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American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899858/redd1-induction-regulates-the-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-signature-following-acute-aerobic-exercise
#1
Bradley S Gordon, Jennifer L Steiner, Michael L Rossetti, Shuxi Qiao, Leif W Ellisen, Subramaniam S Govindarajan, Alexey M Eroshkin, Dave L Williamson, Paul M Coen
The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899857/high-fat-high-fructose-high-cholesterol-feeding-causes-severe-nash-and-cecal-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-juvenile-ossabaw-swine
#2
Matthew R Panasevich, Grace M Meers, Melissa A Linden, Frank W Booth, James W Perfield, Kevin L Fritsche, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, J A Ibdah, R Scott Rector
Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874359/postchallenge-hyperglycemia-in-subjects-with-low-body-weight-implication-for-small-glucose-volume
#3
Takahiro Sakuma, Koh Yamashita, Takahiro Miyakoshi, Masanori Shimodaira, Naokazu Yokota, Yuka Sato, Kazuko Hirabayashi, Hideo Koike, Keishi Yamauchi, Takuro Shimbo, Toru Aizawa
A hypothesis that postchallenge hyperglycemia in subjects with low body weight (BW) may be in part due to small glucose volume (Gv) was tested. We studied 11,411 non-diabetic subjects with a mean BW of 63.3 kg. 5,282 of them were followed for a mean of 5.3 years. In another group of 1,537 non-diabetic subjects, insulin sensitivity, secretion, and a product of the two (index of whole body insulin action) were determined. Corrected 2 hour-plasma glucose (2hPGcorr) during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with BW ≤ 59 kg was calculated as, 2hPGcorr=〖δPG〗_2h ·ECW/[16...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874358/soluble-interleukin-13r%C3%AE-1-a-circulating-regulator-of-glucose
#4
Inbal Rachmin, Caitlin C O'Meara, Elisabeth M Ricci-Blair, Yilin Feng, Emily M Christensen, Jeanne F Duffy, Kirsi M Zitting, Charles A Czeisler, James R Pancoast, Christopher P Cannon, Michelle L O'Donoghue, David A Morrow, Richard T Lee
Soluble IL-13 receptor alpha 1, or sIL13rα1, is a soluble protein that binds to Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and that has been previously described in mice. The function of sIL13rα1 remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized to act as a decoy receptor for IL-13. Recent studies have identified a role for IL-13 in glucose metabolism, suggesting that a decoy receptor for IL-13 might increase circulating glucose levels. Here we report that delivery of sIL13rα1 to mice by either gene transfer or recombinant protein decreases blood glucose levels...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874357/reduced-obesity-diabetes-and-steatosis-upon-cinnamon-and-grape-pomace-are-associated-with-changes-in-gut-microbiota-and-markers-of-gut-barrier
#5
Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Hubert Plovier, Céline Druart, Amandine Everard, Marcus Ståhlman, Moez Rhimi, Kleopatra Chira, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Nathalie M Delzenne, Emmanuelle Maguin, Angèle Guilbot, Amandine Brochot, Philippe Gerard, Fredrik Bäckhed, Patrice D Cani
Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols have a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic outcomes of two polyphenol-containing extracts from cinnamon bark (CBE) and grape pomace (GPE) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Both CBE and GPE were able to decrease fat mass gain and adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a HFD without reducing food intake. This was associated with reduced liver steatosis and lower plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874356/impact-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-mediated-adaptations-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#6
Nina Brandt, Lene Nielsen, Bjørg Thiellesen Buch, Anders Gudiksen, Stine Ringholm, Ylva Hellsten, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
PGC-1α has been suggested to regulate exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations and autophagy in skeletal muscle. The factors regulating PGC-1α are however not fully resolved. The aim was to investigate the impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α mediated metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle with exercise training. Muscle was obtained from muscle specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and LOX/LOX 1) 3h after a single exercise bout with or without prior injection of propranolol or 3h after a single injection of clenbuterol and 2) after 5 weeks of wheel running exercise training with or without propranolol treatment or after 5 weeks of clenbuterol treatment...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851737/cholesterol-metabolism-and-cx43-cx46-cx50-gap-junction-protein-expression-and-localisation-in-normal-and-diabetic-and-obese-ob-ob-and-db-db-mouse-testes
