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Current Urology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324275/the-impact-of-blue-light-cystoscopy-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Eugene J Pietzak
Photodynamic diagnostic technique with blue light cystoscopy (BLC) takes advantage of the preferential uptake and accumulation of protoporphyrins in neoplastic tissue which emit a red fluorescence when illuminated with blue light (360-450 nm wavelengths). This allows enhanced visualization of small papillary tumors and flat carcinoma in situ lesions that might have been missed on white light cystoscopy (WLC). There is compelling evidence that the ability of BLC to detect these additional tumors translates into improved recurrence rates compared to WLC...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315171/the-dilemma-of-adolescent-varicoceles-do-they-really-have-to-be-repaired
#2
REVIEW
Bryan S Sack, Mattias Schäfer, Michael P Kurtz
The primary indication for varicocele repair in adults, that of failed paternity, must be substituted in the adolescent population with surrogate parameters of testicular size differential and semen analysis. Making recommendations based on these two parameters is incredibly difficult because studies often have contradictory findings, different patient populations, and lack of long-term follow up of the key endpoint, paternity. Therefore, it is not a surprise that recommendations for adolescent varicocele repair are general (with some exceptions) and necessarily so because of limitations in quality of evidence...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303512/robot-assisted-simple-prostatectomy-expanding-on-an-established-operative-approach
#3
REVIEW
Ross Cockrell, David I Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The leading cause of voiding dysfunction in older men is benign prostatic obstruction. In the setting of a grossly enlarged prostate (>80cm(3)), an open simple prostatectomy has been the gold standard for surgical treatment. Here, we will discuss the minimally invasive robot-assisted approach and compare it to the classic open approach and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature on robot-assisted simple prostatectomy, in concurrence with our institutional experience, has shown an overall lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and decreased indwelling catheter time, with equivalent functional outcomes compared to open simple prostatectomy...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299630/the-role-of-interventional-radiology-techniques-in-the-management-of-renal-angiomyolipomas
#4
REVIEW
Ryan M Kiefer, S William Stavropoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although benign, renal angiomyolipoma (AML) may lead to serious complications without appropriate management. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of and evidence for interventional radiology techniques in the management of patients with AML. RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with renal masses and non-diagnostic imaging studies, image-guided percutaneous biopsy is found to be highly accurate and useful in directing patient management...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285380/urological-outcomes-of-myelomeningocele-and-lipomeningocele
#5
REVIEW
Yvonne Y Chan, Samantha K Sandlin, Eric A Kurzrock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spina bifida is caused by incomplete neural tube closure during the first trimester. This condition may lead to bowel and bladder dysfunction as well as truncal weakness and motor anomalies. Presentations vary between myelomeningoceles and lipomeningoceles and may result in different outcomes. This review seeks to explore our current understanding of the variations in outcomes between individuals with myelomeningocele and lipomeningocele. RECENT FINDINGS: Prenatal intervention has become a standard of care for prenatal diagnoses of myelomeningocele and has been shown to reduce shunt placement and improve motor skills...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283915/management-of-voiding-dysfunction-after-female-neobladder-creation
#6
REVIEW
Nathan Y Hoy, Joshua A Cohn, Casey G Kowalik, Melissa R Kaufman, W Stuart Reynolds, Roger R Dmochowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional complications after orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion (ONB), including urinary incontinence and urinary retention, present unique challenges. The purpose of this review is to outline contemporary treatment options for voiding dysfunction after ONB in females. RECENT FINDINGS: Meticulous surgical technique in the form of urethral nerve-sparing has been shown to play an important role in maintaining continence, as has sparing the uterus when possible...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283914/transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumors-improving-quality-through-new-techniques-and-technologies
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Zainfeld, Siamak Daneshmand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystoscopy with transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) is essential in the diagnosis of bladder cancer as well as the management of non-muscle-invasive disease yet remains a comparatively imprecise procedure secondary to variability among patients, tumors, and surgeons alike. We will review evolving technologies and techniques used to enhance safety and efficacy of TURBT performance and education in the management of bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Though a generally safe procedure, efficacy of TURBT in terms of complete tumor excision, appropriate pathologic diagnosis, and absence of complications can vary significantly with direct impact on patient outcomes...
