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American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412444/elimination-or-neutralization-of-endogenous-high-molecular-weight-fgf2-mitigates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#1
Navid Koleini, Jon-Jon Santiago, Barbara E Nickel, Glen Lester Sequiera, Jie Wang, Robert R Fandrich, Davinder S Jassal, Sanjiv Dhingra, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Peter A Cattini, Elissavet Kardami
Cardiac FGF2 is exerting multiple paracrine activities related to cardiac response to injury. Endogenous FGF2 is composed of a mixture of 70% high (Hi-) and 30% low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms; while exogenously added Lo-FGF2 is cardioprotective, the role of endogenous Hi- or Lo- FGF2 is not well defined. Therefore, we investigated the effect of eliminating Hi-FGF2 expression on susceptibility to acute cardiac damage in vivo, caused by an injection of the genotoxic drug Doxorubicin (Dox). Mice genetically depleted of endogenous Hi-FGF2 and expressing only Lo-FGF2 (FGF2(Lo) mice), were protected from the Dox-induced decline in ejection fraction displayed by their wild-type FGF2(WT) mouse counterparts, regardless of sex, as assessed by echocardiography for up to 10 days post-Dox treatment...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412443/central-artery-stiffness-and-thoracic-aortopathy
#2
Jay D Humphrey, George Tellides
Thoracic aortopathy - especially aneurysm, dissection, and rupture - is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Uncontrolled hypertension and aging are primary risk factors for such conditions and they contribute, respectively, to increasing the mechanical stress on the wall and increasing its structural vulnerability. Select genetic mutations also predispose to these lethal conditions, and the collection of known mutations suggests that dysfunctional mechanosensing and mechanoregulation of extracellular matrix may contribute to pathogenesis and disease progression...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412442/resistin-promotes-cardiac-homing-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-functional-recovery-after-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-via-the-erk1-2-mmp-9-pathway
#3
Yuan He, Yanjie Guo, Yunlong Xia, Yongzhen Guo, Rutao Wang, Fuyang Zhang, Lanyan Guo, Yi Liu, Tao Yin, Chao Gao, Erhe Gao, Congye Li, Shan Wang, Ling Zhang, Wenjun Yan, Ling Tao
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a potentially effective and promising treatment for ischemic heart disease. Resistin, a type of adipokine, has been found to bind to adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, the effects of resistin on cardiac homing by ADSCs and on ADSC-mediated cardioprotective effects have not been investigated. METHODS: ADSCs were obtained from EGFP transgenic mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or sham operations...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412441/non-coding-rnas-potential-regulators-in-cardio-oncology
#4
Shambhabi Chatterjee, Shashi Kumar Gupta, Christian Bär, Thomas Thum
Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally. Owing to improved early diagnosis and advances in oncologic therapeutic options, the number of cancer survivors increases steadily. Such efficient cancer therapies have also lead to alarming increase in cardiovascular complications in a significant proportion of cancer survivors, due to adverse cardiovascular effects such as cardiotoxicity, cardiac atrophy and myocarditis. This has emerged as a notable concern in the healthcare and given rise to the new field of cardio-oncology, which aims at understanding the processes that occur in the two distinct disorders and how they interact to influence the progression of each other...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412440/autophagy-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathology
#5
William Hughes, Andreas M Beyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412439/reversal-of-right-ventricular-failure-by-chronic-%C3%AE-1a-subtype-adrenergic-agonist-therapy
#6
Patrick M Cowley, Guanying Wang, Philip M Swigart, Anaha Raghunathan, Nikitha P Reddy, Pranavi Dulam, David H Lovett, Paul C Simpson, Anthony J Baker
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is serious disease with no effective treatment available. We recently reported a disease prevention study showing that chronic stimulation of α1A-adrenergic receptors (α1A-ARs), started at the time of RV injury, prevented development of RVF. The current study used a clinically relevant disease reversal design to test if chronic α1A-AR stimulation, started after RVF was established, could reverse RVF. RVF was induced surgically by pulmonary artery constriction (PAC) in mice...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412438/right-ventricular-dysfunction-and-remodeling-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#7
Yin Kang, Sheng Wang, Jiapeng Huang, Lu Cai, Bradley B Keller
The increasing prevalence of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important threat to health world-wide. While left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in DCM is well recognized, the accurate detection, diagnosis, and treatment of changes in right ventricular (RV) structure and function have not been well characterized to date. The pathophysiology of RV dysfunction in DCM may share features with LV diastolic and systolic dysfunction, including pathways related to insulin resistance and oxidant injury, though the RV has unique cellular origin and composition, unique biomechanical properties, and is coupled to the lower impedance pulmonary vascular bed...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412437/maladaptive-aortic-remodeling-in-hypertension-associates-with-dysfunctional-smooth-muscle-contractility
#8
Arina Korneva, Jay D Humphrey
