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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

A G Pauza, K Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, M Malinauskas, J I Lukosiene, P Alaburda, E Stankevicius, J Kupcinskas, Z Saladzinskas, A Tamelis, N Pauziene
Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the large bowel. Lately, imbalance of neuro-muscular transmission has been recognized as a major etiological factor for DD. Neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxant shown to have a widespread effect within the alimentary tract. Nevertheless, CGRPergic innervation of the enteric ganglia has never been considered in the context of motility impairment observed in DD patients. Changes in CGRP and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) abundance within enteric ganglia were investigated in sigmoid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic DD patients using quantitative fluorescence microscopy...
September 18, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Martin J Gillies, Yongzhi Huang, Jonathan A Hyam, Tipu Z Aziz, Alexander L Green
INTRODUCTION: The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is still controversial. The ACC has been implicated in such diverse functions as cognition, arousal and emotion in addition to motor and autonomic control. Therefore the ACC is the ideal candidate to orchestrate cardiovascular performance in anticipation of perceived skeletal activity. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the ACC forms part of the neural network of central command whereby cardiovascular performance is governed by a top-down mechanism...
September 15, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ryul Kim, Jin-Sun Jun
While the involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks is thought to play an integral role in the development of autonomic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is little evidence for an association between autonomic symptoms and striatal dopaminergic depletion. We compared dopamine transporter activity in striatal subregions with various autonomic symptoms covered by the SCOPA-AUT domains including gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual symptoms in 418 untreated patients with PD...
September 15, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance, including postural tachycardia syndrome, is often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In the vast majority of the cases, the gastrointestinal symptoms are not secondary to the orthostatic disorder, but rather just a comorbid condition. This concept is critical, since treatment aimed at the orthostatic condition will not improve the gastrointestinal symptoms. Only when the gastrointestinal symptoms develop in the upright position and improve or resolve in the supine position, they may be related to the orthostatic stress...
September 8, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Takashi Sonobe, Shuji Shimizu, Yohsuke Hayama, James T Pearson, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
To elucidate the abnormality of cardiac vagal control in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats, we measured left ventricular myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) release in response to α2 -adrenergic stimulation as an index of in vivo cardiac vagal nerve activity. A cardiac microdialysis technique was applied to the rat left ventricle, and the effect of α2 -adrenergic stimulation by intravenous medetomidine (100 μg/kg) on myocardial interstitial ACh levels was examined in anesthetized diabetic rats (4-6 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin) and age-matched control rats (protocol 1)...
September 8, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Somayeh Moradi, Atefeh Aminian, Alireza Abdollahi, Amin Jazayeri, Giti Ghamami, Vahid Nikoui, Azam Bakhtiarian, Farahnaz Jazaeri
Lithium is a widely used mood-stabilizing agent; however, it causes a variety of cardiovascular side effects including sinus node dysfunction. In this study we explored the potential adverse effects of lithium on cardiac chronotropic responsiveness, atrial tissue histology and gene expression in rats that were chronically treated with therapeutic doses of lithium. Male Wistar albino rats were given lithium chloride (2.5 g/kg) orally for 2 or 3 months. Following treatment, the atria were isolated and spontaneously beating rate and chronotropic responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation was evaluated in an organ bath...
September 7, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mahadevappa P Badanavalu, Malathi Srivatsan
Sympathetic neurons of SCG are dependent on availability of nerve growth factor (NGF) for their survival. SCG neurons express nicotinic receptors (nAChR) whose expression levels are modulated by nicotine. Nicotine exerts multiple effects on neurons, including neuroprotection, through nAChR binding. Although sympathetic neurons express robust levels of nAChR, a possible neuroprotective role for nicotine in these neurons is not well-understood. Therefore we determined the effect of nicotine exposure on survival of SCG neurons during NGF withdrawal in a well-established cell culture system...
September 4, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
B Frias, A A Phillips, J W Squair, A H X Lee, I Laher, A V Krassioukov
The mechanisms underlying bowel dysfunction after high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. However, impaired supraspinal sympathetic and parasympathetic control is likely a major contributing factor. Disruption of the descending autonomic pathways traversing the spinal cord was achieved by a T3 complete spinal cord transection, and colonic function was examined in vivo and ex vivo four weeks post-injury. Total gastrointestinal transit time (TGTT) was reduced and contractility of the proximal and distal colon was impaired due to reduced M3 receptor sensitivity...
