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Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

Brooke C D Hockin, Ian A Ruiz, Garveen K Brar, Victoria E Claydon
When upright, venous pooling and capillary filtration reduce the effective circulating volume and are key contributors to susceptibility to syncope (fainting). Recurrent syncope has a devastating impact on quality of life. Static calf compression garments are frequently prescribed for patients with syncope, but have questionable efficacy. Intermittent calf compression, which mimics the skeletal muscle pump to minimize pooling and filtration, is a potential alternative that holds promise for the management of syncope...
December 19, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Wendell Arthur Lopes, João Carlos Locateli, Higor Barbosa Reck, Fernanda Errero Porto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Lívia P Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata G Mendes, Ramona Cabiddu, Paula A Ricci, Renata P Basso-Vanelli, Manoel C Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo P Vieira, José C Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio R Oliveira, Rafael L Luporini, Audrey Borghi-Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Fernando Peña-Ortega
Neuroinflammation is produced by local or systemic alterations and mediated mainly by glia, affecting the activity of various neural circuits including those involved in breathing rhythm generation and control. Several pathological conditions, such as sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and asthma exert an inflammatory influence on breathing-related circuits. Consequently breathing (both resting and ventilatory responses to physiological challenges), is affected; e.g., responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia are compromised...
November 11, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
E Myfanwy Cohen, Suja Mohammed, Mary Kavurma, Polina E Nedoboy, Siân Cartland, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) contains over-active C1 neurons, which model the pathology of essential hypertension. Hypertension involves chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Inflammation in the brain is produced and maintained primarily by microglia. We assessed microglial gene expression (P2Y12R and CX3CR1) and morphology in the RVLM of SHR compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The gene expression of the metabotropic purinergic receptor P2Y12 and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was downregulated in the RVLM of SHR compared to WKY (by 37...
January 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Pedro L Katayama, Jaci A Castania, Rubens Fazan, Helio C Salgado
Electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has been thoroughly investigated for treating drug-resistant hypertension in humans. However, a previous study from our laboratory, performed in conscious rats, has demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus/nerve (CS) activated both the carotid baroreflex as well as the carotid chemoreflex, resulting in hypotension. Additionally, we also demonstrated that the carotid chemoreceptor deactivation potentiated this hypotensive response. Therefore, to further investigate this carotid baroreflex/chemoreflex interaction, besides the hemodynamic responses, we evaluated the respiratory responses to the electrical stimulation of the CS in both intact (CONT) and carotid chemoreceptors deactivated (CHEMO-X) conscious rats...
January 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Anne-Marie Neumann, Cosima Xenia Schmidt, Ruth Merle Brockmann, Henrik Oster
Hormones are major systemic regulators of homeostatic functions. Not surprisingly, most endocrine signals show some extent of variation across the day. This holds true for the three major hormonal axes of the body originating from the hypothalamus, relayed by the pituitary and terminating in the adrenal (HPA axis), the thyroid (HPT axis), and the gonads (HPG axis), respectively. The rhythmicity of endocrine axis formation has important functions for the maintenance of homeostasis and stabilizes physiological functions against external perturbations...
January 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Satish R Raj, David Robertson
Our understanding about Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has advanced significantly over the last 25 years. Despite the significant advances that have been made in defining the syndrome and finding some treatments for our patients, there is much work to be done to significantly improve our understanding of the disorder and improve therapeutics. In this article, 5 NEEDS are identified that will be required over the next several years if we want future care to move beyond where we are in the present. These include: (1) a NEED for better administrative data to track POTS diagnoses and the impact of the illness; (2) a NEED to improve physician awareness about POTS, which is a prerequisite for improved access to care; (3) a NEED to better understand the multiple pathophysiologies underlying POTS and the roles of the different medical comorbidities; (4) a NEED for data on effective treatments for POTS; and (5) a NEED for more research funding to study POTS...
December 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Qi Fu, Benjamin D Levine
Recent research has demonstrated that cardiovascular deconditioning (i.e., cardiac atrophy and hypovolemia) contributes significantly to the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and its functional disability. Therefore, physical reconditioning with exercise training and volume expansion via increased salt and fluid intake should be initiated early in the course of treatment for patients with POTS if possible. The use of horizontal exercise (e.g., rowing, swimming, recumbent bike, etc.) at the beginning is a critical strategy, allowing patients to exercise while avoiding the upright posture that elicits their POTS symptoms...
December 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Brent P Goodman
The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) requires a thoughtful diagnostic approach utilizing a careful clinical history and examination, laboratory, and autonomic testing. This article outlines the importance of a thorough history in identifying mechanism of symptom onset, clinical features, associated clinical conditions or disorders, and factors that may result in symptom exacerbation. The clinical examination involves an assessment of pupillary responses, an evaluation for sudomotor and vasomotor signs, and an assessment for joint hypermobility...
