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American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903946/ppara-agonist-fenofibrate-enhances-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-attenuates-polycystic-kidney-and-liver-disease-in-mice
#1
Ronak Lakhia, Matanel Yheskel, Andrea Flaten, Ezekiel B Quittner-Strom, William L Holland, Vishal Patel
PPARA is nuclear hormone receptor that promotes fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We and others have recently shown that PPARA and its target genes are downregulated, and FAO and OXPHOS are impaired in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, whether PPARA and FAO/OXPHOS are causally linked to ADPKD progression is not entirely clear. We report that expression of PPARA and FAO/OXPHOS genes is downregulated and in-vivo β-oxidation rate of 3H-labelled triolein is reduced in Pkd1RC/RC mice, a slowly-progressing orthologous model of ADPKD that closely mimics the human ADPKD phenotype...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903945/complement-c5a-receptors-c5l2-and-c5ar-in-renal-fibrosis
#2
Ina V Martin, Annika Bohner, Peter Boor, Erdenechimeg Shagdarsuren, Ute Raffetseder, Frank Lammert, Jürgen Floege, Tammo Ostendorf, Susanne N Weber
Complement factor C5a has two known receptors, C5aR mediating pro-inflammatory effects and C5L2, a potential C5a scavenger. We previously identified C5a/C5aR signaling as a potent profibrotic pathway in the kidney. Here we tested for the first time the role of C5L2 in renal fibrosis. In unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidney fibrosis, the expression of C5aR and C5L2 increased similarly and gradually as fibrosis progressed and was particularly prominent in injured dilated tubules. Genetic deficiency of either C5aR or C5L2 significantly reduced UUO-induced tubular injury...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877884/aberrant-smad3-phosphoisoforms-in-cyst-lining-epithelial-cells-in-the-cpk-mouse-a-model-of-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease
#3
Taketsugu Hama, Koichi Nakanishi, Masashi Sato, Hironobu Mukaiyama, Hiroko Togawa, Yuko Shima, Masayasu Miyajima, Kandai Nozu, Shizuko Nagao, Hisahide Takahashi, Mayumi Sako, Kazumoto Iijima, Norishige Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki Suzuki
Cystic epithelia acquire mesenchymal-like features in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In this phenotypic alteration, it is well known that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad3 signaling is involved, however, there is emerging new data on Smad3 phosphoisoforms: Smad3 phosphorylated at linker regions (pSmad3L) and COOH terminal regions (pSmad3C) and both (pSmad3L/C). pSmad3L/C has a pathological role in colorectal cancer. Mesenchymal phenotype-specific cell responses in TGF-β/Smad3 pathway are implicated in carcinomas...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877883/versatility-of-nacl-transport-mechanisms-in-the-cortical-collecting-duct
#4
Aurélie Edwards, Gilles Crambert
The cortical collecting duct (CCD) forms part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and plays an essential role in maintaining the NaCl balance and acid-base status. The CCD epithelium comprises principal cells as well as different types of intercalated cells. Until recently, transcellular Na+ transport was thought to be restricted to principal cells, while (acid-secreting) type A and (bicarbonate-secreting) type B intercalated cells were associated with the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. This review describes how this traditional view has been upended by several discoveries in the last decade...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877882/mechanotransduction-signaling-in-podocytes-from-fluid-flow-shear-stress
#5
Tarak Srivastava, Hongying Dai, Daniel P Heruth, Uri S Alon, Robert E Garola, Jianping Zhou, R Scott Duncan, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Ram Sharma, Mark L Johnson, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Recently we and others have found that hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely tensile stress and fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) can directly and distinctly alter podocyte structure and function. The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates FFSS to podocyte. Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 307: F1323-F1333, 2014). To address mechanotransduction of the perceived mechanical stimulus through EP2 receptor, cultured podocytes were exposed to FFSS (2 dynes/cm2) for 2hrs...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877881/regulatory-t-cells-in-acute-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#6
Rahul Sharma, Gilbert R Kinsey
The Foxp3-expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is a subset of the helper T-cells (Th), constitute one of the major mechanisms of peripheral tolerance. Tregs prevent abnormal activation of the immune system throughout the lifespan, thus protecting from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have elucidated the role of Tregs beyond autoimmunity. Tregs play important functions in controlling not only innate and adaptive immune cell activation, but also regulate non-immune cell function during insults and injury...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877880/altered-vasopressin-and-natriuretic-peptide-levels-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-implications-for-the-development-of-polyuria
#7
Lynnette R Montgomery, Charles H Hubscher
