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Current Treatment Options in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430276/review-of-immune-therapies-targeting-ovarian-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Cong Ava Fan, Jocelyn Reader, Dana M Roque
The rise of immunotherapy is the greatest advance in oncology to occur over the last several years, but applications in gynecologic malignancies lag behind other tumors. The term "immunotherapy" envelops monoclonal antibodies as receptor mediators, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI), cancer vaccines, and adoptive immunotherapies alone or in combination with other therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize the status of immunotherapy trials in ovarian cancer and to specifically highlight data published in the last 1-2 years...
November 14, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411170/novel-surgical-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-gynecological-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Martina Aida Angeles, Carlos Martínez-Gómez, Federico Migliorelli, Marie Voglimacci, Justine Figurelli, Stephanie Motton, Yann Tanguy Le Gac, Gwénaël Ferron, Alejandra Martinez
The main advancement in the surgical treatment of early cervical cancer has been a de-escalation in the radical surgical approach of early stage disease. Similarly, sentinel lymph node detection with cervical tracer injection can be performed alone in microscopic tumors (stage IA) while additional lymphadenectomy is still performed in macroscopic tumors (IB1 and IIA). Parametrial resection has been progressively reduced in tumors less than 2 cm, and simple procedures, conservative (trachelectomy) or not (simple hysterectomy), are currently being evaluated in several phase III trials...
November 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411162/radiation-related-alterations-of-taste-function-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Tanaya S Deshpande, Pierre Blanchard, Li Wang, Robert L Foote, Xiaodong Zhang, Steven J Frank
Taste sensation is vital for a healthy body as it influences our food intake, acts as a defense mechanism and elicits pleasure. Majority of the head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy suffer from altered taste function and often complain of inability to taste their food, reduced food intake, and weakness. However, there are not many studies conducted to assess this commonly reported side effect. Furthermore, clinical research on radiotherapy-induced taste alterations has proven to be difficult, considering a lack of reliable and validated study tools for assessing objective and subjective outcomes...
November 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402764/minimal-residual-disease-in-indolent-lymphomas-a-critical-assessment
#4
REVIEW
Daniele Grimaldi, Elisa Genuardi, Martina Ferrante, Simone Ferrero, Marco Ladetto
Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHL) are a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by a prolonged natural history and good response to treatment. They also have a tendency to relapse, in some cases with a worse prognosis. One of the main objectives in the newest clinical trials is to identify patients at high risk of relapse. This cannot be accomplished using only clinical prognostic scores. Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) is effective in evaluating long-term disease response, with a strong and independent predictive value that was demonstrated in large cohorts of patients...
November 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397772/the-role-of-pd-1-checkpoint-inhibition-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Christine Garcia, Kari L Ring
Activity of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors has been demonstrated in ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer, with a tolerable side effect profile and the highest response rate seen in mismatch repair-deficient endometrial cancers. Other biomarkers are under active investigation. Tumor testing for mismatch repair deficiency or high microsatellite instability for treatment with pembrolizumab should be considered an option for all women with progressive gynecologic malignancy.
November 5, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397729/management-of-advanced-small-bowel-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Alberto Puccini, Francesca Battaglin, Heinz-Josef Lenz
Small bower cancer is a rare disease, despite its incidence is increasing in the last decade. Both benign and malignant tumors can arise from the small intestine. The main histological cancer types are adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and lymphomas. Due to the rarity of these malignances, all the currently available data are based on small studies or retrospective series, although recent breakthroughs are redirecting our approach to these patients. Immunotherapy for small bowel adenocarcinomas, several multikinase inhibitors in resistant GIST patients, as well as everolimus and 177 Lu-DOTATATE in neuroendocrine tumors are only few of the novel therapeutic options that have changed, or may change in the future, the therapeutic landscape of these rare cancers...