#7
R-Marc Pelletier, Casimir D Akpovi, Li Chen, Maria Leiza Vitale
Decreased fertility and birth rates are afflictions arising from metabolic disorders. This study assesses cholesterol metabolism and Cx46, Cx50, Cx43 expression in interstitium- and seminiferous tubule-enriched fractions of leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, two type 2 diabetes and obesity models associated with infertility. Testosterone decreased, glucose, free and esterified cholesterol increased in serum whereas in interstitium, free and esterified cholesterol decreased in ob/ob and db/db...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851736/short-term-changes-in-diet-composition-do-not-affect-in-vivo-hepatic-protein-synthesis-in-rats
#8
Andrea Lee Estrada, William Max Hudson, Paul Y Kim, Claire Marie Stewart, Frederick F Peelor, Yuren Wei, Dong Wang, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller, Michael J Pagliassotti
Protein synthesis is critical to protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and modifications in protein synthesis influence lifespan and the development of co-morbidities associated with obesity. In the present study, we examined the acute response of liver protein synthesis to either high fat or high sucrose diets in order to elucidate nutrient-mediated regulation of hepatic protein synthesis in the absence of body fat accumulation. Total and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein synthesis were assessed by use of the stable isotope, deuterium oxide ((2)H2O), in rats provided a control diet or diets enriched in polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, or sucrose for 2, 4, or 7 days...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851735/oleate-increases-srebp-1-signaling-activity-in-scd1-deficient-hepatocytes
#9
Mohamed A Lounis, Karl-F Bergeron, Maggie S Burhans, James M Ntambi, Catherine Mounier
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key player in lipid metabolism. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). MUFA are then incorporated into triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Previous studies have shown that Scd1 deficiency in mice induces metabolic changes in the liver characterized by a decrease in de novo lipogenesis and an increase in β-oxidation. Interestingly, Scd1 deficient mice show a decrease in the expression and maturation of the principal lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851734/cardiac-overexpression-of-perilipin-2-induces-dynamic-steatosis-prevention-by-hormone-sensitive-lipase
#10
Masami Ueno, Jinya Suzuki, Masamichi Hirose, Satsuki Sato, Michiko Imagawa, Yasuo Zenimaru, Sadao Takahashi, Shoichiro Ikuyama, Tsutomu Koizumi, Tadashi Konoshita, Fredric B Kraemer, Tamotsu Ishizuka
Cardiac intracellular lipid accumulation (steatosis) is a pathophysiological phenomenon observed in starvation and diabetes mellitus. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein expressed in non-adipose tissues, including the heart. To explore the pathophysiological function of myocardial PLIN2, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice by cardiac-specific overexpression of PLIN2. Tg hearts showed accumulation of numerous small LDs associated with mitochondrial chains, and high cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) content (8-fold greater than wild-type (Wt) mice)...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851733/brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Wenjuan Wang, Xiangzhi Meng, Chun Yang, Dongliang Fang, Xuemeng Wang, Jiaqiang An, Jingyi Zhang, Lulu Wang, Tao Lu, Hai-Bin Ruan, Yan Gao
Loss of body weight and fat mass is one of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss is primarily due to reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure. While inadequate energy intake in PD patients is mainly caused by appetite loss and impaired gastrointestinal absorption, the underlying mechanisms for increased energy expenditure remain largely unknown. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a key thermogenic tissue in humans and other mammals, plays an important role in thermoregulation and energy metabolism; however, it has not been tested if BAT is involved in the negative energy balance in PD...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830869/anesthesia-and-bariatric-surgery-gut-preparation-alter-plasma-acylcarnitines-reflective-of-mitochondrial-fat-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-oxidation
#12
Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Mohamed Ali, William H Smith, Paul E Minkler, Maria S Stoll, Charles L Hoppel, Sean H Adams
