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American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522569/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-airway-fibrosis-in-asthma
#1
Michelle R Freeman, Venkatachalem Sathish, Logan J Manlove, Shengyu Wang, Rodney D Britt, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Airway remodeling in asthma driven by inflammation involves proliferation of epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle (ASM), as well as enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) generation and deposition, i.e. fibrosis. Accordingly, understanding pro-fibrotic mechanisms is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies in asthma. Recent studies, including our own, have suggested a role for locally-produced growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating and modulating inflammation effects...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522568/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-enhances-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-through-microrna-21-and-programmed-cell-death-4
#2
David Emerson Green, Tamara C Murphy, Bum-Yong Kang, Brahmchetna Bedi, Zhihong Yuan, Ruxana T Sadikot, C Michael Hart
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder whose cellular pathogenesis involves enhanced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and resistance to apoptosis signals. Existing evidence demonstrates that the tumor suppressor, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) affects patterns of cell growth and repair responses in the systemic vasculature following experimental injury. In the current study, the regulation PDCD4 and its functional effects on growth and apoptosis susceptibility in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was explored...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522567/myeloid-epithelial-crosstalk-coordinates-synthesis-of-the-tissue-protective-cytokine-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-during-pneumonia
#3
Katrina E Traber, Elise M Symer, Eri Allen, Yuri Kim, Kristie L Hilliard, Gregory A Wasserman, Colin L Stewart, Matthew R Jones, Joseph P Mizgerd, Lee Joseph Quinton
In bacterial pneumonia, lung damage resulting from epithelial cell injury is a major contributor to the severity of disease, and in some cases, can lead to long-term sequelae, especially in the setting of severe lung injury or ARDS. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a critical determinant of lung tissue protection during pneumonia, but the cellular sources of LIF and the signaling pathways leading to its production in the infected lung are not known. Here, we demonstrate that lung epithelium, specifically alveolar type II cells, is the predominant site of LIF transcript induction in pneumonic mouse lungs...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522566/nedd8-modification-of-cullin-5-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#4
Ziyan Zhu, Lei Sun, Rui Hao, Hongchao Jiang, Feng Qian, Richard D Ye
Lung infections are major causes of acute lung injury (ALI), with limited effective treatment available. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential adaptor regulating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We recently identified Cullin-5 (Cul-5) as a prominent component in the regulation of TRAF6 polyubiquitination, but its physiological significance in acute lung injury has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Cul-5 in regulating ALI using mice receiving intratracheal instillation of LPS...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522565/integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-inhibition-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-lung-injury-in-an-autophagy-dependent-manner
#5
Dan Zhang, Chichi Li, Yuanlin Song, Jian Zhou, Yuping Li, Jing Li, Chunxue Bai
Integrin αvβ5 mediates pulmonary endothelial barrier function and acute lung injury (LI), but its roles in cell apoptosis and autophagy are unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the significance of αvβ5 in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis and LI and to explore the relationship between αvβ5 and autophagy. Human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) were pretreated with an αvβ5-blocking antibody (ALULA) and challenged with oxygen-glucose deprivation/oxygen-glucose restoration, which mimics I/R; then, cellular autophagy and apoptosis were detected, and cell permeability was assessed...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522564/decreased-phosphatase-pten-amplifies-pi3k-signaling-and-enhances-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-release-in-copd
#6
Satoru Yanagisawa, Jonathan R Baker, Chaitanya Vuppusetty, Peter Fenwick, Louise E Donnelly, Kazuhiro Ito, Peter J Barnes
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the regulatory mechanisms for this pathway are yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to determine the expression and role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, in COPD. PTEN expression and activity were measured in the peripheral lung of COPD patients compared to smoking and non-smoking controls. The direct influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on PTEN expression was assessed using primary lung epithelial cells and a cell line (BEAS-2B) in the presence or absence of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete intracellular glutathione...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522563/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-new-and-emerging-tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-products
#7
