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American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

Klemen Dolinar, Vid Jan, Mojca Pavlin, Alexander V Chibalin, Sergej Pirkmajer
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a major regulator of energy metabolism and a promising target for development of new treatments for type 2 diabetes and cancer. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an adenosine analogue, is a standard positive control for AMPK activation in cell-based assays. Some broadly used cell culture media, such as MEMα, contain high concentrations of adenosine and other nucleosides. We determined whether such media alter AICAR action in skeletal muscle and cancer cells...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yong-Bing Wang, Quan Shi, Gang Li, Jun-Hua Zheng, Jie Lin, Wei Qiu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) affects people globally and lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important indicator of poor clinical outcome in CRC. The current study aims to evaluate the role of microRNA-448 (miR-488) and claudin-2 (CLDN2) in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and LNM of CRC through the MAPK signaling pathway. Firstly, microarray analysis indicated that MiR-488 was poorly expressed in CRC, whereas CLDN2 was highly expressed. Additionally, the bioinformatics website, and the dual luciferase reporter gene assay found that CLDN2 was a target gene of miR-488...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Blas A Guigni, Damien M Callahan, Timothy W Tourville, Mark S Miller, Brad Fiske, Thomas Voigt, Bethany Korwin-Mihavics, Vikas Anathy, Kim Dittus, Michael J Toth
How breast cancer and its treatments affect skeletal muscle is not well defined. To address this question, we assessed skeletal muscle structure and protein expression in 13 women diagnosed with breast cancer, who were receiving adjuvant chemotherapy following tumor resection, and 12 non-diseased controls. Breast cancer patients showed reduced single muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and fractional content of both sub-sarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Drugs commonly used in breast cancer patients (doxorubicin and paclitaxel) caused reductions in myosin expression, mitochondrial loss and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in C2C12 muscle myotube cell cultures, supporting a role for chemotherapeutics in the atrophic and mitochondrial phenotypes...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ali E Sifat, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Heidi Villalba, Thamer H Albekairi, Thomas J Abbruscato
Transporters at the neurovascular unit (NVU) are vital for the regulation of normal brain physiology via ion, water, and nutrients movement. In ischemic stroke, the reduction of cerebral blood flow causes several complex pathophysiological changes in the brain one of which include alterations of the NVU transporters which can exacerbate stroke outcome by increased brain edema (by altering ion, water, and glutamate transporters), altered energy metabolism (by altering glucose transporters), and enhanced drug toxicity (by altering efflux transporters)...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Mohammad Shahidullah, Amritlal Mandal, Nicholas A Delamere
Lens ion homeostasis is crucial in maintaining water content and, in turn, refractive index and transparency of the multicellular syncytium-like structure. New information is emerging on the regulation of ion transport in the lens by mechanisms that rely on Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels. We found recently that TRPV1 activation leads to Ca2+ /PKC-dependent ERK1/2 signaling. Here we show that the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (100 nM) and hyperosmotic solution (350 vs 300 mOsm) similarly cause an increase of bumetanide-inhibitable Rb uptake by intact porcine lenses and NKCC1 phosphorylation in the lens epithelium...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ming Yao, Tyler Sattler, Zahid N Rabbani, Thomas Pulliam, Glenn Walker, Michael P Gamcsik
Precise oxygen control is critical to evaluating cell growth, molecular content and stress-response in cultured cells. We have designed, fabricated and characterized a 96-well plate-based device that is capable of delivering eight static or dynamically changing oxygen environments to different rows on a single plate. The device incorporates a gas mixing tree that combines two input gases to generate the eight gas mixtures that supply each row of the plate with a different gas atmosphere via a removable manifold...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Xin-Gang Nie, Dong-Sheng Fan, Yan-Xia Huang, Ying-Ying He, Bo-Li Dong, Feng Gao
Glaucoma represents a major cause of blindness, generally associated with elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether microRNA-149 (miR-149) affects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the underlying mechanism based on a mouse model of chronic glaucoma with EIOP. The successfully modeled mice were administered with mimics or inhibitors of miR-149. Next, the number of RGCs, ultrastructural changes of RGCs, and purity of RGCs in the retinal tissues were detected...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Muchen Dong, Lingling Yang, Mingli Qu, Xiaoli Hu, Haoyun Duan, Xiaoping Zhang, Weiyun Shi, Qingjun Zhou
Our previous study has confirmed that senescent fibroblasts promote corneal neovascularization (CNV) partially via the enhanced secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). However, the regulation of MMPs expression in senescent fibroblasts remained unclear. In this study, we identified that the expression and secretion levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly up-regulated in senescent human corneal fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. Moreover, compared with vehicle-pretreated senescent fibroblasts, IL-1β pretreatment enhanced the expression of angiogenic factors, while reduced the expression of angiostatic factors in senescent fibroblasts...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Kasin Yadunandam Anandam, Omar A Alwan, Veedamali S Subramanian, Padmanabhan Srinivasan, Rubina Kapadia, Hamid M Said
Riboflavin (RF), is essential for normal cellular metabolism/function. Intestinal RF absorption occurs via a specific carrier-mediated process that involves the apical RFVT-3 (SLC52A3) and the basolateral RFVT-1 (SLC52A1). Previously, we have characterized different cellular/molecular aspects of the intestinal RF uptake process, but nothing is known about the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the uptake event. We addressed this issue using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. First, we determined the level of mRNA expression of the hRFVT-3&-1 in intestinal tissue of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and observed a markedly lower level compared to controls...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Sarah J Blackwood, Ester Hanya, Abram Katz
The effects of heating on glycogen synthesis (incorporation of [14 C]glucose into glycogen) and accumulation after intense repeated contractions were investigated. Isolated mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle (type II) was stimulated electrically to perform intense tetanic contractions at 25°C. After 120 min recovery at 25°C, glycogen accumulated to almost 80% of basal, whereas after recovery at 35°C, glycogen remained low (~25% of basal). Glycogen synthesis averaged 0.97±0.07 µmol/30 min/g wet wt during recovery at 25°C and 1...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Gema Esquiva, Alba Grayston, Anna Rosell
