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Attachment & Human Development

Christin Köber, Magdalena Maria Kuhn, Isabel Peters, Tilmann Habermas
Reflective functioning (RF) is defined as the ability to infer mental states of others and oneself. While RF has been predominantly studied in attachment research, it might also occur in other autobiographical narratives because of its strong connection to self-organization and self-understanding. Therefore, this study took a first step combining research on RF with developmental narrative research. In a longitudinal lifespan study covering up to three measurements across 8 years and six age groups (N = 172), we aimed to detect RF in entire life narratives to explore its development with age and its contribution to causal-motivational coherence of life narratives...
May 16, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Nina Koren-Karie, Rachel Getzler-Yosef
The study examined the insightfulness of mothers who experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that mothers who experienced CSA will be less insightful than those who did not experience CSA, and that state of mind with no marked signs of lack of resolution of the trauma can buffer against its negative effects. The insightfulness of 30 mothers who experienced CSA and 30 demographically matched mothers but with no CSA was assessed using the Insightfulness Assessment...
May 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Guangming Ran, Qi Zhang
Attachment style is a relatively stable trait linked to emotion regulation and coping as measured by questionnaire responses. An increasing number of functional brain imaging studies have explored the neural underpinnings of attachment style during emotional processing. However, until now, an overall picture of brain regions involved in this trait remained unexplored. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 12 peer-reviewed studies on attachment style using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Gubair Tarabeh, Ghadir Zreik, David Oppenheim, Avi Sagi-Schwartz, Nina Koren-Karie
We examined the association between maternal Mind-Mindedness (MM) and secure attachment in an Arab sample in Israel. Seventy-six infant-mother dyads were observed during free play to assess maternal MM and in the Strange Situation Procedure to assess attachment. Mothers of secure infants were hypothesized to use more appropriate and fewer non-attuned mind-related comments than mothers of insecure infants. The results showed that mothers of secure infants used more appropriate mind-related comments than mothers of disorganized infants, with no significant differences compared to mothers of ambivalent infants...
May 2, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Jennifer M StGeorge, Jaime K Wroe, Miranda E Cashin
Reviews of attachment research point to fathers' capacity to provide for a secure child-parent attachment relationship; a suggested mechanism for the development of this relationship may be sensitive and challenging play interactions. This review synthesises research on fathers' challenging and stimulating play by mapping the variation in construct definitions and reporting on the association of fathers' stimulating play with child outcomes. Using search terms such as "father", "stimulating"and "challenging", 26 studies were identified, including 16 longitudinal studies, which assessed the association between father-child stimulating or challenging play, and child outcomes...
April 30, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Carmen Viejo, Claire P Monks, María Sánchez-Rosa, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Attachment Theory has become one of the leading theories in human development. Nonetheless, empirical studies focusing on how attachment unfolds during adolescence are still scarce particularly in Spain, due to the lack of adequate measures. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the Important People Interview (IPI) in a shorter questionnaire version (Important People- Questionnaire; IP-Q); to analyse the changes in different affiliative bonds to multiple figures -family, peers, romantic partners - over the course of adolescence; and to identify boys' and girls' hierarchical ordering of their specific attachment bonds...
April 26, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Tomotaka Umemura, Lenka Lacinová, Jakub Kraus, Eliška Horská, Lenka Pivodová
Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation...
April 20, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Klaus E Grossmann, Karin Grossmann
This article describes the earliest processes involved in socializing infants into cultural beings, that are thought to set the stage for the type of interactions described in this special issue. From birth onwards, infants experience and learn whether their signals will be answered, and in what way, by whom, and when. Infants learn about their own culture from the persons around them through the meaning and interpretations these persons give to their behaviors. Many questions remain about how these processes link to infant brain development, and how insights from cultural and biological anthropology can be used to elucidate the meaning and function of sensitive caregiver-infant interactions...
March 29, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Khadija Alsarhi, Rahma, Mariëlle J L Prevoo, Lenneke R A Alink, Judi Mesman
This study represents the first video observation of parenting practices conducted in Yemen, where filming women is a taboo, and women are generally fully veiled, showing only their eyes, in the presence of strangers. A total of 62 mothers and children (aged 2-6 years) were filmed in their homes for 15 min during free interaction. The mothers' veils were not experienced as hampering the coding of sensitivity. Consistent with the socioeconomically deprived context, average sensitivity levels were low, but over 25% of mothers were rated as (very) sensitive...
March 28, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Nicola Dawson, Katherine Bain, Judi Mesman
Recent scholarly insights show that nonverbal and subtle forms of sensitive responsiveness are more applicable to describing and assessing non-Western parent-infant interactions than the more extraverted Western varieties of responsiveness. This paper examines whether the original Ainsworth scale (that does not specify particular manifestations of sensitivity) reveals different patterns of results in 50 South African mothers when compared to the Maternal Behavior Q-sort mini that assesses a more specified array of behaviors that may vary in their goodness of fit regarding the cultural context...