Intramural cells are responsible for establishing, maintaining, and restoring the functional capability and structural integrity of the aortic wall. In response to hypertensive loading, these cells tend to increase wall content via extracellular matrix turnover in an attempt to return wall stress and/or material stiffness toward homeostatic values despite the elevated pressure. Using a common rodent model of induced hypertension, we found marked mouse-to-mouse differences in thoracic aortic remodeling over two-to-four weeks of pressure elevation, with mechano-adaptation in some but gross maladaptation in most mice despite the same experimental conditions and overall genetic background...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412436/elevated-arterial-shear-rate-increases-indices-of-endothelial-cell-autophagy-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-activation-in-humans
#9
Seul-Ki Park, D Taylor La Salle, James Cerbie, Jae Min Cho, Amber D Bledsoe, Ashley D Nelson, David E Morgan, Russell S Richardson, Yan-Ting Shiu, Sihem Boudina, Joel D Trinity, J David Symons
Continuous laminar shear stress increases the process of autophagy, activates p-eNOSS1177 , and generates nitric oxide (NO) in bovine and human arterial endothelial cells (ECs) compared to static controls. However, the translational relevance of these findings has not been explored. In the current study, primary ECs were collected from the radial artery (RA) of 7 adult males using sterile j-wires before (Pre) and after (Post) 60-min of rhythmic handgrip exercise (HG) performed with the same arm. After ECs were identified by positive co-staining for VE-cadherin and DAPI, immunofluorescent antibodies were used to assess indices of autophagy, NO generation, and superoxide anion (O2•- ) production...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388036/evidence-for-differential-control-of-muscle-sympathetic-single-units-during-mild-sympathoexcitation-in-young-healthy-humans
#10
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Massimo Nardone, Jordan B Lee, Karambir Notay, Jeremy D Seed, Philip J Millar
Two subpopulations of muscle sympathetic single units with opposite discharge characteristics have been identified during low-level cardiopulmonary baroreflex loading and unloading in middle-aged adults and heart failure patients. The present study sought to determine if similar subpopulations are present in young healthy adults during cardiopulmonary baroreflex unloading (study 1) and rhythmic handgrip exercise (study 2). Continuous hemodynamic and multi- and single-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) data were collected at baseline and during non-hypotensive lower body negative pressure (LBNP, n=12) and 40% maximal voluntary contraction rhythmic handgrip exercise (RHG, n=24)...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388024/exercise-induced-calf-muscle-hyperemia-quantitative-mapping-with-low-dose-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-dce-mri
#11
Jeff L Zhang, Gwenael Layec, Christopher Hanrahan, Christopher C Conlin, Corey R Hart, Nan Hu, Lillian Khor, Michelle T Mueller, Vivian S Lee
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) in the lower extremities often leads to intermittent claudication. In this study, we proposed a low-dose DCE MRI protocol for quantifying calf-muscle perfusion stimulated with plantar flexion, and multiple new metrics for interpreting perfusion maps, including the ratio of gastrocnemius (G) over soleus (S) perfusion (G/S, for assessing potential vascular redistribution between the two muscles), and muscle perfusion normalized by whole-body perfusion (WBP) (for quantifying muscle's active hyperemia)...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388023/ventilatory-and-sensory-responses-to-incremental-exercise-in-adults-with-a-fontan-circulation
#12
Jordan A Guenette, Andrew H Ramsook, Satvir S Dhillon, Joseph H Puyat, Mounir Riahi, Alexander R Opotowsky, Jasmine Grewal
Many adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone a Fontan procedure have abnormal pulmonary function resembling restrictive lung disease. Whether this contributes to ventilatory limitations and increased dyspnea has not been comprehensively studied. We recruited 17 Fontan participants and 17 healthy age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. All participants underwent complete pulmonary function testing followed by a symptom limited incremental cardiopulmonary cycle exercise test with detailed assessments of dyspnea and operating lung volumes...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387702/galectin-3-deficiency-ameliorates-fibrosis-and-remodelling-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-mice-with-enhanced-mst1-signaling
#13
My-Nhan Nguyen, Mark Ziemann, Helen Kiriazis, Yidan Su, Daniel G Donner, Wei-Bo Zhao, Qun Lu, Haloom Rafehi, Junichi Sadoshima, Julie R McMullen, Assam El-Osta, Xiao-Jun Du
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cause of heart failure without effective therapy. Fibrogenesis plays a key role in DCM development but little is known on the expression of a pro-fibrotic factor galectin-3 (Gal-3) and its role in DCM pathophysiology. In a mouse DCM model by transgenic (TG) overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), we studied Gal-3 expression and effects of the Gal-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP) or Gal-3 gene knockout (KO). Gal-3 deletion in TG mice (TG/KO) was achieved by cross-breeding Mst1-TG with Gal-3 KO mice...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387679/the-nuclear-receptor-ror%C3%AE-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-heart-failure
#14
Ju Youn Beak, Hong Soon Kang, Wei Huang, Page H Myers, Dawn E Bowles, Anton M Jetten, Brian Jensen
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) regulates numerous critical biological processes, including central nervous system development, lymphocyte differentiation, and lipid metabolism. RORα recently was identified in the heart, but very little is known about its role in cardiac physiology. We sought to determine whether RORα regulates myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte survival in the context of angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379573/bromine-inhalation-mimics-ischemia-reperfusion-cardiomyocyte-injury-and-calpain-activation-in-rats
