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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908698/potential-role-of-endurance-training-in-altering-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-ckd
#1
REVIEW
Erin J Howden, Justin S Lawley, Murray Esler, Benjamin D Levine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology of increased sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients and raise the possibility of endurance exercise being an effective countermeasure to address this problem. We specifically focus on the potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity as increased renal sympathetic nerve activity negatively impacts kidney function as well indirectly effects multiple other systems and organs...
November 25, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887927/effects-of-in-vitro-acute-and-chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-on-the-sympathetic-neurotransmission-of-rat-vas-deferens
#2
Shaista Poppe Pedroso, Bruno Palmieri de Souza, Aron Jurkiewicz, Neide H Juriewicz, Edilson Dantas da Silva Junior
It is described that fluoxetine treatment is able to induce ejaculatory disorders. However, the exact mechanism is still not fully understood. Therefore, this study was carried out to further evaluate the anti-ejaculatory effects of fluoxetine, using different approaches (in vitro or in vivo treatments), on the sympathetic neurotransmission of the rat vas deferens. Vas deferens from male Wistar rats were used to check the in vitro effects of fluoxetine 10(-6)M, 3.10(-6)M or 10(-5)M. Animals were also acutely (20mg/kg, i...
November 20, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876359/somatoautonomic-reflexes-in-acupuncture-therapy-a-review
#3
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani, Ikuko Sato-Suzuki
Oriental therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, or Anma, have been used to treat visceral disorders since ancient times. In each of these therapies, stimulation of the skin or underlying muscles leads to excitation of afferent nerves. The sensory information is carried to the central nervous system, where it is transferred to autonomic efferents, thus affecting visceral functions. This neuronal pathway, known as the "somatoautonomic reflex", has been systematically studied by Sato and his colleagues for over a half century...
November 16, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839717/vagal-cardiac-efferent-innervation-in-f344-rats-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Zixi Jack Cheng
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which is a physiological consequence of obstructive sleep apnea, reduces baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). Previously, we showed that the heart rate (HR) response to electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent nerve was significantly increased following CIH in F344 rats. Since vagal cardiac efferent from the nucleus ambiguus (NA) project to cardiac ganglia and regulate HR, we hypothesized that vagal cardiac efferent innervation of cardiac ganglia is reorganized. Young adult F344 rats were exposed either to room air (RA) or to intermittent hypoxia for 35-50days...
October 29, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-over-excitation
#5
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773432/biology-and-control-of-nausea-and-vomiting-2015-perspectives-and-overview-of-the-conference
#6
Charles C Horn, Bill J Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776979/chronic-kidney-disease-impairs-renal-nerve-and-haemodynamic-reflex-responses-to-vagal-afferent-input-through-a-central-mechanism
#7
REVIEW
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729205/renal-denervation-enhances-gaba-ergic-input-into-the-pvn-leading-to-blood-pressure-lowering-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Masaaki Nishihara, Ko Takesue, Yoshitaka Hirooka
OBJECTIVE: Sympathoexcitation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the brain controls sympathetic outflow through γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic mechanisms. Renal denervation (RDN) exerts a long-term antihypertensive effect in hypertension with CKD; however, the effects of RDN on sympathetic nerve activity and GABA-ergic modulation in the PVN are not clear...
October 4, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727024/renal-functional-responses-in-diabetic-nephropathy-following-chronic-bilateral-renal-denervation
#9
Yimin Yao, Gerard Davis, Joanne C Harrison, Robert J Walker, Ivan A Sammut
Renal innervation operates in conjunction with the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to control tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. This relationship remains unexplored in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigates the effects of acute RAS inhibition and chronic renal denervation on renal function in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in mRen-2 rats prior to conducting chronic bilateral denervation in diabetic and normoglycaemic animals. At 12-weeks post-diabetic induction, renal haemodynamics and tubular handling of sodium and water were measured before and after acute captopril infusion...
October 3, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729204/exploring-the-multifactorial-nature-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-in-women-following-surgery-for-breast-cancer
#10
Susan W Wesmiller, Susan M Sereika, Catherine M Bender, Dana Bovbjerg, Gretchen Ahrendt, Marguerite Bonaventura, Yvette P Conley
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are two of the most frequent and distressing complications following surgical procedures, with as many as 80% of patients considered to be at risk. Despite recognition of well-established risk factors and the subsequent use of clinical guidelines, 20-30% of women do not respond to antiemetic protocols, indicating that there may be a genetic risk. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the incidence and explore the risk factors associated with PONV after surgery in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer...
September 28, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688077/reinnervation-of-rat-endometrium-in-the-anterior-eye-chamber-model-of-experimental-endometriosis-old-methods-for-new-questions
#11
Patricia Silveira, Camila Texidor-Frugoni, Gaby F Martínez, M Mónica Brauer
Endometriosis is a benign estrogen-dependent chronic gynecological disease characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. In both women and experimental endometriotic rats, endometriosis lesions endow autonomic and sensory nerves, which are thought to contribute to the disease-associated pain. Some evidence indicates that the reinnervation of lesions is regulated by factors produced by the endometrial tissue as well as by environmental factors from the peritoneum. In this study, we examined the reinnervation of the rat endometrial tissue in an ectopic environment different from the peritoneum employing the anterior eye chamber model of experimental endometriosis...
