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American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208613/do-skeletal-muscle-secreted-factors-influence-the-function-of-pancreatic-beta-cells
#1
Jonathan P Barlow, Thomas P J Solomon
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes a variety of compounds including proteins (myokines), metabolites, microRNAs (miRNAs) and exosomes. Many of which are regulated by exercise and play important roles in endocrine signaling. Inter-organ communication via muscle-secreted factors therefore provides a novel area for investigation and implicates the importance of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Given that underlying molecular mechanisms of T2D is subject of ongoing research, in light of new evidence, it is probable that inter-organ crosstalk between skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta-cells (β-cells) plays an important part...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208612/increased-body-fat-mass-explains-the-positive-association-between-circulating-estradiol-and-insulin-resistance-in-postmenopausal-women
#2
Geneviève B Marchand, Anne-Marie Carreau, S John Weisnagel, Jean Bergeron, Fernand Labrie, Simone Lemieux, Andre Tchernof
The relationship between circulating estrogen levels and cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance is unclear in postmenopausal women. High estradiol (E2) levels have been reported to predict increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this population. We aimed to examine associations among estrogen levels, adiposity measurements and cardiometabolic risk variables including insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. 101 healthy participants (mean±SD: age 57±4 years; BMI 27.9±4.8 kg/m2) were included in the analysis...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208611/perturbations-of-nad-salvage-systems-impact-mitochondrial-function-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mouse-myoblasts-and-intact-skeletal-muscle
#3
Marianne Agerholm, Morten Dall, Benjamin A H Jensen, Clara Prats, Søren Madsen, Astrid L Basse, Anne-Sofie Graae, Steve Risis, Julie Goldenbaum, Bjørn Quistorff, Steen Larsen, Sara G Vienberg, Jonas T Treebak
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (shNampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Moreover, we applied gene electrotransfer to express cre recombinase in tibialis anterior muscle of floxed Nampt mice. In shNampt KD C2C12 myoblasts, Nampt and NAD+ levels were reduced by 70% and 50%, respectively, and maximal respiratory capacity was reduced by 25%...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183873/effect-of-chronic-liraglutide-therapy-and-its-withdrawal-on-time-to-post-challenge-peak-glucose-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Susan Tran, Caroline K Kramer, Bernard Zinman, Haysook Choi, Ravi Retnakaran
Delayed timing of peak serum glucose following an oral glucose challenge can predict declining beta-cell function and worsening glucose tolerance over time. Accordingly, post-challenge peak glucose is typically delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, little is known about the capacity of anti-diabetic medications to reverse this delay. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist liraglutide on time to peak glucose in early T2DM. In this secondary analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 51 patients with T2DM of 2...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183872/endotoxin-initiated-inflammation-reduces-testosterone-production-in-men-of-reproductive-age
#5
Kelton Tremellen, Natalie McPhee, Karma Pearce, Sven Bedson, Manfred Schedlowski, Harald Engler
Inflammation, both acute and chronic is associated with testosterone deficiency, raising the possibility of a direct causal link. One potential trigger for inflammation in obese men is the passage of intestinal bacteria into the circulation due to a breakdown in mucosal barrier integrity. Recently we hypothesized that this endotoxin exposure may cause androgen deficiency in obese men. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the relationship between serum levels of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), an indirect measure of endotoxin exposure, against male reproductive hormones, inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and adiposity in 75 men...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138228/low-protein-diet-induced-hyperphagia-and-adiposity-are-modulated-through-interactions-involving-thermoregulation-motor-activity-and-protein-quality-in-mice
#6
Anne Blais, Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Julien Piedcoq, Gilles Fromentin, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Patrick C Even
Low-protein (LP) containing diets can induce overeating in rodents and possibly in humans in an effort to meet protein requirement but the consequences on energy expenditure (EE) are unclear. The present study evaluated the changes induced by reducing dietary protein from 20% to 6%, using either soy protein or casein, on energy intake, body composition and EE in mice housed at 22°C or at 30°C (thermal-neutrality). LP feeding increased energy intake and adiposity, more in soy fed than in casein fed mice, but also increased EE thus limiting fat accumulation...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138227/the-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-are-up-regulated-in-the-state-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-may-differently-impact-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans
#7
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Harald Staiger, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Alfred Königsrainer, Ingmar Koenigsrainer, Erwin D Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, while only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138226/insulin-secretory-effect-of-sitagliptin-assessment-with-a-hyperglycemic-clamp-combined-with-a-meal-challenge