September 1, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Angela J Grippo, Melissa-Ann L Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Neal McNeal, Suzanne L Bates, Danielle L Chandler, Elliott Ihm, Nalini Jadia
Improved understanding of how depression and social isolation interact to increase cardiac morbidity and mortality will improve public health. This experiment evaluated the effect of pharmacological autonomic blockade on cardiac and behavioral reactivity following social isolation in prairie voles. Experiment 1 validated the dose and time course of pharmacological autonomic antagonism of peripheral β-adrenergic (atenolol) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (atropine methyl nitrate), and Experiment 2 used a novel protocol to investigate behavioral responses in the tail suspension test during pharmacological autonomic blockade as a function of social isolation (vs...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
E Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M J Farnham, Zohra Kakall, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E Nedoboy, Paul M Pilowsky
Respiration and blood pressure are primarily controlled by somatic and autonomic motor neurones, respectively. Central cardiorespiratory control is critical in moment-to-moment survival, but it also has a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pathological conditions such as hypertension. The glial cells of the brain are non-neuronal cells with metabolic, immune, and developmental functions. Recent evidence shows that glia play an active role in supporting and regulating the neuronal circuitry which drives the cardiorespiratory system...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Christian E Deuter, Jan Nowacki, Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K Kuehl, Johannes B Finke, Isabel Dziobek, Christian Otte
The capacity to represent the emotional and mental states of others is referred to by the concept of empathy. Empathy further differentiates into an emotional and a cognitive subcomponent, which in turn is known to require a tacit perspective-taking process. However, whether the empathizer by himself needs to enter an affective state as a necessary precondition for emotional empathy remains a matter of debate. If empathy would require a vicarious emotional reaction, specific physiological markers of affective responding should be detectable in the empathizing person...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Hua-Zhi Wen, Ping Xie, Fu Zhang, Yu Ma, Yan-Ling Li, Sheng-Kai Xu
BACKGROUND: Electrical remodeling at infarct border zone (IBZ) has been shown to contribute to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction (MI). Sema3A has been demonstrated to reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is the receptor of Sema3A. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with NRP1 can ameliorate electrical remodeling at IBZ after MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wistar rats underwent sham operation (n = 20), the ligation of left coronary artery (MI group, n = 30), MI with control adenovirus (Ad group, n = 30), and MI with NRP1 adenovirus (NRP1 group, n = 30)...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
John R Ostergaard
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical syndrome of agitation and involuntary motor activity that particularly occurs in patients with severe acquired brain injury. The aim of the present study is to substantiate the assertion that paroxysmal non-epileptic attacks resembling PSH also occur in patients with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease), which is the most common neurodegenerative disease in children. The paper describes a case series of five patients with JNCL which during a period of fifteen years have been followed clinically and by consecutive investigations of the autonomic nervous system using heart rate variability (HRV) investigations...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Zhongxiang Cai, Mingyan Dai, Yijie Zhang, Hui Zhong, Tuantuan Tan, Mingwei Bao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on cardiac autonomic nervous activity and ventricular repolarization dynamicity in hyperthyroidism. METHODS: 57 consecutive patients first diagnosed of hyperthyroidism (HT group) and 55 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Control group) from March 2012 to March 2013 in our center were enrolled. All subjects underwent standard 12‑lead ECG and 24 h Holter recording at baseline. For the HT group, free triiodothyronine (FT3 ), free thyroxine (FT4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were monitored, and after they returned to normal all the examinations were redone...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Jung-Ick Byun, Jangsup Moon, Do-Yong Kim, Hyerim Shin, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Woo-Jin Lee, Han Sang Lee, Jin-Sun Jun, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
INTRODUCTION: Severity of orthostatic intolerance and the benefit of medical treatment in patients with delayed OH have not been elucidated. This study aimed to compare the symptom severity between classic and delayed OH and evaluate the efficacy of midodrine or pyridostigmine in patients with delayed OH. METHODS: This was an adjunctive study of previously reported randomized, open-label clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of midodrine or pyridostigmine for classic OH...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Hideki Tokuhisa, Hisayoshi Murai, Yoshitaka Okabe, Takuto Hamaoka, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Yusuke Mukai, Oto Inoue, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Soichiro Usui, Hiroshi Furusho, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
Augmented sympathetic nerve activity is associated with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Lipophilic statins reduce sympathetic nerve activity in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. However, little is known about whether all types of statins, regardless of solubility, reduce sympathetic nerve activity in HFpEF. We evaluated the effect of atorvastatin, a lipophilic statin, and rosuvastatin, a hydrophilic statin, on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in HFpEF patients...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Yang Mi, Qin Wu, Wanru Yuan, Fuxue Chen, Dongshu Du
The lack of precise therapies for stress-induced hypertension highlights the need to explore the process of blood pressure changes. Studies have shown that neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is associated with hypertension, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Microglia, are known to play dualistic protective and destructive roles, representing logical but challenging targets for improving stress-induced hypertension. Here, as a model, we used rats with stress-induced hypertension, and found that a switch from an immunoregulatory (M2) to a pro-inflammatory (M1) dominant response occurred in microglia during development of stress-induced hypertension...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Johanna Stenqvist, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Patrik Aronsson
Cholesterol rich membrane invaginations, caveolae, have important roles in various cellular activities, one of them being signal transduction. This signaling pathway seems to be affected during various bladder disorders and the current study aimed to elucidate the plausible involvement of caveolae mediated signal transduction during cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. Furthermore, the urothelial cholinergic part of ATP-evoked contractions and its possible link to caveolae were investigated. Cholinergic, as well as purinergic, contractile responses in rat urinary bladders were examined using a classic organ bath set-up with full-thickness strip preparations or a whole bladder model that enabled luminal administration of substances...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Calvin S Pohl, Elizabeth M Lennon, Yihang Li, Morgan P DeWilde, Adam J Moeser
The cholinergic system plays a central role in regulating critical gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion, barrier and immune function. In rodent models of acute, non-infectious gastrointestinal injury, the cholinergic system functions to inhibit inflammation; however, during inflammation local expression and regulation of the cholinergic system is not well known, particularly during infectious enteritis. The objective of this study was to determine the intrinsic expression of the enteric cholinergic system in pig ileum following an acute challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (S...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Lívia P Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata G Mendes, Ramona Cabiddu, Paula A Ricci, Renata P Basso-Vanelli, Manoel C Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo P Vieira, José C Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio R Oliveira, Rafael L Luporini, Audrey Borghi-Silva
Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic morbidities and mortality. However, evidence shows that some obese individuals are more likely to develop such risk factors early in life, including those with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Whether the presence of MetS in obese people impairs cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) remains to be investigated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Sixty-six subjects were classified as normal-weight (NW, n = 24) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg·m-2 ): metabolically healthy (MHO, n = 19) vs unhealthy (MUHO, n = 23: NCEP/ATPIII-MetS criteria)...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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