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Current Treatment Options in Oncology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987676/head-and-neck-cancer-survivorship-care-a-review-of-the-current-guidelines-and-remaining-unmet-needs
#1
REVIEW
Nhu-Tram A Nguyen, Jolie Ringash
A larger proportion of patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) are now surviving, constituting up to 3% of all cancer survivors. This is likely due in part to the increase in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers affecting younger individuals and with a better prognosis and to the improved outcomes of other HNCs as well over the last two decades. Most studies have previously been focusing on improving risk stratification, treatment and disease-related outcomes. Over the last decade, there has been an evolving interest in the field of survivorship care...
July 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951919/diagnosis-and-management-of-acral-lentiginous-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fujisawa
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin tumors and its incidence has been increasing worldwide in recent decades. Among the four subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) shows the highest incidence in Asian countries, whereas ALM comprises only 1% of all melanomas in white populations. Early clinical diagnosis of ALM is essential, but early ALM lesions are often difficult to diagnose because the pigmentation of the lesions sometimes follows the skin marking of the palms and soles, resulting in an asymmetrical appearance and an irregular border in both ALM and benign melanocytic nevus...
June 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951788/management-of-kras-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Jacqueline V Aredo, Sukhmani K Padda
The discovery of genomic alterations that drive the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed how we treat metastatic disease. However, the promise of precision medicine remains elusive for the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC, KRAS. This is perhaps due to the substantial heterogeneity within the broader genomic context of KRAS-mutant NSCLC. At this time, approaches for treating metastatic KRAS-mutant NSCLC mirror those for treating NSCLC that lacks a known driver mutation, including standard chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic approaches...
June 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931654/precision-neuro-oncology-the-role-of-genomic-testing-in-the-management-of-adult-and-pediatric-gliomas
#4
REVIEW
Lori A Ramkissoon, Nicholas Britt, Alexander Guevara, Emily Whitt, Eric Severson, Pratheesh Sathyan, Laurie Gay, Julia Elvin, Jeffrey S Ross, Charlotte Brown, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan Mott, David Kram, Roy Strowd, Glenn J Lesser, Shakti H Ramkissoon
In recent years, large-scale genomic studies have expanded our knowledge regarding genomic drivers in tumors of the central nervous system. While histopathologic analysis of brain tumors remains the primary method for tumor classification, the clinical utility of molecular and genomic testing to support and/or complement tumor classification continues to expand. This approach enhances diagnostic accuracy and provides clinicians with objective data to facilitate discussions regarding prognosis and treatment decisions, including selection of clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931605/extranodal-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-molecular-features-prognosis-and-risk-of-central-nervous-system-recurrence
#5
REVIEW
Thomas A Ollila, Adam J Olszewski
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arises from extranodal organs in about 30% of cases. Its prognosis and risk of recurrence in the central nervous system (CNS) vary according to the primary site of origin. Recent studies begin to clarify these differences using molecular classification. Testicular, breast, and uterine DLBCL (as well as possibly primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg-type) share a high prevalence of the non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB) phenotype and the MYD88/CD79B-mutated (MCD) genotype. These biologic features, which resemble primary CNS lymphoma, may underlie their stage-independent propensity for CNS involvement...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931587/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Sonam Puri, Michael Shafique, Jhanelle E Gray
Surgical resection ± chemotherapy ± radiation or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are established treatment modalities for resectable stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and concurrent chemotherapy with radiation is the therapy of choice for unresectable locally advanced disease. Despite treatment with curative intent, most patients subsequently relapse and develop distant disease. Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advancement in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. Therapy against programed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) is associated with a significant improvement in overall survival in stage IV disease, and these results have led to a great interest in evaluating these agents in earlier-stage NSCLC...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931476/the-role-of-advanced-brain-tumor-imaging-in-the-care-of-patients-with-central-nervous-system-malignancies
#7
REVIEW
K Ina Ly, Elizabeth R Gerstner
T1-weighted post-contrast and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the gold standard for diagnosis and response assessment in neuro-oncologic patients but are limited in their ability to accurately reflect tumor biology and metabolism, particularly over the course of a patient's treatment. Advanced MR imaging methods are sensitized to different biophysical processes in tissue, including blood perfusion, tumor metabolism, and chemical composition of tissue, and provide more specific information on tissue physiology than standard MRI...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808294/overview-of-current-and-future-adjuvant-therapy-for-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Rosa Nadal, Andrea B Apolo
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has high metastatic potential at diagnosis but is still often curable with aggressive management, which may give patients the best odds for a favorable clinical outcome. The standard-of-care management of MIBC includes a radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. If the patient is cisplatin-eligible, neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy should also be given. Post-surgery adjuvant treatments include observation, chemotherapy, radiation, or enrollment in a clinical trial...
May 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808239/management-of-resistance-to-first-line-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Stefan Zimmermann
A decade after the discovery of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), several inhibitors have gained regulatory approval, and their sequential use has deferred platinum-based chemotherapy to later lines of therapy. Nevertheless, although most ALK-driven tumors dramatically respond to ALK TKIs , all patients ultimately develop drug-resistant disease. Analysis of post-progression biopsy samples has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of resistance, now informing on subsequent therapeutic strategies...
May 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808236/pitfalls-of-combining-novel-agents-in-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Thomas D Rodgers, Paul M Barr
As our knowledge of lymphoma and its intricate signaling pathways has grown, so has the development of novel agents. While their mechanisms of action vary considerably, these therapies supplement and in some cases offer alternatives to standard chemotherapy. Initial studies have highlighted tolerable side effects though in the majority of instances limited efficacy when used as monotherapy. Research has focused on combining these novel agents to improve outcomes and perhaps offer refined treatment options. Novel combinations represent new territory, inherently dissimilar to combination chemotherapy with new pitfalls and challenges given their unique mechanisms of action...
