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Attachment & Human Development

Manuela Oehler, Elia Psouni
Lacking secure attachment representations is associated with vulnerability to mental and physical health problems, perhaps mediated by increased susceptibility to stress and impaired emotion regulation. Even though cognitive representations of self and others tend to favor confirmation over information, research has shown that adult attachment security can be positively influenced. In a randomized control trial using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, participants (N = 112) were mobile primed with attachment security stimulating visualization tasks, over a 7-day period...
September 20, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Katherine L Guyon-Harris, Kathryn L Humphreys, Kathryn Degnan, Nathan A Fox, Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah
Although the study of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) in early childhood has received considerable attention, there is emerging interest in RAD that presents in school age children and adolescents. We examined the course of RAD signs from early childhood to early adolescence using both variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. One-hundred twenty-four children with a history of institutional care from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care, as well as 69 community comparison children were included in the study...
July 23, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Peter Zimmermann, Isabel Soares
This special issue brings together studies representing the current state of the art research on inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD) from developmental psychology and developmental attachment research. This editorial introduces and discusses conceptual topics of the development and  the assessment of inhibited RAD. Next, five empirical studies of this special issue cover timely topics from developmental trajectories and longitudinal stability of RAD to associations with caregiving experiences in institutions, IQ, and psychopathology, moreover aspects of internal working models of children with inhibited RAD are examined...
July 23, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Gottfried Spangler, Ina Bovenschen, Nino Jorjadze, Janin Zimmermann, Anne Werner, Nadine Riedel, Sandra Gabler, Josephine D Kliewer-Neumann, Katja Nowacki
The main objective of the article was to study the prevalence of symptoms of the inhibited attachment disorder depending on type and quality of the caregiving environment. Analyses were based on data of a sample of institutionalized children from Georgia (N = 16), and two samples of foster children from Georgia (N = 27) and Germany (N = 55). Inhibited attachment disorder symptoms were assessed by the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) and the Rating of Inhibited Attachment Behavior (RInAB). Further assessments included behavior problems in children, quality of caregiving behavior in foster parents/caregivers, and presence of preferred caregiver in the institution...
July 23, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Guy Bosmans, Jantine Spilt, Eleonora Vervoort, Karine Verschueren
To better understand Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), the current study tested whether emotionally and behaviorally disordered children with versus without RAD differ with regard to the quality of their interpersonal behavior during interactions with teachers and with regard to their representations of self and others. Therefore, 77 children were screened for RAD symptoms and 22 likely cases of inhibited RAD were identified. To measure quality of the interactions with teachers, we observed children's trust and positive affect in dyadic interactions with teachers...
July 20, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Mauricio Alvarez-Monjaras, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena Jv Rutherford
Although substance use and abuse may impact brain and behavior, it is still unclear why some people become addicted while others do not. Neuroscientific theories explain addiction as a series of between- and within-system neuroadaptations that lead to an increasingly dysregulating cycle, affecting reward, motivation, and executive control systems. In contrast, psychoanalysis understands addiction through a relational perspective wherein there is an underlying failure in affect regulation, a capacity shaped early developmentally...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Molly Bruce, David Young, Susan Turnbull, Maki Rooksby, Guy Chadwick, Catriona Oates, Rebecca Nelson, Genevieve Young-Southward, Caroline Haig, Helen Minnis
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is one of the least researched and most poorly understood psychiatric disorders. Very little is known about the prevalence and stability of RAD symptoms over time. Until recently it has been difficult to investigate RAD due to limited tools for informing a diagnosis. Utilising a newly developed observational tool along with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview. this short-term prospective longitudinal study explored RAD symptoms in maltreated young children in Scotland (n=100, age range =12-62 months) over 12 months...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Raquel Corval, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Ana Mesquita, Isabel Soares
Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is presumed to be a consequence of social neglect and deprivation of the kind particularly associated with institutional care. Despite its clinical relevance there is a lack of assessment tools for RAD based on the direct observation of child-caregiver interaction. Here we describe the development and validation of such a tool for use with preschool children, the Rating of Inhibited Attachment Disordered Behavior (RInAB). The RInAB is composed of 17 ratings grouped in three subscales assessing (1) Attachment, (2) Exploratory, and (3) Socioemotional behavior...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Peter Zimmermann, Alexandra Iwanski
Most research on attachment in childhood is based on observation. In contrast, research on reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is mainly based on caregiver reports. Moreover, little is known about self-concept or internal working models (IWMs) of self and others in children with RAD. The present study examined whether caregiver reports and the frequency of observed signs of RAD reveal differences between children at risk for developing RAD symptoms and healthy controls in middle childhood. In addition, children's self-concept, observable signs of negative IWMs, and mental health were assessed...