#8
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Helmut O Steinberg, Chan R Beals, David E Kelley
Sitagliptin,a dipeptidylpeptidase-IVinhibitor(DPP-4),sustains activity of the incretin hormones GLP-1andGIP and improves hyperglycemia inT2DM.It has however proven challenging to quantify the effect of sitagliptin on rates of insulin secretion(ISR) during a prandial challenge.The tight feedback governance ofISR by plasma glucose means that in the face of treatment-related lowering of postprandialglycemia,corresponding stimulation ofISR is lessened.We postulated that sustaining a stable level of moderate hyperglycemia prior to and during a mealchallenge(MC)would be a platform that enables greater clarity to assess the effect ofsitagliptin onISR and an approach that could be valuable to evaluate novel targets that increase insulin secretion directly and by augmenting incretins...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138225/androgen-signaling-expands-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-male-rats-and-%C3%AE-cell-androgen-receptor-is-degraded-under-high-glucose-conditions
#9
Naoki Harada, Yasuhiro Yoda, Yusuke Yotsumoto, Tatsuya Masuda, Yuji Takahashi, Takahiro Katsuki, Kenji Kai, Nobuaki Shiraki, Hiroshi Inui, Ryoichi Yamaji
A deficient pancreatic β-cell mass increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the effects of testosterone on the development of pancreatic β-cell mass in male rats. The β-cell mass of male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age was reduced to ~30% of that of control rats at 16 weeks of age, and castration caused glucose intolerance. Loss of β-cell mass occurred due to decreases in islet density/pancreas and β-cell cluster size. Castration was negatively associated with the number of Ki67-positive β-cells and positively associated with the number of TUNEL-positive β-cells...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138224/short-term-metformin-and-exercise-training-effects-on-strength-aerobic-capacity-glycemic-control-and-mitochondrial-function-in-children-with-burn-injury
#10
Eric Rivas, David N Herndon, Craig Porter, Walter Meyer, Oscar E Suman
Severely burned children experience a chronic state of sympathetic nervous system activation that is associated with hypermetabolic/cardiac stress and muscle wasting. Metformin, a diabetes medication, helps control hyperglycemia in diabetic populations, and exercise has been shown to improve exercise strength and aerobic exercise capacity after severe burns. However, whether exercise improves glycemic control in burned children and whether combining exercise and metformin improves outcomes to a greater degree than exercise alone is unknown...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138223/effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-key-components-of-the-placental-and-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system
#11
Kushal Gandhi, Cun Li, Nadezhda German, Cezary Skobowiat, Maira Carrillo, Raja Reddy Kallem, Eneko Larumbe, Stacy Martinez, Marcel Chuecos, Gary Ventolini, Peter Nathanielsz, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse. METHODS: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) were fed a diet of either 45% fat (HFD; n=11) or 12% fat or a control diet (CTR; n=11), and dietary intervention continued through pregnancy. Maternal and fetal venous plasma samples were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118016/modelling-insulin-resistance-in-rodents-by-alterations-in-diet-what-have-high-fat-and-high-calorie-diets-revealed
#12
Lewin Small, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner, Gregory J Cooney
For over half a century, researchers have been feeding different diets to rodents to examine the effects of macronutrients on whole body and tissue insulin action. During this period, the number of different diets and the source of macronutrients employed has grown dramatically. Due to the large heterogeneity in both the source and percentage of different macronutrients used for studies, it is not surprising that different high calorie diets do not produce the same changes in insulin action. Despite this, diverse high calorie diets continue to be employed in an attempt to generate a "generic" insulin resistance...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118015/anril-regulates-production-of-extracellular-matrix-proteins-and-vasoactive-factors-in-diabetic-complications
#13
Anu Alice Thomas, Biao Feng, Subrata Chakrabarti
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread interest due to their prevailing presence in various diseases. lncRNA ANRIL (a.k.a CDKN2B-AS1) is located on human chromosome 9 (p21.3) and transcribed in opposite direction to INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster. It has been identified as highly susceptible region for diseases such as coronary artery diseases and Type 2 Diabetes. Here we explored its regulatory role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in association with epigenetic modifiers p300 and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118014/exercise-training-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-in-people-with-and-people-without-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#14
Bram Brouwers, Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling, Tomas Jelenik, Anne Gemmink, Lauren M Sparks, Bas Havekes, Yvonne Bruls, Dennis Dahlmans, Michael Roden, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
