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American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701359/oxldl-induced-endothelial-proliferation-via-rho-rock-akt-p27-kip1-signaling-prevention-by-cholesterol-loading
#1
Chongxu Zhang, Crystal Adamos, Myung-Jin Oh, Jugajyoti Baruah, Manuela A A Ayee, Dolly Mehta, Kishore K Wary, Irena Levitan
Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) are known to play a major role in endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we provide comparative analysis of the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper oxidized LDL (Cu(2+)-oxLDL) and Lipoxygenase oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL) on proliferation of Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs). We show that Cu(2+)-oxLDL enhances HAECs proliferation in a dose and oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also has a positive effect on HAECs proliferation...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701358/mechanism-of-action-of-the-anti-inflammatory-connexin43-mimetic-peptide-jm2
#2
J Matthew Rhett, Bennett W Calder, Stephen A Fann, Heather Bainbridge, Robert G Gourdie, Michael J Yost
Connexin-based therapeutics have shown the potential for therapeutic efficacy in improving wound healing. Our previous work demonstrated that the connexin43 (Cx43)-mimetic peptide JM2 reduced the acute inflammatory response to a submuscular implant model by inhibiting purinergic signaling. Given the prospective application in improving tissue engineered construct tolerance that these results indicated, we sought to determine the mechanism of action for JM2 in the present study. Using confocal microscopy, a gap-FRAP cell communication assay, and an ethidium bromide uptake assay of hemichannel function we found that the peptide reduced cell-surface Cx43 levels, Cx43 gap junction (GJ) size, GJ communication, and hemichannel activity...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701357/a-tale-of-two-niches-differential-functions-for-vcam-1-in-satellite-cells-under-basal-and-injured-conditions
#3
Hyo-Jung Choo, James P Canner, Katherine E Vest, Zachary Thompson, Grace K Pavlath
Cell-cell adhesion molecules play key roles in maintaining quiescence or promoting activation of various stem cells in their niche. Muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC) are critical for skeletal muscle regeneration after injury but little is known about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating the behavior of these stem cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a cell-cell adhesion protein expressed on quiescent and activated SC whose function is unknown in this context. We deleted Vcam1 from SC using an inducible Cre recombinase in young mice...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701356/reciprocal-expression-of-mir-214-and-pten-by-high-glucose-regulates-glomerular-mesangial-and-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cell-hypertrophy-and-matrix-expansion
#4
Amit Bera, Falguni Das, Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury, Meenalakshmi M Mariappan, Balakuntalam S Kasinath, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) contributes to diabetic renal complications including renal hypertrophy and matrix protein accumulation. Reduced expression of PTEN by hyperglycemia contributes to these processes. We considered involvement of microRNA in the downregulation of PTEN. In the renal cortex of type 1 diabetic mice, we detected increased expression of miR-214 in association with decreased levels of PTEN and, enhanced Akt phosphorylation and fibronectin expression. Mesangial and proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to high glucose showed augmented expression of miR-214...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701355/mir-4632-mediates-pdgfbb-induced-proliferation-and-anti-apoptosis-of-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-via-targeting-cjun
#5
Zhengjiang Qian, Yanjiao Li, Jidong Chen, Xiang Li, Deming Gou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate proliferative status of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which is a core factor modulating pulmonary vascular remodeling diseases, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous work has shown that miR-4632, a rarely reported miRNA, is significantly downregulated in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)BB-stimulated human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs), yet its cell function and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684540/suppression-of-ciliary-movements-by-a-hypertonic-stress-in-the-newt-olfactory-receptor-neuron
#6
Yoshihiko Wakazono, Takashi Sakurai, Susumu Terakawa
