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Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212893/evolutionary-relevance-and-experience-contribute-to-face-discrimination-in-infant-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#1
Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Annika Paukner
In human children and adults, familiar face types-typically own-age and own-species faces-are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092030/early-verb-learning-how-do-children-learn-how-to-compare-events
#2
Jane B Childers, Rebecca Parrish, Christina V Olson, Clare Burch, Gavin Fung, Kevin McIntyre
An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions, however comparing events is difficult. Two studies test whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ('progressive alignment') while learning new verbs, and whether this influence changes with age. In Study 1, 2 ½- and 3 ½-year-old children participated in an interactive task. Children who saw a pair of similar events and then varied events were able to extend verbs at test, differing from a control group; children who saw two pairs of varied events did not differ from the control group...
2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030791/an-attentional-goldilocks-effect-an-optimal-amount-of-social-interactivity-promotes-word-learning-from-video
#3
Kate Nussenbaum, Dima Amso
Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children's media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children's visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old (MAge = 4;5 years, SD = 9 months) children completed a task in which they viewed videos of an actress teaching them the Swahili label for an on-screen image...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019647/the-shape-of-things-the-origin-of-young-children-s-knowledge-of-the-names-and-properties-of-geometric-forms
#4
Brian N Verdine, Kelsey R Lucca, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Nora S Newcombe
How do toddlers learn the names of geometric forms? Past work suggests that preschoolers have fragmentary knowledge and that defining properties are not understood until well into elementary school. The current study investigates when children first begin to understand shape names and how they apply those labels to unusual instances. We tested 25- and 30-month-old children's (N = 30 each) understanding of names for canonical shapes (commonly-encountered instances, e.g., equilateral triangles), non-canonical shapes (more irregular instances, e...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924946/action-interrupted-processing-of-movement-and-breakpoints-in-toddlers-and-adults
#5
Margaret Friend, Amy E Pace
From early in development, segmenting events unfolding in the world in meaningful ways renders input more manageable and facilitates interpretation and prediction. Yet, little is known about how children process action structure in events comprised of multiple coarse-grained actions. More importantly, little is known about the time-course of action processing in young children or about the specific features that recruit attention. This is particularly true when we consider action that pauses unexpectedly-as actions sometimes do-violating the expectation of a continuous unfolding of motion...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26430391/maternal-behavior-modifications-during-pretense-and-their-long-term-effects-on-toddlers-understanding-of-pretense
#6
Naoko Nakamichi
Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their toddlers understand maternal pretense. Experiment 1 investigated whether mothers would change their behaviors during pretense with a sample of 31 Japanese mother-infant pairs...
August 8, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25969673/relations-among-early-object-recognition-skills-objects-and-letters
#7
Elaine Augustine, Susan S Jones, Linda B Smith, Erica Longfield
Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spatial relations is critical in both domains...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074736/conflict-inhibitory-control-facilitates-pretense-quality-in-young-preschoolers
#8
Jennifer Van Reet
The present research explores the role of inhibitory control in young preschoolers' pretense ability using an ego depletion paradigm. In Experiment 1 (N = 56), children's pretense ability was assessed either before or after participating in conflict inhibitory control or control tasks, and in Experiment 2 (N = 36), pretense ability was measured after children engaged in either conflict or delay inhibitory control tasks. In both experiments, pretense scores were significantly higher only after engaging in conflict inhibitory control tasks...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257584/contributions-of-head-mounted-cameras-to-studying-the-visual-environments-of-infants-and-young-children
#9
Linda Smith, Chen Yu, Hanako Yoshida, Caitlin M Fausey
Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants' and young children's visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child's point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the match between what these cameras measure and the research question. Head cameras record the scene in front of faces and thus answer questions about those head-centered scenes...
2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26120283/experimentally-induced-increases-in-early-gesture-lead-to-increases-in-spoken-vocabulary
#10
Eve Sauer LeBarton, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Stephen Raudenbush
Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects...
2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663829/how-much-are-harry-potter-s-glasses-worth-children-s-monetary-evaluation-of-authentic-objects
#11
Susan A Gelman, Brandy N Frazier, Nicholaus S Noles, Erika M Manczak, Sarah M Stilwell
Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events - authentic objects. We examined children's monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter's glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your grandfather's baseball glove), and merely old items (e.g., an old chair). Children ages 4-12 years and adults (N= 151) were asked how much people would pay for authentic and control objects...
