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Current Treatment Options in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143901/combined-vertebral-augmentation-and-radiofrequency-ablation-in-the-management-of-spinal-metastases-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Ning Mao Kam, Julian Maingard, Hong Kuan Kok, Dinesh Ranatunga, Duncan Brooks, William C Torreggiani, Peter L Munk, Michael J Lee, Ronil V Chandra, Hamed Asadi
Spinal metastases are the most commonly encountered tumour of the spine, occurring in up to 40% of patients with cancer. Each year, approximately 5% of cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. This number is expected to increase as the life expectancy of cancer patients increases. Patients with spinal metastases experience severe and frequently debilitating pain, which often decreases their remaining quality of life. With a median survival of less than 1 year, the goals of treatment in spinal metastases are reducing pain, improving or maintaining level of function and providing mechanical stability...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143898/the-multidisciplinary-approach-to-localized-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Hiral D Parekh, Jason Starr, Thomas J George
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma 2030 (PCa) is predicted to be the second leading cause of cancer death in USA by 2030. To date, attempts at early detection have been unsuccessful. Therapies for resectable PCa include surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Unfortunately, most patients with PCa present with advanced disease and thus only 20% of patients are potentially resectable upon presentation. Improved surgical techniques along with adjuvant combination chemotherapy have improved outcomes for patients with resectable disease...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143897/anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-testing-ihc-vs-fish-vs-ngs
#3
REVIEW
Xiaomin Niu, Jody C Chuang, Gerald J Berry, Heather A Wakelee
Personalized targeted therapy has emerged as a promising strategy in lung cancer treatment, with current attention focused on elucidation and detection of oncogenic drivers responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance and development of drug resistance. In lung cancer, several oncogenic drivers have been reported, triggering the application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to target these dysfunctional genes. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is responsible for about 4-7% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and perhaps as high as a third in specific patient populations such as younger, male, non-smokers with advanced stage, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) wild type, and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143893/the-role-of-systemic-therapy-in-resectable-gastric-and-gastro-oesophageal-junction-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth Cartwright, David Cunningham
Approximately 20% of patients with cancer of the stomach or gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) present with resectable disease. Long-term outcome after surgery alone in these patients is poor, and a combined treatment approach is the standard of care. The two approaches to managing patients with cancer of the GOJ are perioperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Based upon the most recent evidence, patients treated with a perioperative approach and deemed suitable for a triplet regimen should be considered for pre- and post-operative FLOT (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], leucovorin, oxaliplatin and docetaxel) and those suitable for a doublet regimen should be considered for a fluoropyrimidine/platinum combination such as capecitabine and oxaliplatin...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143892/update-in-the-therapy-of-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Inbal Uri, Shani Avniel-Polak, David J Gross, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms, with an estimated annual incidence of ~ 6.9/100,000. NETs arise throughout the body from cells of the diffuse endocrine system. More than half originate from endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas, thus being referred to as gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). The only treatment that offers a cure is surgery; however, most patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and curative surgery is usually not an option. These patients can be offered long-term systemic treatment, for both symptomatic relief and tumor growth suppression...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143887/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-aplastic-anemia
#6
REVIEW
Scott A Peslak, Timothy Olson, Daria V Babushok
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare, life-threatening bone marrow failure (BMF) disorder that affects patients of all ages and is caused by lymphocyte destruction of early hematopoietic cells. Diagnosis of AA requires a comprehensive approach with prompt evaluation for inherited and secondary causes of bone marrow aplasia, while providing aggressive supportive care. The choice of frontline therapy is determined by a number of factors including AA severity, age of the patient, donor availability, and access to optimal therapies...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110096/role-of-platinum-in-early-stage-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Alyssa La Belle, Jude Khatib, William P Schiemann, Shaveta Vinayak
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is both a clinically and genomically heterogeneous disease, with distinct molecular subtypes; however, most epidemiologic and clinical studies to date have defined it under a "one disease" umbrella. This is an important point, since one therapeutic approach for all TNBCs is unlikely to be successful given the underlying biological diversity. In this review, we explore the role of platinums in the treatment of TNBC, as well as the potential for biomarkers to predict patient response to these agents...
November 6, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080109/optimal-therapies-for-newly-diagnosed-elderly-patients-with-glioblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Ironside, Sunit Das, Arjun Sahgal, Claire Moroney, Todd Mainprize, James R Perry
Newly diagnosed elderly patients (age > 65-70 years) with glioblastoma should be treated with a patient-centred approach by a multi-disciplinary team. Chronological age alone should not be considered as a contraindication to treatment with maximal safe surgical resection. A 3-week course of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy is appropriate in selected elderly patients with favourable Karnofsky performance status (KPS) who cannot tolerate a longer 6-week course of fractionated radiotherapy. The presence or absence of 0(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation can be used to guide clinical decision-making as both prognostic and predictive biomarkers...
October 27, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080006/local-arterial-therapies-in-the-management-of-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Samdeep K Mouli, Laura W Goff
Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present with intermediate to advanced disease, where curative therapies are no longer an option. These patients with intermediate to advanced disease represent a heterogeneous population with regard to tumor burden, liver function, and performance status. While the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system offers guidelines for the management of these patients, strict adherence to these guidelines may limit treatment options for these patients. Several locoregional therapies exist for these patients, including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting embolization (DEE), and radioembolization...
