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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522107/differences-in-neurohumoral-and-hemodynamic-response-to-prolonged-head-up-tilt-between-patients-with-high-and-normal-standing-norepinephrine-forms-of-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome
#1
Luka Crnošija, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Mila Lovrić, Anamari Junaković, Vladimir Miletić, Rujana Šprljan Alfirev, Antun Pavelić, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal timing for blood sample collection of catecholamines and the possible correlations between neurohumoral and hemodynamic responses to prolonged head-up tilt (HUT) in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). METHODS: Nineteen patients underwent a 30-minute, 70° HUT test. Blood samples (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine and dopamine) were taken in the 10th minute of supine, and 10th, 20th and 30th minutes of HUT. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the proportion of high and normal standing NE patients in the different time points...
May 11, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511917/evidence-of-the-role-of-the-vagal-nerves-as-a-monitor-in-the-gastrointestinal-renal-axis-of-natriuresis-in-human-effects-of-vagotomy
#2
Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios T Trafalis, Aris D Efstratopoulos, Emmanuel K Alifieris
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal regulation of natriuresis. Sixteen subjects without (group I) and sixteen subjects with a truncal vagotomy (group II), were given a daily diet of 18mmol of sodium for 5days (D1-D5). The sodium deficit for this period was calculated for each subject and on the morning of day-6 (D6), their cumulative deficit (E) was given as 3% NaCl. In both groups the subjects were divided to receive the hypertonic saline either orally (Ior, IIor) or intravenously (Iiv, IIiv)...
May 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506659/comparison-of-density-and-output-of-sweat-gland-in-tropical-africans-and-temperate-koreans
#3
JeongBeom Lee, YoungOh Shin
Modification of sweating could be due to changes in activated sweat gland density (ASGD) and/or activated sweat gland output (ASGO). The present study determined regional and inter-ethnic differences in ASGD and ASGO during passive heating between tropical natives (African, n=22) and temperate natives (Republic of Korean, n=25). Heat load was carried out by immersing the half body into a hot water bath for 30min. Tympanic temperature (Tty) and skin temperature (Ts) were measured. Mean body temperature (mTb) was calculated...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506502/autonomic-dysreflexia-after-spinal-cord-injury-systemic-pathophysiology-and-methods-of-management
#4
Khalid C Eldahan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has widespread physiological effects beyond the disruption of sensory and motor function, notably the loss of normal autonomic and cardiovascular control. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment segregates critical spinal sympathetic neurons from supraspinal modulation which can result in a syndrome known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is defined as episodic hypertension and concomitant baroreflex-mediated bradycardia initiated by unmodulated sympathetic reflexes in the decentralized cord...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506501/sympathetic-control-of-the-brain-circulation-appreciating-the-complexities-to-better-understand-the-controversy
#5
Patrice Brassard, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Although the human cerebral circulation is richly innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains debated. Several issues may be responsible for the conflicting conclusions reported in the animal vs. human literature in regards to the sympathetic control of the brain circulation. Furthermore, due to the physiological consequences associated with SNA blockade (e.g. changes in blood pressure and cardiac output), and differences in methodology (e...
May 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499865/implication-of-altered-autonomic-control-for-orthostatic-tolerance-in-sci
#6
REVIEW
Jill Maria Wecht, William A Bauman
Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X...
May 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473232/age-related-changes-in-immunoreactivity-for-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-in-carotid-body-glomus-cells-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Kouki Kato, Seigo Fushuku, Yoshio Yamamoto
The purpose of this study was to investigate immunoreactivity for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in carotid body (CB) glomus cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm) at 4 (prehypertensive stage), 8 (early stage of developmental hypertension), 12 (later stage of developmental hypertension), and 16weeks of age (established hypertensive stage). Age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) were used as controls. Staining properties for TH were similar between both strains at each age...
April 28, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506500/autonomic-and-electrocardiographic-findings-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Christopher H Gibbons, David K Simon, Meilin Huang, Barbara Tilley, Michael J Aminoff, Jacquelyn L Bainbridge, Matthew Brodsky, Roy Freeman, John Goudreau, Robert W Hamill, Sheng T Luo, Carlos Singer, Aleksandar Videnovic, Ivan Bodis-Wollner, Pei S Wong
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms and signs. Many reports suggest that diminished heart rate variability occurs early, even prior to the cardinal signs of PD. In a longitudinal study of PD, we evaluated whether heart rate variability (HRV) obtained using a 10-second ECG tracing, and the electrocardiographic QT-interval would be associated with PD severity and progression. Subjects were derived from a longitudinal study of 1741 individuals with early, stable PD...
April 14, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457670/implications-of-altered-autonomic-control-on-sports-performance-in-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Sebastian Cruz, Cheri A Blauwet
It is well known that athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience altered autonomic physiology that impacts their exercise capacity and sports performance. This is particularly relevant given the ever-increasing number of individuals with SCI who are actively engaged in sports at all levels, from community-based adaptive sports to elite Paralympic competitions. As such, the purpose of this article is to review the present literature regarding the implications of altered autonomic control on the safety and performance of athletes with SCI...
