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American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077358/biological-signaling-by-carbon-monoxide-and-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecules-co-rms
#1
Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti
Carbon monoxide (CO) is continuously produced in mammalian cells during degradation of heme. It is a stable gaseous molecule that reacts selectively with transition metals in a specific redox state and these characteristics restrict the interaction of CO with defined biological targets that transduce its signaling activity. Because of the high affinity of CO for ferrous heme, these targets can be grouped into heme-containing proteins, representing a large variety of sensors and enzymes with a series of diverse function in the cell and the organism...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#2
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052865/keeping-fibroblasts-in-suspense-taz-mediated-signaling-activates-a-context-dependent-pro-fibrotic-phenotype
#3
Bram Piersma, Ruud A Bank
N/A.
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052864/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-colonic-biotin-uptake-via-interference-with-membrane-expression-of-its-transporter-a-role-for-casein-kinase-2-mediated-pathway
#4
Ram Lakhan, Hamid M Said
Biotin (vitamin B7), an essential micronutrient for normal cellular functions, is obtained from both dietary sources as well as gut microbiota. Absorption of biotin in both the small and large intestine is via a carrier-mediated process that involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, SMVT. While different physiological and molecular aspects of intestinal biotin uptake have been delineated, nothing is known about the effect of LPS on the process. We addressed this issue using in vitro (human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells) and in vivo (mice) models of LPS exposure...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052863/double-stranded-rna-up-regulates-the-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-human-aortic-valve-cells-through-the-tlr3-trif-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Qiong Zhan, Rui Song, Fei Li, Lihua Ao, Qingchun Zeng, Dingli Xu, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic inflammatory condition and the inflammatory responses of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the disease progression. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) released from damaged or stressed cells is pro-inflammatory and may contribute to the mechanism of chronic inflammation observed in diseased aortic valves. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of dsRNA on AVIC inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanism...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031160/myelo-erythroid-commitment-after-burn-injury-is-under-beta-adrenergic-control-via-mafb-regulation
#6
Shirin Hasan, Nicholas B Johnson, Michael J Mosier, Ravi Shankar, Peggie Conrad, Andrea Szilagyi, Richard L Gamelli, Kuzhali Muthumalaiappan
Severely injured burn patients receive multiple blood transfusions for anemia of critical illness despite the adverse consequences. One limiting factor to consider alternate treatment strategies is the lack of a reliable test platform to study molecular mechanisms of impaired erythropoiesis. This study illustrates how conditions resulting in high catecholamine microenvironment such as burns can instigate myelo-erythroid reprioritization influenced by beta-adrenergic stimulation leading to anemia. In mouse model of scald burn injury we observed, along with a 3-fold increase in bone marrow LSKs (lin(neg) Sca1(+)cKit(+)), the myeloid shift is accompanied with a significant reduction in megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003226/canstatin-stimulates-migration-of-rat-cardiac-fibroblasts-via-secretion-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2
#7
Muneyoshi Okada, Naoki Murata, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Type IV collagen, a non-fibrillar type, is ubiquitously expressed in the basement membrane around cardiomyocytes. Canstatin, a cleaved product of α2 chain of type IV collagen, is an anti-angiogenic factor. Because it has not been clarified whether canstatin exerts other biological activities in heart, we investigated the effects of canstatin on adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. Cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay. Western blotting was performed to detect secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003225/muscles-specific-microrna-206-targets-multiple-components-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle-representing-beneficial-adaptations
#8
Adel Amirouche, Vanessa E Jahnke, John A Lunde, Nathalie Koulmann, Damien G Freyssenet, Bernard J Jasmin
