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American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216122/progression-of-myocardial-ischemia-leads-to-unique-changes-in-immediate-early-gene-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#1
Louis A Saddic, Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Jasmine Kipke, Yukiko Kubo, Erica A Dale, Donald B Hoover, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Mansoureh Eghbali, Aman Mahajan
The pathological consequences of ischemic heart disease involve signaling through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While early activation may serve to maintain hemodynamic stability, persistent aberrant sympatho-excitation contributes to the development of lethal arrhythmias and heart failure. We hypothesize that as myocardium reacts and remodels to ischemic injury over time, there is an analogous sequence of gene expression changes in the thoracic spinal cord dorsal horn, the processing center for incoming afferent fibers from the heart to the central nervous system...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216121/sex-differences-in-endothelial-function-important-to-vascular-health-and-overall-cardiovascular-disease-risk-across-the-lifespan
#2
Anna E Stanhewicz, Megan M Wenner, Nina S Stachenfeld
Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women in developed countries, and CVD is becoming more prevalent in developing countries. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence in men is greater than in women until menopause, when the prevalence of CVD increases in women until it exceeds that of men. Endothelial function is a barometer of vascular health and a predictor of atherosclerosis that may provide insights into sex differences in CVD, as well as how and why CVD risk drastically changes with menopause...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216120/exercise-induced-shift-in-right-ventricular-contraction-pattern-novel-marker-of-athlete-s-heart
#3
Balint Karoly Lakatos, Orsolya Kiss, Marton Tokodi, Zoltan Toser, Nora Sydo, Gergo Merkely, Mate Babity, Monika Szilagyi, Zsuzsanna Komocsin, Csaba Bognar, Attila Kovacs, Bela Merkely
BACKGROUND: Data is limited about the functional adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to intense exercise. Our aim was to characterize the RV mechanical pattern in top-level athletes using 3D echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 60 elite water polo athletes (19±4 years, 17±6 hours of training/week, 50% female) and 40 healthy, sedentary controls were enrolled. We measured RV end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) and ejection fraction (RVEF) using dedicated software...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216119/chemerin-receptor-blockade-improves-vascular-function-in-diabetic-obese-mice-via-redox-sensitive-and-akt-dependent-pathways
#4
Karla Bianca Neves, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Katie Yates Harvey, Rafael Menezes da Costa, Núbia Souza Lobato, Augusto Cesar Montezano, Ana Maria de Oliveira, Rhian M Touyz, Rita C Tostes
Chemerin and its G protein-coupled receptor (ChemR23) have been associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the role of chemerin on insulin signalling in the vasculature is still unknown. We aimed to determine whether chemerin reduces vascular insulin signalling and whether there is interplay between chemerin/ChemR23, insulin resistance and vascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Molecular and vascular mechanisms were probed in mesenteric arteries and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from C57BL/6J, non-diabetic lean db/m and diabetic obese db/db mice as well as in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC)...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216118/a-heartfelt-message-estrogen-replacement-therapy-use-it-or-lose-it
#5
Robert C Speth, Mikayla D'Ambra, Hong Ji, Kathryn Sandberg
The issue of cardiovascular and cognitive health in women is complex. During the premenopausal phase of life women have healthy blood pressure (BP) levels that are lower than age-matched men and they have less cardiovascular disease. However, in the post-menopausal stage of life women's BP increases and they are increasingly susceptible to cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairments and dementia, exceeding the incidence in men. The major difference between pre- and post-menopausal women is the loss of estrogen...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216117/chronic-stimulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-ameliorates-autonomic-nerve-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-susceptibility-in-rat-models-of-depression
#6
Xin Liu, Chuan Qu, Hongjie Yang, Shaobo Shi, Cui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jinjun Liang, Bo Yang
Aims The present study assessed the effect of Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) stimulation on autonomic nerve dysfunction and atrial fibrillation susceptibility in rat depression models. Methods and Results Male rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups for four weeks: saline (CTL), saline+ intragastric administration of SA4503 (agonist of the S1R, CTS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to produce depression(MDD), and CUMS+ intragastric administration of SA4503 (MDS). After 4 weeks, depression-like behaviors, such as sucrose preference, body weight, and immobility during forced swimming improved in the MDS group...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216116/smooth-muscle-specific-biomarker-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-beacon-for-the-silent-killer
#7
Hiroki Aoki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216115/tefillin-use-induces-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-pathways-in-healthy-males
