Read by QxMD icon Read

Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

Alexander Schmidt, Ernst G Schukat-Talamazzini, Janine Zöllkau, Adelina Pytlik, Sophia Leibl, Kathrin Kumm, Franziska Bode, Isabelle Kynass, Otto W Witte, Ekkehard Schleussner, Uwe Schneider, Dirk Hoyer
Adverse prenatal environmental influences to the developing fetus are associated with mental and cardiovascular disease in later life. Universal developmental characteristics such as self-organization, pattern formation, and adaptation in the growing information processing system have not yet been sufficiently analyzed with respect to description of normal fetal development and identification of developmental disturbances. Fetal heart rate patterns are the only non-invasive order parameter of the developing autonomic brain available with respect to the developing complex organ system...
March 5, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Maria Roma, Colleen L Marden, Inge De Wandele, Clair A Francomano, Peter C Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between orthostatic intolerance syndromes and both joint hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and to propose reasons for identifying hereditary connective tissue disorders in those with orthostatic intolerance in the context of both clinical care and research. METHODS: We searched the published peer-reviewed medical literature for papers reporting an association between joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and orthostatic intolerance...
March 5, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Louise Brinth, Kirsten Pors, Jasmina Medic Spahic, Richard Sutton, Artur Fedorowski, Jesper Mehlsen
AIMS: The incidence of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has grown in recent years. Whether this is an emerging epidemic or increasing recognition is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 8790 tilt-table tests (HUT) performed between 1997 and 2014 in patients with orthostatic intolerance and/or suspected syncope. Tests were reclassified according to the current diagnostic criteria for POTS. The number of POTS diagnoses in proportion to the number of tilt tests performed per year was calculated...
March 3, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that has gained increasing interest over the past few decades due to its increasing prevalence and clinical impact on health-related quality of life. POTS is clinically characterized by sustained excessive tachycardia upon standing that occurs in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension and other medical conditions and or medications, and with chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. POTS represents one of the most common presentations of syncope and presyncope secondary to autonomic dysfunction in emergency rooms and in cardiology, neurology, and primary care clinics...
February 28, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Victoria Strassheim, Jenny Welford, Rob Ballantine, Julia L Newton
Fatigue is a significant symptom that is frequently reported by those with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS). There are a variety of reasons why those with PoTS might experience fatigue and as a consequence an individualised approach to management is most appropriate. In this chapter we will examine the prevalence of fatigue in those with PoTS, its overlap with conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and describe a clinical approach to the management of fatigue in those with PoTS.
February 22, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mohammed Ruzieh, Blair P Grubb
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Pregnancy can cause different physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters, that could have greater impact on POTS patients. In this review, we discuss the management of POTS in the pregnant and obstetric settings.
February 16, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Tomas Baka, Fedor Simko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
Cognitive and emotional processes are influenced by interoception (homeostatic somatic feedback), particularly when physiological arousal is unexpected and discrepancies between predicted and experienced interoceptive signals may engender anxiety. Due to the vulnerability for comorbid psychological symptoms in forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), this study investigated psychophysiological contributions to emotional symptomatology in 20 healthy control participants (13 females, mean age 36 ± 8 years), 20 postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) patients (18 females, mean age 38 ± 13 years) and 20 vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients (15 females, mean age 39 ± 12 years)...
January 31, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Dhanush Haspula, Michelle A Clark
Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. Although anti-hypertensive medications have drastically reduced cardiovascular diseases mortality and morbidity rates, a significant percentage of hypertensive individuals currently on anti-hypertensive therapy, remain hypertensive. In spite of the emergence of transgenic animals and sophisticated tools to study the pathophysiology of hypertension, unraveling the causal mechanisms remains a challenge. Research on borderline hypertensive humans and/or prehypertensive rat models revealed an elevation in centrally-mediated sympathetic activity and a heightened neuroinflammatory state...
January 12, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Miguel Lopez-Cuina, Alexandra Foubert-Samier, François Tison, Wassilios G Meissner
Through the last decade seven clinical trials on Multiple System Atrophy have been published, virtually all of them reported negative results. Patients and family remain hopeful while facing this devastating disease, but as doctors we still cannot offer them disease-modifying therapies. The field has seen many advances regarding pathophysiology, translational research, diagnostic accuracy, natural history and imaging, but successful treatment remains elusive. This review provides an overview of the available tools for designing clinical trials, critically analyzes the past studies and describes the knowledge obtained from them, and finally gives some orientation for future trials that could meet the current needs of patients and clinicians, overcoming the hurdles met by previous studies...
January 4, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Rachael Brown, Alexander R Burton, Vaughan G Macefield
Autonomic dysreflexia is a dangerous elevation in blood pressure in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), produced by a spinally-mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Current dogma states that, apart from visceral inputs - such as those originating from a distended bladder or impacted colon - autonomic dysreflexia is triggered by noxious inputs below the lesion. However, while selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow in able-bodied subjects, such noxious inputs have no effects on blood pressure and skin blood flow in SCI individuals...
January 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Manjula Senthilkumaran, Larisa Bobrovskaya
In this study, we investigated the effects of recurrent hypoglycaemia on the adrenal catecholamine synthetic enzymes in a rat model of hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). We found that plasma adrenaline was significantly reduced by about 50% in response to recurrent hypoglycaemia versus single hypoglycaemia. However, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 were increased in HAAF; similarly, aromatic aminoacid decarboxylase protein was also increased indicating a likely increase in catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal gland...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Pamela G Bower
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with no known cause and no available disease modifying treatment. Known previously by various names including Shy-Drager Syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and striatonigral degeneration, MSA can be classified simultaneously as a movement disorder, an autonomic disorder, a cerebellar ataxia and an atypical parkinsonian disorder. Despite scholarly attempts to better describe the disease, awareness among medical practitioners about multiple system atrophy as a diagnostic possibility has been slow to catch on...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
M E Hernandez, J M Watkins, J Vu, L F Hayward
In peripheral tissues, aldosterone alters expression of multiple genes, including the clock gene Period 1 (Per1), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11-HSD2), and α-ENAC, the epithelial sodium channel subunit. We evaluated the impact of chronic aldosterone exposure (DOCA) and salt intake on nocturnal changes in gene expression in the male Sprague Dawley rat brain. Additionally, genes associated with the orexin (ORX) system were also evaluated based on the role of this neuropeptide in arousal, feeding and hypertension and an interconnection with Per1 expression...
December 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
John E Madias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mitchell G Miglis, Brittany Schultz, Srikanth Muppidi
INTRODUCTION: It is not clear if patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) differ from patients with POTS due to other etiologies. We compared the results of autonomic testing and healthcare utilization in POTS patients with and without hEDS. METHODS: Patients with POTS+hEDS (n=20) and POTS controls without hypermobility (n=20) were included in the study. All patients underwent autonomic testing, and the electronic medical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medications patients were taking, as well as the number of outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient visits over the prior year...
December 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
December 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"