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Current Treatment Options in Oncology

Kotaro Nagase, Yutaka Narisawa
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, with frequent recurrences, metastasis, and a high mortality rate. For primary or locoregional MCC, a wide local excision followed by radiation therapy is the basic treatment modality for preventing recurrence at the primary site and involved lymph nodes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been commonly used to treat patients with metastatic MCC, but not as an adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected MCC. Although MCC is often chemotherapy-sensitive in the first-line setting, responses are rarely durable and most patients subsequently relapse and develop metastasis...
September 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Philipp Weber, Philipp Tschandl, Christoph Sinz, Harald Kittler
Dermatoscopy (dermoscopy) improves the diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous neoplasms in comparison with examination with the unaided eye and should be used routinely for all pigmented and non-pigmented cutaneous neoplasms. It is especially useful for the early stage of melanoma when melanoma-specific criteria are invisible to the unaided eye. Preselection by the unaided eye is therefore not recommended. The increased availability of polarized dermatoscopes, and the extended use of dermatoscopy in non-pigmented lesions led to the discovery of new criteria, and we recommend that lesions should be examined with polarized and non-polarized dermatoscopy...
September 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Sabran J Masoud, Jennifer A Perone, Norma E Farrow, Paul J Mosca, Douglas S Tyler, Georgia M Beasley
This review critically evaluates recent trials which have challenged the practice of completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for melanoma patients diagnosed with regional metastasis by positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Two trials in the last 2 years, DeCOG-SLT and MSLT-II, found no significant differences in melanoma-specific survival between patients, whether they received immediate CLND or observation after positive SLNB, despite decreases in nodal recurrence achieved by dissection. These trials together disfavor routine CLND in most patients after positive SLNB...
September 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Rachel N Grisham, Gopa Iyer
Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) is a rare subtype of ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately 10% of cases of serous ovarian cancer. Patients typically present at a younger age have a protracted clinical course with survival for those with recurrent disease nearing 10 years, and have a high prevalence of somatic (tumor-specific) mutations affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Initial treatment of patients with stage IC-IV disease is similar to that of high-grade serous ovarian cancer with surgery and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy...
September 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Roopesh Kansara
Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is an undesirable event in the course of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a median survival of approximately 6 months following CNS relapse. CNS prophylaxis for the prevention of CNS recurrence, in addition to the standard R-CHOP chemotherapy, is thus preferable. For an overall relapse risk of 2-5%, administration of CNS-directed therapies for all patients with DLBCL is unnecessary and prophylaxis should be targeted for the high-risk patients. CNS-International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) score has enabled risk stratification with risk ranging < 1% (low-risk group) compared to > 10% (high-risk group)...
September 10, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Shirish M Gadgeel
Approximately 15% of the over 220,000 new lung cancers diagnosed each year in the USA are small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The standard of care for SCLC patients has not changed for many years. Therefore, there remains a need to evaluate novel drugs for the management of SCLC patients. In recent years, there is a greater understanding of the molecular alterations that occur in SCLC. There is an expectation that targeting these molecular alterations could provide clinical benefit. Targeting angiogenesis by inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has been evaluated in SCLC patients and has shown only limited clinical benefit...
September 10, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Supriya Jain, Karyn A Goodman
Assessing the quality of health care delivered is a priority across medical specialties, but it is particularly critical for radiation oncology, a field with rapid introduction of new technologies and treatment paradigms. Deviation from acceptable standards can lead to delivery of inferior therapies and medical errors that can directly compromise patient clinical outcome, thus leading to disparities in quality of care. Professional oncologic specialty societies often take ownership of standardizing best practices by issuing evidence-based disease-specific consensus guidelines...
September 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Abhijeet Kumar, Muhammad Asad Fraz, Muhammad Usman, Saad Ullah Malik, Awais Ijaz, Ceren Durer, Seren Durer, Muhammad Junaid Tariq, Ali Younas Khan, Anum Qureshi, Warda Faridi, Aboo Nasar, Faiz Anwer
R-CHOP has been the standard of care for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), curing approximately 60% of patients for more than 2 decades. However, the optimal treatment of patients who are too frail to tolerate this regimen and/or are not candidates for anthracycline therapy continues to be debated. MInT and GELA trials established addition of rituximab to CHOP in DLBCL but excluded patients older than 80 years. Multiple regimens have been tried with varying success in the very elderly, including R-mini-CHOP, R-mini CEOP, R-split CHOP, pre-phase strategies, and R-GCVP...
September 1, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Nikolaos Vassos, Pompiliu Piso
Peritoneal metastases (PM) are common in advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients representing the second most common metastatic site of CRC. In the past, this clinical situation was treated with palliative intent. The introduction of new chemotherapeutic and targeted biologic agents has improved the prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the inclusion of treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment was evolving for the management of these patients...
September 1, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Satya Das, Jordan Berlin, Dana Cardin
Managing patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDA) is a challenging proposition for any treating oncologist. Although the potency of first-line therapies has improved with the approvals of FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, many patients are unable to derive significant benefit from later lines of therapy upon progression. Enrollment on clinical trials remains among the best options for patients with mPDA in all lines of therapy. At our institution, we routinely check for microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and perform next-generation sequencing (NGS) at the time of diagnosis in all good performance status mPDA patients...
