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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637660/interleukin-33-induces-growth-regulated-oncogene-%C3%AE-expression-and-secretion-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#1
Masayoshi Yamamoto, Katsuyuki Umebashi, Akinori Tokito, Junichi Imamura, Michihisa Jougasaki
Although interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, plays pro-inflammatory roles in immune cells as an "alarmin", little is known regarding the biological actions of IL-33 on vascular endothelial cells. To investigate the effects of IL-33 on vascular endothelial cells, we first screened the IL-33-regulated proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a dot blot array, and observed that IL-33 markedly increased growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α, a chemokine that is also known as CXCL1...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#2
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637658/decreased-myoblast-differentiation-in-chronic-binge-alcohol-administered-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-male-macaques-role-of-decreased-mir-206
#3
Liz Simon, Stephen M Ford, Kejing Song, Paul Berner, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Steve Nelson, Gregory J Bagby, Patricia E Molina
Skeletal muscle stem cells play a critical role in regeneration of myofibers. We have previously demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) markedly attenuates myoblast differentiation potential and myogenic gene expression. Muscle specific microRNAs are implicated in regulating myogenic genes. The aim of this study was to determine whether myoblasts isolated from asymptomatic CBA administered SIV-infected macaques treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) showed similar impairments and if so, to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637657/seasonal-factors-influence-quantal-transmitter-release-and-calcium-dependence-at-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions
#4
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are composed of hundreds of neurotransmitter release sites which exhibit non-uniform transmitter release probabilities and demonstrated seasonal modulation. We examined whether recruitment of release sites is variable when the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) is increased in the wet and dry seasons. The amount of transmitter released from the entire nerve terminal increases by approximately the 4(th)-power as [Ca(2+)]o is increased. Toad (Bufo marinus) NMJs were visualised using DiOC2(5)-fluorescence and focal loose patch extracellular recordings were used to record the end-plate currents (EPCs) from small groups of release sites...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615161/high-glucose-increases-action-potential-firing-of-catecholamine-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-by-increasing-spontaneous-glutamate-inputs
#5
Brandon L Roberts, Mingyan Zhu, Huan Zhao, Crystal Dillon, Suzanne M Appleyard
Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal and stress...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615160/nkx2-5-is-essential-to-establish-normal-heart-rate-variability-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#6
Jamie K Harrington, Robert Sorabella, Abigail Tercek, Joseph R Isler, Kimara L Targoff
Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an important clinical marker of cardiovascular health and a research measure for the study of the cardiac conduction system and its autonomic controls. While zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal vertebrate model for understanding heart development, HRV has only recently been investigated in this system. We have previously demonstrated that nkx2.5 and nkx2.7, two homologues of Nkx2-5 expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes, play vital roles in maintaining cardiac chamber-specific characteristics...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592460/heads-you-gain-tails-you-lose-editorial-focus-for-r-00351-2016
#7
Kathleen M Gilmour
NA.
