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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207755/intracranial-pressure-influences-the-level-of-sympathetic-tone
#1
Sarah-Jane Guild, Utkarsh Anand Saxena, Fiona D McBryde, Simon C Malpas, Rohit Ramchandra
Sympathetic overdrive is associated with many diseases, but its origin remains an enigma. An emerging hypothesis in the development of cardiovascular disease is that the brain puts the utmost priority on maintaining its own blood supply; even if this comes at the "cost" of high blood pressure to the rest of the body. A critical step in making a causative link between reduced brain blood flow and cardiovascular disease is how changes in cerebral perfusion affect the sympathetic nervous system. A direct link between decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure and sympathetic tone generation in a conscious large animal has not been shown...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207754/placental-insufficiency-contributes-to-fatty-acid-metabolism-alterations-in-aged-female-mouse-offspring
#2
Violeta Stojanovska, Neha Sharma, Dorieke J Dijkstra, Sicco A Scherjon, Andrea Jaeger, Hubert Schorle, Torsten Plosch
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an accepted risk factor for metabolic disorders in later life, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The level of metabolic dysregulation can vary between subjects and is dependent on the severity and the type of IUGR insult. Classical IUGR animal models involve nutritional deprivation of the mother or uterine artery ligation. The latter aims to mimic a placental insufficiency, which is the most frequent cause of IUGR. In this study, we investigated whether IUGR due to placental insufficiency impacts the glucose and lipid homeostasis at advanced age...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207753/editorial-new-investigator-review-awardees-2018
#3
Willis K Samson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207752/systemic-arterial-hypertension-but-not-igf-1-treatment-stimulates-cardiomyocyte-enlargement-in-neonatal-lambs
#4
Adrienne N Wilburn, George D Giraud, Samantha Louey, Terry K Morgan, Nainesh Gandhi, Sonnet S Jonker
Although cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation is nearly complete at birth in sheep, very limited postnatal expansion of myocyte number may occur. The capacity of newborn cardiomyocytes to respond to growth stimulation by proliferation is poorly understood. Our objective was to test this growth response in newborn lambs using two different stimuli shown to induce strong responses in fetuses and adults: increased systolic load (Load) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1). METHODS Vascular catheters and an inflatable aortic occluder were implanted in lambs...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183339/bridging-angiogenesis-and-immune-evasion-in-the-hypoxic-tumor-microenvironment
#5
Luana Schito
Hypoxia (low O2 ) is a ubiquitous microenvironmental factor promoting cancer progression, metastasis and mortality, owing to the ability of cancer cells to co-opt physiological angiogenic responses. Notwithstanding, the pathophysiological induction of angiogenesis results in an abnormal tumor vasculature, further aggravating hypoxia in a feed-forward loop that limits the efficacy of molecular targeted therapies. Recent studies suggest that besides their canonical roles, angiogenic factors promote a panoply of immunosuppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183338/acute-hiie-elicits-similar-changes-in-human-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-h-2-o-2-release-respiration-and-cell-signaling-as-endurance-exercise-even-with-less-work
#6
Adam James Trewin, Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Danielle Hiam, Andrew P Garnham, Itamar Levinger, Glenn K McConell, Nigel K Stepto
It remains unclear whether high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) elicits distinct molecular responses to traditional endurance exercise relative to the total work performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of exercise intensity on acute perturbations to skeletal muscle mitochondrial function (respiration and reactive oxygen species), metabolic and redox signaling responses. In a randomized, repeated measures crossover design, eight recreationally active individuals (24 ± 5 years; VO2peak 48 ± 11 mL...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183337/evolved-changes-in-breathing-and-co-2-sensitivity-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitudes
#7
Catherine M Ivy, Graham R Scott
We examined the control of breathing by O2 and CO2 in deer mice native to high altitude, to help uncover the physiological specializations used to cope with hypoxia in high-altitude environments. Highland deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and lowland white-footed mice (P. leucopus) were bred in captivity at sea level. The first- and second-generation progeny of each population were raised to adulthood and then acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (12 kPa O2 , simulating hypoxia at ~4300 m) for 6-8 weeks...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156863/at1a-influences-gabaa-mediated-inhibition-through-the-regulation-of-kcc2-expression
