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American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701315/effect-of-endurance-training-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-signaling-for-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-ckd-model-rats-fed-a-low-protein-diet
#1
Takuya Yoshida, Sachika Kakizawa, Yuri Totsuka, Miho Sugimoto, Shinji Miura, Hiromichi Kumagai
A low-protein diet (LPD) protects against the progression of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, LPD may accelerate muscle wasting in these patients. Both exercise and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are known to increase muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate whether endurance exercise and BCAA play a role for increasing muscle protein synthesis in LPD-fed CKD (5/6 nephrectomized) rats...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701314/cux1-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-polycystic-kidney-disease-progression-in-an-adpkd-mouse-model
#2
Binu Porath, Safia Livingston, Erica L Andres, Alexandra M Petrie, Joshua C Wright, Anna E Woo, Carol G Carlton, Richard Baybutt, Gregory B Vanden Heuvel
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common monogenic hereditary disorders in humans characterized by fluid-filled cysts, primarily in the kidneys. Cux1, a cell cycle regulatory gene highly expressed during kidney development, is elevated in the cyst-lining cells of Pkd1 mutant mice, and in human ADPKD cells. However, forced expression of Cux1 is insufficient to induce cystic disease in transgenic mice, or to induce rapid cyst formation after cilia disruption in the kidneys of adult mice...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701313/dynamic-regulation-of-lysine-acetylation-the-balance-between-acetyltransferase-and-deacetylase-activities
#3
Kelly A Hyndman, Mark A Knepper
Reversible posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins is a critically important process in physiological regulation in all tissues including the kidney. Lysine acetylation occurs in all organisms including prokaryotes, and is regulated by a balance between the lysine acetyltransferases (adding an acetyl group to the ε-amino group of a lysine) and deacetylases (removing it). The kidney is an organ rich with acetylated lysines which map to >2000 unique histone and non-histone proteins. However, the functional significance of these modifications remains to be discovered...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701312/inflammation-and-premature-aging-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Jeroen Kooman, Marijke Dekker, Len A Usvyat, Peter Kotanko, Frank Van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Paul G Shiels, Peter Stenvinkel
Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have direct effect on cellular and tissue function...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701311/pge2-upregulates-renin-through-e-prostanoid-receptor-1-via-pkc-camp-creb-pathway-in-m-1-cells
#5
Alexis A Gonzalez, Nicolas Salinas-Parra, Dan Leach, L Gabriel Navar, Minolfa C Prieto
During the early phase of angiotensin (ANG) II-dependent hypertension tubular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is increased. Renin synthesis and secretion in the collecting duct (CD) is upregulated by ANGII contributing to further intratubular ANGII formation. However, what happens first and whether the triggering mechanism is independent of tubular ANGII, remain unknown. PGE2 stimulates renin synthesis in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells via E-prostanoid (EP) receptors through cAMP/CREB pathway. EP receptors are also expressed in the CD...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701310/deletion-of-%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-collecting-duct-principal-cells-leads-to-tubular-injury-and-renal-medullary-fibrosis
#6
Fahmy A Mamuya, Dongping Xie, Lei Lei, Ming Huang, Kenji Tsuji, Diane E Capen, Baoxue Yang, Ralph Weissleder, Teodor G Păunescu, Hua Jenny Lu
The renal collecting duct (CD) contains two major cell types, intercalated (ICs) and principal cells (PCs). A previous report showed that deletion of β-1 integrin in the entire renal CD causes defective CD morphogenesis resulting in kidney dysfunction. However, subsequent deletion of β-1 integrin specifically in ICs, and PCs respectively did not cause any morphological defects in the CDs. The discrepancy between these studies prompts us to reinvestigate the role of β-1 integrin in CD cells, specifically in the PCs...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679594/tubuloglomerular-feedback-responses-in-offspring-of-dexamethasone-treated-ewes
#7
Anita J Turner, Russell D Brown, Amanda E Brandon, A Erik G Persson, Karen Jane Gibson
