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American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

Hideto Yamamura, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Hisao Yamamura, Kiyofumi Asai, Wayne Giles, Yuji Imaizumi
Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) play a central role in maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and therefore are essential for central nervous system homeostasis and integrity. Although brain ischemia damages BCECs and causes disruption of BBB, the related influence of hypoxia on BCECs is not well understood. Hypoxic stress can up-regulate functional expression of specific K+ currents in endothelial cells, e.g., Kir2.1 channels without any alterations in the mRNA level, in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yanchun Gao, Hongyi Zhu, Fan Yang, Qiyang Wang, Yong Feng, Changqing Zhang
Glucocorticoid-induced endothelial injury has been reported in several diseases. Although there are several theories, the exact mechanism underlying the role of glucocorticoids in this process remains unclear. Autophagy has been reported to occur as a response to different stimuli and can affect cell survival and function. In this study, we found that glucocorticoids induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endotheliocytes. Furthermore, we discovered that glucocorticoids induced autophagy in these cells and the inositol requiring protein 1 (IRE1α)/X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s) axis, one of the downstream signaling pathways of ER stress, was associated with the glucocorticoid-induced autophagy...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Venus Joumaa, Fanny Bertrand, Shuyue Liu, Sophia Poscente, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the role of titin in preventing the development of sarcomere length non-uniformities following activation and after active and passive stretch, by determining the effect of partial titin degradation on sarcomere length non-uniformities and force in passive and active myofibrils. Selective partial titin degradation was performed using a low dose of trypsin. Myofibrils were set at a sarcomere length of 2.4 µm and then passively stretched to sarcomere lengths of 3.4 µm and 4...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Merla J Hubler, Keith M Erikson, Arion J Kennedy, Alyssa H Hasty
Resident adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play multiple roles to maintain tissue homeostasis, such as removing excess FFAs and regulation of extracellular matrix. The phagocytic nature and oxidative resiliency of macrophages not only allows them to function as innate immune cells but also to respond to specific tissue needs, such as iron homeostasis. MFehi ATMs are a subtype of resident ATMs that we recently identified to have twice the intracellular iron content as other ATMs and elevated expression of iron handling genes...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yuting He, Xueqi Gan, Ling Zhang, Beilei Liu, Zhuoli Zhu, Tao Li, Junfei Zhu, Junsheng Chen, Haiyang Yu
Oxygen deficiency is associated with various oral diseases, including chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and mechanical stress-linked cell injury from orthodontic appliances. Nevertheless, our understanding of the impact of hypoxia on periodontal tissues and its biochemical mechanism is still rudimentary. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Herein, we showed that CoCl2 triggered cell dysfunction in human PDLSCs in a concentration-dependent manner and resulted in cell apoptosis and oxidative stress overproduction and accumulation in PDLSCs...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yun-Ling Hao, Hong-Cheng Fang, Hong-Lei Zhao, Xiao-Li Li, Ying Luo, Bao-Quan Wu, Ming-Jie Fu, Wei Liu, Jin-Jie Liang, Xie-Hui Chen
Recent studies have uncovered the vital roles played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating cardiac injury. Amongst them, the cardiac enriched microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been extensively studied and proven to be detrimental to cardiac myocytes. Hence, the current study aims to explore whether miR-1 affects myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats undergoing sevoflurane preconditioning and the underlying mechanism. After successful model establishment, rats with MIRI were transfected with mimics or inhibitors of miR-1, or siRNA against MAPK3, and then were injected with sevoflurane...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ying Chen, Xiao-Yun Cao, Ying-Ni Li, Yu-Yan Qiu, Ying-Na Li, Wen Li, Hui Wang