The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responses to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n=17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state ca. 1-2 weeks prior to surgery (Condition A), the morning of surgery (prior restriction to a 48 hr. clear liquid diet coupled in some cases a standard polyethylene glycol gut evacuation: Condition B), and following induction of anesthesia (Condition C)...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811296/a-novel-d2o-tracer-method-to-quantify-rna-turnover-as-a-biomarker-of-de-novo-ribosomal-biogenesis-in-vitro-in-animal-models-and-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#13
Matthew S Brook, Daniel J Wilkinson, W Kyle Mitchell, Jonathan L Lund, Bethan E Phillips, Nathaniel J Sweczyk, Heikki Kainulainen, Sanna Lensu, Lauren G Koch, Steve L Britton, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Current methods to quantify RNA dynamics are beset with limitations. Here, we developed a novel stable isotope (D2O)-methodology to quantify RNA synthesis (i.e. ribosomal biogenesis) in cells, animal models, and humans. Firstly, proliferating C2C12 cells were incubated in D2O-enriched media and myotubes (±) 50ng.ml(-1) IGF-1. Secondly, rat quadriceps [untrained n=9; 7-wks interval-"like" training n=13] were collected after ~3-wks D2O (70-Atom%) administration, with body-water enrichment (BWE) monitored via blood sampling...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811295/circulating-soluble-rage-isoforms-are-attenuated-in-obese-impaired-glucose-tolerant-individuals-and-are-associated-with-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
Edwin R Miranda, Vikram S Somal, Jacob T Mey, Brian K Blackburn, Edward Wang, Sarah S Farabi, Kristian Karstoft, Ciaran E Fealy, Sangeeta R Kashyap, John P Kirwan, Laurie Quinn, Thomas P J Solomon, Jacob M Haus
The soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms, and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#15
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811293/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-reduces-short-term-food-intake-in-male-mice-by-regulating-nutrient-sensor-activity
#16
Melissa A Burmeister, Jacob D Brown, Jennifer E Ayala, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811292/dapagliflozin-slows-the-progression-of-the-renal-and-liver-fibrosis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Li Tang, Yuanyuan Wu, Mi Tian, C David Sjostrom, Ulrika Johansson, Xiao-Rong Peng, David M Smith, Yufeng Huang
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems such as effects on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. This study sought to address these questions by treating 18week-old uninephrectomized db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790027/increased-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-adipocytes-underlies-mitochondrial-alterations-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#18
Lauren E Wright, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gabriella Milan, Anna Terrin, Giorgia di Bello, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Francesca Favaretto, Anna Raffaello, Cristina Mammucari, Donato Nitti, Roberto Vettor, Rosario Rizzuto
Intracellular calcium influences an array of pathways and affects cellular processes. With the rapidly progressing research investigating the molecular identity and the physiological roles of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, we now have the tools to understand the functions of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the regulation of pathophysiological processes. Herein, we describe the role of key MCU complex components in insulin resistance in mouse and human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue gene expression was analysed from several models of obese and diabetic rodents and in obese patients, as well as in vitro insulin-resistant adipocytes...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765273/cross-sex-testosterone-therapy-in-ovariectomized-mice-addition-of-low-dose-estrogen-preserves-bone-architecture
#19
Laura G Goetz, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Maureen J Devlin, Amy E Robbins, Masoumeh Majidi-Zolbin, Hugh S Taylor
Cross-sex hormone therapy (XHT) is widely used by transgender people to alter secondary sex characteristics to match their desired gender presentation. Here we investigate the long-term effects of XHT on bone health, using a murine model. Female mice underwent ovariectomy at either 6 or 10 weeks, and began weekly testosterone or vehicle injections. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and microCT was performed to compare femoral cortical and trabecular bone architecture...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765272/-calories-in-calories-out-and-macronutrient-intake-the-hope-hype-and-science-of-calories
#20
Scott Howell, Richard Kones
One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out paradigm." Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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