Over the last several years, converging lines of evidence have indicated that miR-206 plays a pivotal role in promoting muscle differentiation and regeneration, thereby potentially impacting positively on the progression of neuromuscular disorders including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Despite several studies showing the regulatory function of miR-206 on target mRNAs in skeletal muscle cells, the effects of overexpression of miR-206 in dystrophic muscles remain to be established. Here, we found that miR-206 overexpression in mdx mouse muscles simultaneously targets multiple mRNAs and proteins implicated in satellite cell differentiation, muscle regeneration, and at the neuromuscular junction...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003224/c-reactive-protein-isoforms-differentially-affect-outer-blood-retinal-barrier-integrity-and-function
#9
Blanca Molins, Anna Pascual Méndez, Victor Llorenç, Javier Zarranz-Ventura, Marina Mesquida, Alfredo Adan, Jordi Martorell
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier (oBRB) and is the prime target of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). C-reactive protein (CRP), a serum biomarker for chronic inflammation and AMD, presents two different isoforms, monomeric (mCRP) and pentameric (pCRP) that may have a different effect on inflammation and barrier function in the RPE. The results reported in this study suggest that mCRP but not pCRP impairs RPE functionality by increasing paracellular permeability and disrupting the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin in RPE cells...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974300/s-nitrosylation-and-s-glutathionylation-of-cys134-on-troponin-i-have-opposing-competitive-actions-on-ca2-sensitivity-in-rat-fast-twitch-muscle-fibers
#10
T L Dutka, J P Mollica, C R Lamboley, V C Weerakkody, D W Greening, G S Posterino, R M Murphy, G D Lamb
Nitric oxide is generated in skeletal muscle with activity and decreases Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus, putatively by S-nitrosylation of an unidentified protein. We investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect and its relationship to the oxidation-induced increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity in mammalian fast-twitch (FT) fibers mediated by S-glutathionylation of Cys134 on fast troponin I (TnIf). Force-[Ca(2+)] characteristics of the contractile apparatus in mechanically-skinned fibers were assessed by direct activation with heavily Ca(2+)-buffered solutions...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974299/nitric-oxide-what-s-new-to-no
#11
Kedar Ghimire, Helene M Altmann, Adam Straub, Jeffrey S Isenberg
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the critical components of the vasculature, regulating key signaling pathways in health. In macro-vessels NO functions to suppress cell inflammation as well as adhesion. In this way it inhibits thrombosis and promotes blood flow. It also functions to limit vessel constriction and vessel wall remodeling. In micro-vessels and particularly capillaries NO, along with certain growth factors, is important in promoting new vessels formation, a process termed angiogenesis. With age and cardiovascular disease animal and human studies confirm that NO is dysregulated at multiple levels including decreased production, decreased tissue half-life and decreased potency...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974298/mir-958-inhibits-toll-signaling-and-drosomycin-expression-via-directly-targeting-toll-and-dif-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well-studied, the precise mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80(ts)-Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927611/prenatal-myonuclei-play-a-crucial-role-for-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-rodents
#13
Fuminori Kawano, Yusuke Ono, Ryo Fujita, Atsuya Watanabe, Ryo Masuzawa, Kazuhiro Shibata, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Ken Nakata, Naoya Nakai
Multi-nucleated muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells during embryonic and fetal myogenesis. However, the role of prenatally incorporated myonuclei in the skeletal muscle fibers of adult animals is poorly understood. We demonstrated, using the muscle-specific reporter mice, that the prenatal myonuclei remained in the adult soleus muscle, although cardiotoxin injection caused the loss of prenatal myonuclei. Overloading by the tendon transection of synergists failed to induce compensatory hypertrophy in regenerated soleus muscle fibers of adult rats, whereas unloading by tail suspension normally induced the fiber atrophy...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903587/changes-in-mitochondrial-morphology-and-organisation-can-enhance-energy-supply-from-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Jan Jarosz, Shouryadipta Ghosh, Lea M D Delbridge, Amorita Volschenk, Anthony Jr Hickey, Edmund J Crampin, Eric Hanssen, Vijay Rajagopal
