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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728939/autonomic-dysreflexia-somatosympathetic-and-viscerosympathetic-vasoconstrictor-responses-to-innocuous-and-noxious-sensory-stimulation-below-lesion-in-human-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Rachael Brown, Alexander R Burton, Vaughan G Macefield
Autonomic dysreflexia is a dangerous elevation in blood pressure in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), produced by a spinally-mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Current dogma states that, apart from visceral inputs - such as those originating from a distended bladder or impacted colon - autonomic dysreflexia is triggered by noxious inputs below the lesion. However, while selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow in able-bodied subjects, such noxious inputs have no effects on blood pressure and skin blood flow in SCI individuals...
July 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#2
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712539/chronic-treatment-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-increases-cardiac-fibrosis-in-young-rats-submitted-to-early-ovarian-failure
#3
Sabrina Graziani Veloso Dutra, Ana Carolina Sanches Felix, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, Tábata De Paula Facioli, Suenimeire Vieira, Hugo Celso Dutra De Souza
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the treatment with enalapril maleate, combined with aerobic physical training, promotes positive effects on the autonomic balance, the morphology and the cardiac function in female rats submitted to early ovarian failure. METHODS: Thirty-five female Wistar rats, ovariectomized at 10weeks of age, were assigned into Ovariectomized rats (OVX) and Ovariectomized rats treated with enalapril maleate (OVX-EM, 10mg(-1)·kg(-1)·d(-1)) Each group was subdivided into sedentary and trained (aerobic swimming training for 10weeks)...
July 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688831/local-chemical-sympathectomy-of-rat-bone-marrow-and-its-effect-on-marrow-cell-composition
#4
P Dubový, I Klusáková, L Kučera, J Osičková, J Chovancová, T Loja, J Mayer, M Doubek, M Joukal
Existing experimental studies of the effect of sympathetic nerve fibers on bone marrow cells are based on the systemic administration of neurotoxic 6-hydroxydopamine. The method of global chemical sympathectomy has some serious disadvantages and could lead to questionable results. We describe a new method of local chemical sympathectomy of rat femoral bone marrow using guanethidine (Ismelin) delivery using an osmotic mini pump. Local guanethidine treatment for 14days led to complete elimination of sympathetic fibers in femoral bone marrow in contrast to bone marrow of contralateral or naïve femurs...
June 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688830/differential-effects-of-renal-denervation-on-arterial-baroreceptor-function-in-goldblatt-hypertension-model
#5
Gisele S Lincevicius, Caroline G Shimoura, Erika E Nishi, Tales Oliveira, Juliana G Cespedes, Cássia T Bergamaschi, Ruy R Campos
Sympathetic vasomotor activity is significantly increased in renovascular hypertension. Renal denervation (DnX) has emerged as a novel therapy for resistant hypertension to drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding the reduction in blood pressure (BP) after DnX remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DnX of a clipped kidney on the baseline and baroreceptor reflex control of post-ganglionic sympathetic activity to the contralateral kidney (rSNA) and lumbar (lSNA) nerves in Goldblatt hypertensive rats (2K1C)...
June 21, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625674/regional-cerebral-cortical-thickness-correlates-with-autonomic-outflow
#6
REVIEW
Katelyn N Wood, Mark B Badrov, Mark R Speechley, J Kevin Shoemaker
Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in autonomic outflow across the adult age-span are related to cerebral cortex thickness. A total of 55 healthy, active individuals participated in this study (21-73years; 18 female). Physical fitness was treated as a possible covariate (VO2peak: 26-81mL/kg/min)...
June 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641950/cholinergic-signaling-plasticity-maintains-viscerosensory-responses-during-aspiculuris-tetraptera-infection-in-mice-small-intestine
#7
Egina C Villalobos-Hernández, Carlos Barajas-López, Elizabeth A Martínez-Salazar, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Marcela Miranda-Morales
Intestinal parasites alter gastrointestinal (GI) functions like the cholinergic function. Aspiculuris tetraptera is a pinworm frequently observed in laboratory facilities, which infests the mice cecum and proximal colon. However, little is known about the impact of this infection on the GI sensitivity. Here, we investigated possible changes in spontaneous mesenteric nerve activity and on the mechanosensitivity function of worm-free regions of naturally infected mice with A. tetraptera. Infection increased the basal firing of mesenteric afferent nerves in jejunum...