May 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271355/to-dust-or-not-to-dust-a-systematic-review-of-ureteroscopic-laser-lithotripsy-techniques
#8
REVIEW
Javier E Santiago, Adam B Hollander, Samit D Soni, Richard E Link, Wesley A Mayer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses factors affecting outcomes during ureteroscopy (URS) with laser lithotripsy (LL), explores specific clinical challenges to the efficacy of URS LL, and reviews the available literature comparing the dusting and basketing approaches to URS LL. RECENT FINDINGS: Data show high stone-free rates with URS LL in all locations of the urinary tract and with all stone types and sizes. Recent data comparing LL with dusting versus basketing suggest higher rates of residual fragments with dusting but less utilization of ureteral access sheaths and potentially shorter operative times...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251485/endoscopic-treatment-of-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Daniel P Verges, Costas D Lallas, Scott G Hubosky, Demetrius H Bagley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to make the reader be aware of recent trends regarding the endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) via review of the urologic literature over the past 5 years. Given the rare incidence of this disease, and the lack of level 1 evidence, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were also evaluated. Studies of importance are also considered and outlined in the annotated reference section. RECENT FINDINGS: The PubMed database was queried using the following medical subject headings (MeSH terms): "carcinoma, transitional cell," "ureter," "ureteral neoplasms," "kidney pelvis," "endoscopy," "laser therapy," "ureteroscopy," "urologic surgical procedures," and "ureteroscopes...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251484/update-on-renal-mass-biopsy
#10
REVIEW
Miki Haifler, Alexander Kutikov
Renal masses are diagnosed with an increasing frequency. However, a significant proportion of these masses are benign, and the majority of malignant tumors are biologically indolent. Furthermore, renal tumors are often harbored by the elderly and comorbid patients. As such, matching of renal tumor biology to appropriate treatment intensity is an urgent clinical need. Renal mass biopsy is currently a very useful clinical tool that can assist with critical clinical decision-making in patients with renal mass...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247328/prone-versus-supine-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-what-is-your-position
#11
REVIEW
Roshan M Patel, Zhamshid Okhunov, Ralph V Clayman, Jaime Landman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the gold standard surgical procedure for treating large, complex renal stones. Due to its challenging nature, PCNL has undergone many modifications in surgical technique, instruments, and also in patient positioning. Since the first inception of PCNL, prone position has been traditionally used. However, alternative positions have been proposed and assessed over the years. This is a comprehensive review on the latest developments related to positioning in the practice of PCNL...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247327/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Andrew C Lawler, Eric M Ghiraldi, Carmen Tong, Justin I Friedlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since its introduction, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has undergone a variety of changes; however, it remains one of the most utilized treatment modalities for urolithiasis. The goal of this review is to provide the practicing urologist an update on contemporary trends, new technologies, and related controversies in utilizing ESWL for stone treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: ESWL use has come under scrutiny with a shift in focus to cost-effectiveness and healthcare outcomes...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247326/reconstructive-management-options-of-delayed-complications-following-bladder-outlet-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Nora Baker, Carmen Tong, Jay Simhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Technological advancements in urologic endoscopy within the last decades have improved outcomes following bladder outlet reduction surgery while minimizing risks of short- and intermediate-term complications. This review aims to examine late complications of endoscopic reduction of the prostate and the various treatment options available. RECENT FINDINGS: Urinary incontinence, ejaculatory dysfunction, urethral strictures, bladder neck contractures, and fistula formations are the most common delayed complications following bladder outlet reduction surgery...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247325/medical-expulsive-therapy-worthwhile-or-wishful-thinking
#14
REVIEW
Tad Kroczak, Kenneth T Pace, Jason Y Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We set out to provide an overview of the most recent evidence for medical expulsive therapy (MET). Conflicting level 1 evidence for and against the use of MET has been published. RECENT FINDINGS: The largest double-blind randomized control trial (1110 patients) comparing placebo, tamsulosin, and nifedipine found no benefit for MET in preventing the need for secondary intervention. A recent meta-analysis of 55 randomized trials using alpha-blockers suggests that no benefit is seen with smaller ureteric calculi, but patients with larger ureteric calculi experience shorter times to stone passage, fewer episodes of pain, require less surgical intervention, and fewer hospital admissions...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247324/robotic-ureteral-reimplant-the-current-role
#15
REVIEW
Rajeev Chaudhry, Heidi A Stephany
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to review the current role of robotic ureteral reimplant in pediatric patients, specifically in regard to indications, outcomes, and complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Robotic ureteral reimplant has become an increasingly popular alternative to open ureteral reimplant with overall published success rates between 77-100%. In recent years, larger, multi-institutional studies have been conducted revealing lower success rates and higher complications than previously reported, but the procedure still remains safe and effective in the hands of skilled surgeons...