Via developmental programming, prenatal perturbations, such as exposure to glucocorticoids and maternal malnutrition alter kidney development and contribute to the development of hypertension. To examine the possibility that alterations in tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) contribute to the development of hypertension in offspring following maternal dexamethasone treatment (Dex) in early gestation, studies were conducted in fetal sheep and lambs. Pregnant ewes were infused with dexamethasone (0.48 mg/h) at 26-28 days gestation...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679593/increased-susceptibility-to-structural-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-presymptomatic-cardiomyopathy
#8
LaTawnya Pleasant, Qing Ma, Mahima Devarajan, Priyanka Parameswaran, Keri Drake, Brian J Siroky, Kritton Shay-Winkler, Jeffrey Robbins, Prasad Devarajan
The early events that signal renal dysfunction in presymptomatic heart failure are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that functional and mechanistic changes occur in the kidney that precede the development of symptomatic heart failure. We employed a transgenic mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of mutant alpha-B-crystallin that develops slowly progressive cardiomyopathy. Presymptomatic transgenic mice displayed an increase in serum creatinine (1.17 ± 0.34 versus wild type 0.65 ± 0.16 mg/dL, p<0...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679592/hif-1-mediated-production-of-exosomes-during-hypoxia-is-protective-in-renal-tubular-cells
#9
Wei Zhang, Xiangjun Zhou, Qisheng Yao, Yutao Liu, Hao Zhang, Zheng Dong
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced and secreted by cells to mediate intercellular communication. The production and function of exosomes in kidney tissues and cells remain largely unclear. Hypoxia is a common patho-physiological condition in kidneys. This study was designed to characterize exosome production during hypoxia of rat renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC), investigate the regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and determine the effect of the exosomes on ATP-depletion induced tubular cell injury...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679591/greater-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-adult-female-shr-is-dependent-on-blood-pressure-but-does-not-account-for-sex-differences-in-renal-t-regulatory-cells
#10
Ashlee J Tipton, Jacqueline B Musall, G Ryan Crislip, Jennifer C Sullivan
Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have more renal regulatory T cells (Tregs) than males, and greater levels of Tregs in female SHR is dependent on blood pressure (BP). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for greater Tregs in female SHR is unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a pleiotropic cytokine critical in the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs, and female SHR have higher TGF-β excretion than male SHR. The goals of the current study were to test the hypotheses that 1) female SHR have greater renal TGF-β expression than male SHR which is dependent on BP and 2) neutralizing TGF-β will decrease renal Tregs in female SHR...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679590/unique-sex-and-age-dependent-effects-in-protective-pathways-in-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Ravindra Boddu, Chunlan Fan, Sunil Rangarajan, Bhuvana Sunil, Subhashini Bolisetty, Lisa M Curtis
Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, while in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679589/insulin-stimulates-uric-acid-reabsorption-via-regulating-urate-transporter-1-and-atp-binding-cassette-sub-family-g-member-2
#12
Daigo Toyoki, Shigeru Shibata, Emiko Kuribayashi-Okuma, Ning Xu, Kenichi Ishizawa, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shunya Uchida
Accumulating data indicate that renal uric acid (UA) handling is altered in diabetes and by hypoglycemic agents. In addition, hyperinsulinemia is associated with hyperuricemia and hypouricosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how diabetes and hypoglycemic agents alter the levels of renal UA transporters. In insulin-depleted diabetic rats with streptozotocin treatment, both UA excretion and fractional excretion of UA (FEUA) were increased, suggesting that tubular handling of UA is altered in this model...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659272/p53-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-mediates-aldosterone-induced-podocyte-injury-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#13
Yanggang Yuan, Aiqing Zhang, Jia Qi, Hui Wang, Xi Liu, Min Zhao, Suyan Duan, Zhimin Huang, Chengning Zhang, Lin Wu, Bo Zhang, Aihua Zhang, Changying Xing
Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an important factor in glomerular diseases. Previous study showed that mitochondrial fission contributed mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fission on mitochondrial dysfunction in aldosterone-induced podocyte injury remains ambiguous. This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial fission both in vivo and in vitro. In an animal model of aldosterone-induced nephropathy, inhibition of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) suppressed aldosterone-induced podocyte injury...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637791/store-operated-calcium-entry-suppressed-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-in-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#14
Sarika Chaudhari, Weizu Li, Yanxia Wang, Hui Jiang, Yuhong Ma, Mark E Davis, Jonathan E Zuckerman, Rong Ma
Our previous study demonstrated that the abundance of extracellular matrix proteins was suppressed by store-operated Ca2+ entry in mesangial cells (MCs). The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism focused on the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) - Smad3 pathway, a critical pathway for ECM expansion in diabetic kidneys. We hypothesized that SOCE suppressed ECM protein expression by inhibiting this pathway in MCs. In cultured human MCs, we observed that TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml for 15 hours) significantly increased Smad3 phosphorylation as evaluated by immunoblot...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637790/protection-of-kidneys-by-magnesium-in-cisplatin-chemotherapy-a-fight-between-two-metals
#15
Fanghua Li, Man J Livingston, Zheng Dong
Commentary on: Kumar G, Solanki MH, Xue X, Mintz R, Madankumar S, Chatterjee PK, and Metz CN. Magnesium improves cisplatin-mediated tumor killing while protecting against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ajprenal 00688 02016, 2017.
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637789/harnessing-basic-and-clinic-tools-to-evaluate-sglt2-inhibitor-nephrotoxicity
#16
Danielle Saly, Mark Anthony Perazella
N/A.
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637788/the-effects-of-neuromodulation-in-a-novel-obese-prone-rat-model-of-detrusor-underactivity
#17
Eric J Gonzalez, Warren M Grill
Obesity is a global epidemic associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Inefficient voiding and urinary retention may arise in late-stage obesity when the expulsive force of the detrusor smooth muscle cannot overcome outlet resistance. Detrusor underactivity (DUA) and impaired contractility may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-obstructive urinary retention. We used cystometry and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves (pudendal and pelvic n.) to characterize and improve bladder function in urethane-anesthetized obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats following diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637787/biophysics-and-biofluiddynamics-of-primary-cilia-evidence-for-and-against-the-flow-sensing-function
#18
Subhra Nag, Andrew Resnick
Primary cilia have been called "the forgotten organelle" for over 20 years. As cilia now have their own Journal and several books devoted to their study, perhaps it's time to reconsider the moniker "forgotten organelle". In fact, during the drafting of this review, 12 relevant publications have been issued- we therefore apologize in advance for any relevant work we inadvertently omitted. What purpose is yet another ciliary review? The primary goal of this review is to specifically examine the evidence for and against the hypothesized flow-sensing function of primary cilia expressed by differentiated epithelia within a kidney tubule, bringing together differing disciplines and their respective conceptual and experimental approaches...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637786/the-role-of-capsaicin-sensitive-c-fiber-afferent-pathways-in-the-control-of-micturition-in-spinal-intact-and-spinal-cord-injured-mice
#19
Katsumi Kadekawa, Tsuyoshi Majima, Takahiro Shimizu, Naoki Wada, William C de Groat, Anthony J Kanai, Momokazu Goto, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, Kimio Sugaya, Naoki Yoshimura
We examined bladder and urethral sphincter activity in mice with or without spinal cord injury (SCI) after C-fiber afferent desensitization induced by capsaicin pretreatment and changes in electrophysiological properties of mouse bladder afferent neurons 4 weeks after SCI. Female C57BL/6N mice were divided into 4 groups; (1) spinal intact (SI)-control, (2) SI-capsaicin pretreatment (Cap), (3) SCI-control and (4) SCI-Cap groups. Continuous cystometry and external urethral sphincter (EUS)-electromyogram (EMG) were conducted under an awake condition...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615250/an-essential-mif-cd74-signaling-axis-in-kidney-tubular-regeneration-with-prospects-for-precision-medicine-and-pharmacologic-augmentation
#20
Idit Shachar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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