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American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325734/does-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-creatine-occur-in-pregnant-sheep
#1
Syed Baharom, Robert De Matteo, Stacey Ellery, Paul Della Gatta, Clinton R Bruce, Greg M Kowalski, Nadia Hale, Hayley Dickinson, Richard Harding, David Walker, Rodney J Snow
Our aim was to determine the disposition of creatine in ovine pregnancy, and whether creatine is transferred across the placenta from mother to fetus. Pregnant ewes received either: (i) a continuous intravenous infusion of creatine monohydrate or saline from 122 to 131 days gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood and amniotic fluid samples collected daily for creatine analysis and fetal tissues collected at necropsy at 133 days for analysis of creatine content, or; (ii) a single systemic bolus injection of (13)C labelled creatine monohydrate at 130 days of gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood, uterine vein blood and amniotic fluid samples collected prior to, and for 4 hours post injection and analysed for creatine, creatine isotopic enrichment, and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA, precursor of creatine) concentrations...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325733/overactivation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-alters-the-anti-lipolytic-action-of-insulin-in-mouse-adipose-tissue
#2
Tania Muller, Laurent Demizieux, Stéphanie Troy-Fioramonti, Joseph Gresti, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Hélène Berger, Bruno Vergès, Pascal Degrace
Evidence has accumulated that obesity-related metabolic dysregulation is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which involves cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue (AT). The functional consequences of CB1R activation on AT metabolism remain unclear. Since excess fat mobilization is considered an important primary event contributing to the onset of insulin resistance, we combined in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate whether activation of ECS could alter the lipolytic rate...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325732/whey-protein-effects-on-energy-balance-link-the-intestinal-mechanisms-of-energy-absorption-with-adiposity-and-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#3
Kanishka N Nilaweera, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, John R Speakman, Paula M O' Connor, AnneMarie McAuliffe, Caitriona M Guinane, Elaine Lawton, Fiona Crispie, Mònica Aguilera, Maurice Stanley, Serena Boscaini, Susan Joyce, Silvia Melgar, John F Cryan, Paul D Cotter
We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance related parameters were investigated. As part of a high sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325731/effects-of-genetic-deletion-of-soluble-5-nucleotidases-nt5c1a-and-nt5c2-on-ampk-activation-and-nucleotide-levels-in-contracting-mouse-skeletal-muscles
#4
Samanta Kviklyte, Didier Vertommen, Xavier Yerna, Harriet Andersén, Xiufeng Xu, Philippe Gailly, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Jan Oscarsson, Mark H Rider
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in energy homeostasis and is activated in response to contraction-induced ATP depletion in skeletal muscle via a rise in intracellular AMP/ADP concentrations. AMP can be deaminated by AMP-deaminase to IMP, which is hydrolysed to inosine by cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase-II (NT5C2). AMP can also be hydrolysed to adenosine by cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase-IA (NT5C1A). Previous gene silencing and overexpression studies indicated control of AMPK activation by NT5C enzymes...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325730/glucose-oxidation-positively-regulates-glucose-uptake-and-improves-cardiac-function-recovery-after-myocardial-reperfusion
#5
Tingting Li, Jie Xu, Xinghua Qin, Zuoxu Hou, Yongzheng Guo, Zhenhua Liu, Jianjiang Wu, Hong Zheng, Xing Zhang, Feng Gao
Myocardial reperfusion decreases glucose oxidation and uncouples glucose oxidation from glycolysis. Therapies that increase glucose oxidation lessen myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the regulation of glucose uptake during reperfusion remains poorly understood. Here we found that glucose uptake was remarkably diminished in myocardium following reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats as detected by 18F-labeled and fluorescent-labeled glucose analogs, even though GLUT1 was upregulated by 3 folds and GLUT4 translocation remained unchanged compared with those of sham rats...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292763/oxygen-delivery-and-the-restoration-of-the-muscle-energetic-balance-following-exercise-implications-for-delayed-muscle-recovery-in-patients-with-copd
#6
Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Joel D Trinity, Oh-Sung Kwon, Matthew J Rossman, Ryan M Broxterman, Yann Le Fur, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a delayed recovery from skeletal muscle fatigue following exhaustive exercise that likely contributes to their progressive loss of mobility. As this phenomenon is not well understood, this study sought to examine post-exercise peripheral oxygen (O2) transport and muscle metabolism dynamics in patients with COPD, two important determinants of muscle recovery. Twenty four subjects, 12 non-hypoxemic patients with COPD and 12 healthy subjects with a sedentary lifestyle, performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of maximal work rate (WRmax) with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and vascular Doppler ultrasound assessments...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292762/gpr40-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-through-glp-1
