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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#1
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#2
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077390/reversible-temperature-dependent-differences-in-brown-adipose-tissue-respiration-during-torpor-in-a-mammalian-hibernator
#3
Sarah Victoria McFarlane, Katherine E Mathers, James F Staples
While seasonal modifications of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in hibernators are well documented, we know little about functional regulation of BAT in different phases of hibernation. In the 13-lined ground squirrel, liver mitochondrial respiration is suppressed by up to 70% during torpor. This suppression is reversed during arousal an°°d interbout euthermia (IBE), and corresponds with patterns of maximal activities of electron transport system (ETS) enzymes. Uncoupling of BAT mitochondria is controlled by free-fatty acid release stimulated by sympathetic activation of adipocytes, so we hypothesized that further regulation at the level of the ETS would be of little advantage...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#4
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077388/the-na-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-ntcp-slc10a1-ortholog-in-the-marine-skate-leucoraja-erinacea-is-not-a-physiological-bile-salt-transporter
#5
Dongke Yu, Han Zhang, Daniel A Lionarons, James L Boyer, Shi-Ying Cai
The Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of an hepatic Na(+)-dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea. The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077387/focus-on-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-active-desalination-and-low-water-permeability-in-the-esophagus-of-eels-acclimated-to-seawater
#6
Pung-Pung Hwang
This an editorial focus.
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052868/negative-rebound-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-exercise-cessation
#7
Takeshi Nishijima, Yoshika Kamidozono, Atsushi Ishiizumi, Seiichiro Amemiya, Ichiro Kita
Physical exercise can improve brain function; however, the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. ExC mice were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 weeks and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise significantly increased the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0)...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052867/how-consumer-physical-activity-monitors-could-transform-human-physiology-research
#8
Stephen P Wright, Tyish S Hall Brown, Scott R Collier, Kathryn Sandberg
Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis® Health Tracker, BodyMedia® Fit, DirectLife®, Fitbit® Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin® Vivofit, Jawbone® UP, MisFit® Shine, Nike® FuelBand, Polar® Loop, Withings® Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052866/renal-denervation-in-male-rats-with-heart-failure-improves-ventricular-sympathetic-nerve-innervation-and-function
#9
Maximilian Ichabod Pinkham, Michael T Loftus, Satya Amirapu, Sarah-Jane Guild, Gina Quill, William R Woodward, Beth A Habecker, Carolyn J Barrett
Heart failure is characterized by the loss of sympathetic innervation to the ventricles, contributing to impaired cardiac function and arrhythmogenesis. We hypothesized that renal denervation (RDx) would reverse this loss. Male Wistar rats underwent myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery and progressed into heart failure for four weeks before receiving bilateral RDx or sham RDx. After a further three weeks, left ventricular (LV) function was assessed and ventricular sympathetic nerve fibre density determined via histology...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039195/seasonal-expression-of-p450arom-and-estrogen-receptors-in-scented-glands-of-muskrats-ondatra-zibethicus
#10
Haolin Zhang, Lu Lu, Manyu Zhu, Fengwei Zhang, Xia Sheng, Zhengrong Yuan, Yingying Han, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Qiang Weng
Male muskrats have one pair of scented glands that grow and involute annually. To investigate the annual changes in the scented gland, we measured the expressions of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in the scented glands. P450arom was expressed in glandular cells and epithelial cells in the scented glands during the breeding season, and only in glandular cells during the non-breeding season. ERα and ERβ were also detected in different types of cells in the scented gland during the breeding and non-breeding seasons...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039194/sequence-and-functional-characterization-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors-hif1%C3%AE-hif2%C3%AE-a-and-hif3%C3%AE-from-the-estuarine-fish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#11
Ian K Townley, Sibel I Karchner, Elena Skripnikova, Thomas E Wiese, Mark E Hahn, Bernard B Rees
The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors plays central roles in the development, physiology, pathology, and environmental adaptation of animals. Because many aquatic habitats are characterized by episodes of low dissolved oxygen, fish represent ideal models to study the roles of HIF in the response to aquatic hypoxia. The estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus occurs in habitats prone to hypoxia, it responds to low oxygen via behavioral, physiological, and molecular changes, and one member of the HIF family, HIF2α, has been previously described...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039193/short-term-intense-exercise-training-reduces-stress-markers-and-alters-the-transcriptional-response-to-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
James Matthew Hinkley, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Matthew P Harber
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg·min-1) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% VO2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039192/orexin-signaling-in-rostral-lateral-hypothalamus-and-nucleus-accumbens-shell-in-the-control-of-spontaneous-physical-activity-in-high-and-low-activity-rats
#13
Claudio Esteban Perez-Leighton, Morgan R Little, Martha K Grace, Charles J Billington, Catherine M Kotz
Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) describes activity outside of formal exercise and shows large inter-individual variability. The hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin peptides are key regulators of SPA. Orexins drive SPA within multiple brain sites, including rostral lateral hypothalamus (LH) and nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh). Rats with high basal SPA (high activity, HA) show higher orexin mRNA expression and SPA after injection of orexin-A in rostral LH compared to low activity (LA) rats. Here we explored the contribution of orexin signaling in rostral LH and NAcSh to the HA/LA phenotype...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039191/quantitative-model-of-hematologic-and-plasma-volume-responses-after-rapid-ascent-and-acclimation-to-moderate-through-high-altitudes
#14
Beth A Beidleman, Janet E Staab, Stephen R Muza, Michael N Sawka
Despite decades of research, the magnitude and time course of hematologic and plasma volume (PV) changes following rapid ascent and acclimation to various altitudes are not precisely described. To develop a quantitative model, we utilized a comprehensive database and general linear mixed models to analyze 1055 hemoglobin ([Hb]) and hematocrit (Hct) measurements collected at sea level and repeated time points at various altitudes in 393 unacclimatized men (n=270) and women (n=123) who spent between 2 hours and 7 days at 2500-4500 m under well-controlled experimental conditions...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039190/endurance-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-with-intermittent-hypoxia
#15
Amanda J Miller, Charity L Sauder, Aimee E Cauffman, Cheryl A Blaha, Urs A Leuenberger
Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 years) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent eight weeks of endurance training that included running four times/week at 80% predicted max heart rate and interval training, and 4 control subjects did not change activity...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003214/the-role-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-within-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-following-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#16
Katelynn Faulk, Brent Shell, T Prashant Nedungadi, J Thomas Cunningham
Sustained hypertension is an important consequence of obstructive sleep apnea. An animal model of the hypoxemia associated with sleep apnea, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), produces increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and sustained increases in blood pressure. Many mechanisms have been implicated in the hypertension associated with CIH including the role of ΔFosB within the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Also, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been associated with CIH hypertension. We conducted experiments in order to determine the possible association of FosB/ΔFosB with a RAS component, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), within the MnPO following 7 days of CIH...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003213/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-active-desalination-and-low-water-permeability-in-the-esophagus-of-eels-acclimated-to-seawater
#17
Yoshio Takei, Marty Kwok-Shing Wong, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki, Makoto Kusakabe
Marine teleosts can absorb imbibed seawater (SW) to maintain water balance, with esophageal desalination playing an essential role. NaCl absorption from luminal SW was enhanced 10-fold in the esophagus of SW-acclimated eels, and removal of Na(+) or Cl(-) from luminal SW abolished the facilitated absorption, indicating coupled transport. Mucosal/serosal application of various blockers for Na(+)/Cl(-) transporters profoundly decreased the absorption. Among the transporter genes expressed in eel esophagus detected by RNA-seq, dimethyl amiloride-sensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger (AE) coupled by the scaffolding protein on the apical membrane of epithelial cells, and ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (NKA1α1c and NKA3α) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid-sensitive Cl(-) channel (CLCN2) on the basolateral membrane, may be responsible for enhanced transcellular NaCl transport because of their profound upregulation after SW acclimation...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003212/subfornical-organ-neurons-integrate-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-signals
#18
Nicole M Cancelliere, Alastair V Ferguson
The subfornical organ (SFO) is a critical circumventricular organ involved in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis. Despite the plethora of circulating signals continuously sensed by the SFO, studies investigating how these signals are integrated are lacking. In this study, we use patch clamp techniques to investigate how the traditionally classified 'cardiovascular' hormone angiotensin II (ANG), 'metabolic' hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and 'metabolic' signal glucose interact and are integrated in the SFO...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003211/lower-limb-hot-water-immersion-acutely-induces-beneficial-hemodynamic-and-cardiovascular-responses-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-healthy-elderly-controls
#19
Kate N Thomas, Andre Marie van Rij, Samuel J E Lucas, James D Cotter
Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71±6 y, 7 male) and ten Controls (age 72±7 y, 8 male) underwent hot-water immersion (30 min waist-level immersion in 42...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003210/plasma-hyperosmolality-improves-tolerance-to-combined-heat-stress-and-central-hypovolemia-in-humans
#20
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Hai Ngo, Paula Ys Poh, Craig G Crandall
: Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans, via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat stressed humans. Using a counterbalanced and cross-over design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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