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Tremendous improvements have been achieved in the acute care of stroke patients with the implementation of stroke units, thrombolytic drugs and endovascular trombectomies. However, stroke survivors with neurological deficits require long periods of neurorehabilitation, which is the only approved therapy for post- stroke recovery. With this scenario more treatments are urgently needed, and only the understanding of the mechanisms of brain recovery might contribute to identify new therapeutic agents...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Sidney Abou Sawan, Stephan van Vliet, Daniel W D West, Joseph W Beals, Scott A Paluska, Nicholas A Burd, Daniel R Moore
We have recently demonstrated that whole egg ingestion induces a greater muscle protein synthetic (MPS) response when compared to isonitrogenous egg white ingestion after resistance exercise in young men. Our aim was to determine whether whole egg or egg white ingestion differentially influenced co-localization of key regulators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as means to explain our previously observed divergent post-exercise MPS response. In crossover trials, 10 healthy resistance-trained men (21±1 y; 88±3 kg; body fat: 16±1 %; means±SEM) completed lower body resistance exercise before ingesting whole eggs (18 g protein, 17 g fat) or egg whites (18 g protein, 0 g fat)...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jonathan D Hibshman, Tess C Leuthner, Chelsea Shoben, Danielle F Mello, David R Sherwood, Joel N Meyer, L Ryan Baugh
Starvation significantly alters cellular physiology, and signs of aging have been reported to occur during starvation. Mitochondria are essential to the regulation of cellular energetics and aging. We sought to determine if mitochondria exhibit signs of aging during starvation and whether quality control mechanisms regulate mitochondrial physiology during starvation. We describe effects of starvation on mitochondria in the first and third larval stages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. When starved, C...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Quinn A Bonafiglia, Sandra R Lourenssen, David J Hurlbut, Michael G Blennerhassett
Inflammation causes proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), which contributes to a thickened intestinal wall, and also to stricture formation in Crohn's disease. Proliferation of ISMC both in vitro and in vivo caused decreased expression of marker proteins, but the underlying cause is unclear. Since epigenetic change is important in other systems, we examined this in cell lines from rat colon at either low passage or after extended growth, using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and qPCR to evaluate phenotype...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Jyotirmaya Behera, Nicholas T Theilen, Akash K George, Neetu Tyagi, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) occurs due to the deficiency in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) causing skeletal muscle dysfunction, it is still unclear whether this effect is mediated through oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress or both. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to improve HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an anti-oxidant compound and patients with CBS mutation do not produce H2 S. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 S mitigates HHcy-induced redox imbalance/ER-stress during skeletal muscle atrophy via JNK-phosphorylation...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Emily S Riddle, Erica L Bender, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer
Activation of satellite cells and expansion of the muscle progenitor cell (MPC) population is essential to generate a sufficient number of cells to repair damaged skeletal muscle. Proliferating MPCs have high energetic and biosynthetic material requirements, and the ability to utilize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and/or glycolysis may affect expansion capacity of MPCs. In the present study, we investigated whether donor age and sex impact human MPC (hMPCs) expansion capacity and metabolic fuel preference...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
David H Jang, Shawn Owiredu, Abhay Ranganathan, David M Eckmann
While barotrauma, decompression sickness and drowning-related injuries are common morbidities associated with diving and decompression from depth, it remains unclear what impact rapid decompression has on mitochondrial function. In vitro diving simulation was performed with human dermal fibroblast cells subjected to control, air, nitrogen and oxygen dive conditions. With the exception of gas mixture, all other related variables including absolute pressure exposure, dive and decompression rates, and temperature were held constant...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Angela Balistrieri, Laura Hobohm, Trisha Srivastava, Angela Meier, Ross Corriden
Bisphenol-A is a synthetic organic compound frequently present in consumer plastics, including plastic-lined cans, water bottles, toys, and teeth sutures. Previous studies have shown that BPA can produce adverse health effects that include defects in reproductive function and altered prenatal/childhood development. However, little is known regarding the effects of BPA on immune function. In this study, we assessed the effect of BPA on human neutrophils, a critical component of the innate immune system's defense against pathogens...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Dong Gao, Hong-Quan Chen, Yi-Ming Yang
Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a major cause of death associated with non-melanoma skin cancer. The involvement of homeobox B7 (HOXB7) in cancers has been reported. Thus, the current study intends to explore the effect of HOXB7 on CSCC and its relationship with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Initially, microarray-based gene expression profiling of CSCC was performed and HOXB7 was identified as an upregulated gene based on the microarray data of GSE2068. Following this, the experimental results indicated that HOXB7 and β-catenin formed a composite, demonstrating that endogenous HOXB7 binds to β-catenin...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Charles K Abrams, Alejandro Peinado, Rola Mahmoud, Matan Bocarsly, Han Zhang, Paul Chang, Wesley M Botello-Smith, Mona M Freidin, Yun Luo
The connexins are members of a family of integral membrane proteins which form gap junction channels between apposed cells and/or hemichannels across the plasma membranes. The importance of the Arginine at position 76 (Arg76 ) in the structure and/or function of Cx46 is highlighted by its conservation across the entire connexin family and the occurrence of pathogenic mutations at this (or the corresponding homologous) residue in a number of human diseases. Two mutations at Arg76 in Cx46 are associated with cataracts in humans, highlighting the importance of this residue...
July 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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