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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427725/meta-analytic-insights-into-factors-influencing-the-repeatability-of-hormone-levels-in-agricultural-ecological-and-medical-fields
#1
Kerry V Fanson, Peter A Biro
Interest in individual variation in hormone concentrations is rapidly increasing, particularly with regards to the evolutionary and practical implications. A key aspect of studying individual variation in any labile trait is estimating the degree of within- versus among-individual variation, but at present we do not have a broad consensus on the extent to which hormone levels are repeatable and what factors might influence repeatability. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of hormone levels that included 1132 estimates of repeatability from 368 studies across three fields of study: agriculture, ecology, and medicine...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427705/female-c57bl-6j-mice-lacking-the-circadian-clock-protein-per1-are-protected-from-non-dipping-hypertension
#2
Lauren Grace Douma, Kristen Solocinski, Meaghan Rayann Holzworth, G Ryan Crislip, Sarah Howland Masten, Amber Holly Miller, Kit-Yan Cheng, I Jeanette Lynch, Brian D Cain, Charles S Wingo, Michelle L Gumz
The circadian clock is integral to the maintenance of daily rhythms of many physiological outputs including blood pressure. Our lab has previously demonstrated the importance of the clock protein PER1 in blood pressure regulation in male mice. Briefly, a high salt diet (4% NaCl, HS) plus injection with the long-acting mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) resulted in non-dipping hypertension (<10% difference between night and day blood pressure (BP) in Per1 Knockout (KO) mice but not in wild-type (WT) mice...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427698/sodium-loading-treadmill-walking-and-the-acute-redistribution-of-bone-mineral-content-on-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scans
#3
Tamara Dawn Hew-Butler, Kailyn Angelakos, Joshua Szczepanski
PURPOSE: To assess relationships between plasma sodium concentration ([Na+ ]) and bone mineral content (BMC) after an acute sodium load plus treadmill walking and quantify the amount of sodium the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan could detect. METHODS: The primary study was a single-blind randomized control crossover trial under two Conditions: ingestion of six flour tablets (P: placebo trial) or six 1g-NaCl tablets (S: salt intervention trial). Tablets were ingested after baseline blood and urine collection followed immediately by the DXA scan...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406672/neurons-in-ventral-tegmental-area-tonically-inhibit-sympathetic-outflow-to-brown-adipose-tissue-possible-mediation-of-thermogenic-signals-from-lateral-habenula
#4
Mariana Brizuela, Steven J Swoap, James Ang, William W Blessing, Youichirou Ootsuka
The lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus involved in the response to salient, especially adverse, environmental events, is implicated in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis caused by these events. LHb-elicited thermogenesis involves a neural pathway to the lower brainstem sympathetic control center in the medullary raphé. There are no direct connections from the LHb to the medullary raphé. LHb-mediated behavioral responses involve inhibitory control over the dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), mediated via an excitatory drive from the LHb to GABAergic neurons in the tail of the VTA...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403499/sex-and-individual-differences-in-meal-patterns-mediate-the-persistency-of-running-associated-high-fat-diet-avoidance-in-rats
#5
Tiffany Y Yang, Jennie C Gardner, Juliet D Gentile, Nu-Chu Liang
The modern environment is characterized by convenient access to a variety of high fat (HF) foods and encourages excess energy intake, which leads to weight gain. While healthier diets and exercise are common interventions that facilitate energy balance, meal patterns also influence body weight and energy metabolism. The current study characterized the association between exercise, diet choice, and meal patterns in rats. Unlike sedentary rats that prefer a HF to a chow diet, wheel running rats initially avoid the HF diet...
November 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403498/obstructive-apnea-causes-microvascular-perfusion-mal-distribution-in-the-lungs-of-rats
#6
Robert L Conhaim, Kal E Watson, Mihaela Teodorescu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant cardiovascular consequences, including pulmonary hypertension. Yet, little is known about its effects on pulmonary microvascular perfusion. To investigate this, we clamped the tracheal cannulas of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats to simulate obstructive apnea. The clamp remained in place for 10 breaths before it was released to allow the animals to again breathe spontaneously. We repeated this every 20 seconds until the rat experienced a total of 5 apneic episodes of 10 breaths each...
November 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403496/the-temperature-of-water-ingested-before-exercise-alters-the-onset-of-physiological-heat-loss-responses
#7
Nathan B Morris, Georgia K Chaseling, Anthony R Bain, Ollie Jay
This study sought to determine whether the ingested water temperature prior to exercise alters the onset threshold and subsequent thermosensitivity of local vasomotor and sudomotor responses after exercise begins. Twenty males (age: 24±4 y, weight: 75.8±8.1 kg, VO2peak : 52.3±7.7 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) ingested 3.2 ml·kg-1 of 1.5°C, 37°C, or 50ºC water, rested 5 min, then cycled at 50% VO2peak for 15 min at 23.0±0.9°C and 32±10%RH. Mean body temperature (Tb ), local sweat rate (LSR) and skin blood flow (SBF) were measured...