#8
George E Farmer, Kirthikaa Balapattabi, Martha E Bachelor, Joel T Little, J Thomas Cunningham
The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) is an integrative site involved in body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular control, thermoregulation, and sleep homeostasis. Angiotensin II (ANG II), a neuropeptide shown to have excitatory effects on MnPO neurons, is of particular interest with regard to its role in body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular control. The current study investigated the role of angiotensin type 1 (AT1a) receptor activation on neuronal excitability in the MnPO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with an adeno-associated virus with a shRNA against the AT1a receptor or a scrambled control...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156422/the-lens-internal-microcirculation-system-delivers-solutes-to-the-lens-core-faster-than-would-be-predicted-by-passive-diffusion
#9
Ehsan Vaghefi, Paul J Donaldson
It has been proposed that optical properties of the lens are actively maintained by an internal microcirculation system that utilizes ionic and fluid fluxes to deliver nutrients to deeper regions of the lens tissue via the extracellular space, faster than would occur by passive diffusion alone. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a range of commercially available MRI reagents of varying molecular sizes that served as tracers of extracellular solute delivery. The penetration of these tracers into bovine lenses incubated in the absence and presence of solutions that inhibit the microcirculation, was monitored in real time, over a period of 4 hours, using T1-weighted MRI...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134737/skin-wettedness-is-an-important-contributor-to-thermal-behavior-during-exercise-and-recovery
#10
Nicole T Vargas, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson, Rob Gathercole, Zachary J Schlader
We tested the hypothesis that mean skin wettedness contributes to thermal behavior to a greater extent than core and mean skin temperatures. In a 27.0±1.0ºC environment, 16 young participants (8 females) cycled for 30 min at 281±51 W·m-2, followed by 120 min seated recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures and mean skin wettedness were recorded continuously. Participants maintained a thermally comfortable neck temperature throughout the protocol using a custom made device. Neck device temperature provided an index of thermal behavior...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133304/rodent-models-of-leptin-receptor-deficiency-are-less-sensitive-to-amylin
#11
Sonya Duffy, Thomas A Lutz, Christina Neuner Boyle
The pancreatic hormone amylin is released from beta cells following nutrient ingestion and contributes to the control of body weight and glucose homeostasis. Amylin reduces food intake by activating neurons in the area postrema (AP). Amylin was also shown to synergize with the adipokine, leptin, with combination therapy producing greater weight loss and food intake reduction than either hormone alone. While amylin and leptin were initially thought to interact downstream of the AP in the hypothalamus, recent findings show that the two hormones can act on the same AP neurons, suggesting a more direct relationship...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133303/the-influence-of-dietary-protein-on-dahl-salt-sensitive-hypertension-a-potential-role-for-gut-microbiota
#12
Justine M Abais-Battad, David L Mattson
High blood pressure affects 1.39 billion adults across the globe and is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is a multifaceted disease with known genetic and environmental factors contributing to its progression. Our studies utilizing the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat have demonstrated the remarkable influence of dietary protein and maternal environment on the development of hypertension and renal damage in response to high salt. There is growing interest in the relationship between the microbiome and hypertension, with gut dysbiosis being correlated to a number of pathologies...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133302/residual-vascular-dysfunction-in-women-with-a-history-of-preeclampsia
#13
Anna E Stanhewicz
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by new onset hypertension, proteinuria, and edema occurring after 20 weeks of gestation, with a prevalence of ~7-10% of pregnancies in the United States and ~8 million pregnancies worldwide. Despite the postpartum remission of preeclamptic symptoms, women who have had preeclampsia are 2-4 times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are significantly more likely to die of CVD compared to women with a history of normal pregnancy...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110176/mechanism-of-sodium-balance-total-body-sodium-surrogate-variables-and-renal-sodium-excretion
#14
Peter Bie