August 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Naohito Hatta
Most patients with extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) show a good prognosis; however, some patients develop fatal metastases. Early detection is important for improving prognosis, due to the difficulties associated with the treatment of distant EMPD metastases. Several studies have emphasized the importance of the invasion level of the primary lesion for predicting the presence of metastasis, and deeper invasion or increased thickness is correlated with poorer prognosis. Vascular tumor invasion of the primary lesion can also predict the risk of metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Beatriz Wills, Julie R Brahmer, Jarushka Naidoo
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the management of advanced NSCLC. With the intention of generating an anti-tumor immune response, ICIs can also lead to inflammatory side effects involving a wide variety of organs in the body, termed immune-related adverse events. Although no prospective clinical trial exists to guide recommendations for optimal and more specific immunosuppressive treatments rather than corticosteroids, further studies may lead to a more mechanistic-based approach towards these toxicities in the future...
August 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Brian G Till
Maintenance therapy has evolved as a strategy to prolong remissions in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), typically following a more intensive therapy, such as induction therapy or stem cell transplantation. In randomized, controlled clinical trials, this approach has successfully prolonged overall survival in some MCL clinical settings, including after autologous stem cell transplantation and after R-CHOP induction, but has generally been unsuccessful in DLBCL...
July 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Nhu-Tram A Nguyen, Jolie Ringash
A larger proportion of patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) are now surviving, constituting up to 3% of all cancer survivors. This is likely due in part to the increase in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers affecting younger individuals and with a better prognosis and to the improved outcomes of other HNCs as well over the last two decades. Most studies have previously been focusing on improving risk stratification, treatment and disease-related outcomes. Over the last decade, there has been an evolving interest in the field of survivorship care...
July 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fujisawa
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin tumors and its incidence has been increasing worldwide in recent decades. Among the four subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) shows the highest incidence in Asian countries, whereas ALM comprises only 1% of all melanomas in white populations. Early clinical diagnosis of ALM is essential, but early ALM lesions are often difficult to diagnose because the pigmentation of the lesions sometimes follows the skin marking of the palms and soles, resulting in an asymmetrical appearance and an irregular border in both ALM and benign melanocytic nevus...
June 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Jacqueline V Aredo, Sukhmani K Padda
The discovery of genomic alterations that drive the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed how we treat metastatic disease. However, the promise of precision medicine remains elusive for the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC, KRAS. This is perhaps due to the substantial heterogeneity within the broader genomic context of KRAS-mutant NSCLC. At this time, approaches for treating metastatic KRAS-mutant NSCLC mirror those for treating NSCLC that lacks a known driver mutation, including standard chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic approaches...
June 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Lori A Ramkissoon, Nicholas Britt, Alexander Guevara, Emily Whitt, Eric Severson, Pratheesh Sathyan, Laurie Gay, Julia Elvin, Jeffrey S Ross, Charlotte Brown, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan Mott, David Kram, Roy Strowd, Glenn J Lesser, Shakti H Ramkissoon
In recent years, large-scale genomic studies have expanded our knowledge regarding genomic drivers in tumors of the central nervous system. While histopathologic analysis of brain tumors remains the primary method for tumor classification, the clinical utility of molecular and genomic testing to support and/or complement tumor classification continues to expand. This approach enhances diagnostic accuracy and provides clinicians with objective data to facilitate discussions regarding prognosis and treatment decisions, including selection of clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Thomas A Ollila, Adam J Olszewski
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arises from extranodal organs in about 30% of cases. Its prognosis and risk of recurrence in the central nervous system (CNS) vary according to the primary site of origin. Recent studies begin to clarify these differences using molecular classification. Testicular, breast, and uterine DLBCL (as well as possibly primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg-type) share a high prevalence of the non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB) phenotype and the MYD88/CD79B-mutated (MCD) genotype. These biologic features, which resemble primary CNS lymphoma, may underlie their stage-independent propensity for CNS involvement...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Sonam Puri, Michael Shafique, Jhanelle E Gray
Surgical resection ± chemotherapy ± radiation or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are established treatment modalities for resectable stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and concurrent chemotherapy with radiation is the therapy of choice for unresectable locally advanced disease. Despite treatment with curative intent, most patients subsequently relapse and develop distant disease. Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advancement in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. Therapy against programed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) is associated with a significant improvement in overall survival in stage IV disease, and these results have led to a great interest in evaluating these agents in earlier-stage NSCLC...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
K Ina Ly, Elizabeth R Gerstner
T1-weighted post-contrast and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the gold standard for diagnosis and response assessment in neuro-oncologic patients but are limited in their ability to accurately reflect tumor biology and metabolism, particularly over the course of a patient's treatment. Advanced MR imaging methods are sensitized to different biophysical processes in tissue, including blood perfusion, tumor metabolism, and chemical composition of tissue, and provide more specific information on tissue physiology than standard MRI...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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