July 17, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Leslie Atkinson
In reviewing the preceding articles, I emphasize the predominance of relational theories in the study of development as a way of demonstrating the evolutionary and relational extremity of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The lack (or distortion?) of mutuality, RAD's defining feature, has implications for all aspects of development, not least of which is self-regulation. I review each article in this special issue, emphasizing important features, integrating across studies, expanding their links to attachment theory, and recommending future directions...
July 17, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Helen Bech Poulsen, Nancy Hazen, Deborah Jacobvitz
This research examined couples' marital affect as a mediator between the couples' combined attachment representations (assessed prenatally) and each of their caregiving quality at 8 months postpartum. We followed 125 couples pregnant with their first child over the transition to parenthood. Prenatally, the Adult Attachment Interview was administered and marital interactions were observed. Parents were categorized in joint attachment pairs: secure/secure, secure mother/insecure father, secure father/insecure mother, and insecure/insecure...
July 4, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Tomotaka Umemura, Lenka Lacinová, Jakub Kraus, Eliška Horská, Lenka Pivodová
Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation...
October 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Yael Lahav, Alana Siegel, Zahava Solomon
Spouses of traumatized war veterans might suffer from distress following indirect exposure to combat and direct exposure to domestic abuse. Yet the effect of this twofold trauma exposure is far from being fully understood. Theory views attachment security as a personal resource mitigating adversity, whereas attachment insecurities intensify distress. Nevertheless, there are mixed results concerning the effects of attachment in the aftermath of trauma. Furthermore, the role of trauma exposure levels regarding the effects of attachment remains largely uninvestigated...
October 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Laura E Brumariu, Kathryn R Giuseppone, Kathryn A Kerns, Magali Van de Walle, Jean-François Bureau, Guy Bosmans, Karlen Lyons-Ruth
The purpose of this study was to assess behavioral manifestations of attachment in middle childhood, and to evaluate their relations with key theoretical correlates. The sample consisted of 87 children (aged 10-12 years) and their mothers. Dyads participated in an 8-min videotaped discussion of a conflict in their relationships, later scored with the Middle Childhood Attachment Strategies Coding System (MCAS) for key features of all child attachment patterns described in previous literature (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized-disoriented, caregiving/role-confused, hostile/punitive)...
October 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Florence Charest, Martine Hébert, Annie Bernier
Attachment theory provides a relevant framework for understanding the psychosocial adjustment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA). However, most studies have been conducted among adult populations and none have focused on the impact of both preschoolers' and mothers' experience of sexual abuse on attachment security. The aim of this study was to compare attachment representations in sexually abused (n = 258) and non-abused preschoolers (n = 133), and to explore the relation between maternal history of CSA and children's attachment representations...
October 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Evelien Platje, Paula Sterkenburg, Mathile Overbeek, Sabina Kef, Carlo Schuengel
Video-feedback Intervention to promote positive parenting-visual (VIPP-V) or visual-and-intellectual disability is an attachment-based intervention aimed at enhancing sensitive parenting and promoting positive parent-child relationships. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of VIPP-V for parents of children aged 1-5 with visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities. A total of 37 dyads received only care-as-usual (CAU) and 40 received VIPP-V besides CAU. The parents receiving VIPP-V did not show increased parental sensitivity or parent-child interaction quality, however, their parenting self-efficacy increased...
October 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Franco Baldoni, Mattia Minghetti, Giuseppe Craparo, Elisa Facondini, Loredana Cena, Adriano Schimmenti
Few studies have compared different systems in classifying Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. In this study, the AAI was administered to 90 Italian parents (45 couples), and the AAI transcripts were independently classified according to Main, Goldwyn, and Hesse's (Berkeley) and Crittenden's (Dynamic-Maturational Model [DMM]) criteria. The two classification systems were not significantly associated, with some limited convergent results only when the interviews resulted in organized (Berkeley) and normative (DMM) attachment classifications...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Lauren A Sparks, Christopher J Trentacosta, Erika Owusu, Caitlin McLear, Joanne Smith-Darden
Secure attachment relationships have been linked to social competence in at-risk children. In the current study, we examined the role of parent secure base scripts in predicting at-risk kindergarteners' social competence. Parent representations of secure attachment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between lower family cumulative risk and children's social competence. Participants included 106 kindergarteners and their primary caregivers recruited from three urban charter schools serving low-income families as a part of a longitudinal study...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Amanda J Koehn, Kathryn A Kerns
Maternal sensitivity predicts mother-child attachment in young children, but no meta-analysis has investigated the link between parenting and parent-child attachment in older children. This study examined the relationship between parent-child attachment and multiple components of parenting in children 5-18 years of age. A series of meta-analyses showed that parents of children with more secure attachment are more responsive, more supportive of the child's autonomy, use more behavioral control strategies, and use less harsh control strategies...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
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