November 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365352/association-of-wrist-and-ambient-temperature-with-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-18-f-fdg-uptake-in-young-adults
#8
Borja Martinez-Tellez, Huiwen Xu, Guillermo Sánchez-Delgado, Francisco M Acosta, Patrick C N Rensen, Jose Manuel Llamas-Elvira, Jonatan R Ruiz
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is influenced by the outdoor temperature variation. However, people spend most of their time indoors, especially in colder regions/seasons. Therefore, outdoor temperature is probably not an accuracy tool to quantify the exposure of the participants before BAT quantification. We studied the association of wrist and personal environmental temperatures with cold-induced BAT and skeletal muscle 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) uptake in adults. A total of 74 participants wore 2 iButtons during 7 days to measure wrist temperature (WT) and personal environmental temperature (Personal-ET)...
October 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365351/prenatal-hypoxia-impairs-cardiac-mitochondrial-and-ventricular-function-in-guinea-pig-offspring-in-a-sex-related-manner
#9
Loren P Thompson, Ling Chen, Brian M Polster, Gerard Pinkas, Hong Song
Adverse intrauterine conditions cause fetal growth restriction and increase the risk of adult cardiovascular disease. We hypothesize that intrauterine hypoxia impairs fetal heart function, is sustained after birth, and manifest as both cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction in offspring guinea pigs. METHODS: Pregnant guinea pigs (GPs) were exposed to either 10.5%O2 (HPX) at 50d gestation (term =65d) or normoxia (NMX) for the duration of the pregnancy. Pups were allowed to deliver vaginally and raised in a NMX environment...
October 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30354182/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-nicotine-on-catecholamine-neurons-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#10
Stephen J Page, Mingyan Zhu, Suzanne M Appleyard
Nicotine is an addictive drug that has broad effects throughout the brain. One site of action is the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), where nicotine initiates a stress response and modulates cardiovascular and gastric function through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Catecholamine (CA) neurons in the NTS influence stress, and gastric and cardiovascular reflexes, making them potential mediators of nicotine's effects; however nicotine's effect on these neurons is unknown. Here we determined nicotine's actions on NTS-CA neurons using patch-clamp techniques in brainslices from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-EGFP)...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332305/pharmacological-potentiation-of-the-efferent-vagus-nerve-attenuates-blood-pressure-and-renal-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Grace S Pham, Lei A Wang, Keisa W Mathis
Recent evidence suggests hypertension may be secondary to chronic inflammation that results from hypoactive neuro-immune regulatory mechanisms. To further understand this association, we used systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as a model of inflammation-induced hypertension. In addition to prevalent inflammatory kidney disease and hypertension, SLE patients suffer from dysautonomia in the form of decreased efferent vagal tone. Based on this, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, an endogenous vagus-to-spleen mechanism that when activated results in decreases in systemic inflammation, may be compromised in SLE...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332304/alterations-in-regional-kidney-oxygenation-during-expansion-of-extracellular-fluid-volume-in-conscious-healthy-sheep
#12
Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Roger G Evans, Junko Kosaka, Lindsea C Booth, Naoya Iguchi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
Expansion of extracellular fluid volume with crystalloid solutions is a common medical intervention, but its effects on renal cortical and medullary oxygenation are poorly understood. Therefore, we instrumented sheep under general anesthesia to enable continuous measurement of systemic and renal hemodynamics, global renal oxygen delivery and consumption, and intra-renal tissue perfusion and oxygen tension (pO2 ) in conscious animals (n=7). The effects of three sequential intermittent infusions of 500 mL of compound sodium lactate solution, administered at hourly intervals, were determined...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332303/editorial-revised-guidelines-to-enhance-the-rigor-and-reproducibility-of-research-published-in-american-physiological-society-journals
#13
Gina L C Yosten, Josephine C Adams, Christina Noel Bennett, Nigel W Bunnett, Rita Scheman, Curt D Sigmund, Bill J Yates, Irving H Zucker, Willis K Samson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325659/improving-pregnancy-outcomes-in-humans-through-studies-in-sheep
#14
Janna L Morrison, Mary J Berry, Kimberley Jae Botting, Jack R T Darby, Martin G Frasch, Kathryn L Gatford, Dino A Giussani, Clint Lee Gray, Richard Harding, Emilio A Herrera, Matthew W Kemp, Mitchell C Lock, I Caroline McMillen, Timothy J Moss, Gabrielle C Musk, Mark H Oliver, Timothy R H Regnault, Claire T Roberts, Jia Yin Soo, Ross L Tellam
Experimental studies that are relevant to human pregnancy rely on the selection of appropriate animal models as an important element in experimental design. Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of any animal model of human disease is fundamental to effective and meaningful translation of preclinical research. Studies in sheep have made significant contributions to our understanding of the normal and abnormal development of the fetus. As a model of human pregnancy, studies in sheep have enabled scientists and clinicians to answer questions about the etiology and treatment of poor maternal, placental and fetal health and to provide an evidence base for translation of interventions into the clinic...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303709/reduced-uterine-perfusion-pressure-causes-loss-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-area-but-normal-function-in-fetal-rat-offspring