March 28, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Ana Carla Lima Ribeiro-Accioly, Maria Lucia Seidl-De-Moura, Deise Maria Leal Fernandes Mendes, Judi Mesman
This article reports on a study of maternal sensitivity in 22 primiparous women and their infants from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, as well as videotaped naturalistic home observations of the dyads. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to examine patterns of risk in relation to maternal sensitivity. The results reveal that compared to the 15 mothers with higher sensitivity scores, the 7 mothers with lower sensitivity scores were characterized by lower educational levels, lower income, lower age, living in a slum, unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and later onset of prenatal care...
March 28, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Rahma, Khadija Alsarhi, Mariëlle J L Prevoo, Lenneke R A Alink, Judi Mesman
In the context of urban slums in Makassar in Indonesia, this study aimed to test whether maternal sensitivity was predicted by maternal history of childhood maltreatment, and whether this association was mediated by current partner conflict and current cumulative sociodemographic risk. A total of 98 mothers and their 2-4-year-old children were videotaped in a naturalistic observation. Maternal sensitivity was coded using the Ainsworth scales. In addition, mothers were interviewed to assess childhood trauma, current partner conflict, and current sociodemographic risk...
March 27, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Katherine Fourment, Magaly Nóblega, Gabriela Conde, Juan Nuñez Del Prado, Judi Mesman
In the current study, we observed 12 mothers with a 4-21-month-old infant during their daily activities for around 3 h per dyad, focusing on daily caregiving practices such as feeding, bathing, and soothing in the rural multiple-caregiver cultural contexts of the Andean and Amazonian parts of Peru. Overall, sensitivity levels were high, with an average of 7.33 (out of 9), and 7 out of the 12 mothers scoring in the high range (scores 7-9), and the remaining 5 in the good-enough range (scores 5-6). In-depth descriptions of mother-infant interactions show that these high sensitivity levels reflect mothers' ability to multitask, combining household and agricultural chores with high sensitive responsiveness to their infants' signals...
March 27, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Faramarz Asanjarani, Faezeh Davoud Abadi, Milad Ghomi, Judi Mesman
There is evidence that rural versus urban residence is a salient factor in predicting parenting practices. In what is most likely the very first video-observation study of parenting ever to come out of Iran, mothers and their 18-60-month-old children were observed for 30 min of free interaction at their homes in urban (n = 11) and rural (n = 15) Iran. None of the mothers made any comments about being filmed, none expressed insecurities about what to do, and only four mothers looked at the camera more than once or twice...
March 23, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Ross A Thompson
How and why should attachment researchers engage in research on attachment and culture? How should they strive to develop a theoretical perspective that is both contextually sensitive and also reflecting species-typical processes of evolutionary adaptation? These comments on the remarkable empirical papers of this special issue consider what is learned from these studies, what more is needed, and directions for future research.
March 23, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Judi Mesman, Nobert Basweti, Joseph Misati
The Gusii in rural Kenya represent a particularly interesting community for the study of sensitivity, as they have previously been described as not showing sensitive care. This study focuses on the observation of sensitivity in seven families with a 7-to 23-month-old infant, with extensive naturalistic video observations (ca. 2-4 h per infant) in a multiple caregiver setting, and potential co-existing harsh parenting practices. The average score for received sensitive caregiving was rather low at 5.3, but four out of seven infants were rated as receiving at least adequately sensitive care...
March 22, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Judi Mesman
This introduction to the special issue on video observations of sensitive caregiving in different cultural communities provides a general theoretical and methodological framework for the seven empirical studies that are at the heart of this special issue. It highlights the cross-cultural potential of the sensitivity construct, the importance of research on sensitivity "off the beaten track," the advantages and potential challenges of the use of video in diverse cultural contexts, and the benefits of forming research teams that include local scholars...
March 22, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Judi Mesman
This integrative discussion of the special issue on video observations of sensitive caregiving in different cultural communities provides a reflection on the seven empirical studies that are at the heart of this special issue. The two main aims of this special issue are highlighted in terms of their overall conclusions: (1) video observations can be useful and reliable tools to assess sensitivity in non-Western cultural contexts; (2) caregiver sensitivity can be observed across very different cultural contexts and can be expressed in various culture-specific ways...
March 21, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Yael Lahav, Alana Siegel, Zahava Solomon
Spouses of traumatized war veterans might suffer from distress following indirect exposure to combat and direct exposure to domestic abuse. Yet the effect of this twofold trauma exposure is far from being fully understood. Theory views attachment security as a personal resource mitigating adversity, whereas attachment insecurities intensify distress. Nevertheless, there are mixed results concerning the effects of attachment in the aftermath of trauma. Furthermore, the role of trauma exposure levels regarding the effects of attachment remains largely uninvestigated...
March 9, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
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