June 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600120/effects-of-cevimeline-on-excitability-of-parasympathetic-preganglionic-neurons-in-the-superior-salivatory-nucleus-of-rats
#8
Yoshihiro Mitoh, Hirotaka Ueda, Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Masako Fujita, Motoi Kobashi, Ryuji Matsuo
The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is a sialogogue that possibly stimulates SSN neurons in addition to the salivary glands themselves because it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we examined immunoreactivities for mAChR subtypes in SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer in neonatal rats...
May 30, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579284/mechanism-of-physical-stress-induced-inhibition-of-ovarian-estradiol-secretion-in-anesthetized-rats
#9
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
This study examined the site of main integration center in the physical stress-induced inhibition of ovarian estradiol secretion because of ovarian sympathetic nerve (superior ovarian nerve: SON) activation in anesthetized rats. In central nervous system-intact rats, electrical stimulation of the tibial afferent nerve at 10V increased the efferent activity of the SON by 39±13% and reduced the ovarian secretion of estradiol by 34±7%. These responses were observed in decerebrate rats but were abolished in spinal rats...
May 26, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539233/supplementation-action-with-ascorbic-acid-in-the-morphology-of-the-muscular-layer-and-reactive-acetylcholinesterase-neurons-of-ileum-of-mdx-mice
#10
Marcelo José Santiago Lisboa, Marília Fabiana De Oliveira Lima, Sandra Regina Stabille, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Karina Martinez Gagliardo, Melyna Soares Souto, Renivaldo Souza, Jodonai Barbosa Da Silva, Sônia Regina De Almeida Yokomizo, Edson Aparecido Liberti, Naianne Kelly Clebis
The Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of dystrophin protein, causing severe myopathy from increases of oxidative stress. Injuries of intestinal muscle can compromise the myenteric plexus. This study aimed to evaluate the disorders occurred in the muscular layer and in the acetylcholinesterase myenteric neurons (ACHE-r) of ileum of mdx mice, and the effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid (AA) in both components. 30 male mice C57BL/10, and 30 male mice C57BL/10Mdx were separated according to the age and treatment (n=10/group): 30-days-old control group (C30); 30-days-old dystrophic group (D30); 60-days-old control group (C60); 60-days-old dystrophic group (D60); 60-days-old control group supplemented with AA (CS60); and 60-days-old dystrophic group supplemented with AA (DS60)...
May 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#11
REVIEW
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522107/differences-in-neurohumoral-and-hemodynamic-response-to-prolonged-head-up-tilt-between-patients-with-high-and-normal-standing-norepinephrine-forms-of-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome
#12
Luka Crnošija, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Mila Lovrić, Anamari Junaković, Vladimir Miletić, Rujana Šprljan Alfirev, Antun Pavelić, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal timing for blood sample collection of catecholamines and the possible correlations between neurohumoral and hemodynamic responses to prolonged head-up tilt (HUT) in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). METHODS: Nineteen patients underwent a 30-minute, 70° HUT test. Blood samples (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine and dopamine) were taken in the 10th minute of supine, and 10th, 20th and 30th minutes of HUT. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the proportion of high and normal standing NE patients in the different time points...
May 11, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511917/evidence-of-the-role-of-the-vagal-nerves-as-a-monitor-in-the-gastrointestinal-renal-axis-of-natriuresis-in-human-effects-of-vagotomy
#13
Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios T Trafalis, Aris D Efstratopoulos, Emmanuel K Alifieris
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal regulation of natriuresis. Sixteen subjects without (group I) and sixteen subjects with a truncal vagotomy (group II), were given a daily diet of 18mmol of sodium for 5days (D1-D5). The sodium deficit for this period was calculated for each subject and on the morning of day-6 (D6), their cumulative deficit (E) was given as 3% NaCl. In both groups the subjects were divided to receive the hypertonic saline either orally (Ior, IIor) or intravenously (Iiv, IIiv)...