Suzaynn F Schick, Benjamin C Blount, Peyton Jacob, Najat A Saliba, John T Bernert, Ahmad El Hellani, Peter Jatlow, R Steve Pappas, Lanqing Wang, Jonathan Foulds, Arunava Ghosh, Stephen S Hecht, John C Gomez, Jessica R Martin, Clementina Mesaros, Sanjay Srivastava, Gideon St Helen, Robert Tarran, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Ian A Blair, Heather L Kimmel, Claire M Doerschuk, Neal L Benowitz, Aruni Bhatnagar
Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their utility for measuring exposure to these new products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522562/estrogen-and-cigarette-sidestream-smoke-particulate-matter-exhibit-er%C3%AE-dependent-tumor-promoting-effects-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#8
Lun-Cheng Kuo, Li-Chuan Cheng, Chia-Huei Lee, Chun-Ju Lin, Pei-Yu Chen, Lih-Ann Li
Estrogen and secondhand smoke are key risk factors for nonsmoking female lung cancer patients, who frequently have lung adenocarcinoma and show tumor ERα expression. We speculated that estrogen and secondhand smoke might cause harmful effects via ERα signaling. Our results showed that 17β-estradiol (E2), the primary form of endogenous estrogen, exacerbated proliferation, migration, and granzyme B resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells in an ERα-dependent manner. Cigarette sidestream smoke particulate matter (CSSP), the major component of secondhand smoke, could activate ERα activity dose dependently in human lung adenocarcinoma cells...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522561/immediate-and-delayed-potentiating-effects-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-trpv1-sensitivity-of-rat-vagal-pulmonary-sensory-neurons
#9
Chun-Chun Hsu, You Shuei Lin, Ruei-Lung Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee
We studied acute effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) on the sensitivity of isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Our results showed: 1) A brief pretreatment with a low dose of TNFα (1.44 nM, 9 min) enhanced the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors in these neurons in two distinct phases: the inward current evoked by capsaicin was amplified (∆=247%) immediately following the TNFα pretreatment, which gradually declined toward control and then increased again reaching another peak (∆=384%) after 60-90 min...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522560/the-effect-of-long-term-maternal-smoking-on-the-offspring-s-lung-health
#10
Suporn Sukjamnong, Yik Lung Chan, Razia Zakarya, Sonia Saad, Pawan Sharma, Rachana Santiyanont, Hui Chen, Brian G G Oliver
Maternal smoking during pregnancy contributes to long-term health problems in offspring, especially respiratory disorders which can manifest in either childhood or adulthood. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) are multi-ligand receptors abundantly localized in the lung, capable of responding to by-products of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory responses. RAGE signalling is a key regulator of inflammation in cigarette smoking-related pulmonary diseases. However, the impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on lung RAGE signalling in the offspring is unclear...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#11
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey Earl Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never-smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495857/tgf-%C3%AE-1-induces-fstl1-via-the-smad3-c-jun-pathway-in-lung-fibroblasts
#12
Xiaohong Zheng, Chao Qi, Si Zhang, Yinshan Fang, Wen Ning
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a crucial pro-fibrotic glycoprotein that is up-regulated in fibrotic lung tissues and that promotes fibrogenesis via facilitating TGF-β signaling. Here we examined the signaling pathway by which TGF-β1 up-regulates Fstl1 expression in mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. TGF-β1 regulated Fstl1 expression at both the transcriptional as well as translational levels. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495856/flavored-e-cigarette-liquids-and-cinnamaldehyde-impair-respiratory-innate-immune-cell-function
#13
Phillip Wayne Clapp, Erica Ann Pawlak, Justin Trevor Lackey, James Edward Keating, Steven L Reeber, Gary L Glish, Ilona Jaspers
Innate immune cells of the respiratory tract are the first line of defense against pathogenic and environmental insults. Failure of these cells to perform their immune functions leaves the host susceptible to infection, and may contribute to impaired resolution of inflammation. While combustible tobacco cigarettes have been shown to suppress respiratory immune cell function, the effects of flavored electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) and individual flavoring agents on respiratory immune cell responses are unknown...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495855/marijuana-smoke-induces-severe-pulmonary-hyperresponsiveness-inflammation-and-emphysema-in-a-predictive-mouse-model-not-via-cb1-receptor-activation
#14
Zsuzsanna Helyes, Ágnes Kemény, Kata Csekő, Eva Szoke, Krisztian Elekes, Miklós Mester, Katalin Sándor, Anikó Perkecz, László Kereskai, Laszlo Mark, Ágnes Bona, András Benkő, Erika Pintér, János Szolcsányi, Catherine Ledent, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás F Molnár