#7
Judith N Gorski, Michele J Pachanski, Joel Mane, Christopher W Plummer, Sarah Souza, Brande S Thomas-Fowlkes, Aimie M Ogawa, Adam B Weinglass, Jerry Di Salvo, Boonlert Cheewatrakoolpong, Andrew D Howard, Steven L Colletti, Maria E Trujillo
GPR40 partial agonists lower glucose through the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which is believed to provide significant glucose lowering without the weight gain or hypoglycemic risk associated with exogenous insulin or glucose independent insulin secretagogues. The class of small molecule GPR40 modulators, known as AgoPAMs (agonist also capable of acting as positive allosteric modulators), differentiate from partial agonists, binding to a distinct site and functioning as full agonists to stimulate the secretion of both insulin and GLP-1 (17)...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292761/optimization-of-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-kbp-089-through-dose-escalation-and-combination-with-a-glp-1-analogue
#8
Sofie Gydesen, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Lars I Hellgren, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
Amylin and GLP-1 agonism induce a well-known anorexic effect at dose initiation, which is managed by dose escalation. In this study, we investigated how to optimize tolerability, while maintaining efficacy of KBP-089. Furthermore, we tested the GLP-1 add-on potential of KBP-089 in HFD rats. KBP-089 potently activated both the amylin and calcitonin receptors in vitro, demonstrated a prolonged receptor activation, and potently reduced acute food intake. HFD rats dosed every or every second day obtained equal weight loss at study end, albeit with an uneven reduction in both food intake and bodyweight in rats dosed every second day...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292760/phenylalanine-isotope-pulse-method-to-measure-effect-of-sepsis-on-protein-breakdown-and-membrane-transport-in-the-pig
#9
Gabriella A M Ten Have, Marielle Pkj Engelen, Robert R Wolfe, Nicolaas E P Deutz
The primed-continuous (PC) phenylalanine (Phe) stable isotope infusion methodology is often used as a proxy for measuring whole body protein breakdown (WbPB) in sepsis. It is unclear, if WbPB data obtained by an easy-to-use single IV Phe isotope pulse administration (PULSE) are comparable to those by PC. Compartmental modeling with PULSE could provide us more insight in WbPB in sepsis. Therefore, in the present study, we compared PULSE with PC as proxy for WbPB in an instrumented pig model with Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced severe sepsis (Healthy: n=9; Sepsis: n=13)...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292759/ovarian-function-s-role-during-cancer-cachexia-progression-in-the-female-mouse
#10
Kimbell L Hetzler, Justin P Hardee, Holly A LaVoie, E Angela Murphy, James A Carson
Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and the progression of cancer cachexia in the female Apc(Min/+) mouse...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292758/feeding-influences-adipose-tissue-responses-to-exercise-in-overweight-men
#11
Yung-Chih Chen, Rebecca L Travers, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Javier T Gonzalez, Francoise Koumanov, James A Betts, Dylan Thompson
Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270444/alpha-linolenic-acid-supplementation-and-exercise-training-reveal-independent-and-additive-responses-on-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-obese-rats
#12
Paula M Miotto, Meaghan Horbatuk, Ross Proudfoot, Sarthak Matravadia, Marica Bakovic, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) supplementation or exercise training can independently prevent hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced insulin signaling, however, this may occur through different mechanisms-of-action. In the current study, obese Zucker rats displayed decreased phospholipid (PL) content in association with hepatic lipid abundance, and therefore, we examined whether ALA and exercise training would prevent these abnormalities differently to reveal additive effects on the liver. To achieve this aim, obese Zucker rats were fed control diet alone or supplemented with ALA, and were sedentary or exercise trained for 4 weeks (C-Sed, ALA-Sed, C-Ex, ALA-Ex)...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270443/skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-is-sufficient-to-drive-an-endurance-exercise-phenotype-and-to-counteract-components-of-detraining-in-mice
#13
Samuel Lee, Teresa C Leone, Lisa Rogosa, John Rumsey, Julio Ayala, Paul M Coen, Robert H Fitts, Rick B Vega, Daniel P Kelly
PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) α; ;and β serve as master transcriptional regulators of muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and are capable of enhancing muscle endurance when overexpressed in mice. We sought to determine whether muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of PGC-1β affects the detraining response following endurance training. First, we established and validated a mouse exercise training/detraining protocol. Secondly, we found that overexpression of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle of sedentary mice fully recapitulated the training response using multiple physiological and gene expression endpoints...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270442/a-four-compartments-compartmental-model-to-assess-net-whole-body-protein-breakdown-using-a-pulse-of-phenylalanine-and-tyrosine-stable-isotopes-in-humans