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592459/the-effects-of-10-days-of-separate-heat-and-hypoxic-exposure-on-heat-acclimation-and-temperate-exercise-performance
#8
Rebecca A Neal, Jamie Prout, Joseph Costello, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
Adaptations to heat and hypoxia are typically studied in isolation, but are often encountered in combination. Whether the adaptive response to multiple stressors affords the same response as when examined in isolation is unclear. We examined: i) the influence of overnight moderate normobaric hypoxia on the time course and magnitude of adaption to daily heat exposure; ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) was ergogenic and if this was influenced by an additional hypoxic-stimulus. Eight males (V̇O2max=58.5[8.3] mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) undertook two 11-day HA programmes (balanced-crossover design), once with overnight normobaric hypoxia (8[1] h per night; 10 nights; FIO2=0...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592458/localized-and-systemic-variations-in-central-motor-drive-at-different-local-skin-and-muscle-temperatures
#9
Alex Lloyd, Lewis Picton, Margherita Raccuglia, Simon Hodder, George Havenith
This study investigated the ability to sustain quadriceps central motor drive while subjected to localized heat and metaboreceptive feedback from the contralateral leg. Eight active males each completed two counter-balanced trials, in which muscle temperature (Tm) of a single-leg (TEMP-LEG) was altered to 29.4 (COOL) or 37.6°C (WARM), while the contralateral leg (CL-LEG) remained thermoneutral; 35.3 and 35.2°C Tm in COOL and WARM respectively. To activate metaboreceptive feedback, participants first performed one 120-s isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors in the TEMP-LEG, immediately followed by post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) via femoral blood flow occlusion...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566305/tissue-specific-seasonal-changes-in-mitochondrial-function-of-a-mammalian-hibernator
#10
Ashley B Heim, Dillon J Chung, Gregory L Florant, Adam J Chicco
Mammalian hibernators, such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis; GMGS), cease to feed while reducing metabolic rate and body temperature during winter months, surviving exclusively on endogenous fuels stored prior to hibernation. We hypothesized that mitochondria, the cellular sites of oxidative metabolism, undergo tissue-specific seasonal adjustments in carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization to facilitate or compliment this remarkable phenotype. To address this, we performed high-resolution respirometry of mitochondria isolated from GMGS liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) sampled during summer (active), fall (prehibernation), and winter (hibernation) seasons using multi-substrate titration protocols...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566304/circulating-motilin-ghrelin-and-glp-1-and-their-correlations-with-gastric-slow-waves-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Gao-Jue Wu, Xu-Dong Cai, Jie Xing, Guang-Hui Zhong, Jiande Dz Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) commonly complain upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, especially anorexia. Hemodialysis (HD) has been noted to improve GI symptoms; however, underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study was designed 1) to study effects of HD on GI symptoms and gastric slow waves; 2) to investigate possible roles of ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: This study recruited 13 healthy controls, 20 CKD patients without HD (CKD group) and 18 CKD patients with HD (HD group)...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566303/sustained-increases-in-skin-blood-flow-are-not-a-pre-requisite-to-initiate-sweating-during-passive-heat-exposure
#12
Nicholas Ravanelli, Ollie Jay, Daniel Gagnon
Some studies have observed a functional relationship between sweating and skin blood flow. However, the implications of this relationship during physiologically-relevant conditions remain unclear. We manipulated sudomotor activity through changes in sweating efficiency to determine if parallel changes in vasomotor activity are observed. Eight young males completed two trials at 36°C and two trials at 42°C. During these trials, air temperature remained constant while ambient vapor pressure increased from 1...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539355/xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-protects-against-western-diet-induced-aortic-stiffness-and-impaired-vasorelaxation-in-female-mice
#13
Guido Lastra, Camila Manrique, Guanghong Jia, Annayya R Aroor, Melvin R Hayden, Brady J Barron, Brett Niles, Jaume Padilla, James R Sowers
Consumption of a high-fat high-fructose diet (western diet, [WD]) promotes vascular stiffness, a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obese and diabetic women exhibit greater arterial stiffness than men, which contributes to the increased incidence of CVD in women. Further, high-fructose diets result in elevated plasma concentrations of uric acid via xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, and are also associated with vascular stiffness. In turn, uric acid levels lead to vascular stiffness and CVD in women...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539354/cerebral-oxygenation-and-regional-cerebral-perfusion-responses-with-resistance-breathing-during-central-hypovolemia
