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Current Urology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#1
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774489/the-role-of-lifestyle-in-male-infertility-diet-physical-activity-and-body-habitus
#2
REVIEW
Russell P Hayden, Ryan Flannigan, Peter N Schlegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing attention to primary and secondary prevention of male infertility through modifiable lifestyle factors has gained traction amongst both patients and infertility specialists. In this review, the available evidence of modifiable lifestyle choices, specifically diet, physical activity, and body habitus, are evaluated. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining diet, exercise/physical activity, and body habitus are characterized by conflicting conclusions, difficult confounders, and imperfect end points to judge male reproductive potential...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774482/the-effect-of-subclinical-varicocele-on-pregnancy-rates-and-semen-parameters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Taylor P Kohn, Samuel J Ohlander, Jake S Jacob, Tina M Griffin, Larry I Lipshultz, Alexander W Pastuszak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current guidelines recommend against surgical repair of subclinical varicoceles (SCVs) for infertility; several studies demonstrate mixed fertility results after SCV correction. To determine whether surgical correction of SCV improves semen parameters and/or reproductive outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seven biomedical literature databases were searched through January 2018 for studies that assessed reproductive outcomes and/or change in semen parameters in men with corrected SCV compared to either (1) uncorrected SCV or (2) corrected clinical varicocele...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774481/predicting-and-modifying-risk-for-development-of-renal-failure-in-boys-with-posterior-urethral-valves
#4
REVIEW
Christopher J Long, Diana K Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to bring the reader up to date on the current risk factors for the development of renal deterioration in the boys with posterior urethral valves (PUV) and approaches to modify this risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Renal bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is routinely performed in boys with PUV and recent advancements allow imaging processing that can more accurately quantify renal parenchyma and correlate this with risk for renal loss...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774447/infertility-in-the-aging-male
#5
REVIEW
Daniel J Mazur, Larry I Lipshultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many countries, the average age of paternity is rising. The negative effect of older age on fertility in women is well documented; however, less is known about the impact of paternal age on fecundity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how paternal age affects semen parameters, reproductive success, and offspring health. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary evidence confirms that aged men have worse semen parameters, including overall negative changes in sperm genetics...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774446/contemporary-review-of-peyronie-s-disease-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Edward Capoccia, Laurence A Levine
PURPOSE: To analyze the literature on the current treatment options for Peyronie's disease (PD). RECENT FINDINGS: Intracavernosal injection therapy using collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) has been widely adopted since its FDA approval in 2013. Based on the current evidence, it appears to be moderately efficacious for men with mild curvatures. Although a recent study has shown similar outcomes using a modified protocol requiring fewer injections, CCH remains an expensive medication...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774444/male-fertility-preservation
#7
REVIEW
J Abram McBride, Larry I Lipshultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improvements in cancer treatment outcomes and an increase in cancer survivorship, understanding the importance of fertility preservation options prior to undergoing cancer treatment is essential. Therefore, we review herein the effect of cancer and its treatment on male fertility, the rationale for sperm cryopreservation, options for sperm retrieval, ART outcomes, and experimental options. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data update fertility outcomes with newer cancer therapies and provide longitudinal insight into survivor paternity with and without fertility preservation...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774439/surgical-education-simulation-and-simulators-updating-the-concept-of-validity
#8
REVIEW
Mitchell Goldenberg, Jason Y Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is rooted in the use of iterative assessments. We must ensure that the assessments used in CBME are valid, to make acceptable and accurate decisions regarding the competency of a trainee. Until recently, much of the educational and assessment literature in urology have used a now-outdated method of determining validity, based on theory and recommendations from over 50 years ago. We describe a contemporary approach to gathering construct validity evidence for the assessment of urologic trainees, for use in both clinical and simulation environments...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774438/advances-in-lasers-for-the-treatment-of-stones-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Peter Kronenberg, Bhaskar Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laser lithotripsy is increasingly used worldwide and is a continuously evolving field with new and extensive research being published every year. RECENT FINDINGS: Variable pulse length Ho:YAG lithotripters allow new lithotripsy parameters to be manipulated, and there is an effort to integrate new technologies into lithotripters. Pulsed thulium lasers seem to be a viable alternative to holmium lasers. The performance of similar laser fibers varies from manufacturer to manufacturer...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774436/management-of-erectile-dysfunction-and-infertility-in-the-male-spinal-cord-injury-patient
#10
REVIEW
Michael Fenstermaker, James M Dupree, Miriam Hadj-Moussa, Dana A Ohl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Men with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly suffer from erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction. The literature regarding the causes and treatment of these two important problems was reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the erectile dysfunction treatments applied to able bodied individuals are also useful in the SCI population, although there are differences in the goals and results of treatment. Ejaculatory dysfunction can be treated with either penile vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation with high success rates...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774434/patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-urethral-reconstruction
#11
REVIEW
Nima Baradaran, Lindsay A Hampson, Todd C Edwards, Bryan B Voelzke, Benjamin N Breyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of anterior urethral stricture disease (USD) has shifted from endoscopic approaches to urethroplasty with significantly higher success rates among reconstructive urologists. This academic stance has led to a critical evaluation of "success" and developing disease-specific instruments to assess surgical outcomes focusing on patients' satisfaction rather than the historical goal of avoiding secondary procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Many disease non-specific and/or non-validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been utilized to evaluate the voiding symptoms and sexual of function of patients after urethroplasty in the literature...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774423/diagnosis-and-management-of-gynecomastia-for-urologists
#12
REVIEW
Lee Baumgarten, Ali A Dabaja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our aim is to review the steps of diagnosis and management of gynecomastia with a special focus on treatment of gynecomastia associated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies investigating tamoxifen and radiation therapy for both therapy and prophylaxis of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia are reviewed. Gynecomastia is a common clinical problem, affecting between one and two thirds of middle-aged men...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700686/follow-up-of-temporary-implantable-nitinol-device-tind-implantation-for-the-treatment-of-bph-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Riccardo Bertolo, Cristian Fiori, Daniele Amparore, Francesco Porpiglia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present systematic review is to offer a narrative synthesis of the available literature regarding the role of the temporary implantable nitinol device (TIND) (Medi-Tate®; Medi-Tate Ltd., Or Akiva, Israel) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), specifically focusing on the follow-up data. RECENT FINDINGS: Current available evidences are limited in this topic. Sample size of patients available for analysis is small...