November 5, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367283/window-studies-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-values-and-limits
#7
REVIEW
Dan P Zandberg, Robert L Ferris
In head and neck cancer, we continue to work towards a more personalized approach to treatment of patients, where analysis of a patient's tumor guides targeting of molecular or immunologic pathways. Critically important to this pursuit is a better understanding of the direct biologic effect of a drug or combination on the tumor microenvironment in humans, as well as biomarker discovery. These goals are consistent with the primary purpose of a "window of opportunity" trial and while conduct of these trials requires a careful balance of benefits and potential risks, to date these trials have been both feasible and safe in HNSCC in the curative intent setting...
October 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367269/current-management-and-recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Anthony M Hunter, Ling Zhang, Eric Padron
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is an aggressive myeloid neoplasm in which treatment strategies with the capacity to improve survival are currently lacking. Clinical features are heterogeneous and although the overall prognosis is poor, survival can vary significantly between individuals. This reflects the need for an individualized treatment approach which incorporates accurate risk stratification. Though numerous prognostic scores exist, newer CMML-specific models incorporating molecular data should be favored...
October 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362079/improving-treatment-for-myelodysplastic-syndromes-patients
#9
REVIEW
Julia Montoro, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Abdullah Ali, Azra Raza
Aging is the most potent of carcinogens, especially for the bone marrow stem cell clonal disorders called myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Age-associated changes in the microenvironment or the soil of the bone marrow (BM) as well as in the cell or the seed provide a growth advantage for clonal myeloid cells. Slowly accumulating senescent cells which can no longer divide because they have reached the end of their proliferative life cycle, but which continue to produce metabolic debris, overwhelm the natural autophagy mechanisms resulting in pro-inflammatory changes in the BM soil...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362051/allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-older-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Levin-Epstein, Caspian Oliai, Gary Schiller
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in the elderly is complex and has a poor prognosis, often characterized by higher risk cytogenetic and molecular features compared to that in younger patients. Rates of transplant have been limited by concern related to non-relapse mortality, as older patients have historically been considered medically unfit for the transplantation process. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to provide similar efficacy to myeloablative methods, with decreased non-relapse mortality in the elderly and improved efficacy over non-transplant approaches with cytotoxic chemotherapy alone...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362022/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-myxoid-liposarcomas-histology-matters
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Abaricia, Angela C Hirbe
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies that arise from mesenchymal cells and can occur anywhere in the body. Herein, the focus will be on one subtype of sarcoma that arises from adipocytic tissue, liposarcoma. Specifically, the review will focus on one type of liposarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma. Given the rarity of this tumor, it is imperative that these patients are treated at a sarcoma center, where a multidisciplinary approach incorporates all the modalities available including clinical trials...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361986/anaplastic-glioma-treatment-approaches-in-the-era-of-molecular-diagnostics
#12
REVIEW
Michael W Ruff, Joon Uhm
The treatment paradigm for anaplastic glioma has shifted, owing to new diagnostic criteria and new phase III clinical trial evidence. In 2016, the WHO classification of brain tumors including diffuse gliomas was redefined to include molecular criteria, often supplanting the morphological appearance of the tumor cells. This was necessary as prognosis is more closely associated with molecular diagnosis than with morphology and grade. Recently, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy has been demonstrated in both anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma, as well as lower grade gliomas with the most marked benefit evident in IDH-mutated (astrocytoma) and 1p/19q co-deleted (oligodendroglial) tumors...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361937/big-data-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Carlo Resteghini, Annalisa Trama, Elio Borgonovi, Hykel Hosni, Giovanni Corrao, Ester Orlandi, Giuseppina Calareso, Loris De Cecco, Cesare Piazza, Luca Mainardi, Lisa Licitra
Head and neck cancers can be used as a paradigm for exploring "big data" applications in oncology. Computational strategies derived from big data science hold the promise of shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms driving head and neck cancer pathogenesis, identifying new prognostic and predictive factors, and discovering potential therapeutics against this highly complex disease. Big data strategies integrate robust data input, from radiomics, genomics, and clinical-epidemiological data to deeply describe head and neck cancer characteristics...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361919/selection-of-patients-with-localized-extremity-soft-tissue-sarcoma-for-treatment-with-perioperative-chemotherapy
#14
REVIEW
John Charlson
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogeneous disease, in terms of histologic subtype, body site of presentation, and behavior. Localized soft tissue sarcoma may be cured with complete tumor excision, but overall, outcomes are sub-optimal. Metastatic disease is associated with shortened survival. Systemic therapy has been studied for several decades as adjunctive therapy, but the use of adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial. The heterogeneity of patients included in clinical trials, and of sarcoma in general, has made it difficult to draw conclusions about which patients with localized STS should be treated with chemotherapy...