January 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663828/the-resilience-of-structure-built-around-the-predicate-homesign-gesture-systems-in-turkish-and-american-deaf-children
#12
Susan Goldin-Meadow, Savithry Namboodiripad, Carolyn Mylander, Aslı Özyürek, Burcu Sancar
Deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from accessing spoken language and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language develop gesture systems, called homesigns, that have many of the properties of natural language-the so-called resilient properties of language. We explored the resilience of structure built around the predicate-in particular, how manner and path are mapped onto the verb-in homesign systems developed by deaf children in Turkey and the United States. We also asked whether the Turkish homesigners exhibit sentence-level structures previously identified as resilient in American and Chinese homesigners...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663827/experience-and-distribution-of-attention-pet-exposure-and-infants-scanning-of-animal-images
#13
Karinna B Hurley, Lisa M Oakes
Although infants' cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants' visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants' eye-movements as they visually investigated a series of images. Infants with pet experience (N = 27) directed a greater proportion of their looking at the most informative region of animal stimuli-the head-than did infants without such experience (N = 21); the two groups of infants did not differ in their scanning of images of human faces or vehicles...
January 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25642150/core-knowledge-and-the-emergence-of-symbols-the-case-of-maps
#14
Yi Huang, Elizabeth S Spelke
Map reading is unique to humans but present in people of diverse cultures, at ages as young as 4 years. Here we explore the nature and sources of this ability, asking both what geometric information young children use in maps and what non-symbolic systems are associated with their map-reading performance. Four-year-old children were given two tests of map-based navigation (placing an object within a small 3D surface layout at a position indicated on a 2D map), one focused on distance relations and the other on angle relations...
January 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25642149/advantages-of-integrative-data-analysis-for-developmental-research
#15
Sierra A Bainter, Patrick J Curran
Amid recent progress in cognitive development research, high-quality data resources are accumulating, and data sharing and secondary data analysis is becoming an increasingly valuable tool. Integrative data analysis (IDA) is an exciting analytical framework that can enhance secondary data analysis in powerful ways. IDA pools item level data across multiple studies to make inferences possible both within and across studies and can be used to test questions not possible in individual contributing studies. Some of the potential benefits of IDA include the ability to study longer developmental periods, examine how the measurement of key constructs changes over time, increase subject heterogeneity, and improve statistical power and capability to study rare behaviors...
January 2015: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554726/working-memory-differences-between-children-living-in-rural-and-urban-poverty
#16
Michele Tine
This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and high-income urban developmental contexts. Both low-income rural and low-income urban children showed working memory deficits compared with their high-income counterparts, but their deficits were distinct...
October 2, 2014: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24982599/attention-to-explicit-and-implicit-contrast-in-verb-learning
#17
Jane B Childers, Amy Hirshkowitz, Kristin Benavides
Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children's ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children's attention to different types of contrast as they learn new verbs. Study 1 shows that 3 ½-year-olds can use both implicit contrast ("I'm meeking it. I'm koobing it.") and explicit contrast ("I'm meeking it...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24976796/labels-facilitate-infants-comparison-of-action-goals
#18
Sarah A Gerson, Amanda L Woodward
Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process supports infants' analysis of others' goal-directed actions (Gerson & Woodward, 2012). The current studies evaluated whether labeling, which has been shown to support relational learning in other domains, also supports infants' sensitivity to the goal structure of others' actions...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24829540/the-contribution-of-executive-function-to-source-memory-development-in-early-childhood
#19
Vinaya Rajan, Kimberly Cuevas, Martha Ann Bell
Age-related differences in episodic memory judgments assessing recall of fact information and the source of this information were examined. The role of executive function in supporting early episodic memory ability was also explored. Four- and 6-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources (experimenter or puppet) and memory for both fact and source information was later tested. Measures of working memory, inhibitory control, and set-shifting were obtained to produce an indicator of children's executive function...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25383046/examining-explanatory-biases-in-young-children-s-biological-reasoning
#20
Cristine H Legare, Brooke Schepp, Susan A Gelman
Despite the well-established literature on explanation in early childhood, little is known about what constrains children's explanations. State change and negative outcomes were examined as potential explanatory biases in the domain of naïve biology, extending upon previous work in the domain of naïve physics. In two studies, preschool children (N = 70, 3- to 5-year-olds) were informed of the distinct health outcomes of characters in four between-subjects conditions (i.e., becoming ill, recovering from illness, continuous health, and continuous illness) and asked to provide explanations...
2014: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
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