Urinary dysfunction is a common complaint following spinal cord injury (SCI), and is a leading issue for individuals with SCI that impacts their quality of life. One urinary complication that has received little attention is SCI-induced polyuria, even though SCI individuals will significantly restrict their fluid intake to decrease urine production leading to a sequelae of medical complications. Understanding the mechanisms instigating the development of polyuria will allow us to target interventions which may alleviate polyuria symptoms leading to significant improvements in the quality of life and urinary health of SCI individuals...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877879/uninephrectomy-and-apical-fluid-shear-stress-decrease-enac-abundance-in-collecting-duct-principal-cells
#8
Thomas Ernandez, Khalil Udwan, Alexandra Chassot, Pierre-Yves Martin, Eric Feraille
Acute nephron reduction such as after living kidney donation may increase the risk of hypertension. Uninephrectomy induces major hemodynamic changes in the remaining kidney resulting in rapid increase of single nephron GFR and fluid delivery in the distal nephron. Decreased sodium (Na) fractional reabsorption after the distal tubule has been reported after uninephrectomy in animals preserving volume homeostasis. In the present study, we thought to specifically explore the effect of unilateral nephrectomy on ENaC subunits expression in mice...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877878/angiotensin-ii-type-1a-receptor-deficient-mice-develop-angiotensin-ii-induced-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-without-blood-pressure-increase
#9
Anna Zimnol, Kerstin Amann, Philipp Mandel, Christina Hartmann, Nicole Schupp
Hypertensive patients have an increased risk to develop kidney cancer. We have shown in vivo, that besides elevating blood pressure, angiotensin II causes DNA damage dose-dependently. Here, the role of blood pressure in the formation of DNA damage is studied. Mice lacking one of the two murine angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) subtypes, AT1aR, were equipped with osmotic minipumps, delivering angiotensin II during 28 days. Parameters of oxidative stress and DNA damage of kidneys and hearts of AT1aR-knockout mice were compared to wildtype (C57BL/6) mice receiving angiotensin II, and additionally, to wildtype (WT) mice treated with candesartan, an antagonist of both AT1R-subtypes...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877877/acute-blood-loss-stimulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-production
#10
Seham Rabadi, Ikemesit Udo, David Evan Leaf, Sushrut Waikar, Marta Christov
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production is upregulated by iron deficiency and hypoxia. However, the influence of acute blood loss, and the resulting increases in circulating erythropoietin, on FGF23 production is unknown. Using wild-type C57BL/6 mice, we show that acute loss of 10% total blood volume leads to an increase in plasma C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) levels within six hours, while plasma levels of intact FGF23, phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, iron, and ferritin remain similar to control mice without acute blood loss...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855190/extracellular-vesicles-as-immune-mediators-in-response-to-kidney-injury
#11
Eva Feigerlova, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Thierry Hauet, Jean-Louis Guéant
Important progress has been made on the cytokine signalling in response to kidney injury in the past decade, especially cytokine signalling mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). For example, EVs released by injured renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) can regulate inter-cellular communications and influence tissue recovery via both regulating the expression and transferring cytokines, growth factors, as well as other bioactive molecules at the site of injury. The effects of EVs on kidney tissue seem to vary depending on the sources of EVs; however, the literature data are often inconsistent...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855189/adenosine-a1-receptor-operated-calcium-entry-in-renal-afferent-arterioles-is-dependent-on-postnatal-maturation-of-trpc3-channels
#12
Hitesh Soni, Dieniffer Peixoto-Neves, Randal K Buddington, Adebowale Adebiyi
Adenosine, a regulator of cardiovascular development and renal function, constricts renal afferent arterioles by inducing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via activation of its cognate A1 receptors (A1Rs). Mechanisms that underlie A1R-dependent [Ca(2+)]i elevation in renal vascular SMCs are not fully resolved. Whether A1R expression and function in preglomerular microvessels are dependent on postnatal kidney maturation is also unclear. In this study, we show that selective activation of A1Rs by 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) does not stimulate store-operated Ca(2+) entry in afferent arterioles isolated from neonatal pigs...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855188/an-excitatory-reflex-from-the-superficial-peroneal-nerve-to-the-bladder-in-cats
#13
Michelle Yu, Jamie Uy, Xuewen Jiang, Xing Li, Cameron Jones, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
This study in α-chloralose anesthetized cats discovered an excitatory peroneal nerve-to-bladder reflex. A urethral catheter was used to infuse the bladder with saline and record bladder pressure changes. Electrical stimulation was applied to the superficial peroneal nerve to trigger a reflex bladder activity. With the bladder distended at a volume about 90% of bladder capacity, superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (PNS) at 1-3 Hz and threshold (T) intensity for inducing muscle twitching on the posterior thigh induced large amplitude (40-150 cmH2O) bladder contractions...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855187/inhibition-of-smooth-muscle-contraction-and-arf-6-activity-by-the-inhibitor-for-cytohesin-gefs-secinh3-in-the-human-prostate
