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American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#1
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#2
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
: Background The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Methods and Results Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n=12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n=9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle, at baseline, and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS & RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (AT), & directionality of propagation were measured...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087518/cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-jcr-la-cp-rats-effect-of-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#3
Ian Hunter, Amanda Soler, Gregory Joseph, Brenda Hutcheson, Chastity Bradford, Frank Zhang, Barry J Potter, Spencer D Proctor, Petra Rocic
30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062416/blood-flow-patterns-underlie-developmental-heart-defects
#4
Madeline Midgett, Kent L Thornburg, Sandra Rugonyi
Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans, and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062415/cardiomyocyte-specific-ablation-of-cd36-accelerates-the-progression-from-compensated-cardiac-hypertrophy-to-heart-failure
#5
Miranda M Sung, Nikole J Byrne, Ty T Kim, Jody Levasseur, Grant Masson, Jamie Boisvenue, Maria Febbraio, Jason R B Dyck
Previous studies have shown that loss of CD36 protects the heart from dysfunction induced by pressure overload in the presence of diet-induced insulin resistance and/or obesity. The beneficial effects of CD36 ablation in this context are mediated by preventing excessive cardiac fatty acid (FA) entry and reducing lipotoxic injury. However, whether or not the loss of CD36 can prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction in the absence of chronic exposure to high circulating FAs is currently unknown. To address this, we utilized a tamoxifen inducible cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 knockout (icCD36KO) mouse and genetically deleted CD36 in adulthood...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062414/a-novel-complex-i-inhibitor-protects-against-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#6
Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ian M Robertson, Shereen M Hamza, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Miranda M Sung, Grant Masson, Donna L Beker, Jason R B Dyck
Since left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the susceptibility for the development of other cardiac conditions, pharmacotherapy that mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling may prove to be beneficial in patients with LVH. Previous work has shown that the activation of the energy-sensing kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit some of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in LVH. Of interest, metformin activates AMPK through its inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 in the electron transport chain, and can prevent LVH induced by pressure overload...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039204/sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-vascular-function-food-for-thought
#7
Keshav Gopal, John R Ussher
N/A.
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039203/ischemic-preconditioning-in-pigs-a-causal-role-for-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3
#8
Sabine Gent, Andreas Skyschally, Petra Kleinbongard, Gerd Heusch
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), i.e. brief episodes of non-lethal myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) prior to sustained ischemia with subsequent reperfusion, reduces infarct size in all tested species so far, including humans. In rodents, the cardioprotective signal transduction causally involves an activation of AKT, ERK1/2 and STAT3. However, there are apparent species differences in the signal transduction between rodents and larger mammals such as pigs, where data on IPC's signal transduction are inconsistent for AKT and ERK1/2...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039202/caveolae-specific-activation-loop-between-camkii-and-l-type-ca2-channel-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-stimulation
#9
Kota Tonegawa, Wataru Otsuka, Shohei Kumagai, Sachi Matsunami, Nao Hayamizu, Shota Tanaka, Kazumasa Moriwaki, Masanori Obana, Makiko Maeda, Michio Asahi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Yasushi Fujio, Hiroyuki Nakayama
AIMS: Activation of CaMKII induces a myriad of biological processes and plays dominant roles in cardiac hypertrophy. Caveolar microdomain contains many CaMKII targets, including L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) complex, and serves as a signalling platform. The location of CaMKII activation is thought to be critical, however, the roles of CaMKII in caveolae are still elusive due to lack of methodology for the assessment of caveolae-specific activation. Our aim was to develop a novel tool for the specific analysis of CaMKII activation in caveolae, and to determine the functional role of caveolar CaMKII in cardiac hypertrophy...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039201/why-septal-motion-is-a-marker-of-right-ventricular-failure-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-mechanistic-analysis-using-a-computer-model