#15
Brian Akhaphong, Amber Lockridge, Seokwon Jo, Ramkumar Mohan, Jacob A Wilcox, Cameron R Wing, Jean F Regal, Emilyn U Alejandro
Maternal hypertension during pregnancy is a major risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood through unclear mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize pancreatic beta cell area and function in the fetal rat offspring of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of gestational hypertension. At embryonic day 19.5, RUPP dams exhibited lower body weight, elevated mean blood pressure, reduced litter size, and higher blood glucose compared to sham-operated controls...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303708/a-direct-effect-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-on-somatic-stem-cell-proliferation
#16
Elizabeth A Davis, Megan J Dailey
Regulation of somatic stem cell proliferation is critical for the maintenance of tissue and organ function throughout the body. Modulators of this process include nutrients and peptides, but the role of a neural influence on stem cell proliferation has been neglected. This article describes the literature in support of autonomic nervous system (ANS) influence on somatic stem cells, with emphasis on intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) as a representative somatic stem cell. Based on the current available data, models for the direct influence of both branches of the ANS, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, on intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are outlined...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303707/short-term-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-with-or-without-post-meal-walks-on-glycemic-control-and-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-trial
#17
Étienne Myette-Côté, Cody Durrer, Helena Neudorf, Tyler Daniel Bammert, José Diego Botezelli, James D Johnson, Christopher A DeSouza, Jonathan P Little
Lowering carbohydrate consumption effectively lowers glucose but impacts on inflammation are unclear. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Determine whether reducing hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet could lower markers of innate immune cell activation in type 2 diabetes (T2D); and 2) Examine if the combination of a LCHF diet with strategically-timed post-meal walking was superior to a LCHF diet alone. Participants with T2D (N=11) completed a randomized crossover study involving three 4-day diet interventions: i) Low-fat low-glycemic index control (CON); ii) LC, and iii) LC with 15-min post-meal walks (LC+Ex)...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303706/elevated-resting-blood-pressure-augments-autonomic-imbalance-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#18
Ida T Fonkoue, Seth D Norrholm, Paul J Marvar, Yunxiao Li, Melanie L Kankam, Barbara O Rothbaum, Jeanie Park
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, blunted parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) that contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD). PTSD patients also have chronic stress-related elevations in resting blood pressure (BP), often in the prehypertensive range; yet, it is unclear if elevated resting blood pressure (ERBP) augments these autonomic derangements in PTSD. We hypothesized that compared to normotensive PTSD (N-PTSD), those with ERBP (E-PTSD) have further increased SNS, decreased PNS activity and impaired BRS at rest, and exaggerated SNS reactivity, PNS withdrawal, and pressor responses during stress...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303705/the-serotonin-transporter-sert-and-non-selective-transporters-are-involved-in-peripheral-serotonin-uptake-in-the-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta
#19
Molly Hope Broome Amador, M Danielle McDonald
In mammals, circulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is sequestered by platelets via the 5-HT transporter (SERT) to prevent unintended signaling by this potent signaling molecule. Teleost fish appear to lack a similar circulating storage pool, although the diverse effects of 5-HT in teleosts likely necessitate an alternative method of tight regulation, such as uptake by peripheral tissues. Here, a 5-HT radiotracer was used to explore the 5-HT uptake capacity of peripheral tissues in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, and to elucidate the primary excretion routes of 5-HT and its metabolites...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281326/activation-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-blocks-the-sympathetic-counter-regulatory-response-to-glucoprivation
#20
Zohra M Kakall, Polina E Nedoboy, Melissa Mj Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
Activation of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) following glucoprivation initiates sympathoadrenal activation, adrenaline release, and increased glucose production. Here, we aimed to determine the role of RVLM µ-opioid receptors in the counter-regulatory response to systemic glucoprivation. Experiments were performed in sodium pentobarbital anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30). Bilateral activation of RVLM µ-opioid receptors with DAMGO (8mM, 50nl) depressed adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA), for ~60 minutes (n=6; Δ 49...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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