Olfactory receptor neurons isolated from the newt maintain a high activity of the ciliary beat. A cilium of neuron is so unique that only little is known about regulatory factors for its beat frequency. We examined the olfactory receptor neuron immersed in various extracellular media under the video-enhanced differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. The activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by K+-depolarization or by application of Ca2+ to membrane-permeabilized olfactory cells did not affect the ciliary movement, suggesting that a Ca2+ influx through the cell membrane has no direct effect on the movement...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659288/overload-mediated-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-is-not-impaired-by-loss-of-myofiber-stat3
#7
Joaquín Pérez-Schindler, Mary Esparza, James McKendry, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp, Simon Schenk
Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659287/reduced-scd1-activity-alters-markers-of-fatty-acid-re-esterification-glyceroneogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-murine-white-adipose-tissue-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
Steven M Dragos, Karl F Bergeron, Frederik Desmarais, Katherine Suitor, David C Wright, Catherine Mounier, David M Mutch
White adipose tissue (WAT) has a critical role in lipid handling. Previous work demonstrated that SCD1 is an important regulator of WAT fatty acid (FA) composition; however, its influence on the various interconnected pathways influencing WAT lipid handling remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the role of SCD1 on WAT lipid handling using Scd1 knock-out (KO) mice and SCD1-inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring gene, protein, and metabolite markers related to FA re-esterification, glyceroneogenesis, and lipolysis...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637680/myoendothelial-gap-junctions-mediate-regulation-of-angiopoietin-2-induced-vascular-hyporeactivity-after-hypoxia-through-connexin-43-gated-camp-transfer
#9
Jing Xu, Guang-Ming Yang, Tao Li, Liang-Ming Liu
Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) contributes to vascular hyporeactivity after hemorrhagic shock and hypoxia through upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in a vascular endothelial cell (VEC)-specific and Ang2/Tie2 receptor-dependent manner. While iNOS is primarily expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the mechanisms of signal transfer from VECs to VSMCs are unknown. A double-sided co-culture model with VECs and VSMCs from Sprague Dawley rats was used to investigate the role of myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs), the connexin (Cx) isoforms involved and other relevant mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637679/characterization-of-ectonucleotidase-expression-in-the-rat-carotid-body-regulation-by-chronic-hypoxia
#10
Shaima Salman, Cathy Vollmer, Grant B McClelland, Colin A Nurse
The carotid body (CB) chemoreflex maintains blood PO2 and PCO2/H(+) homeostasis and displays sensory plasticity during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors plays a pivotal role in shaping the afferent discharge at the sensory synapse containing catecholaminergic chemoreceptor (type I) cells, glial-like type II cells, and sensory (petrosal) nerve endings. However, little is known about the family of ectonucleotidases that control synaptic nucleotide levels. Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), we first compared expression levels of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases1,2,3,5,6) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'Nt/CD73) mRNAs in juvenile rat CB versus brain, petrosal ganglia, sympathetic (superior cervical) ganglia, and a sympathoadrenal chromaffin (MAH) cell line...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637678/regulation-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-by-non-coding-rna
#11
Mari McMahon, Afshin Samali, Eric Chevet
Cells are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses in both physiological and pathological conditions. To adapt to those conditions, cells have evolved various mechanisms to cope with the disturbances in protein demand, largely through the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), but also through the Integrated Stress Response (ISR). Both responses initiate downstream signaling to transcription factors that, in turn, trigger adaptive programs and/or in the case of prolonged stress, cell death mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637677/is-foxo1-the-culprit-partner-in-crime-or-a-protector-in-systemic-inflammation
#12
Sinju Sundaresan, Prasanth Puthanveetil
Not Applicable for Viewpoint.