#15
Shama Ahmad, Juan Xavier Masjoan Juncos, Aftab Ahmad, Ahmed Zaky, Chih-Chang Wei, Wayne Bradley, Iram Zafar, Pamela Powell, Nithya Mariappan, Nilam Vetal, William E Louch, David A Ford, Stephen Doran, Sadis Matalon, Louis J Dell'Italia
Halogens are widely used highly toxic chemicals that pose potential threat to humans due to their abundance. Halogens such bromine (Br2 ) cause severe pulmonary and systemic injuries however, the mechanisms of their toxicity are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Br2 and reactive brominated species produced in the lung and released in blood, reach the heart and cause acute cardiac ultrastructural damage and dysfunction in rats. Br2 -induced cardiac damage was demonstrated by acute (3-24h) increases in circulating troponin I, hFABP and NT-proBNP...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379567/cardioprotection-during-ischemia-by-coronary-collateral-growth
#16
Anurag Jamaiyar, Cody Juguilon, Feng Dong, Devan Cumpston, Molly Enrick, William M Chilian, Liya Yin
Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) cause millions of deaths around the world annually. While surgical and pharmacological interventions are commonly used to treat patients with IHD, their efficacy varies from patient to patient and is limited by the severity of the disease. One promising approach for treating IHD is induction of coronary collateral growth (CCG). Coronary collaterals are arteriole-to-arteriole anastomoses that can undergo expansion and remodeling during the occlusion of coronary arteries. The coronary collaterals can restore blood flow in the ischemic area of the myocardium and protect the myocardium at risk...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379558/dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-inhibits-i-ca-l-and-window-current-by-voltage-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-in-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Rikuo Ochi, Sukrutha Chettimada, Igor Kizub, Sachin A Gupte
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an adrenal steroid hormone, which has the highest serum concentration among steroid hormones with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). DHEA possesses inhibitory action on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the first pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme that reduces NADP+ to NADPH. DHEA induced relaxation of high K+ -induced contraction in rat arterial strips, while DHEAS barely induced it. We studied the effects of DHEA on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L ) of A7r5 arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and compared the mechanism of inhibition with that produced by 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN) competitive inhibitor of G6PD...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362822/mixed-lineage-kinase-3-mlk3-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-and-structural-remodeling-with-pressure-overload
#18
Timothy Dean Calamaras, Robert A Baumgartner, Mark J Aronovitz, Angela L McLaughlin, Kelly Tam, Daniel A Richards, Craig W Cooper, Nathan Li, Wendy E Baur, Xiaoying Qiao, Guang-Rong Wang, Roger J Davis, Navin Kumar Kapur, Richard H Karas, Robert Morris Blanton
BACKGROUND: Myocardial hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for heart failure (HF), yet the mechanisms underlying pathological cardiomyocyte growth are incompletely understood. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade modulates cardiac hypertrophic remodeling, but the upstream factors regulating myocardial JNK activity remain unclear. In this study we sought to identify JNK-activating molecules as novel regulators of cardiac remodeling in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3), a master regulator of upstream JNK-activating kinases, whose role in the remodeling process has not previously been studied...
October 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362819/cerebrovascular-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-the-impact-of-exercise-training
#19
Nia Lewis, Jinelle C M Gelinas, Philip N Ainslie, Jonathan David Smirl, Gloria Agar, Bernie Melzer, J Douglass Rolf, Neil Derek Eves
This study examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its regulation before and following a short-term periodized aerobic exercise training intervention in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Twenty-eight COPD patients (FEV1 /FVC<0.7 and -1; p=0.25); however, MCAv was lower in patients with COPD compared to the controls (46 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 10 cm·s-1 ; p=0.05). While there were no group differences in dynamic CA or the MCAv response to hypercapnia, patients with COPD had a lower MCAv response to hypocapnia compared to controls (-1...
October 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359089/cadherin-11-as-a-regulator-of-valve-myofibroblast-mechanobiology
#20
Meghan A Bowler, Matthew R Bersi, Larisa M Ryzhova, Rachel J Jerrell, Aron Parekh, W David Merryman
Cadherin-11 is upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases including arthritis and calcific aortic valve disease. Our recent work has identified cadherin-11 as a potential therapeutic target and shown that treatment with a cadherin-11 functional blocking antibody can prevent hallmarks of calcific aortic valve disease in mice. The current study investigates the role of cadherin-11 in regulating the mechanobiological behavior of valvular interstitial cells believed to cause calcification. Aortic valve interstitial cells were harvested from Cdh11+/+ , Cdh11+/- , and Cdh11-/- immorto-mice...
October 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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