#14
Alvise Mason, Marielle Pkj Engelen, Ivan Ivanov, Gianna M Toffolo, Nicolaas E P Deutz
The stable isotopes of Phenylalanine (Phe) and Tyrosine (Tyr) are often used to study whole body protein metabolism in humans. Non-compartmental approaches give limited physiological insight in the compartmental characteristics. We therefore developed a mathematical model of Phe/Tyr metabolism to describe protein fluxes using stable tracer dynamic data in plasma following iv bolus of L-[ring-(13)C6]-Phe and L-[ring-(2)H4]-Tyr in healthy subjects. The model consists of four compartments describing Phe/Tyr kinetics...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270441/insulin-sensitizer-prevents-and-ameliorates-experimental-type-1-diabetes
#15
Michael Valitsky, Amnon Hoffman, Terry Unterman, Jacob Bar-Tana
Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune beta-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and to predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270440/liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-induces-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-13-expression-through-srebp-1c
#16
Wen Su, Jun Peng, Sha Li, Yu-Bing Dai, Chun-Jiong Wang, Hu Xu, Min Gao, Xiong-Zhong Ruan, Jan-Ake Gustafsson, Xiao-Yan Zhang, You-Fei Guan
Liver X receptors, including LXRα and LXRβ, are known to be master regulators of liver lipid metabolism. Activation of LXRα increases hepatic lipid storage in lipid droplets (LDs). 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-13 (17β-HSD13), a recently identified liver-specific LD-associated protein, has been reported to be involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether 17β-HSD13 gene transcription is controlled by LXRs...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270439/comprehensive-functional-screening-of-mirnas-involved-in-fat-cell-insulin-sensitivity-among-women
#17
Ingrid Dahlman, Yasmina Belarbi, Jurga Laurencikiene, Annie M Pettersson, Peter Arner, Agné Kulyté
The key pathological link between obesity and type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance but the molecular mechanisms are not entirely identified. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are dysregulated in obesity and may contribute to insulin resistance. Our objective was to detect and functionally investigate miRNAs linked to insulin sensitivity in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Subjects were selected based on the insulin-stimulated lipogenesis response of subcutaneous adipocytes. Global miRNA profiling was performed in abdominal scWAT of 18 obese insulin resistance (OIR), 21 obese insulin sensitive (OIS) and nine lean women...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270438/menin-and-prmt5-suppress-glp1-receptor-transcript-and-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-foxo1-and-creb
#18
Abdul Bari Muhammad, Bowen Xing, Chengyang Liu, Ali Naji, Xiaosong Ma, Rebecca A Simmons, Xianxin Hua
Menin is a scaffold protein that interacts with several epigenetic mediators to regulate gene transcription, and suppresses pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Tamoxifen inducible deletion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes the protein menin, increases beta cell mass in multiple murine models of diabetes and ameliorates diabetes. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) is another key physiological modulator of beta cell mass and glucose homeostasis. However, it is not clearly understood whether menin crosstalks with GLP1 signaling...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246105/insulin-resistance-and-normal-thyroid-hormone-levels-prospective-study-and-metabolomic-analysis
#19
Ele Ferrannini, Giorgio Iervasi, Jeff Cobb, Rudina Ndreu, Monica Nannipieri
While hyper/hypothyroidism causes dysglycemia, the relationship between thyroid hormone levels within the normal range and insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. In 940 participants with strictly normal serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by the insulin clamp technique) and a panel of 35 circulating metabolites. At baseline, across quartiles of increasing fT3 levels (or fT3/fT4 ratio) there emerged most features of IR (male sex, higher BMI, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, fatty liver index, free fatty acids, and triglycerides levels, reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal and ß-cell glucose sensitivity)...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246104/forkhead-box-o3-plays-a-role-in-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-through-expression-of-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-murf-1-and-atrogin-1-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#20
Seol-Hee Kang, Hae-Ahm Lee, Mina Kim, Eunjo Lee, Uy Dong Sohn, Inkyeom Kim
Cushing's syndrome is caused by overproduction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal grand to make cortisol. Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in pathophysiological response to Cushing's syndrome. The forkhead box (FOX) protein family has been implicated as a key regulator of muscle loss under conditions such as diabetes and sepsis. However, the mechanistic role of the FOXO family in ACTH-induced muscle atrophy is not understood. We hypothesized that FOXO3a plays a role in muscle atrophy through expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) and Atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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