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#13
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637675/structure-functional-aspects-of-the-human-riboflavin-transporter-3-slc52a3-role-of-the-predicted-glycosylation-and-substrate-interacting-sites
#14
Veedamali S Subramanian, Subrata Subai, Trevor Teafatiller, Jennifer A Bohl, Hamid M Said
The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (hRFVT-3; product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an essential role in the intestinal RF absorption process and is expressed exclusively at the apical membrane domain of polarized enterocytes. Previous studies have characterized different physiological/biological aspects of this transporter, but nothing is known about the glycosylation status of the hRFVT-3 protein and role of this modification in its physiology/biology. Additionally, little is known about the residues in the hRFVT-3 protein that interact with the ligand, RF...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637674/oxidative-stress-destabilizes-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-4-via-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-to-impede-lung-epithelial-cell-migration
#15
Xiuying Li, Yandong Lai, Jin Li, Mingyi Zou, Chunbin Zou
Oxidative stress impacts normal cellular function leading to the pathogenesis of various diseases including pulmonary illnesses. Protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) is critical for normal lung alveolar epithelial cell development; however, the regulation of PRMT4 within such pulmonary diseases has yet to be elucidated. Using biochemical approaches, we uncovered that peroxide (H2O2) treatment decreases PRMT4 protein stability in murine lung epithelial (MLE12) cells to impede cell migration. Protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) interacts with PRMT4 and catalyzes PRMT4 T132 phosphorylation that protects PRMT4 from ubiquitin proteasomal degradation...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637673/lipopolysaccharide-downregulates-macrophage-derived-il-22-to-attenuate-alcohol-induced-hepatocyte-cell-death
#16
Yaming Liu, Vikas Verma, Harmeet Malhi, Gregory J Gores, Patrick S Kamath, Arun J Sanyal, Naga Chalasani, Bin Gao, Vijay H Shah
BACKGROUND/AIM: Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a Th17 cell hepatoprotective cytokine that is undergoing clinical trials to treat patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of macrophage is implicated in hepatocyte cell death and pathogenesis of AH. The role of IL-22 production from macrophage, its regulation by LPS and effects on alcohol induced hepatocyte cell death are unexplored and were examined in this study. METHODS/RESULTS: Low levels of IL-22 mRNA/protein were detected in macrophage but were significantly upregulated by 6...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615163/understanding-mechanisms-and-seeking-cures-for-alzheimer-s-disease-why-we-must-be-extraordinarily-diverse
#17
Madhav Thambisetty
After more than a century since Dr. Alois Alzheimer first described the pathological hallmarks accompanying the defining clinical features of the disease, we have yet to deliver any meaningful disease-modifying treatments to our patients. In this article, we present a rationale for the need to be "extraordinarily diverse" in seeking effective ways to treat or prevent this devastating disease. Our approach is based on applying a systems-biology perspective at the population level, using a diverse array of 'OMICS' methodologies to identify molecular mechanisms associated with well-established AD risk factors including systemic inflammation, obesity and insulin resistance...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615162/characterization-of-muscle-ankyrin-repeat-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#18
Stefan G Wette, Heather K Smith, Graham D Lamb, Robyn M Murphy
Muscle Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (MARPs) are a family of titin-associated stress response molecules and putative transducers of stretch-induced signalling in skeletal muscle. In cardiac muscle, Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein (CARP) and Diabetes-Related Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARP) reportedly redistribute from binding sites on titin to the nucleus following prolonged stretch. However, it is unclear whether Ankyrin repeat-domain protein2 (Ankrd2) shows comparable stretch-induced redistribution to the nucleus. We measured in rested human skeletal muscle 1) the absolute amount of MARPs, and 2) the distribution of Ankrd2 and DARP in both single fibers and whole muscle preparations...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592414/effects-of-sarcolipin-deletion-on-skeletal-muscle-adaptive-responses-to-functional-overload-and-unload
#19
Val A Fajardo, Bradley A Rietze, Paige J Chambers, Catherine Bellissimo, Eric Bombardier, Joe Quadrilatero, A Russell Tupling
Overexpression of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs), stimulates calcineurin signaling to enhance skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Some studies have shown that calcineurin may also control skeletal muscle mass and remodeling in response to functional overload and unload stimuli by increasing myofiber size and the proportion of slow fibers. To examine whether SLN might mediate these adaptive responses we performed soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy in wild-type (WT) and Sln¬-null (Sln(-/-)) mice and examined the overloaded plantaris and unloaded/tenotomized soleus muscles...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592413/recruitment-of-endosomal-signaling-mediates-the-forskolin-modulation-of-guinea-pig-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#20
Jean C Hardwick, Todd A Clason, John D Tompkins, Beatrice M Girard, Caitlin N Baran, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5-10 µM) increases excitability in ~60 % of the cardiac neurons...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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