Sporadic clinical reports suggested that marijuana smoking induces spontaneous pneumothorax, but no animal models were available to validate these observations and to study the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a systematic study in CD1 mice as a predictive animal model and assessed the pathophysiological alterations in response to 4-month-long whole body marijuana smoke with integrative methodologies in comparison with tobacco smoke. Bronchial responsiveness was measured with unrestrained whole body plethysmography, cell profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with flow-cytometry, myeloperoxidase activity with spectrophotometry, inflammatory cytokines with ELISA, and histopathological alterations by light microscopy...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495854/role-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-tuberculosis
#15
Adam Lam, Rohan Prabhu, Christine M Gross, Lee Ann Riesenberg, Vinodkumar Singh, Saurabh Aggarwal
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest known human diseases and is transmitted by the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TB has a rich history with evidence of TB infections dating back to 5,800 B.C. TB is unique in its ability to remain latent in an individual for decades, with the possibility of later reactivation, causing widespread systemic symptoms. Currently, it is estimated that more than one-third of the world's population (about 2 billion people) are infected with Mtb. Prolonged periods of therapy and complexity of treatment regimens, especially in active infection, have led to poor compliance in patients being treated for TB...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495853/transgenerational-transmission-of-asthma-risk-after-exposure-to-environmental-particles-during-pregnancy
#16
David J Gregory, Lester Kobzik, Zhiping Yang, Connor C McGuire, Alexey V Fedulov
Exposure to environmental particles during pregnancy increases asthma susceptibility of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that this transmission continues to F2 and F3 generations and occurs via epigenetic mechanisms. We compared allergic susceptibility of three generations of BALB/c offspring after a single maternal exposure during pregnancy to diesel exhaust particles or concentrated urban air particles. After pregnant dams received intranasal instillations of particle suspensions or control, their F1, F2 and F3 offspring were tested in a low-dose ovalbumin protocol for allergy sensitivity...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473330/cd44-high-alveolar-type-ii-cells-show-stem-cell-properties-during-steady-state-alveolar-homeostasis
#17
Qian Chen, Varsha Suresh Kumar, Johanna Finn, Dianhua Jiang, Jiurong Liang, You-Yang Zhao, Yuru Liu
The alveolar epithelium is composed of type I cells covering most of the gas-blood exchange surface and type II cells secreting surfactant that lowers surface tension of alveoli to prevent alveolar collapse. Here we have identified a subgroup of type II cells expressing higher level of cell surface molecule CD44 (CD44high type II cells) that comprised ~3% of total type II cells in 5-10 week old mice. These cells were preferentially apposed to lung capillaries. They displayed a higher proliferation rate and augmented differentiation capacity into type I cells and the ability to form alveolar organoids compared to CD44low type II cells...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473329/autophagy-as-a-double-edged-sword-in-pulmonary-epithelial-injury-a-review-and-perspective
#18
Zhou-Yang Li, Yin-Fang Wu, Xu-Chen Xu, Jie-Sen Zhou, Yong Wang, Hua-Hao Shen, Zhi-Hua Chen
Pulmonary epithelial cells form the first line of defense of human airways against foreign irritants, and also represent as the primary injury target of these pathogenic assaults. Autophagy is a revolutionary conserved ubiquitous process by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to lysosomes for degradation when facing environmental and/or developmental changes, and emerging evidence suggests that autophagy plays pivotal but controversial roles in pulmonary epithelial injury. Here we review recent studies focusing on the roles of autophagy in regulating airway epithelial injury induced by various stimuli...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473328/tnf%C3%AE-decreases-mitochondrial-movement-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle
#19
Philippe F Delmotte, Vanessa A Zavaletta, Michael A Thompson, Y S Prakash, Gary C Sieck
In airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, excitation-contraction coupling is accomplished via a cascade of events which connect an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) with cross-bridge attachment and ATP-consuming mechanical work. Excitation-energy coupling is mediated by linking the elevation in [Ca(2+)]cyt to an increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) which in turn stimulates ATP production. Mitochondria proximity with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plasma membrane is thought to be an important mechanism to facilitate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473327/autophagy-plays-a-role-in-fstl1-induced-emt-and-airway-remodeling-in-asthma
#20
Tian Liu, Yahui Liu, Marina Miller, Liuzhao Cao, Jiping Zhao, Jinxiang Wu, Junfei Wang, Lin Liu, Shuo Li, Minfang Zou, Jiawei Xu, David H Broide, Liang Dong
Asthma is a chronic disease related to airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. Airway remodeling is the important reason of refractory asthma and is associated with differentiation of airway epithelia into myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to increase the process of subepithelial fibrosis. There is growing evidence that autophagy modulates remodeling. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that Follistatin-like 1(FSTL1) promotes EMT and airway remodeling by intensifying autophagy...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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