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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#1
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311010/present-and-future-of-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
REVIEW
Miguel Lopez-Cuina, Alexandra Foubert-Samier, François Tison, Wassilios G Meissner
Through the last decade seven clinical trials on Multiple System Atrophy have been published, virtually all of them reported negative results. Patients and family remain hopeful while facing this devastating disease, but as doctors we still cannot offer them disease-modifying therapies. The field has seen many advances regarding pathophysiology, translational research, diagnostic accuracy, natural history and imaging, but successful treatment remains elusive. This review provides an overview of the available tools for designing clinical trials, critically analyzes the past studies and describes the knowledge obtained from them, and finally gives some orientation for future trials that could meet the current needs of patients and clinicians, overcoming the hurdles met by previous studies...
January 4, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305058/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-in-an-animal-model-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#3
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288022/variable-expression-of-gfp-in-different-populations-of-peripheral-cholinergic-neurons-of-chatbac-egfp-transgenic-mice
#4
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290404/the-effects-of-recurrent-hypoglycaemia-and-opioid-antagonists-on-the-adrenal-catecholamine-synthetic-capacity-in-a-rat-model-of-haaf
#5
Manjula Senthilkumaran, Larisa Bobrovskaya
In this study, we investigated the effects of recurrent hypoglycaemia on the adrenal catecholamine synthetic enzymes in a rat model of hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). We found that plasma adrenaline was significantly reduced by about 50% in response to recurrent hypoglycaemia versus single hypoglycaemia. However, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 were increased in HAAF; similarly, aromatic aminoacid decarboxylase protein was also increased indicating a likely increase in catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal gland...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269241/multiple-system-atrophy-building-a-global-community-30years-of-advocacy-efforts
#6
REVIEW
Pamela G Bower
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with no known cause and no available disease modifying treatment. Known previously by various names including Shy-Drager Syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and striatonigral degeneration, MSA can be classified simultaneously as a movement disorder, an autonomic disorder, a cerebellar ataxia and an atypical parkinsonian disorder. Despite scholarly attempts to better describe the disease, awareness among medical practitioners about multiple system atrophy as a diagnostic possibility has been slow to catch on...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246398/doca-salt-hypertension-alters-period1-and-orexin-related-gene-expression-in-the-medulla-and-hypothalamus-of-male-rats-diurnal-influences
#7
M E Hernandez, J M Watkins, J Vu, L F Hayward
In peripheral tissues, aldosterone alters expression of multiple genes, including the clock gene Period 1 (Per1), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11-HSD2), and α-ENAC, the epithelial sodium channel subunit. We evaluated the impact of chronic aldosterone exposure (DOCA) and salt intake on nocturnal changes in gene expression in the male Sprague Dawley rat brain. Additionally, genes associated with the orexin (ORX) system were also evaluated based on the role of this neuropeptide in arousal, feeding and hypertension and an interconnection with Per1 expression...
December 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221911/circulating-cardiodepressant-factors-in-takotsubo-syndrome-an-angle-that-needs-to-be-explored-further
#8
LETTER
John E Madias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195789/responses-of-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-to-cardiac-overloads-on-myocardial-sympathetic-innervation-and-net-expression
#9
Bing Hu, Jing Zhang, Jing Wang, Bing He, Deshun Wang, Wencheng Zhang, Xin Zhou, He Li
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key mediator of many diverse physiological and pathological responses. PKC activation play an important regulatory role of cardiac function. The present study was performed to investigate whether there were differential activations of the PKCε and how the activation coupled with norepinephrine transporter (NET) surface expression, sympathetic innervation pattern and extracellular matrix remodeling in different cardiac hemodynamic overloads induced by abdominal aortic constriction or aortocaval fistula...
November 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174521/influence-of-recent-altitude-exposure-on-sea-level-sympathetic-neural-hemodynamic-responses-to-orthostasis
#10
K M Mitchell, K E Bradbury, A M Posch, B A Beidleman, C S Fulco, S R Muza, N Charkoudian
Although it has been shown that muscle sympathetic nerve activity increases during high altitude exposure, mechanisms of sympathoexcitation and blood pressure control after return from altitude are not well described. We hypothesized that: (1) living for 12days at 4300m (Pikes Peak, Colorado) would result in increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity 24h after return to sea level; (2) post-Pikes Peak sympathetic neural and hemodynamic responses to orthostasis would be decreased due to a potential 'ceiling effect' on sympathetic activity; and (3) the magnitude of individual increases in sympathetic nerve activity post-Pikes Peak would be inversely related to baseline sympathetic nerve activity before traveling to altitude...
November 22, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158117/cold-acclimation-and-cognitive-performance-a-review
#11
Douglas M Jones, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements...