Some microRNAs (miRs) are dysregulated in cancers, and aberrant miR expression has been reported to correlate with chemo-resistance of cancer cells. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the effects of microRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) on cisplatin resistance of OC with involvement of ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. OC tissues were obtained from primary OC patients. The cisplatin-sensitive A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780/DDP cell lines were collected for construction of RNF2 silencing and overexpressed plasmids...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Rainelli Koumangoye, Salma Omer, Eric Delpire
We recently reported the case of a young patient with multi-system failure carrying a de novo mutation in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1. Heterologous expression studies in non-epithelial cells failed to demonstrate dominant-negative effects. In this study, we examined expression of the mutant cotransporter in epithelial cells. Using MDCK cells grown on glass coverslips, permeabilized support, and matrigel, we show that the fluorescently-tagged mutant cotransporter is expressed in cytoplasm and at the apical membrane and affects epithelium integrity...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Junjie Wang, Gerhard Dahl
Of the three pannexins in vertebrate proteomes, pannexin1 (Panx1) is the only one well characterized, and it is generally accepted that Panx1 functions as an ATP release channel for signaling to other cells. However, the ATP permeability of the channel is only observed with certain stimuli, including low oxygen, mechanical stress and elevated extracellular potassium ion concentration. Otherwise, the Panx1 channel is selective for chloride ions and exhibits no ATP permeability when stimulated simply by depolarization to positive potentials...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Nandita S Raikwar, Masabumi Shibuya, Christie P Thomas
Ectodomain shedding and regulated intracellular proteolysis can determine the fate or function of cell surface proteins. Flt1 or VEGFR1 is a high affinity cell surface VEGF-A receptor tyrosine kinase which is constitutively cleaved to release an N-terminal VEGF-A binding ectodomain which once shed can antagonize the effects of VEGF-A in the extracellular milieu. We evaluated the effect of VEGF-A on FLT1 cleavage in native cells and in transient and stable expression systems. We demonstrate that VEGF-A inhibits FLT1 ectodomain cleavage in a time- and dose-dependent manner while VEGF-A knockdown in HEK293 cells increases ectodomain shedding...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Spring Davis, Aiko M Cirone, Janet Menzie, Floyd Russell, C Kathleen Dorey, Yoshimi Shibata, Jianning Wei, Changlong Nan
Chitin particles have been used to understand host response to chitin-containing pathogens and allergens, and are known to induce a wide range of polarized macrophage activations, depending, at least in part, on particle size. Non-phagocytosable particles larger than a macrophage induce tissue repair M2 activation. In contrast, phagocytosable chitin microparticles (CMPs, 1 - 10 µm diameters) induced M1 macrophages that kill intracellular microbes and damage tissues. However, chitosan (de-acetylated) microparticles (de-CMPs, 1 - 10 µm) induced poor M1 activation...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Junjie Wang, David George Jackson, Gerhard Dahl
The sequence and predicted membrane topology of Pannexin1 (Panx1) places it in the family of gap junction proteins. However, rather than forming gap junction channels, Panx1 forms channels in the non-junctional membrane. Panx1 operates in two distinct open states, depending on the mode of stimulation. The exclusively voltage-gated channel has a small conductance (<100 pS) and is highly selective for the flux of chloride ions. The Panx1 channel activated by various physiological stimuli or by increased concentrations of extracellular potassium ions has a large conductance (~500 pS, however with multiple, long lasting subconductance states) and is non-selectively permeable to small molecules, including ATP...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Cristina Matthewman, Christina K Johnson, David M Miller Iii, Laura Bianchi
UNC-8 and MEC-4 are two members of the DEG/ENaC family of voltage-independent Na+ channels that share a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity. For example, both can be hyperactivated by genetic mutations (UNC-8(d) and MEC-4(d)) that induce neuronal death by necrosis. Both depend in vivo on chaperone protein MEC-6 for function, as demonstrated by the finding that neuronal death induced by hyperactive UNC-8 and MEC-4 channels is prevented by null mutations in mec-6. UNC-8 and MEC-4 differ functionally in three major ways: 1) MEC-4 is calcium permeable whereas UNC-8 is not; 2) UNC-8, but not MEC-4, is blocked by extracellular calcium and magnesium in the micromolar range; 3) MEC-6 increases the number of MEC-4 channels at the cell surface in oocytes but does not have this effect on UNC-8...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Andrea A Domenighetti, Margie A Mathewson, Rajeswari Pichika, Lydia A Sibley, Leyna Zhao, Henry G Chambers, Richard L Lieber