Exercise training reduces intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in people with elevated liver fat content. It is unclear, however, whether exercise training reduces IHL content in people with normal liver fat content. Here, we measured the effect of exercise training on IHL content in people with and people without non-alcohol fatty liver. We further measured changes in insulin sensitivity and hepatic energy metabolism. Eleven males with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and 11 BMI-matched individuals without non-alcoholic fatty liver (CON) completed a 12-week supervised exercise training program...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118013/restricting-glycolysis-impairs-brown-adipocyte-glucose-and-oxygen-consumption
#15
Sally Winther, Marie S Isidor, Astrid L Basse, Nina Skjoldborg, Amanda Cheung, Bjørn Quistorff, Jacob B Hansen
During thermogenic activation, brown adipocytes take up large amounts of glucose. In addition, cold stimulation leads to an upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. Here we have investigated the importance of glycolysis for brown adipocyte glucose consumption and thermogenesis. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown in mature adipocytes, we explored the effect of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes on brown adipocyte functions such as consumption of glucose and oxygen. Basal oxygen consumption in brown adipocytes was equally dependent on glucose and fatty acid oxidation, whereas isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated respiration was fueled mainly by fatty acids, with a significant contribution from glucose oxidation...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118012/effects-and-mechanisms-of-caffeine-to-improve-immunologic-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#16
Chih-Wei Liu, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Chia-Chang Huang, Chang-Youh Tsai, Yen-Bo Su, Ming-Wei Lin, Kuei Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Tzu-Hao Li, Shiang-Fen Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin, Fa-Yauh Lee, Shou-Dong Lee
In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, anti-hepatic steatosis and anti-insulin-resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6-week of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunologic and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. In comparison with HFD-V rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1) and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle' macrophages and its intracellular cytokines levels...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089337/curcumin-and-other-dietary-polyphenols-potential-mechanisms-of-metabolic-actions-and-therapy-for-diabetes-and-obesity
#17
Tianru Jin, Zhuolun Song, Jianping Weng, I George Fantus
Recent controversy regarding the therapeutic potential of curcumin indicate the challenges to research in this field. Here, we highlight the investigations of curcumin and other plant-derived polyphenols that demonstrate their application to metabolic diseases, in particular obesity and diabetes. Thus a number of preclinical and clinical investigations have shown the beneficial effect of curcumin (and other dietary polyphenols) in attenuating body weight gain, improving insulin sensitivity and preventing diabetes development in rodent models and pre-diabetic subjects...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089336/mtorc1-rps6-regulates-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-and-spermatogenetic-function-in-the-testis-in-vivo
#18
Stephen Y T Li, Ming Yan, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Will M Lee, Xiang Xiao, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB), conferred by Sertoli cells in the mammalian testis, is an important ultrastructure that supports spermatogenesis. Studies using animal models have shown that a disruption of the BTB leads to meiotic arrest, causing defects in spermatogenesis and male infertility. In order to better understand the regulation of BTB dynamics, we report findings herein to understand the role of rpS6 (ribosomal protein S6), a downstream signaling protein of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), in promoting BTB disruption in the testis in vivo, making the barrier "leaky"...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089335/the-effects-of-periconceptional-maternal-alcohol-intake-and-a-postnatal-high-fat-diet-on-obesity-and-liver-disease-in-male-and-female-rat-offspring
#19
Emelie M Gardebjer, James S M Cuffe, Leigh C Ward, Sarah Steane, Stephen T Anderson, Emily S Dorey, Jacinta I Kalisch-Smith, Marie Pantaleon, Suyinn Chong, Lisa Yamada, Mary E Wlodek, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz
The effects of maternal alcohol consumption around the time of conception on offspring are largely unknown and difficult to determine in a human population. This study utilized a rodent model to examine if periconceptional alcohol (PC:EtOH), alone or in combination with a postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in obesity and liver dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or ethanol-containing liquid diet (12.5% EtOH v/v) from 4 days prior to mating until 4 days of gestation (n=12/group). A subset of offspring was fed a HFD between 3-8 months of age...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089334/ibat-sympathetic-innervation-is-not-required-for-body-weight-loss-induced-by-central-leptin-delivery
#20
Isabelle Cote, Yasemin Sakarya, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy S Carter, Nihal Tumer, Philip J Scarpace
We evaluated the contribution of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic innervation on central leptin mediated weight loss. In a short and long-term study, F344BN rats submitted to either a denervation of interscapular BAT (Denervated) or a sham operation (Sham). Animals from each group received Ob (Leptin) or GFP (Control) gene through a single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus delivered centrally. Changes in body weight were recorded for 14 or 35 days, after which adipose tissues and skeletal muscles were weighed...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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