November 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158116/is-intuitive-eating-related-to-resting-state-vagal-activity
#12
Stephanie K V Peschel, Tracy L Tylka, DeWayne P Williams, Michael Kaess, Julian F Thayer, Julian Koenig
Efferent and afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are involved in regulating hunger and satiety. Vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) reflects vagal activity. Previously no study addressed a potential association between resting state vagal activity and intuitive eating. Self-reports on intuitive eating and measures of resting state vmHRV were obtained in 39 students (16 female, mean age: 19.64±1.44years). Hierarchical multiple regression models showed that, after controlling for gender, age, and body mass index, resting vagal activity was inversely related to the Unconditional Permission to Eat subscale of the Intuitive Eating scale...
November 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249648/congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-an-overview-of-etiopathogenesis-associated-pathologies-clinical-presentation-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Saher Zaidi, Jason Gandhi, Sohrab Vatsia, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), known colloquially as Ondine's curse, is a rare disorder characterized by impaired autonomic control of breathing during sleep from the loss of vagal input and diminished sensitivity of CO2 receptors in the medulla. CCHS correlates to the malformation of the neural crest located in the brainstem; this consequently affects the loss of sensitivity of CO2 chemoreceptors, bringing about hypoventilation during sleep. The primary cause of CCHS is the mutation of the paired-like homeobox PHO2XB gene, found in 90% of the patients...
November 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169744/the-neuropathology-of-multiple-system-atrophy-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#14
REVIEW
Elvira Valera, Eliezer Masliah
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of toxic forms of the synaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendrocytes and neurons. The presence of α-syn within oligodendrocytes in the form of glial cytoplasmic inclusions is the diagnostic hallmark of MSA. However, it has been postulated that α-syn is produced in neurons and propagates to oligodendrocytes, where unknown mechanisms lead to its accumulation. The presence of α-syn within neurons in MSA has not been so extensively studied, but it may shed light into neuropathological mechanisms leading to oligodendroglial accumulation...
November 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158115/trace-elements-cause-oxidative-damage-in-the-brain-of-rats-with-induced-hypotension
#15
David Calderón Guzmán, Maribel Ortiz Herrera, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Gerardo Barragán Mejía, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza
Hypertension causes neuronal damage and apoptosis in the brain. Diazoxide is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension however, its effect on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and dopamine amines in adult animal models remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oligoelements on 5-HIAA and dopamine in the brain of adult rats treated with diazoxide METHODS: Male Fisher rats (weight 250g) were treated as follows: Group I, NaCl 0.9% (control); group II, tracefusin® (1.5mL/rat); group III, diazoxide (20mg/rat) and group IV, tracefusin® (1...
November 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117918/lack-of-soluble-circulating-cardiodepressant-factors-in-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#16
Chiara Sonnino, Benjamin W Van Tassell, Stefano Toldo, Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, F Gerard Moeller, Antonio Abbate
Circulating cardiodepressant factors were found to mediate cardiac dysfunction in patients with sepsis and acute systolic heart failure. To investigate the presence of circulating cardiodepressant factors in patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC), plasma samples were collected from 4 patients with TC, 3 with septic shock, 5 with acute systolic heart failure and 4 healthy controls and injected intraperitoneally in mice. The cardiodepressant effects are measured with transthoracic echocardiography. Plasma injection from control and TC subjects had no effects on left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) whereas plasma from the other two groups induced a significant reduction in LVEF...
November 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104018/the-influence-of-midazolam-on-heart-rate-arises-from-cardiac-autonomic-tones-alterations-in-burmese-pythons-python-molurus
#17
Ivã Guidini Lopes, Vinicius Araújo Armelin, Victor Hugo da Silva Braga, Luiz Henrique Florindo
The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam is a compound widely used as a tranquilizer and sedative in mammals and reptiles. It is already known that this benzodiazepine produces small to intermediate heart rate (HR) alterations in mammals, however, its influence on reptiles' HR remains unexplored. Thus, the present study sought to verify the effects of midazolam on HR and cardiac modulation in the snake Python molurus. To do so, the snakes' HR, cardiac autonomic tones, and HR variability were evaluated during four different experimental stages...
October 28, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108935/effect-of-the-stroop-test-performed-in-supine-position-on-the-heart-rate-variability-in-both-genders
#18
Rastislav Vazan, Diana Filcikova, Boris Mravec
The effect of Stroop test (ST)-induced stress on autonomic nervous system activity is often examined via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV may be significantly affected by interfering factors, including vocalization and inappropriate body position. Surprisingly, published studies ignore these issues, so the aim of our study was to test the innovative procedure for correct HRV measurement in individuals exposed to ST. Moreover, we examined possible gender differences in HRV and heart rate (HR) during ST...
October 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104019/symptomatic-therapy-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#19
REVIEW
Guido Rohrer, Günter U Höglinger, Johannes Levin
Multiple system atrophy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the association of autonomic failure and a movement disorder that consist of either a hypokinetic movement disorder or a cerebellar syndrome or both. In addition to these core characteristics other movement disorders (e.g. dystonia, myoclonus, spasticity), and neuropsychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, cognitive dysfunction) may occur in the course of the disease and can severely impair patients' quality of live. To date no causal therapy is available and therefore symptomatic treatment plays a pivotal role in patient care...
October 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111419/diagnosis-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#20
REVIEW
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias...
October 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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