The classical concepts of human sodium balance include (i) a total pool of Na+ of ≈4200 mmol (total body sodium, TBS) distributed primarily in the extracellular fluid (ECV) and bone, (ii) intake variations of 0.03 to ≈6 mmol ∙ (kg body mass ∙ day)-1 , (iii) asymptotic transitions between steady states with a halftime (T1/2) of 21h, (iii) changes in TBS driven by sodium intake measuring ≈1.3 d (ΔTBS/Δ(Na+ intake/d)), (iv) adjustment of Na+ excretion to match any diet thus providing metabolic steady state, and (v) regulation of TBS via controlled excretion (90-95% renal) mediated by surrogate variables...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110175/fetal-undernutrition-placental-insufficiency-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-development-programming-in-utero
#15
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088984/role-of-mir-29-in-mediating-offspring-lung-phenotype-in-a-rodent-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#16
Tsai-Der Chuang, Reiko Sakurai, Ming Gong, Omid Khorram, Virender K Rehan
Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the concept that the adult chronic lung disease (CLD), at least in part, is due to aberrations in early lung development in response to an abnormal intrauterine environment; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We used a well-established rat model of maternal undernutrition (MUN) during pregnancy that results in offspring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult CLD to test the hypothesis that excess maternal glucocorticoids in response to MUN programs offspring lung development to a CLD phenotype by altering miRNA (miR)-29 expression, which is a key miR in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition during development and injury-repair...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088983/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-cyp4a14-mice-is-mediated-by-20-hete
#17
Ankit Gilani, Varunkumar Pandey, Victor Garcia, Kevin Agostinucci, Shailendra P Singh, Joseph Schragenheim, Lars Bellner, John R Falck, Mahesh P Paudyal, Jorge H Capdevila, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado Schwartzman
20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) has been shown to positively correlate with body mass index, hyperglycemia and plasma insulin levels. This study seeks to identify a causal relationship between 20-HETE and obesity-driven insulin resistance. Cyp4a14-/- male mice, a model of 20-HETE overproduction, were fed a regular or high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. 20-SOLA, a 20-HETE antagonist, was administered from week 0 or week 7 of HFD. HFD-fed mice gained significant weight (16.7±3.2 vs. 3.8±0.35 g, p<0...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088982/morning-impairment-in-vascular-function-is-unrelated-to-overnight-sleep-or-the-inactivity-that-accompanies-sleep
#18
Saurabh S Thosar, Alec M Berman, Maya X Herzig, Sally A Roberts, Michael R Lasarev, Steven A Shea
INTRODUCTION: Adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death occur more frequently in the morning. Prior studies have shown that vascular endothelial function (VEF), a marker of cardiovascular disease, is attenuated during physical inactivity, and declines across the night. We sought to determine whether a morning attenuation in VEF is a result of prior sleep or the inactivity that inevitably accompanies sleep. METHODS: After one week of rigorously controlled sleep-wake schedule and behaviors, 10 healthy participants completed a randomized cross-over protocol in dim-light and constant conditions, incorporating a night of 6-h sleep opportunity and a night of immobility while supine and awake...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088946/nicotine-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#19
Joshua M Oakes, Robert M Fuchs, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues, Xinping Yue
Cigarette smoking is the single most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases (CVPD). Although cigarette smoking has been in constant decline since the 1950's, the introduction of e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems 10 years ago has attracted former smokers as well as a new generation of consumers. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, and it is currently unclear whether e-cigarettes are "safer" than regular cigarettes or whether they have the potential to reverse the health benefits, notably on the cardiopulmonary system, acquired with the decline of tobacco smoking...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067082/the-potential-role-of-lsd1-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-sickle-cell-disease-a-review-of-preclinical-animal-model-data
#20
Angela Rivers, Ramasamy Jagadeeswaran, Donald Lavelle
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a mutation of the b-globin gene(21) that triggers the polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Approximately 100,000 SCD patients in the U.S. and millions worldwide(53) suffer from chronic hemolytic anemia, painful crises, multisystem organ damage, and reduced life expectancy(60, 70). Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can be curative, but the majority of patients do not have a suitable donor (80). Advanced gene editing technologies also offer the possibility of a cure (16, 34), but the likelihood that these strategies can be mobilized to treat the large numbers of patients residing in developing countries is remote...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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