#8
A Phillip Owens, Nathan Robbins, Keith Saum, Shannon M Jones, Akiva W Kirschner, Dr Jessica G Woo, Connie McCoy, Samuel Slone, Marc E Rothenberg, Elaine M Urbina, Michael Tranter, Jack Rubinstein
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed whether tefillin use (tight, non-occlusive, wrapping of the arm) elicits a remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) like effect in subjects with both acute and chronic use. BACKGROUND: RIPC, created by short bursts of ischemia/reperfusion, has not been successfully taken to the bedside. Several large population studies have found that Orthodox Jewish males (who wear tefillin almost daily) have decreased cardiovascular mortality compared to non-Orthodox counterparts...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216114/human-fetal-hearts-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-have-altered-fluid-dynamics-and-forces
#9
Hadi Wiputra, Ching Kit Chen, Elias Talbi, Guat Ling Lim, Sanah Merchant Soomar, Arijit Biswas, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, David Bark, Hwa Liang Leo, Choon Hwai Yap
Studies suggested the effect of blood flow forces in pathogenesis and progression of some congenital heart malformations other than the Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). It is thus of interest to study the fluid mechanic environment of the malformed prenatal heart, especially when little is known in the fetal TOF. In this study, we performed patient-specific ultrasound-based flow simulations of 3 TOF and 7 normal human fetal hearts. TOF right ventricles (RV) had smaller end-diastolic volumes (EDV) but similar stroke volumes (SV), while TOF left ventricles (LV) had similar EDV but slightly increased SV compared to normal ventricles...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216113/hemodynamic-forces-using-4d-flow-mri-an-independent-biomarker-of-cardiac-function-in-heart-failure-with-left-ventricular-dyssynchrony
#10
Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Rasmus Borgquist, Marcus Carlsson, Hakan Arheden
Aims Heart failure patients with LV dyssynchrony often do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), indicating that the pathophysiology is insufficiently understood. Intracardiac hemodynamic forces computed from 4D flow MRI have been proposed as a new measure of cardiac function. We therefore aimed to investigate how hemodynamic forces are altered in LV dyssynchrony. Methods 31 patients with heart failure and LV dyssynchrony and 39 controls underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with acquisition of 4D flow...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192632/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-left-ventricle-mechanical-unloading-to-achieve-myocardial-recovery
#11
Hai-Chao Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192631/sex-differences-in-the-vascular-function-and-related-mechanisms-role-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol
#12
Mallikarjuna R Pabbidi, Maniselvan Kuppusamy, Sean P Didion, Padmaja Sanapureddy, Joey Reed, Sumit P Sontakke
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is lower in pre-menopausal women but increases with age and menopause compared to similar-aged men. Based on the prevalence of CVD in the post-menopausal women, sex hormone-dependent mechanisms have been postulated to be the primary factors responsible for the protection from CVD in pre-menopausal women. Recent Women's Health Initiative studies, Cochrane review, ELITE and KEEPS studies suggest that beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are seen in women less than 60 years of age and if initiated in less than ten years of menopause...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192630/vascular-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-the-impact-of-advancing-age
#13
Soung Hun Park, Oh-Sung Kwon, Song-Young Park, Joshua C Weavil, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Van R Reese, Russell S Richardson
Little is known about vascular mitochondrial respiratory function and the impact of age. Therefore, skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) were harvested from young (33±7yrs, n=10), middle (54±5yrs, n=10), and old (70±7yrs, n=10) subjects, and mitochondrial respiration as well as citrate synthase (CS) activity were assessed. Complex I (CI) and complex I+II (CI+II), state 3 respiration were greater in the young (CI: 10.4±0.8, CI+II: 12.4±0.8 pmol/s/mg, P<0.05) compared to both middle (CI: 7±0.6, CI+II: 8...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168731/sildenafil-improves-vascular-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Paula Rodriguez Miguelez, Nichole Seigler, Matthew A Tucker, Gabor Csanyi, Kathleen T McKie, Caralee Forseen, Ryan A Harris
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF), characterized by defective CFTR function, is associated with multiple systemic complications including vascular dysfunction. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, not only enhances nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, it has been shown to improve CFTR functionality as well. Thus, sildenafil has been proposed as a potential therapy to improve vascular health in CF; however, its potential therapeutic role has yet to be determined. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil treatment on endothelial function in patients with CF...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168730/notch-signaling-regulates-arterial-vasoreactivity-through-opposing-functions-of-jagged1-and-dll4-in-the-vessel-wall
#15
Sanchita Basu, Iulia Barbur, Alexander Calderon, Suhanti Banerjee, Aaron Proweller