#14
Victoria L Kay, Justin Daniel Sprick, Caroline A Rickards
Resistance breathing improves tolerance to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), but this is not related to protection of anterior cerebral blood flow (indexed by mean middle cerebral artery velocity, MCAv). We hypothesized that inspiratory resistance breathing improves tolerance to central hypovolemia by maintaining cerebral oxygenation (ScO2), and protecting cerebral blood flow in the posterior cerebral circulation (indexed by posterior cerebral artery velocity, PCAv). Eight subjects (4M/4F) completed two experimental sessions of a presyncopal-limited LBNP protocol (3 mmHg/min onset rate) with and without (Control) resistance breathing via an impedance threshold device (ITD)...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539353/crf-and-urocortin-3-protect-the-heart-from-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-in-zebrafish
#15
Tegan A Williams, Jillian C Bergstrome, Juliana Scott, Nicholas J Bernier
Fish routinely experience environmental hypoxia and have evolved various strategies to tolerate this challenge. Given the key role of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in coordinating the response to stressors and its cardioprotective actions against ischemia in mammals, we sought to characterize the cardiac CRF system in zebrafish and its role in hypoxia tolerance. We established that all genes of the CRF system, the ligands CRFa, CRFb, urotensin 1 (UTS1) and urocortin 3 (UCN3), the two receptor subtypes (CRFR1 and CRFR2), and the binding protein (CRFBP) are expressed in the heart of zebrafish: crfr1 > crfr2 = crfbp > crfa > ucn3 > crfb > uts1...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515081/flexible-ammonia-handling-strategies-using-both-cutaneous-and-branchial-epithelia-in-the-highly-ammonia-tolerant-pacific-hagfish
#16
Alexander M Clifford, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Susan L Edwards, Michael P Wilkie, Greg G Goss
Hagfish consume carrion, potentially exposing them to hypoxia, hypercarbia, and high environmental ammonia (HEA). We investigated branchial and cutaneous ammonia handling strategies by which Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) tolerate and recover from high ammonia loading. Hagfish were exposed to HEA (20 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h to elevate plasma total ammonia (TAmm) levels before placement into divided chambers for a 4 h recovery period in ammonia-free seawater where ammonia excretion (JAmm) was measured independently in the anterior and posterior compartments...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515080/effect-of-resistance-exercise-under-conditions-of-reduced-blood-insulin-on-ampk%C3%AE-ser485-491-inhibitory-phosphorylation-and-ampk-pathway-activation
#17
Kohei Kido, Takumi Yokokawa, Satoru Ato, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin down-regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus, lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515079/impact-of-acetaminophen-consumption-and-resistance-exercise-on-extracellular-matrix-gene-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#18
Shivam H Patel, Andrew C D'Lugos, Erica R Eldon, Donald Curtis, Jared M Dickinson, Chad C Carroll
Acetaminophen (APAP) given during chronic exercise reduces skeletal muscle collagen and cross-linking in rats. We propose that the effect of APAP on muscle ECM may, in part, be mediated by dysregulation of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of APAP consumption during acute resistance exercise (RE) on several regulators of the ECM in human skeletal muscle. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over design, recreationally active men (n=8, 25±2yr) performed two trials of knee extension...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490452/role-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-in-control-of-peripheral-vascular-conductance-during-muscle-metaboreflex-activation
#19
Danielle Senador, Jasdeep Kaur, Alberto Alvarez, Hanna W Hanna, Abhinav C Krishnan, Yasir H Altamimi, Donal S O'Leary
Muscle metaboreflex activation during submaximal dynamic exercise, increases arterial pressure primarily via increases in cardiac output as there is little systemic vasoconstriction. Indeed, in normal animals we have often shown a small, but significant, peripheral vasodilation during metaboreflex activation, which is mediated, at least in part, by release of epinephrine and activation of vascular β2 receptors. We tested whether this vasodilation is in part due to increased release of nitric oxide caused by the rise in cardiac output eliciting endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490450/sedentary-conditions-and-enhanced-responses-to-gaba-in-the-rvlm-role-of-the-contralateral-rvlm
#20
Maryetta D Dombrowski, Patrick J Mueller
A sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and both conditions are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Ongoing discharge of sympathetic nerves is regulated by the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which in turn is modulated by the primary excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), respectively. We reported previously that sedentary conditions enhance GABAergic modulation of sympathoexcitation in the RVLM, despite overall increased sympathoexcitation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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