#10
Georgina Palau-Caballero, John Walmsley, Vanessa P M van Empel, Joost Lumens, Tammo Delhaas
BACKGROUND: Rapid leftward septal motion (RLSM) during early left ventricular diastole is observed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RLSM exacerbates right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction and impairs left ventricular (LV) filling. Increased RV wall tension caused by increased RV afterload has been suggested to cause interventricular relaxation dyssynchrony and RLSM in PAH. METHODS: Simulations using the CircAdapt computational model were used to unravel the mechanism underlying RLSM by mechanistically linking myocardial tissue and pump function...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011590/cardiac-sympathetic-innervation-via-the-middle-cervical-and-stellate-ganglia-and-anti-arrhythmic-mechanism-of-bilateral-stellectomy
#11
Tadanobu Irie, Kentaro Yamakawa, David Hamon, Keijiro Nakamura, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Marmar Vaseghi
Cardiac sympathetic denervation, CSD, is reported to reduce burden of ventricular tachy-arrhythmias (VT/VF) in cardiomyopathy patients, but the mechanisms behind this benefit are unknown. In addition, the relative contribution to cardiac innervation of the middle cervical ganglia (MCG), which may contain cardiac neurons, and is not removed during this procedure, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare sympathetic innervation of the heart via the MCG vs. stellate ganglia, assess effects of bilateral CSD on cardiac function and VT/VF, and determine changes in cardiac sympathetic innervation after CSD to elucidate mechanisms of benefit in 6 normal and 18 infarcted pigs...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011589/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-exposure-disrupts-progeny-cardiac-function-and-bioenergetics
#12
Quincy A Hathaway, Cody E Nichols, Danielle L Shepherd, Phoebe A Stapleton, Sarah L Mclaughlin, Janelle C Stricker, Stephanie L Rellick, Mark V Pinti, Alaeddin B Abukabda, Caroll R McBride, Jinghai Yi, Seth M Stine, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, John M Hollander
Nanomaterial production is expanding as new industrial and consumer applications are introduced. Nevertheless, the impacts of exposure to these compounds are not fully realized. The current study was designed to determine whether gestational nano-TiO2 exposure impacts cardiac and metabolic function of developing progeny. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to nano-TiO2 aerosols (~10 mg/m(3), 130 - 150 nm count median aerodynamic diameter) for 7-8 non-consecutive days beginning at gestational day 5-6. Physiological and bioenergetic effects on heart function and cardiomyocytes across three time points: fetal (gestational day 20), neonatal (4-10 days), and young adult (6-12 weeks) were evaluated...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011588/transgenic-overexpression-of-macrophage-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-exacerbates-age-related-cardiac-hypertrophy-vessel-rarefaction-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#13
Hiroe Toba, Presley L Cannon, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Jeanine M D'Armiento, Merry L Lindsey
Advancing age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is secreted by macrophages and robustly increases in the left ventricle (LV) with age. The present study investigated the effect of MMP-9 overexpression in macrophages on cardiac aging. We compared 16-21 month old C57/BL6J wild type (WT) and transgenic (TG) male and female mice (n=15-20 /group). MMP-9 overexpression amplified the hypertrophic response to aging, as evidenced by increased LV wall thickness and myocyte cross sectional areas (p<0...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011587/elevated-20-hete-impairs-coronary-collateral-growth-in-metabolic-syndrome-via-endothelial-dysfunction
#14
Gregory Joseph, Amanda Soler, Rebecca Hutcheson, Ian Hunter, Chastity Bradford, Brenda Hutcheson, Katherine H Gotlinger, Houli Jiang, John R Falck, Spencer Proctor, Michal Laniado Schwartzman, Petra Rocic
Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI)...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011586/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-early-stage-of-heart-failure-maintained-myocardial-function-and-energetics-in-pressure-overload-heart-failure
#15
Satoshi Kaimoto, Atsushi Hoshino, Makoto Ariyoshi, Yoshifumi Okawa, Shuhei Tateishi, Kazunori Ono, Motoki Uchihashi, Kuniyoshi Fukai, Eri Iwai-Kanai, Satoaki Matoba