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is accompanied by metabolic and ultrastructural alterations, but the impact of the structural changes on metabolism itself is yet to be determined. Morphometric analysis of mitochondrial shape and spatial organisation within transverse sections of cardiomyocytes from control and streptozotocin induced type I diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that mitochondria are 20% smaller in size while their spatial density increases by 53% in diabetic cells relative to control myocytes. Diabetic cells formed larger clusters of mitochondria (60% more mitochondria per cluster) and the effective surface to volume ratio of these clusters increased by 22...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903586/microrna-125a-5p-alleviates-the-deleterious-effects-of-ox-ldl-on-multiple-functions-of-human-brain-microvessel-endothelial-cells
#15
Qunwen Pan, Xiaorong Liao, Hua Liu, Yan Wang, Yanfang Chen, Bin Zhao, Eric Lazartigues, Yi Yang, Xiaotang Ma
MicroRNA-125a-5p(miR-125a-5p)could participate in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-125a-5p in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced functional changes in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) generation, senescence, apoptosis and functions of HBMEC were analyzed. For mechanism study, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and p-Akt were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903585/autophagy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-the-two-faces-of-janus
#16
Philippe Gual, Helene Gilgenkrantz, Sophie Lotersztajn
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis, steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (Macroautophagy and Chaperome-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903584/src-independent-erk-signaling-through-the-%C3%AE-3-isoform-of-na-k-atpase
#17
Namrata Madan, Yunhui Xu, Qiming Duan, Moumita Banerjee, Isabel Larre, Sandrine V Pierre, Zijian Xie
The Na/K-ATPase α1 polypeptide supports both ion pumping and signaling functions. The Na/K-ATPase α3 polypeptide differs from α1 in both its primary structure and its tissue distribution. Alpha3 expression seems particularly important in neurons, and recent clinical evidence supports a unique role of this isoform in normal brain function. The nature of this specific role of α3 has remained elusive, because the ubiquitous presence of α1 has hindered efforts to characterize α3-specific functions in mammalian cell systems...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903583/aspirin-therapy-reduces-the-ability-of-platelets-to-promote-colon-and-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-implications-for-the-oncoprotein-c-myc
#18
Annachiara Mitrugno, Joanna L Sylman, Anh T P Ngo, Jiaqing Pang, Rosalie C Sears, Craig Williams, Owen J T McCarty
Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic drug, has become the focus of intense research as a potential anti-cancer agent owing to its ability to reduce tumor proliferation in vitro and to prevent tumorigenesis in patients. Studies have found an anti-cancer effect of aspirin when used in low, anti-platelet doses. However, the mechanism(s) through which low dose aspirin works is poorly understood. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin on the crosstalk between platelets and cancer cells...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903582/threshold-levels-of-extracellular-l-arginine-that-trigger-nos-mediated-ros-rns-production-in-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes
#19
Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, R Daniel Peluffo
L-arginine (L-Arg) is the substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule that is key in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. In cardiac myocytes, L-Arg is incorporated from the circulation through the functioning of system-y(+) cationic amino acid transporters. Depletion of L-Arg leads to NOS uncoupling, with O2 rather than L-Arg as terminal electron acceptor, resulting in superoxide formation. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide (O2•(-)), combined with NO, may lead to the production of the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (ONOO-), which is recognized as a major contributor to myocardial depression...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903581/the-plasma-membrane-metal-ion-transporter-zip14-contributes-to-non-transferrin-bound-iron-uptake-by-human-%C3%AE-cells
#20
Richard Coffey, Mitchell D Knutson
The relationship between iron and β cell dysfunction has long been recognized as individuals with iron overload display an increased incidence of diabetes. This link is usually attributed to the accumulation of excess iron in β cells leading to cellular damage and impaired function. Yet, the molecular mechanism(s) by which human β cells take up iron has not been determined. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of the metal-ion transporters ZIP14, ZIP8, and DMT1 to iron uptake by human β cells...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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