April 4, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416148/alterations-in-autonomic-cerebrovascular-control-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Dong-Il Kim, Can Ozan Tan
Among chronic cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) is an up-to four-fold increase in the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, suggesting that individuals with SCI cannot maintain stable cerebral perfusion. In able-bodied individuals, the cerebral vasculature is able to regulate cerebral perfusion in response to swings in arterial pressure (cerebral autoregulation), blood gases (cerebral vasoreactivity), and neural metabolic demand (neurovascular coupling). This ability depends, at least partly, on intact autonomic function, but high thoracic and cervical spinal cord injuries result in disruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic cerebrovascular control...
April 4, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#11
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347639/neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-mouse-pelvic-ganglia-effects-of-neurotrophins-and-bladder-tissue
#12
Mari Ekman, Baoyi Zhu, Karl Swärd, Bengt Uvelius
Neurotrophic factors regulate survival and growth of neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated via both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons located in the major pelvic ganglion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the sprouting rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites from the female mouse ganglion. The pelvic ganglion was dissected out and attached to a petri dish and cultured in vitro...
March 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391987/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-reactivity-to-psychological-stress-neurophysiological-substrates-and-links-to-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Annie T Ginty, Thomas E Kraynak, James P Fisher, Peter J Gianaros
Psychologically stressful experiences evoke changes in cardiovascular physiology that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But what are the neural circuits and intermediate physiological pathways that link stressful experiences to cardiovascular changes that might in turn confer disease risk? This question is important because it has broader implications for our understanding of the neurophysiological pathways that link stressful and other psychological experiences to physical health. This review highlights selected findings from brain imaging studies of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and CVD risk...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344023/cardiac-vagal-control-in-a-knock-in-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-a-troponin-mutation
#14
Dong-Yun Zhan, Cheng-Kun Du, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Sachio Morimoto, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada, Mikiyasu Shirai, James T Pearson
The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac vagal nerve activity and identify the abnormality of cardiac vagal control in heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using a knock-in mouse model with a ΔK210 mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene. The effects of electrical stimulation of the cervical vagal nerve at 5 and 10Hz (peripheral vagal control) and α2-adrennoceptor stimulation by intravenous medetomidine at 0.1mg/kg (central vagal control) were examined in wild-type (WT) mice and DCM mice...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325598/sudomotor-dysfunction-as-a-measure-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#15
Lynn Ang, Mamta Jaiswal, Brian Callaghan, David Raffel, Morton B Brown, Rodica Pop-Busui
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether measuring the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), as an indirect measure of sudomotor function, may be also a reliable surrogate for early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: Longitudinal study included 37 type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (mean age 38±13years, duration 15±7years, HbA1c 7.9±1.1%, no known complications at baseline), and 40 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Mean hands ESC (ESChands) and feet (ESCfeet) were measured with the SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, France)...
March 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238671/cardiac-autonomic-ganglia-ablation-suppresses-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-intermittent-hypoxia
#16
Xiaomei Yu, Zhibing Lu, Wenbo He, Bo He, Ruisong Ma, Jing Xie, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with hypoxia in which cardiac autonomic nerve system (ANS) plays an important role. Our previous studies indicated that ANS is activated in an intermittent hypoxia model and contributes to AF initiation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cardiac ganglionated plexus (GP) ablation on AF in this model. METHODS AND RESULTS: In thirteen anesthetized male dogs, GP ablation was applied after 1h of intermittent hypoxia in the first group (n=7) and before that in the second group (n=6)...
February 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043810/renal-sympathetic-nerve-blood-flow-and-epithelial-transport-responses-to-thermal-stress
#17
REVIEW
Thad E Wilson
Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717709/cns-sites-activated-by-renal-pelvic-epithelial-sodium-channels-enacs-in-response-to-hypertonic-saline-in-awake-rats
#18
REVIEW
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530600/can-we-predict-the-blood-pressure-response-to-renal-denervation
#19
REVIEW
Gregory D Fink, Jeremiah T Phelps
Renal denervation (RDN) is a new therapy used to treat drug-resistant hypertension in the clinical setting. Published human trials show substantial inter-individual variability in the blood pressure (BP) response to RDN, even when technical aspects of the treatment are standardized as much as possible between patients. Widespread acceptance of RDN for treating hypertension will require accurate identification of patients likely to respond to RDN with a fall in BP that is clinically significant in magnitude, well-maintained over time and does not cause adverse consequences...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527558/integration-of-renal-sensory-afferents-at-the-level-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-dictating-sympathetic-outflow
#20
REVIEW
Hong Zheng, Kaushik P Patel
The sympathetic nervous system has been identified as a major contributor to the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, both in experimental animal models and patients. The kidneys have a dense afferent sensory innervation positioning it to be the origin of multimodal input to the central nervous system. Afferent renal nerve (ARN) signals are centrally integrated, and their activation results in a general increase in sympathetic tone, which is directed toward the kidneys as well as other peripheral organs innervated by the sympathetic nerves...
May 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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