May 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506659/comparison-of-density-and-output-of-sweat-gland-in-tropical-africans-and-temperate-koreans
#14
JeongBeom Lee, YoungOh Shin
Modification of sweating could be due to changes in activated sweat gland density (ASGD) and/or activated sweat gland output (ASGO). The present study determined regional and inter-ethnic differences in ASGD and ASGO during passive heating between tropical natives (African, n=22) and temperate natives (Republic of Korean, n=25). Heat load was carried out by immersing the half body into a hot water bath for 30min. Tympanic temperature (Tty) and skin temperature (Ts) were measured. Mean body temperature (mTb) was calculated...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506502/autonomic-dysreflexia-after-spinal-cord-injury-systemic-pathophysiology-and-methods-of-management
#15
REVIEW
Khalid C Eldahan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has widespread physiological effects beyond the disruption of sensory and motor function, notably the loss of normal autonomic and cardiovascular control. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment segregates critical spinal sympathetic neurons from supraspinal modulation which can result in a syndrome known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is defined as episodic hypertension and concomitant baroreflex-mediated bradycardia initiated by unmodulated sympathetic reflexes in the decentralized cord...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506501/sympathetic-control-of-the-brain-circulation-appreciating-the-complexities-to-better-understand-the-controversy
#16
REVIEW
Patrice Brassard, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Although the human cerebral circulation is richly innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains debated. Several issues may be responsible for the conflicting conclusions reported in the animal vs. human literature in regards to the sympathetic control of the brain circulation. Furthermore, due to the physiological consequences associated with SNA blockade (e.g. changes in blood pressure and cardiac output), and differences in methodology (e...
May 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499865/implication-of-altered-autonomic-control-for-orthostatic-tolerance-in-sci
#17
REVIEW
Jill Maria Wecht, William A Bauman
Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X...
May 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473232/age-related-changes-in-immunoreactivity-for-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-in-carotid-body-glomus-cells-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
Kouki Kato, Seigo Fushuku, Yoshio Yamamoto
The purpose of this study was to investigate immunoreactivity for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in carotid body (CB) glomus cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm) at 4 (prehypertensive stage), 8 (early stage of developmental hypertension), 12 (later stage of developmental hypertension), and 16weeks of age (established hypertensive stage). Age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) were used as controls. Staining properties for TH were similar between both strains at each age...
April 28, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549782/central-trkb-blockade-attenuates-icv-angiotensin-ii-hypertension-and-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Bryan K Becker, Hanjun Wang, Irving H Zucker
Increased sympathetic nerve activity and the activation of the central renin-angiotensin system are commonly associated with cardiovascular disease states such as hypertension and heart failure, yet the precise mechanisms contributing to the long-term maintenance of this sympatho-excitation are incompletely understood. Due to the established physiological role of neurotrophins contributing toward neuroplasticity and neuronal excitability along with recent evidence linking the renin-angiotensin system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with its receptor (TrkB), it is likely the two systems interact to promote sympatho-excitation during cardiovascular disease...
July 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529060/the-effect-of-anxiety-sensitivity-on-psychological-and-biological-variables-during-the-cold-pressor-test
#20
Naomi Dodo, Ryusaku Hashimoto
We examined the relationship between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and autonomic nervous system responses (ANS) during the cold pressor test (CPT). Seventy-four university students participated and were divided into low-AS (M=9.06, SD=3.97) and high-AS groups (M=28.68, SD=6.63) based on AS Index scores (n's=36 and 38, respectively). The study included three phases: Rest, CPT, and Recovery. We measured the psychological variables (fear of pain and subjective pain) at pre- and post-CPT. ANS response data were collected during each phase...
July 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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