September 23, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717709/cns-sites-activated-by-renal-pelvic-epithelial-sodium-channels-enacs-in-response-to-hypertonic-saline-in-awake-rats
#12
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
September 22, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692857/insights-into-the-central-pathways-involved-in-the-emetic-and-behavioural-responses-to-exendin-4-in-the-ferret
#13
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists are utilised for the treatment of Type-2 diabetes but can be associated with undesirable effects of nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of GLP-1 receptors in mechanisms of emesis, behaviours indicative of nausea (BIN) and food intake in the ferret. RESULTS: Exendin-4 (10 and 30nmol, i.c.v.) induced emesis, inhibited food intake, and increased the frequency of BIN. Increases in c-Fos in the brainstem, midbrain and forebrain occurred in animals exhibiting emesis; no activation of the brainstem occurred in animals not vomiting...
September 14, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659399/adrenergic-signaling-elements-in-the-bladder-wall-of-the-adult-rat
#14
Sara Persyn, Jane Eastham, Stefan De Wachter, James Gillespie
A growing body of work is describing the absence of a significant sympathetic innervation of the detrusor implying little sympathetic regulation of bladder contractility. However, low doses of adrenergic agonists are capable of relaxing the bladder smooth muscle. If these effects underpin a physiological response then the cellular nature and operation of this system are currently unknown. The present immunohistochemistry study was done to explore the existence of alternative adrenergic signaling elements in the rat bladder wall...
September 10, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639314/estrogen-induced-collagen-reorientation-correlates-with-sympathetic-denervation-of-the-rat-myometrium
#15
G F Martínez, P Bianchimano, M M Brauer
Estrogen inhibits the growth and causes the degeneration (pruning) of sympathetic nerves supplying the rat myometrium. Previous cryoculture studies evidenced that substrate-bound signals contribute to diminish the ability of the estrogenized myometrium to support sympathetic nerve growth. Using electron microscopy, here we examined neurite-substrate interactions in myometrial cryocultures, observing that neurites grew associated to collagen fibrils present in the surface of the underlying cryosection. In addition, we assessed quantitatively the effects of estrogen on myometrial collagen organization in situ, using ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen and immature females undergoing puberty...
September 10, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594686/complex-and-interacting-influences-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-on-cardiac-electrophysiology-in-conscious-mice
#16
Heidi L Lujan, Joshua P Rivers, Stephen E DiCarlo
Mice may now be the preferred animal model for biomedical research due to its anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans. However, little is known about accentuated antagonism of chronotropic and dromotropic properties in conscious mice. Accordingly, we describe the complex and interacting influence of the autonomic nervous system on cardiac electrophysiology in conscious mice. Specifically, we report the effects of single and combined cardiac autonomic blockade on measurements of pulse interval (heart rate), atrio-ventricular interval, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), SNRT corrected for spontaneous sinus cycle, and Wenckebach cycle length in conscious mice free of the confounding influences of anesthetics and surgical trauma...
December 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554768/effect-of-ghrelin-on-regulation-of-splenic-sympathetic-nerve-discharge
#17
Sivasai Balivada, Hitesh N Pawar, Shawnee Montgomery, Michael J Kenney
Ghrelin influences immune system function and modulates the sympathetic nervous system; however, the contribution of ghrelin to neural-immune interactions is not well-established because the effect of ghrelin on splenic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that central ghrelin administration would inhibit splenic SND in anesthetized rats. Rats received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of ghrelin (1nmol/kg) or aCSF. Lumbar SND recordings provided a non-visceral nerve control...
December 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477680/the-use-of-imaging-techniques-in-understanding-lower-urinary-tract-dys-function
#18
Yves Deruyver, Lukman Hakim, Jan Franken, Dirk De Ridder
The ability to store urine in the bladder and to void at an appropriate time depends on several complex mechanisms in the lower urinary tract (LUT) and its neural control. Normal LUT function requires coordination of the urinary bladder, urethra, pelvic floor, efferent and afferent neurons and specific spinal cord and brain areas. These structures can be visualised using different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. The supraspinal neural control of the LUT can be studied using functional brain imaging...
October 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26422993/mucosal-signaling-in-the-bladder
#19
Toby C Chai, Andrea Russo, Shan Yu, Ming Lu
The bladder mucosa is comprised of the multilayered urothelium, lamina propria (LP), microvasculature, and smooth muscle fibers (muscularis mucosae). The muscularis mucosae is not always present in the mucosa, and its presence is related to the thickness of the LP. Since there are no mucus secreting cells, "mucosa" is an imprecise term. Nerve fibers are present in the LP of the mucosa. Efferent nerves mediate mucosal contractions which can be elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and various agonists...
October 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26119358/sensory-and-circuit-mechanisms-mediating-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes
#20
REVIEW
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Neural control of continence and micturition is distributed over a network of interconnected reflexes. These reflexes integrate sensory information from the bladder and urethra and are modulated by descending influences to produce different physiological outcomes based on the information arriving from peripheral afferents. Therefore, the mode of activation of primary afferents is essential in understanding the action of spinal reflex pathways in the lower urinary tract. We present an overview of sensory mechanisms in the bladder and urethra focusing on their spinal integration, identify the cardinal spinal reflexes responsible for continence and micturition, and describe how their functional role is controlled via peripheral afferent activity...
October 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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