sambati, M Zoli, G Pierangeli, A Cecere, F Mignani, G Barletta, C Sturiale, M Faustini-Fustini, L Milanese, P Cortelli, D Mazzatenta, F Provini
This study aimed to quantify 24h body core temperature (BcT°) and sleep-wake cycle rhythm alterations in craniopharyngioma (CP) patients and to identify markers related to the postsurgical outcomes. Ten consecutive CP patients underwent neuroradiological, endocrinological and ophthalmological evaluations, 24h BcT° and sleep-wake cycle recordings before and after endoscopic endonasal surgery. The sample included four women and six men. Nocturnal sleep efficiency was pathologically reduced in eight patients before surgery...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867372/key-themes-and-future-prospects-in-translational-multiple-system-atrophy-research
#10
REVIEW
S Eschlboeck, F Krismer, G K Wenning
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a highly variable clinical presentation. Unfortunately, there exists no effective therapy that can improve the course of the disease and symptomatic treatment options remain limited. Although significant progress in research has improved our understanding of MSA, knowledge gaps still remain. Thus, a global network focusing on different research areas is required to face this fatal disease.
August 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818528/autonomic-neuroscience-basic-and-clinical
#11
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Shoemaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807531/absent-cardiac-and-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activities-involvement-in-ross-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#12
E Fileccia, R Liguori, P Cortelli, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Ross syndrome (RS) is characterized by selective involvement of post-ganglionic skin sympathetic nerve fibres. We report a follow-up study in 4 patients to clarify whether in RS autonomic dysfunction spreads affecting also cardiovascular system. METHODS: The patients underwent cardiovascular reflexes (CVR) and microneurography recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) for a follow-up mean period of 5years. RESULTS: CVR and MSNA were normal at baseline and unchanged over the follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#13
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#14
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781164/imaging-sympathetic-neurogenic-ca-2-signaling-in-blood-vessels
#15
REVIEW
Withrow Gil Wier, Joseph R H Mauban
We review the information that has been provided by optical imaging experiments directed at understanding the role and effects of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the functioning of blood vessels. Earlier studies utilized electric field stimulation of nerve terminals (EFS) in isolated arteries and vascular tissues (ex vivo) to elicit SNA, but more recently, imaging studies have been conducted in vivo, enabling the study of SNA in truly physiological conditions. Ex vivo: In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of isolated arteries, the three sympathetic neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE), ATP and neuropeptide Y (NPY), elicit or modulate distinct patterns of Ca(2+) signaling, as revealed by confocal imaging of exogenous fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774803/temporal-stability-and-drivers-of-change-in-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#16
Mandy X Hu, Femke Lamers, Brenda W J H Penninx, Eco J C de Geus
OBJECTIVES: This study determined temporal stability of ambulatory measured cardiac autonomic activity for different time periods and investigated potential drivers of changes in this activity. METHODS: Data was drawn from baseline (n=2379), 2-year (n=2245), and 6-year (n=1876) follow-up from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Cardiac autonomic activity was measured with heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP)...
July 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728939/autonomic-dysreflexia-somatosympathetic-and-viscerosympathetic-vasoconstrictor-responses-to-innocuous-and-noxious-sensory-stimulation-below-lesion-in-human-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Rachael Brown, Alexander R Burton, Vaughan G Macefield
Autonomic dysreflexia is a dangerous elevation in blood pressure in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), produced by a spinally-mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Current dogma states that, apart from visceral inputs - such as those originating from a distended bladder or impacted colon - autonomic dysreflexia is triggered by noxious inputs below the lesion. However, while selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow in able-bodied subjects, such noxious inputs have no effects on blood pressure and skin blood flow in SCI individuals...
July 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765031/shifts-in-the-light-dark-cycle-increase-unpredictability-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#18
Lubos Molcan, Michal Zeman
Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) exhibit long-term circadian rhythms, which can be disturbed by shift work. On the other hand, short-term oscillations in HR and BP have a high prognostic value. Therefore, we aimed to determine if the short-term variability, complexity and entropy of HR and BP would be affected by a regular light/dark (LD) cycle and phase delay shifts of the LD cycle, leading to chronodisruption. Telemetry-monitored rats were exposed first to the regular LD cycle and then to shifts in LD for 8weeks...
September 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757278/distribution-and-chronotropic-effects-of-serotonin-in-the-zebrafish-heart
#19
Matthew R Stoyek, Michael G Jonz, Frank M Smith, Roger P Croll
Several lines of evidence suggest that serotonin (5-HT) has a regulatory role in cardiovascular function from embryogenesis through adulthood. However, the reported actions of 5-HT are often contradictory and include bradycardia or tachycardia, hypotension or hypertension, and vasodilation or vasoconstriction. Clarifying such cardiac effects requires further research and may benefit from utilizing a model simpler than the mammalian hearts traditionally used in these studies. In the present study, we describe the cardiac distribution and chronotropic responses of 5-HT in the zebrafish heart...
September 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#20
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
September 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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