Failing heart loses its metabolic flexibility, relying increasingly on glucose as its preferential substrate and decreasing fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a key regulator of this substrate shift. However, its role during heart failure is complex and remains unclear. Recent studies reported that heart failure develops in the heart of MHC-PPARαmice in a manner similar to that of diabetic cardiomyopathy, whereas cardiac dysfunction is enhanced in PPARα knockout mice in response to chronic pressure overload...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011585/the-role-of-sympathetic-and-vagal-cardiac-control-on-complexity-of-heart-rate-dynamics
#16
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan
Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) by nonlinear approaches has been gaining interest due to their ability to extract additional information from heart rate (HR) dynamics, not detectable by traditional approaches. Nevertheless, the physiological interpretation of nonlinear approaches remains unclear. Therefore, we propose long-term (60 min) protocols involving selective blockade of cardiac autonomic receptors to investigate the contribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic function upon nonlinear dynamics of HRV...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011584/effect-of-anisotropy-on-ventricular-vulnerability-to-unidirectional-block-and-reentry-by-single-premature-stimulation-during-normal-sinus-rhythm-in-rat-heart
#17
Stefano Rossi, Andrea Buccarello, Philip R Ershler, Robert L Lux, Sergio Callegari, Domenico Corradi, Luca Carnevali, Andrea Sgoifo, Michele Miragoli, Ezio Musso, Emilio Macchi
Single high-intensity premature stimuli when applied to the ventricles during ventricular drive of an ectopic site, as in the Winfree's "pinwheel experiment", usually induce reentry arrhythmias in the normal heart, while single low-intensity stimuli barely do. Yet, ventricular arrhythmia vulnerability during normal sinus-rhythm remains largely unexplored. With a view to define the role of anisotropy on ventricular vulnerability to unidirectional conduction block and reentry, we revisited the pinwheel experiment with reduced constraints in the in situ rat heart...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011583/association-of-serum-hmgb2-level-with-mace-at-1-month-of-myocardial-infarction-aggravation-of-myocardial-ischemic-injury-in-rat-by-hmgb2-via-ros
#18
Zhu Hui Liu, Dao Peng Dai, Feng Hua Ding, Wen Qi Pan, Yue Hua Fang, Qi Zhang, Man Li, Ping Yang, Xiao Qun Wang, Ying Shen, Ling Jie Wang, Xiao Xiang Yan, Yu Hu He, Ke Yang, Rui Yan Zhang, Wei Feng Shen, Ying Chen, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box (HMGB) family is related to inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether serum HMGB2 levels are related to myocardial infarction (MI) severity and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 432 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 312 controls. Serum HMGB2 levels were significantly higher in MI patients than in controls. Increased HMGB2 levels were associated with MACE and negatively with ejection fraction in MI patients...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011582/fluid-shear-stress-induces-upregulation-of-cox-2-and-pgi2-release-in-endothelial-cells-via-a-pathway-involving-pecam-1-pi3k-fak-and-p38
#19
Sparkle Russell-Puleri, Nathaniel G Dela Paz, Diana Adams, Mitali Chattopadhyay, Limary Melissa Cancel, Eno Ebong, A Wayne Orr, John A Frangos, John M Tarbell
Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular function in response to mechanical stimuli in both healthy and diseased states. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is an important anti-atherogenic prostanoid and vasodilator produced in endothelial cells through the action of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. However, the mechanisms involved in sustained, shear-induced production of COX-2 and PGI2 have not been elucidated, but are determined in the present study. We used cultured endothelial cells exposed to steady fluid shear stress (FSS) of 10 dyn/cm2 for 5-hrs to examine shear stress induced induction of COX-2/PGI2Our results demonstrate the relationship between mechanosensor platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and intracellular mechano-responsive molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, in the FSS induction of COX-2 expression and PGI2 release...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986662/a-pathogenic-role-of-complement-in-arterial-hypertension-and-hypertensive-end-organ-damage
#20
Ulrich O Wenzel, Marlies Bode, Jörg Köhl, Heimo Ehmke
The self-amplifying cascade of messenger and effector molecules of the complement system serves as a powerful danger sensing system that protects the host from a hostile microbial environment, while maintaining proper tissue and organ function through effective clearance of altered or dying cells. As an important effector arm of innate immunity it plays also important roles in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Innate and adaptive immune response have been identified as crucial players in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and hypertensive end organ damage...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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