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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#1
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724547/long-term-effects-of-a-renin-inhibitor-versus-a-thiazide-diuretic-on-arterial-stiffness-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-elderly-hypertensive-patients
#2
Yoshiyuki Okada, Shigeki Shibata, Naoki Fujimoto, Stuart Alexander Best, Benjamin D Levine, Qi Fu
Arterial stiffness and cardiac function are important predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. We evaluated whether a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, reduces arterial stiffness and modulates left ventricular function compared with a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, in elderly hypertensives. Twenty one hypertensives [67±14 (SD) yrs] were randomly assigned to receive 6-month aliskiren (n=11) or hydrochlorothiazide (n=10) based therapy...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#3
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701323/renal-denervation-attenuates-hypertension-but-not-salt-sensitivity-in-etb-receptor-deficient-rats
#4
Bryan K Becker, Amanda C Feagans, Daian Chen, Malgorzata Kasztan, Chunhua Jin, Joshua S Speed, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
Hypertension is a prevalent pathology that increases risk for numerous cardiovascular diseases. Because the etiology of hypertension varies across patients, specific and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. The role of renal sympathetic nerves is established in numerous forms of hypertension, but their contribution to salt-sensitivity and interaction with factors such as endothelin-1 are poorly understood. Rats deficient of functional ETB receptors (ETB-def) on all tissues except sympathetic nerves are hypertensive and exhibit salt-sensitive increases in blood pressure...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701322/functional-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-of-the-mouse
#5
David A Carter, Yan-Ting Choong, Angela A Connelly, Jaspreet K Bassi, Nicole O Hunter, Nattaya Thongsepee, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Angelina Y Fong, Stuart James McDougall, Andrew Mark Allen
Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the CNS, with the type 1A receptor (AT1AR) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT1R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT1R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT1AR-expressing NTS neurons are not known...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701321/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-drives-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-heat-stress-in-neonatal-mice
#6
Karlene T Barrett, John Andrew Daubenspeck, Richard J A Wilson
The neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), has emerged as a principal and rate-limiting regulator of physiological stress responses in adult rodents and has been implicated in SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). Recent studies show that PACAP plays a role in neonatal cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia and hypothermia, but not hyperthermia, which is often associated with SIDS. Here we tested the hypothesis that, consistent with a role in SIDS, PACAP is involved in regulating the neonatal cardiorespiratory responses to severe heat...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701320/changes-in-microvascular-density-differentiate-metabolic-health-outcomes-in-monkeys-with-prior-radiation-exposure-and-subsequent-skeletal-muscle-ecm-remodeling
#7
Katherine M Fanning, Bianca Pfisterer, Ashley T Davis, Tennille D Presley, Ian M Williams, David H Wasserman, J Mark Cline, Kylie Kavanagh
Radiation exposure accelerates the onset of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia and thus lends insight into in vivo mechanisms common to these disorders. Fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur with aging, overnutrition, and following irradiation, are both risk factors for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Our prior work demonstrated that monkeys with whole-body radiation exposure five to nine years prior had an increased incidence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and T2DM...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701319/low-carbohydrate-diet-induces-metabolic-depression-a-possible-mechanism-to-conserve-glycogen
#8
Hugh Stirling Winwood-Smith, Craig E Franklin, Craig R White
Long-term studies have found low carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than calorie restricted diets in the short-term, but equally or only marginally more effective in the long-term. Low carbohydrate diets have been linked to reduced glycogen stores and increased feelings of fatigue. We propose that reduced physical activity in response to lowered glycogen explains the diminishing weight loss advantage of low carbohydrate compared to low calorie diets over longer time scales. We explored this possibility by feeding adult Drosophila melanogaster either a standard or low carbohydrate diet for nine days and measured changes in metabolic rate, glycogen stores, activity, and body mass...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679683/cold-water-immersion-following-sprint-interval-training-does-not-alter-endurance-signaling-pathways-or-training-adaptations-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#9
James R Broatch, Aaron C Petersen, David John Bishop
We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms by which post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) may alter key markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following both a single session and six weeks of sprint interval training (SIT). Nineteen males performed a single SIT session, followed by one of two 15-min recovery conditions: cold-water immersion (COLD; 10°C) or a passive room-temperature control (CON; 23°C). Sixteen of these participants also completed six weeks SIT, each session followed immediately by their designated recovery condition...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679682/normobaric-hypoxic-conditioning-to-maximise-weight-loss-and-ameliorate-cardio-metabolic-health-in-obese-populations-a-systematic-review
#10
Liam Gray Hobbins, Steve Hunter, Nadia Gaoua, Olivier Girard
Normobaric hypoxic conditioning (HC) denotes exposure to hypoxia at rest (passive) or combined with exercise (active). HC has been applied acutely (single exposure) and chronically (repeated exposure) to obese populations for managing/increasing cardio-metabolic health and weight loss. Cardio-metabolic health and weight loss responses of obese populations in response to passive and active HC are unclear. A systematic search for articles published between 2000-2017 was carried out. Studies investigating the effects of HC for improving cardio-metabolic health and weight loss of obese populations were included...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679681/acute-effects-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-cardiac-sympathetic-activity-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#11
Eduardo R Azevedo, Susanna Mak, John S Floras, John D Parker
