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Attachment & Human Development

Mauricio Alvarez-Monjaras, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena Jv Rutherford
Although substance use and abuse may impact brain and behavior, it is still unclear why some people become addicted while others do not. Neuroscientific theories explain addiction as a series of between- and within-system neuroadaptations that lead to an increasingly dysregulating cycle, affecting reward, motivation, and executive control systems. In contrast, psychoanalysis understands addiction through a relational perspective wherein there is an underlying failure in affect regulation, a capacity shaped early developmentally...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Molly Bruce, David Young, Susan Turnbull, Maki Rooksby, Guy Chadwick, Catriona Oates, Rebecca Nelson, Genevieve Young-Southward, Caroline Haig, Helen Minnis
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is one of the least researched and most poorly understood psychiatric disorders. Very little is known about the prevalence and stability of RAD symptoms over time. Until recently it has been difficult to investigate RAD due to limited tools for informing a diagnosis. Utilising a newly developed observational tool along with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview. this short-term prospective longitudinal study explored RAD symptoms in maltreated young children in Scotland (n=100, age range =12-62 months) over 12 months...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Raquel Corval, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Ana Mesquita, Isabel Soares
Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is presumed to be a consequence of social neglect and deprivation of the kind particularly associated with institutional care. Despite its clinical relevance there is a lack of assessment tools for RAD based on the direct observation of child-caregiver interaction. Here we describe the development and validation of such a tool for use with preschool children, the Rating of Inhibited Attachment Disordered Behavior (RInAB). The RInAB is composed of 17 ratings grouped in three subscales assessing (1) Attachment, (2) Exploratory, and (3) Socioemotional behavior...
July 18, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Peter Zimmermann, Alexandra Iwanski
Most research on attachment in childhood is based on observation. In contrast, research on reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is mainly based on caregiver reports. Moreover, little is known about self-concept or internal working models (IWMs) of self and others in children with RAD. The present study examined whether caregiver reports and the frequency of observed signs of RAD reveal differences between children at risk for developing RAD symptoms and healthy controls in middle childhood. In addition, children's self-concept, observable signs of negative IWMs, and mental health were assessed...
July 17, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Leslie Atkinson
In reviewing the preceding articles, I emphasize the predominance of relational theories in the study of development as a way of demonstrating the evolutionary and relational extremity of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The lack (or distortion?) of mutuality, RAD's defining feature, has implications for all aspects of development, not least of which is self-regulation. I review each article in this special issue, emphasizing important features, integrating across studies, expanding their links to attachment theory, and recommending future directions...
July 17, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Helen Bech Poulsen, Nancy Hazen, Deborah Jacobvitz
This research examined couples' marital affect as a mediator between the couples' combined attachment representations (assessed prenatally) and each of their caregiving quality at 8 months postpartum. We followed 125 couples pregnant with their first child over the transition to parenthood. Prenatally, the Adult Attachment Interview was administered and marital interactions were observed. Parents were categorized in joint attachment pairs: secure/secure, secure mother/insecure father, secure father/insecure mother, and insecure/insecure...
July 4, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Rahel Bachem, Yafit Levin, Zahava Solomon
Previous studies suggest that attachment insecurities may increase after trauma exposure, an effect documented only at a group level. This study explores the heterogeneity of changes over time and examines the associations of the nature of the traumatic event (interpersonal and nonpersonal), and its consequences (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and loneliness) with attachment trajectories. Two groups of Israeli veterans participated: 164 former prisoners-of-war and 185 combat veterans. Attachment was assessed at four points (1991-2015)...
June 4, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Jessica L Borelli, Agostino Brugnera, Cristina Zarbo, Massimo Rabboni, Emi Bondi, Giorgio A Tasca, Angelo Compare
This study investigated the effects of adolescents' attachment security and reflective functioning (RF) (assessed by the adult attachment interview [AAI]) in the prediction of well-being in adulthood. Adolescents (N = 79; M = 14.6 years old; SD = 3.5 years) completed the AAI at Time 1 (T1), which was subsequently coded for inferred attachment experiences, narrative coherence, and RF by three nonoverlapping teams of raters. Participants completed the Psychological General Well-being Index at T1 and 8 years later (Time 2, T2)...
June 4, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Christin Köber, Magdalena Maria Kuhn, Isabel Peters, Tilmann Habermas
Reflective functioning (RF) is defined as the ability to infer mental states of others and oneself. While RF has been predominantly studied in attachment research, it might also occur in other autobiographical narratives because of its strong connection to self-organization and self-understanding. Therefore, this study took a first step combining research on RF with developmental narrative research. In a longitudinal lifespan study covering up to three measurements across 8 years and six age groups (N = 172), we aimed to detect RF in entire life narratives to explore its development with age and its contribution to causal-motivational coherence of life narratives...
May 16, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Nina Koren-Karie, Rachel Getzler-Yosef
The study examined the insightfulness of mothers who experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that mothers who experienced CSA will be less insightful than those who did not experience CSA, and that state of mind with no marked signs of lack of resolution of the trauma can buffer against its negative effects. The insightfulness of 30 mothers who experienced CSA and 30 demographically matched mothers but with no CSA was assessed using the Insightfulness Assessment...