October 25, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311004/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Lan B Hoang-Minh, Duane A Mitchell
Despite aggressive surgery, radiation, and systemic chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients diagnosed with malignant brain tumors remains extremely poor, and standard treatments carry significant risks for long-term neurocognitive deficits. There is a clear and urgent need for the development of more effective treatments that will add minimal toxicity to standard therapies for invasive brain cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is a treatment modality that holds promise for the delivery of tumor-specific cytotoxicity, with the potential to eliminate brain tumor cells without harming the eloquent brain...
October 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276480/head-and-neck-cancer-improving-patient-reported-outcome-measures-for-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Augusta Silveira, Eurico Monteiro, Teresa Sequeira
Head and neck cancer includes a wide range of tumors that occur in several areas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Most head and neck cancer patients report treatment-related late effects (both physical and psycho-social). High-quality and patient-centered care in head and neck cancer depend on the understanding of the continuum patient's experience-the disease pathway. Healthcare has been improved by involving patients more actively in the disease process, and a few reports support that patient-reported outcomes-built around the patient's experience-given in a timely manner to oncologists are extremely valuable in oncology clinical care...
October 1, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267319/therapeutic-strategies-in-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Herbert H Loong, Sui-Chun Sampson Kwan, Tony Shu-Kam Mok, Yat-Ming Lau
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth receptor (EGFR) mutation has distinct genomic characteristics. Introduction of systemic treatments that specifically targeted actionable EGFR mutations has changed the therapeutic paradigm in this group of patients. Moreover, newer generations of EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) with superior pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties such as dacomitinib and osimertinib, when used in the front-line setting, have shown more favorable treatment outcomes than first-generation EGFR-TKIs...
September 29, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238195/immunotherapy-for-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Kotaro Nagase, Yutaka Narisawa
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, with frequent recurrences, metastasis, and a high mortality rate. For primary or locoregional MCC, a wide local excision followed by radiation therapy is the basic treatment modality for preventing recurrence at the primary site and involved lymph nodes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been commonly used to treat patients with metastatic MCC, but not as an adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected MCC. Although MCC is often chemotherapy-sensitive in the first-line setting, responses are rarely durable and most patients subsequently relapse and develop metastasis...
September 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238167/dermatoscopy-of-neoplastic-skin-lesions-recent-advances-updates-and-revisions
#19
REVIEW
Philipp Weber, Philipp Tschandl, Christoph Sinz, Harald Kittler
Dermatoscopy (dermoscopy) improves the diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous neoplasms in comparison with examination with the unaided eye and should be used routinely for all pigmented and non-pigmented cutaneous neoplasms. It is especially useful for the early stage of melanoma when melanoma-specific criteria are invisible to the unaided eye. Preselection by the unaided eye is therefore not recommended. The increased availability of polarized dermatoscopes, and the extended use of dermatoscopy in non-pigmented lesions led to the discovery of new criteria, and we recommend that lesions should be examined with polarized and non-polarized dermatoscopy...
September 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232648/sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-and-completion-lymph-node-dissection-for-melanoma
#20
REVIEW
Sabran J Masoud, Jennifer A Perone, Norma E Farrow, Paul J Mosca, Douglas S Tyler, Georgia M Beasley
This review critically evaluates recent trials which have challenged the practice of completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for melanoma patients diagnosed with regional metastasis by positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Two trials in the last 2 years, DeCOG-SLT and MSLT-II, found no significant differences in melanoma-specific survival between patients, whether they received immediate CLND or observation after positive SLNB, despite decreases in nodal recurrence achieved by dissection. These trials together disfavor routine CLND in most patients after positive SLNB...
September 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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