May 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797284/quality-assurance-and-improvement-in-head-and-neck-cancer-surgery-from-clinical-trials-to-national-healthcare-initiatives
#11
REVIEW
Christian Simon, Carmela Caballero
It is without question in the best interest of our patients, if we can identify ways to improve the quality of care we deliver to them. Great progress has been made within the last 25 years in terms of development and implementation of quality-assurance (QA) platforms and quality improvement programs for surgery in general, and within this context for head and neck surgery. As of now, we have successfully identified process indicators that impact outcome of our patients and the quality of care we deliver as surgeons...
May 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797086/management-of-non-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Ajay Major, Manali Kamdar
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is one of the most common neoplasms seen after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is related to post-transplant immunosuppression and EBV infection. Prevention of PTLD depends upon judicious use of immunosuppression and serial EBV monitoring. Preemptive therapy consists of reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral medications, and single-agent rituximab. There are no randomized phase III trials on PTLD treatment, so current management guidelines are largely based on recent phase II trials, single-institution retrospective studies, and expert opinion...
May 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796824/follicular-lymphoma-past-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Melody R Becnel, Loretta J Nastoupil
Even in the modern era, follicular lymphoma (FL) remains largely an incurable but treatable disease with both standard and novel treatment modalities. Despite the abundance of efficacious treatment modalities currently available, there is no universally agreed upon standard approach to treatment for patients with FL, particularly in the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting. There is an increasing need for better tools to risk-stratify patients and to identify those likely to experience relapse early. Additionally, the use of gene expression profiling and next-generation sequencing techniques in recent years has led to a wealth of knowledge regarding the molecular drivers of lymphomagenesis; however, much of this knowledge is not currently applicable on a day to day basis in the clinic setting...
May 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796712/right-versus-left-colon-cancer-resectable-and-metastatic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Michele Ghidini, Fausto Petrelli, Gianluca Tomasello
Colorectal cancer does not represent a single anatomic entity and side of origin has a key impact on prognosis and response to different systemic therapies. Compared to tumours arising in left colon, right colorectal cancers rely on the activation of different molecular pathways (e.g. BRAF mutation and MSI status). From a clinical point of view, this results in a different response to anti-EGFR agents. Current guidelines suggest the use of cetuximab or panitumumab in RAS wild-type disease and left colon cancer especially for cytoreduction/conversion purposes, since the expected benefit in right colon cancer is absent or clinically modest...
May 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752560/anthracycline-use-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-in-the-modern-era-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Sakshi Jasra, Jesus Anampa
Anthracycline-based regimens have been an important treatment component for patients with breast cancer. As demonstrated in the last Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) meta-analysis, anthracycline-based regimens decrease breast cancer mortality by 20-30%. Anthracycline toxicities include the rare-but potential morbid-cardiotoxicity or leukemogenic effect, and the almost universal-but very distressing-alopecia. Due to potential toxicities, and large number of patients being exposed, several worldwide trials have re-examined the role of anthracycline-based regimens in the management of breast cancer...
May 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752549/promising-new-agents-for-colorectal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Satya Das, Kristen K Ciombor, Sigurdis Haraldsdottir, Richard M Goldberg
Choosing the optimal treatment approach for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) demands that oncologists assess both clinical and genomic variables and individualize care based upon the findings. Clinically, choices depend on assessing the side of the colon in which the primary tumor originates, the sites and burden of metastatic disease, the patient's performance status, and their individual comorbidities. Genomic assessment of the tumor to discern the mutational status of genes such as RAS/RAF, HER2, and TRK, as well as assessing whether tumors have defective mismatch repair (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), all factor in to potential treatment options and can determine clinical trial eligibility...
May 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744681/proton-therapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Joseph K Kim, Jonathan E Leeman, Nadeem Riaz, Sean McBride, Chiaojung Jillian Tsai, Nancy Y Lee
The application of proton beam radiation therapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer has grown tremendously in the past few years. Globally, widespread interest in proton beam therapy has led to multiple research efforts regarding its therapeutic value and cost-effectiveness. The current standard of care using modern photon radiation technology has demonstrated excellent treatment outcomes, yet there are some situations where disease control remains suboptimal with the potential for detrimental acute and chronic toxicities...
May 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725859/surgical-treatment-for-extramammary-paget-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Uwe Wollina, Alberto Goldman, Andrzej Bieneck, Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser, Sven Petersen
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow growing non-melanoma skin cancer.Diagnosis is often significantly delayed, since clinical presentation may resemble common benign dermatoses. Treatment is characterized by high recurrence rates. This is in part due to ill-defined margins and by frequent development of satellites. Improvement of outcome needs a better preoperative planning with fluorescence diagnostics or scouting biopsies. Mohs micrographic surgery has some advantages for patients, such as reduced relapse rates and prolonged relapse-free survival...
May 3, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704066/current-status-of-extended-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Irene E G van Hellemond, Sandra M E Geurts, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen
In the past decade, several endocrine treatment regimens have been developed for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer, including tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AI), or a combination of these. The standard duration of adjuvant endocrine treatment has been 5 years for a long time. Nevertheless, the high number of recurrences occurring after 5 years suggested that extended endocrine therapy could further improve outcome, which led to the start of several randomized clinical trials investigating the effects of extended use of endocrine therapy...
April 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687230/correction-to-accelerating-therapeutic-development-through-innovative-trial-design-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Michael Lam, Jonathan M Loree, Allan Andresson Lima Pereira, Yun Shin Chun, Scott Kopetz
In the original version of this article, which published in Volume 19, Issue 2 (February 2018), the third author's name was captured incorrectly. The proper name is now provided.
April 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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