April 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233231/the-role-of-video-urodynamics-in-the-management-of-the-valve-bladder
#16
REVIEW
Charles W Concodora, Pramod P Reddy, Brian A VanderBrink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to bring the reader up-to-date on the current use of video urodynamics (VUDS) in the evaluation and management of the valve bladder. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings show that multiple studies on valve bladder have utilized VUDS in some aspect of their research. VUDS is increasingly used in instances when vesicoureteral reflux, changing or inconsistent urodynamic studies, and bladder neck obstruction are a component of valve bladder...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233230/use-of-ultrasound-in-pediatric-renal-stone-diagnosis-and-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey C Morrison, Trudy Kawal, Jason P Van Batavia, Arun K Srinivasan
Pediatric urolithiasis is on the rise globally and incidence rates have risen by 6-10% annually over the past couple of decades. Given the increasing incidence, high likelihood of recurrence, and long life expectancy of children, the use of ionizing radiation in the diagnosis, management, and follow up of pediatric urolithiasis has been scrutinized recently and many institutions and organizations have emphasized the use of non-ionizing imaging modality such as ultrasound. This review examines the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric urolithiasis...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233229/management-of-pediatric-grade-iv-renal-trauma
#18
REVIEW
Gregory P Murphy, Thomas W Gaither, Mohannad A Awad, E Charles Osterberg, Nima Baradaran, Hillary L Copp, Benjamin N Breyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review the current literature regarding the management of grade IV renal injuries in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children are at increased risk for renal trauma compared to adults due to differences in anatomy. Newer grading systems have been proposed and are reviewed. Observation of most grade IV renal injuries is safe. Operative intervention is necessary for the unstable patient to control life-threatening bleeding with either angioembolization or open exploration...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233228/mr-us-fusion-technology-what-makes-it-tick
#19
REVIEW
Srinivas Vourganti, Norman Starkweather, Andrij Wojtowycz
MR/US fusion biopsy has emerged as a significant refinement of traditional prostate cancer diagnostic techniques. Utilizing not only quantitative imaging suspicion information from mpMRI but also the spatial accuracy and three-dimensional localization allows such strategies to specifically sample areas of concern with the gland. As such, diagnostic certainty is markedly improved. In this manuscript, we aim to highlight the multidisciplinary approach (amongst urologists, radiologists, pathologists, imaging technologists, nursing staff, and patients) which is required to launch and maintain a successful prostate imaging program...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233227/upper-pole-heminephrectomy-versus-lower-pole-ureteroureterostomy-for-ectopic-upper-pole-ureters
#20
REVIEW
Jason E Michaud, Ardavan Akhavan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ureteral duplication and ectopic upper pole ureters are commonly associated with renal pathology, including vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction, infection, and renal function loss. There remains no consensus on the most appropriate management of these complex patients. In this review, we sought to compare existing data on upper pole heminephrectomy with ipsilateral ureteroureterostomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Application of magnetic resonance imaging and minimally invasive techniques have led to changes in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic upper pole ureters...
March 2017: Current Urology Reports
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