April 26, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667080/surgical-management-of-fossa-navicularis-and-distal-urethral-strictures
#14
REVIEW
Michael Daneshvar, Michael Hughes, Dmitriy Nikolavsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urethral reconstruction has evolved in the last several decades with the introduction of various techniques including fasciocutaneous skin flaps and buccal mucosal grafts. However, distal urethral strictures have continued to be a reconstructive challenge due to tendency for adverse cosmetic outcomes, risks of glans dehiscence or fistula formation, and stricture recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: The surgical options for treatment of distal urethral strictures have changed throughout the years; however, there is no one universally accepted technique for their treatment...
April 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667065/single-site-laparoscopy-and-robotic-surgery-in-pediatric-urology
#15
REVIEW
Diana K Bowen, Jason P Van Batavia, Arun K Srinivasan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize research that has evaluated the role of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) and robotic surgery in pediatric urology, highlighting new and/or controversial ideas. RECENT FINDINGS: The newest research developments over the last several years are studies that address generalizability of these techniques, ideal patient factors, extrapolation to more complex surgeries, and comparative studies to more traditional techniques to define the associated costs and benefits, as well as patient-centered outcomes...
April 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663088/updates-in-the-metabolic-management-of-calcium-stones
#16
REVIEW
Kristina L Penniston, Stephen Y Nakada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urinary risk factors, such as hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria, either in combination or alone, are associated with calcium stones. Dietary habits as well as underlying medical conditions can influence urinary risk factors. Evaluation of the conglomerate of patients' stone risks provides evidence for individualized medical management, an effective and patient-supported approach to prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Many patients with stones desire prevention to avoid repeated surgical interventions...
April 16, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654564/scoping-review-and-meta-analysis-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-radiation-induced-hemorrhagic-cystitis
#17
REVIEW
James Cardinal, Austen Slade, Mary McFarland, Sorena Keihani, James N Hotaling, Jeremy B Myers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review and summarize existing literature assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for the treatment of radiation-induced urologic injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Though 5 of the included 13 studies were published in the last 2-3 years, the only randomized controlled study was performed in 2012. Recent studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of HBOT as well as identified risk factors for success vs. failure of HBOT for hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC)...
April 13, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654429/minimally-invasive-techniques-for-bladder-reconstruction
#18
REVIEW
Tony Nimeh, Sean Elliott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bladder reconstruction surgery is a key component of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) management. Traditionally, given the complexity and unpredictable operative challenges of bladder reconstruction in this patient population, little consideration has been given to performing lower urinary tract reconstruction in a minimally invasive approach. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe the innovative minimally invasive surgical techniques in four major categories of reconstructive procedures for nLUTD: (A) ileal bladder augmentation, the use of a low morbidity open Pfannenstiel incision and the use of laparoscopy and robotics; (B) creation of a catheterizable channel, the use of laparoscopy and robotics for Mitrofanoff procedures; (C) creation of both a bladder augmentation and catheterizable channel, the use of a hand-assisted approach for the creation of a continent cutaneous ileocystoplasty; and (D) bladder neck artificial urinary sphincter implantation: the use of a robotics...
April 13, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654383/alternative-reservoir-and-balloon-placement-in-complex-patients-undergoing-urologic-prostheses
#19
REVIEW
Travis J Pagliara, Daniel W Smith, Boyd R Viers, Allen F Morey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate contemporary rationale and techniques for ectopic reservoir/balloon placement in complex urologic prosthetics patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that ectopic reservoir placement is safe and durable when compared to traditional space of Retzius placement. Complex patients exist on a spectrum from those with a previously violated retropubic space, to those with bilaterally obscured external inguinal rings and/or multiple prior prosthetic reservoirs...
April 13, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644478/reconstruction-of-membranous-urethral-strictures
#20
REVIEW
Javier C Angulo, Reynaldo G Gómez, Dmitriy Nikolavsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the proximity of the rhabdosphincter and cavernous nerves to the membranous urethra, reconstruction of membranous urethral stricture implies a risk of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. To avoid these complications, endoscopic management of membranous urethral strictures is traditionally favored, and bulboprostatic anastomosis is reserved as the main classical approach for open reconstruction of recalcitrant membranous urethral stricture. The preference for the anastomotic urethroplasty among reconstructive urologists is likely influenced by the familiarity and experience with trauma-related injuries...
April 11, 2018: Current Urology Reports
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