Functional interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial wall are necessary for controlling vasoreactivity that underlies vascular resistance and tone. Key signaling pathways converge on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (P-MLC), the molecular signature of force production in SMCs, through coordinating the relative activities of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin phosphatase (MP). Notch signaling in the vessel wall serves critical roles in arterial formation and maturation and has been implicated in arterial vasoregulation...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168729/inflammasome-pyroptosis-and-cytokines-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Stefano Toldo, Adolfo G Mauro, Zachary S Cutter, Antonio Abbate
Myocardial ischemia reperfusion induces a sterile inflammatory response leading to further injury that contributed to the final infarct size. Locally released danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) lead to priming and triggering of the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and amplification of the inflammatory response and of cell death by activation of caspase-1. In this review, we examine strategies inhibiting the priming, triggering, or caspase-1 activity, or blockade of the inflammasome-related cytokines, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, focusing on the beneficial effects seen in experimental models of AMI in animals, and the initial results of clinical translational research trials...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168724/ubc-nepal-expedition-upper-and-lower-limb-conduit-artery-shear-stress-and-flow-mediated-dilation-on-ascent-to-5050-m-in-lowlanders-and-sherpa
#17
Joshua C Tremblay, Ryan L Hoiland, Howard H Carter, Connor A Howe, Mike Stembridge, Christopher K Willie, Chris Gasho, David B Macleod, Kyra Ellen Pyke, Philip N Ainslie
The study of conduit artery endothelial adaptation to hypoxia has been restricted to the brachial artery, and comparisons to highlanders have been confounded by differences in altitude exposure, exercise, and unknown levels of blood viscosity. To address these gaps, we tested the hypothesis that lowlanders, but not Sherpa, would demonstrate decreased mean shear stress and increased retrograde shear stress, and subsequently reduced flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in the upper and lower limb conduit arteries on ascent to 5050m...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141986/structural-and-functional-cardiac-profile-after-prolonged-duration-of-mechanical-unloading-potential-implications-for-myocardial-recovery
#18
Estibaliz Castillero, Ziad A Ali, Hirokazu Akashi, Nicholas Giangreco, Catherine Wang, Eric Jean Stöhr, Ruiping Ji, Xiaokan Zhang, Nathaniel Kheysin, Joo-Eun S Park, Sheetal Hegde, Sanatkumar Patel, Samantha Stein, Carlos Cuenca, Diana Leung, Shunichi Homma, Nicholas P Tatonetti, Veli Topkara, Koji Takeda, Paolo C Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, H Lee Sweeney, P Christian Schulze, Isaac George
Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that the duration of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support may affect remodeling of the failing heart. We aimed to (1) characterize the changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII)δ, growth signaling, structural proteins, fibrosis, apoptosis and gene expression before and after LVAD support and (2) assess whether the duration of support correlated with improvement or worsening of reverse remodeling. LV apex tissue and serum pairs were collected in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n=25, 23 male) at LVAD implantation and after LVAD support at cardiac transplantation/LVAD explantation...
August 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141985/facilitated-ca-2-homeostasis-and-attenuated-myocardial-autophagy-contribute-to-alleviation-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-after-bariatric-surgery
#19
Xin Huang, Shaozhuang Liu, Dong Wu, Yugang Cheng, Haifeng Han, Kexin Wang, Guangyong Zhang, Sanyuan Hu
Bariatric surgery has been reported to relieve diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) effectively. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of bariatric surgery on DCM via modulation of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis and autophagy, sleeve gastrectomy (SG), duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) and SHAM surgeries were performed in diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by series of morphometric and histological analyses. Transthoracic echocardiography and hemodynamic measurement were performed to determine cardiac function...
August 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141984/increased-thin-filament-activation-enhances-alternans-in-human-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Melanie A Zile, Natalia A Trayanova
Action potential duration (APD) alternans (APD-ALT), defined as beat-to-beat oscillations in APD, have been proposed as an important clinical marker for chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF) risk when it occurs at pacing rates of 120-200 beats per minute (bpm). Although the ionic mechanisms for occurrence of APD-ALT in human cAF at these clinically-relevant rates have been investigated, little is known about the effects of myofilament protein kinetics on APD-ALT. Therefore, we utilized computer simulations of single cell function to explore whether remodeling in myofilament protein kinetics in human cAF alters the occurrence of APD-ALT and to uncover how these mechanisms are affected by sarcomere length (SL) and the degree of cAF-induced myofilament remodeling...
August 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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