#14
Annika Herlemann, Patrick Keller, Melanie Schott, Alexander Tamalunas, Anna Ciotkowska, Beata Rutz, Yiming Wang, Qingfeng Yu, Raphaela Waidelich, Frank Strittmatter, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke, Martin Hennenberg
Prostate smooth muscle contraction is critical for etiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and is promoted by small monomeric GTPases (RhoA, Rac). GTPases may be activated by guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). GEFs of the cytohesin family may indirectly activate Rac, or ADP ribosolyation factor (ARF) GTPases directly. Here we investigated the expression of cytohesin family GEFs, and effects of the cytohesin inhibitor secinH3 on smooth muscle contraction and GTPase activities in human prostate tissues...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835421/effect-of-salt-intake-on-afferent-arteriolar-dilatation-role-of-connecting-tubule-glomerular-feedback-ctgf
#15
Hong Wang, Cesar A Romero, J X Masjoan Juncos, Sumit R Monu, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
Afferent arteriole (Af-Art) resistance is modulated by 2 intrinsic nephron feedbacks: 1) vasoconstrictor tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), which is mediated by NKCC2 in the macula densa and blocked by furosemide; and 2) vasodilator connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF), which is mediated by ENaC in the connecting tubule and blocked by benzamil. High salt intake reduces the Af-Art vasoconstrictor ability in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl SS). Previously, we measured CTGF indirectly using the differences between the TGF responses with and without CTGF inhibition...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835420/evaluating-the-voiding-spot-assay-in-mice-a-simple-method-with-complex-environmental-interactions
#16
Huan Chen, Lanlan Zhang, Warren G Hill, Weiqun Yu
The voiding spot assay (VSA) on filter paper is an increasingly popular method for studying lower urinary tract physiology in mice. However, the ways VSA are performed differ significantly between laboratories, and many variables are introduced compared to the mouse's normal housing situation. Rodents are intelligent social animals, and it is increasingly understood that social and environmental stresses have significant effects on their physiology. Surprisingly, little is known about whether change of environment during VSA affects mouse voiding, and what the best methodologies are for retaining 'natural' micturition patterns...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835419/glomerular-mesangial-cell-recruitment-and-function-requires-the-co-receptor-neuropilin-1
#17
Christina Swan Bartlett, Rizaldy Paz Scott, Isabel Anna Carota, Monika L Wnuk, Yashpal S Kanwar, Jeffrey H Miner, Susan E Quaggin
Proteinuria has been reported in cancer patients receiving agents that target the transmembrane receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) suggesting potential adverse effects on glomerular function. Here we show that Nrp1 is highly expressed by mesangial cells and that genetic deletion of the Nrp1 gene from PDGFR+ mesangial cells results in proteinuric disease and glomerulosclerosis, leading to renal failure and death within 6 weeks of age in mice. The major defect is a failure of mesangial cell migration that is required to establish the mature glomerular tuft...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814439/stimulating-bioelectronic-medicine-discovery-for-urological-disorders
#18
Peregrine B Osborne
N/A?
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814438/collecting-duct-prorenin-receptor-knockout-reduces-renal-function-increases-na-excretion-and-mitigates-renal-responses-in-angii-induced-hypertensive-mice
#19
Minolfa C Prieto, Virginia Reverte, Mykola Mamenko, Marta Kuczeriska, Luciana C Veiras, Carla B Rosales, Matthew McLellan, Oliver Gentile, V Behrana Jensen, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Alicia A McDonough, Oleh M Pochynyuk, Alexis A Gonzalez
Augmented intratubular angiotensin (ANG) II is a key determinant of enhanced distal Na+ reabsorption via activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and other transporters, which leads to the development of high blood pressure (BP). In ANGII-induced hypertension, there is increased expression of the prorenin receptor (PRR) in the collecting duct (CD), which has been implicated in the stimulation of the sodium transporters and resultant hypertension. The impact of PRR deletion along the nephron on BP regulation and Na+ handling remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814437/adaptive-responses-of-rat-descending-vasa-recta-to-ischemia
#20
Zhong Zhang, Kristie Payne, Thomas L Pallone
We tested whether rat descending vasa recta (DVR) undergo regulatory adaptions after the kidney is exposed to ischemia. Left kidneys (LK) were subjected to 30 minute renal artery cross clamp. After 48 hours, the post-ischemic LK and contralateral right kidney (RK) were harvested for study. When compared to DVR isolated from either sham operated LK or the contralateral RK, post-ischemic LK DVR markedly increased their NO generation. The selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400W, blocked the NO response...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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