The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists in patients with heart failure secondary to reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are felt to result from prevention of the adverse effects of AII on systemic afterload and renal homeostasis. However, AII can activate the sympathetic nervous system and part of the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors and AII antagonists may result from their ability to inhibit such activation. We examined the acute effects of the ACE inhibitor captopril (25 mg, n = 9) and the AII receptor antagonist losartan (50 mg, n = 10) on hemodynamics as well as total body and cardiac norepinephrine spillover in patients with chronic HFrEF...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679680/chronic-hypoxia-alters-maternal-uterine-and-fetal-hemodynamics-in-the-term-pregnant-guinea-pig
#12
Shifa Turan, Graham W Aberdeen, Loren P Thompson
Placental hypoxia is associated with maternal hypertension, placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. In the pregnant guinea pig, prenatal hypoxia during early gestation inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion of spiral arteries, increases maternal blood pressure and induces fetal growth restriction. This study evaluated the impact of chronic maternal hypoxia on fetal heart structure with 4D echocardiography with spatio-temporal image correlation and tomographic ultrasound (STIC-TUI) and uterine and umbilical artery resistance/pulsatility indices and fetal heart function using pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659285/upregulation-of-circulating-myomir-following-short-term-energy-restriction-is-inversely-associated-with-whole-body-protein-synthesis
#13
Lee M Margolis, Donato A Rivas, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Lisa Ceglia, Roger A Fielding
The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) influences expression of skeletal muscle specific microRNA in circulation (c-myomiR), and if changes in c-myomiR are associated with rates of whole-body protein synthesis. Sixteen older (64 ± 2 yrs) overweight (28.5 ± 1.2 kg·m(-2)) males enrolled in this 35-day controlled feeding trial. A 7-day weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 28 days of 30% ER. Whole-body protein turnover was determined from (15)N-glycine enrichments in 24-hr urine collections, and c-myomiR (miR-1-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b, and miR-206) expressions were assessed from serum samples using RT-qPCR at the conclusions of WM and ER...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659284/renal-vascular-and-glomerular-pathologies-associated-with-spontaneous-hypertension-in-the-nonhuman-primate-chlorocebus-aethiops-sabaeus
#14
Megan K Rhoads, Slavina B Goleva, William H Beierwaltes, Jeffrey L Osborn
Hypertension is a complex disease affecting 78 million adults in the United States. The etiology of essential hypertension is unknown and current experimental models do not recapitulate all behavioral and physiological characteristics of the pathology. Researchers should assess the translational capacity of these models and look to other animal models for the discovery of new therapies. Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus, the African Green Monkey (AGM), is a nonhuman primate that develops spontaneous hypertension and is a novel translational model for the study of hypertension and associated diseases...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637660/interleukin-33-induces-growth-regulated-oncogene-%C3%AE-expression-and-secretion-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#15
Masayoshi Yamamoto, Katsuyuki Umebashi, Akinori Tokito, Junichi Imamura, Michihisa Jougasaki
Although interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, plays pro-inflammatory roles in immune cells as an "alarmin", little is known regarding the biological actions of IL-33 on vascular endothelial cells. To investigate the effects of IL-33 on vascular endothelial cells, we first screened the IL-33-regulated proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a dot blot array, and observed that IL-33 markedly increased growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α, a chemokine that is also known as CXCL1...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#16
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637658/decreased-myoblast-differentiation-in-chronic-binge-alcohol-administered-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-male-macaques-role-of-decreased-mir-206
#17
Liz Simon, Stephen M Ford, Kejing Song, Paul Berner, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Steve Nelson, Gregory J Bagby, Patricia E Molina
Skeletal muscle stem cells play a critical role in regeneration of myofibers. We have previously demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) markedly attenuates myoblast differentiation potential and myogenic gene expression. Muscle specific microRNAs are implicated in regulating myogenic genes. The aim of this study was to determine whether myoblasts isolated from asymptomatic CBA administered SIV-infected macaques treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) showed similar impairments and if so, to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637657/seasonal-factors-influence-quantal-transmitter-release-and-calcium-dependence-at-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions
#18
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are composed of hundreds of neurotransmitter release sites which exhibit non-uniform transmitter release probabilities and demonstrated seasonal modulation. We examined whether recruitment of release sites is variable when the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) is increased in the wet and dry seasons. The amount of transmitter released from the entire nerve terminal increases by approximately the 4(th)-power as [Ca(2+)]o is increased. Toad (Bufo marinus) NMJs were visualised using DiOC2(5)-fluorescence and focal loose patch extracellular recordings were used to record the end-plate currents (EPCs) from small groups of release sites...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615161/high-glucose-increases-action-potential-firing-of-catecholamine-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-by-increasing-spontaneous-glutamate-inputs
#19
Brandon L Roberts, Mingyan Zhu, Huan Zhao, Crystal Dillon, Suzanne M Appleyard
Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal and stress...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615160/nkx2-5-is-essential-to-establish-normal-heart-rate-variability-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#20
Jamie K Harrington, Robert Sorabella, Abigail Tercek, Joseph R Isler, Kimara L Targoff
Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an important clinical marker of cardiovascular health and a research measure for the study of the cardiac conduction system and its autonomic controls. While zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal vertebrate model for understanding heart development, HRV has only recently been investigated in this system. We have previously demonstrated that nkx2.5 and nkx2.7, two homologues of Nkx2-5 expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes, play vital roles in maintaining cardiac chamber-specific characteristics...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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