December 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that has gained increasing interest over the past few decades due to its increasing prevalence and clinical impact on health-related quality of life. POTS is clinically characterized by sustained excessive tachycardia upon standing that occurs in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension and other medical conditions and or medications, and with chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. POTS represents one of the most common presentations of syncope and presyncope secondary to autonomic dysfunction in emergency rooms and in cardiology, neurology, and primary care clinics...
December 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Angela J Grippo, Melissa-Ann L Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Neal McNeal, Suzanne L Bates, Danielle L Chandler, Elliott Ihm, Nalini Jadia
Improved understanding of how depression and social isolation interact to increase cardiac morbidity and mortality will improve public health. This experiment evaluated the effect of pharmacological autonomic blockade on cardiac and behavioral reactivity following social isolation in prairie voles. Experiment 1 validated the dose and time course of pharmacological autonomic antagonism of peripheral β-adrenergic (atenolol) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (atropine methyl nitrate), and Experiment 2 used a novel protocol to investigate behavioral responses in the tail suspension test during pharmacological autonomic blockade as a function of social isolation (vs...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
E Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M J Farnham, Zohra Kakall, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E Nedoboy, Paul M Pilowsky
Respiration and blood pressure are primarily controlled by somatic and autonomic motor neurones, respectively. Central cardiorespiratory control is critical in moment-to-moment survival, but it also has a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pathological conditions such as hypertension. The glial cells of the brain are non-neuronal cells with metabolic, immune, and developmental functions. Recent evidence shows that glia play an active role in supporting and regulating the neuronal circuitry which drives the cardiorespiratory system...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Christian E Deuter, Jan Nowacki, Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K Kuehl, Johannes B Finke, Isabel Dziobek, Christian Otte
The capacity to represent the emotional and mental states of others is referred to by the concept of empathy. Empathy further differentiates into an emotional and a cognitive subcomponent, which in turn is known to require a tacit perspective-taking process. However, whether the empathizer by himself needs to enter an affective state as a necessary precondition for emotional empathy remains a matter of debate. If empathy would require a vicarious emotional reaction, specific physiological markers of affective responding should be detectable in the empathizing person...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Hua-Zhi Wen, Ping Xie, Fu Zhang, Yu Ma, Yan-Ling Li, Sheng-Kai Xu
BACKGROUND: Electrical remodeling at infarct border zone (IBZ) has been shown to contribute to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction (MI). Sema3A has been demonstrated to reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is the receptor of Sema3A. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with NRP1 can ameliorate electrical remodeling at IBZ after MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wistar rats underwent sham operation (n = 20), the ligation of left coronary artery (MI group, n = 30), MI with control adenovirus (Ad group, n = 30), and MI with NRP1 adenovirus (NRP1 group, n = 30)...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
John R Ostergaard
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical syndrome of agitation and involuntary motor activity that particularly occurs in patients with severe acquired brain injury. The aim of the present study is to substantiate the assertion that paroxysmal non-epileptic attacks resembling PSH also occur in patients with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease), which is the most common neurodegenerative disease in children. The paper describes a case series of five patients with JNCL which during a period of fifteen years have been followed clinically and by consecutive investigations of the autonomic nervous system using heart rate variability (HRV) investigations...
November 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
A G Pauza, K Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, M Malinauskas, J I Lukosiene, P Alaburda, E Stankevicius, J Kupcinskas, Z Saladzinskas, A Tamelis, N Pauziene
Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the large bowel. Lately, imbalance of neuro-muscular transmission has been recognized as a major etiological factor for DD. Neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxant shown to have a widespread effect within the alimentary tract. Nevertheless, CGRPergic innervation of the enteric ganglia has never been considered in the context of motility impairment observed in DD patients. Changes in CGRP and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) abundance within enteric ganglia were investigated in sigmoid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic DD patients using quantitative fluorescence microscopy...
September 18, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Martin J Gillies, Yongzhi Huang, Jonathan A Hyam, Tipu Z Aziz, Alexander L Green
INTRODUCTION: The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is still controversial. The ACC has been implicated in such diverse functions as cognition, arousal and emotion in addition to motor and autonomic control. Therefore the ACC is the ideal candidate to orchestrate cardiovascular performance in anticipation of perceived skeletal activity. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the ACC forms part of the neural network of central command whereby cardiovascular performance is governed by a top-down mechanism...
September 15, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ryul Kim, Jin-Sun Jun
While the involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks is thought to play an integral role in the development of autonomic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is little evidence for an association between autonomic symptoms and striatal dopaminergic depletion. We compared dopamine transporter activity in striatal subregions with various autonomic symptoms covered by the SCOPA-AUT domains including gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual symptoms in 418 untreated patients with PD...
September 15, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance, including postural tachycardia syndrome, is often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In the vast majority of the cases, the gastrointestinal symptoms are not secondary to the orthostatic disorder, but rather just a comorbid condition. This concept is critical, since treatment aimed at the orthostatic condition will not improve the gastrointestinal symptoms. Only when the gastrointestinal symptoms develop in the upright position and improve or resolve in the supine position, they may be related to the orthostatic stress...
September 8, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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