October 27, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079897/the-case-volume-issue-in-head-and-neck-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Salvatore Alfieri, Ester Orlandi, Paolo Bossi
In the past few years, several evidences reported better outcomes, in terms of reduced toxicities and longer survival, for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients when "regionalized," namely if they are managed at "high-volume" cancer referral centers (CRC). The benefit of case volume has been demonstrated in HNC patients primarily treated with surgery and in those receiving curative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Many factors could explain these positive results: organization, facilities, processes of care, quality assurance programs, professional expertise, technology, and patient referral bias...
October 27, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861885/erratum-to-clinical-impact-of-the-2016-update-to-the-who-lymphoma-classification
#11
Ryan C Lynch, Dita Gratzinger, Ranjana H Advani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948490/rectal-cancer-in-asian-vs-western-countries-why-the-variation-in-incidence
#12
REVIEW
Yanhong Deng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. CRC has been thought to be less common in Asia compared to Western countries. However, the incidence rates of CRC in Asia are high and there is an increasing trend in the Asian population. Furthermore, colorectal cancer accounts for the greatest number of all incidences of CRC in Asia. The increasing adoption of a Western lifestyle, particularly in dietary habits, is likely the most important factor contributing to the rapid increase in colon cancer incidence; it is noteworthy that trends for rectal cancer were flat...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921484/reply-to-the-letter-by-s-sorscher-regarding-implications-of-braf-mutations-in-dmmr-colorectal-cancers
#13
REVIEW
R Cohen, T André
ᅟ.
September 18, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921419/sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-in-endometrial-cancer-a-new-standard-of-care
#14
REVIEW
Stephanie A Sullivan, Emma C Rossi
Lymph node status is one of the most important factors in determining prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment in endometrial cancer (EMCA). Unfortunately, full lymphadenectomy bears significant surgical and postoperative risks. The majority of patients with clinical stage I disease will not have metastatic disease; thus, a full lymphadenectomy only increases morbidity in this population of patients. The use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has emerged as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy in EMCA...
September 18, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913767/management-of-atypical-renal-cell-carcinomas
#15
REVIEW
Bobby C Liaw, Reza Mehrazin, Charles Baker, John P Sfakianos, Che-Kai Tsao
Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) encompasses a diverse group of diseases, with research yielding different histologic findings and genetic profiles with each distinct subgroup. Simply mirroring the management techniques of clear cell RCC and borrowing from its growing armamentarium of therapeutic agents, while somewhat productive at first, but will ultimately be limiting. Further investigation into the molecular pathogenesis of disease, similarities and differences between specific subtypes, and mechanisms of resistance to therapeutics will help identify new targets, stimulate development of novel agents, and improve clinical trial offerings for non-clear cell RCC (nccRCC)...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840513/fertility-sparing-strategies-in-patients-affected-by-placental-site-trophoblastic-tumor
#16
REVIEW
Benito Chiofalo, Vittorio Palmara, Antonio Simone Laganà, Onofrio Triolo, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Francesca Conway, Giuseppe Santoro
Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the least common and the most ambiguous gestational trophoblastic tumor. Presentation of PSTT may occur in the course of gestation or from 1 week to 14 years after a normal or an abnormal pregnancy (mole, ectopic pregnancy, abortion). The indicators of aggressive behavior for this tumor are not well established. Due to the rarity of this disease that usually affects women of childbearing potential, we aimed to review the current literature, to identify risk factors and the best conservative therapeutic choices among the cases described...
August 24, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840453/immunotherapy-in-gynecologic-cancers-are-we-there-yet
#17
REVIEW
Janelle B Pakish, Amir A Jazaeri
Immune-targeted therapies have demonstrated durable responses in many tumor types with limited treatment options and poor overall prognosis. This has led to enthusiasm for expanding such therapies to other tumor types including gynecologic malignancies. The use of immunotherapy in gynecologic malignancies is in the early stages and is an active area of ongoing clinical research. Both cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy continue to be extensively studied in gynecologic malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, hold promising potential in specific subsets of endometrial cancer that express microsatellite instability...
August 24, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795312/treatment-of-lung-carcinosarcoma-and-other-rare-histologic-subtypes-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Han Yang, Yongbin Lin, Ying Liang
Lung carcinosarcoma (PCS) and other histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer, such as primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL), pulmonary carcinoid (PC), and primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC), are rare. For their low incidence, the diagnosis and treatment are still controversial. Some patients only need surgery, while others may need chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or targeted therapy. In this paper, we retrospectively reviewed the literature of some rare histological subtype of NSCLC for the recent 20 years, and try to get some conclusions...
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795297/letter-to-the-editor-implications-of-braf-mutations-in-dmmr-colorectal-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Steven Sorscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795288/novel-agents-in-the-treatment-of-thymic-malignancies
#20
REVIEW
Claire Merveilleux du Vignaux, Jean-Michel Maury, Nicolas Girard
The management of thymic tumours is a paradigm of multidisciplinary collaboration. Chemotherapy may be administered part of curative-intent sequential strategy integrating subsequent surgery or radiotherapy, or as an exclusive treatment if local treatment is not achievable. Recurrences of thymic epithelial tumors should be managed according to the same strategy as newly diagnosed tumors. Given the limited activity of cytotoxic agents in the advanced, refractory setting, novel and innovative agents are needed...
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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