May 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Guangming Ran, Qi Zhang
Attachment style is a relatively stable trait linked to emotion regulation and coping as measured by questionnaire responses. An increasing number of functional brain imaging studies have explored the neural underpinnings of attachment style during emotional processing. However, until now, an overall picture of brain regions involved in this trait remained unexplored. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 12 peer-reviewed studies on attachment style using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Gubair Tarabeh, Ghadir Zreik, David Oppenheim, Avi Sagi-Schwartz, Nina Koren-Karie
We examined the association between maternal Mind-Mindedness (MM) and secure attachment in an Arab sample in Israel. Seventy-six infant-mother dyads were observed during free play to assess maternal MM and in the Strange Situation Procedure to assess attachment. Mothers of secure infants were hypothesized to use more appropriate and fewer non-attuned mind-related comments than mothers of insecure infants. The results showed that mothers of secure infants used more appropriate mind-related comments than mothers of disorganized infants, with no significant differences compared to mothers of ambivalent infants...
May 2, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Jennifer M StGeorge, Jaime K Wroe, Miranda E Cashin
Reviews of attachment research point to fathers' capacity to provide for a secure child-parent attachment relationship; a suggested mechanism for the development of this relationship may be sensitive and challenging play interactions. This review synthesises research on fathers' challenging and stimulating play by mapping the variation in construct definitions and reporting on the association of fathers' stimulating play with child outcomes. Using search terms such as "father", "stimulating"and "challenging", 26 studies were identified, including 16 longitudinal studies, which assessed the association between father-child stimulating or challenging play, and child outcomes...
April 30, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Carmen Viejo, Claire P Monks, María Sánchez-Rosa, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Attachment Theory has become one of the leading theories in human development. Nonetheless, empirical studies focusing on how attachment unfolds during adolescence are still scarce particularly in Spain, due to the lack of adequate measures. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the Important People Interview (IPI) in a shorter questionnaire version (Important People- Questionnaire; IP-Q); to analyse the changes in different affiliative bonds to multiple figures -family, peers, romantic partners - over the course of adolescence; and to identify boys' and girls' hierarchical ordering of their specific attachment bonds...
April 26, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Franco Baldoni, Mattia Minghetti, Giuseppe Craparo, Elisa Facondini, Loredana Cena, Adriano Schimmenti
Few studies have compared different systems in classifying Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. In this study, the AAI was administered to 90 Italian parents (45 couples), and the AAI transcripts were independently classified according to Main, Goldwyn, and Hesse's (Berkeley) and Crittenden's (Dynamic-Maturational Model [DMM]) criteria. The two classification systems were not significantly associated, with some limited convergent results only when the interviews resulted in organized (Berkeley) and normative (DMM) attachment classifications...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Lauren A Sparks, Christopher J Trentacosta, Erika Owusu, Caitlin McLear, Joanne Smith-Darden
Secure attachment relationships have been linked to social competence in at-risk children. In the current study, we examined the role of parent secure base scripts in predicting at-risk kindergarteners' social competence. Parent representations of secure attachment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between lower family cumulative risk and children's social competence. Participants included 106 kindergarteners and their primary caregivers recruited from three urban charter schools serving low-income families as a part of a longitudinal study...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Amanda J Koehn, Kathryn A Kerns
Maternal sensitivity predicts mother-child attachment in young children, but no meta-analysis has investigated the link between parenting and parent-child attachment in older children. This study examined the relationship between parent-child attachment and multiple components of parenting in children 5-18 years of age. A series of meta-analyses showed that parents of children with more secure attachment are more responsive, more supportive of the child's autonomy, use more behavioral control strategies, and use less harsh control strategies...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Evelyn S Tan, Jennifer E McIntosh, Emily J Kothe, Jessica E Opie, Craig A Olsson
This paper provides a meta-analytic examination of strength and direction of association between parents' couple relationship quality and early childhood attachment security (5 years and under). A comprehensive search of four EBSCOhost databases, Informit, Web of Science, and grey literature yielded 24 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Heterogeneity of the couple quality construct and measurement was marked. To disaggregate potentially differentially acting factors, we grouped homogeneous studies, creating two predictor variables defined as "positive dyadic adjustment" and "inter-parental conflict"...
August 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Cecilia Martinez-Torteya, Katherine L Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, David Oppenheim, Nina Koren-Karie, Maria Muzik
The current study evaluated whether maternal insightfulness can buffer the negative influence of postpartum stressful life events on maternal parenting behaviors. Participants were 125 mother-infant dyads (55% boys) who present a subsample of a larger longitudinal study on maternal maltreatment during childhood and its impact on peripartum maternal adjustment. Women were primarily white and middle class. At 4 months postpartum, mothers reported on the stressful life events experienced after the child's birth and current depressive symptoms...
June 2018: Attachment & Human Development
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