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of pediatric neurodevelopmental and physical disability in the United States. It is defined as a group of motor disorders caused by a non-progressive perinatal insult to the brain. While the brain lesion is non-progressive, there is a progressive, lifelong impact on skeletal muscles, which are shorter, spastic, and may develop debilitating contractures. Satellite cells are resident muscle stem cells that are indispensable for postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscles...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Mason T Breitzig, Matthew D Alleyn, Richard F Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
The constant physiological flux of mitochondrial fission and fusion is inextricably tied to the maintenance of cellular bioenergetics and the fluidity of mitochondrial networks. Yet, the intricacies of this dynamic duo remain unclear in diseases that encompass mitochondrial dysregulation. Particularly, the role of the GTPase fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is of profound interest. Studies have identified that Drp1 participates in complex signaling pathways, suggesting that the function of mitochondria in pathophysiology may extend far beyond energetics alone...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Donald G Puro
Optimal vision requires an ocular surface with a stable tear film whose many critical tasks include providing >70% of the eye's refractive power. However for millions, tear film instability produces uncomfortable sight-impairing dry eye. Despite the multitude of etiologies for dry eye, a universal hallmark is hyperosmolarity of the tear film. Presently, knowledge of how the ocular surface responds to hyperosmolarity remains incomplete with little understood about the role of ion channels. This bioelectric analysis focused on conjunctival goblet cells whose release of tear-stabilizing mucin is a key adaptive response to dry eye...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Weber Beringui Feitosa, Patricia L Morris
SUMOylation, a process of posttranslational modification of proteins by the Small Ubiquitin related Modifier (SUMO) family of proteins, is known to be involved in yeast and mammalian somatic cell-cycle regulation. However, the identities of the SUMO-modified oocyte targets are largely unknown and the functional role(s) for SUMOylation during mammalian oocyte maturation remains unclear. Based upon studies in non-germline cells, protein kinase B/AKT is a potential SUMOylation target in the mouse oocyte, where it plays an essential role in cell-cycle resumption and progression during maturation...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Subrata Sabui, Rubina Kapadia, Abhisek Ghosal, Michael Schneider, Nils Lambrecht, Hamid M Said
Intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid is carrier-mediated and involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene). We recently observed that intestinal-specific (conditional) knockout of the mouse Slc5a6 gene (SMVT-cKO) is associated with growth retardation, the development of spontaneous and severe inflammation, abnormal histology in the large intestine, altered gut permeability, and early death. Our aim in this study was to examine the possibility that biotin and pantothenic acid over-supplementation (BPS) of the SMVT-cKO mice could reverse the above-described abnormalities...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Justin P Hardee, Dennis K Fix, Xuewen Wang, Edie C Goldsmith, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
Systemic cytokines and contractile activity are established regulators of muscle protein turnover. Paradoxically, the IL-6 cytokine family, which shares the ubiquitously expressed membrane gp130 receptor, has been implicated in skeletal muscle's response to both contractions and cancer-induced wasting. While we have reported that tumor-derived cachectic factors could suppress stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes, the ability of systemic cytokines to disrupt in vivo eccentric contraction-induced protein synthesis has not been established...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Heng-Jun Zhou, Li-Qing Wang, Duan-Bu Wang, Jian-Bo Yu, Yu Zhu, Qing-Sheng Xu, Xiu-Jue Zheng, Ren-Ya Zhan
Purpose Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was widely recognized to be implicated in human cancer, vascular diseases and neurological disorders. This study was to explore the role and underlying mechanism of MALAT1 in acute spinal cord injury (ASCI). Materials and Methods ASCI models in adult rats were established and demonstrated by a numerical decrease in BBB scores. Expression profile of MALAT1 and miR-199b following ASCI in rats and in vitro was determined using RT-qPCR...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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