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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337953/influence-of-chronic-exposure-to-simulated-shift-work-on-disease-and-longevity-in-disease-prone-inbred-mice
#1
Linda A Toth Rita A Trammell Teresa Liberati Steve Verhulst Marcia L Hart Jacob E Moskowitz And Craig Franklin
Shift work (SW) is viewed as a risk factor for the development of many serious health conditions, yet prospective studies thatdocument such risks are rare. The current study addressed this void by testing the hypothesis that long-term exposure to repeated diurnal phase shifts, mimicking SW, will accelerate disease onset or death in inbred mice with genetic risk of developing cancer,diabetes, or autoimmune disease. The data indicate that 1) life-long exposure to simulated SW accelerates death in female cancerprone AKR/J mice; 2) a significant proportion of male NON/ShiLtJ mice, which have impaired glucose tolerance but do not normally progress to type 2 diabetes, develop hyperglycemia, consistent with diabetes (that is, blood glucose 250 mg/dL or greater) after exposure to simulated SW for 8 wk; and 3) MRL/MpJ mice, which are prone to develop autoimmune disease, showed sex-related acceleration of disease development when exposed to SW as compared with mice maintained on a stable photocycle...
March 23, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327255/the-interplay-of-ethics-animal-welfare-and-iacuc-oversight-on-the-reproducibility-of-animal-studies
#2
Stacy L Pritt And Robert E Hammer
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experimentswithin the same or among different laboratories. Over the past few years, much has been written and said about the lack of reproducibility of animal studies. Reasons that are commonly cited for this lack of reproducibility include inappropriate study design,errors in conducting the research, and potential fraud. In the quest to understand the basis for this lack of reproducibility, scientists have not fully considered the potential ramifications on ethical constructs for animal research, animal welfare considerations in animal research programs, the regulatory environment, and oversight by IACUCs...
March 21, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322187/influence-of-genetic-background-on-hematologic-and-histopathologic-alterations-during-acute-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-in-129-svev-and-c57bl-6j-mice-lacking-type-i-and-type-ii-interferon-signaling
#3
Jennifer L Johns Marielle L Discipulo Amanda L Koehne Kaitlin A Moorhead And Claude M Nagamine
The role of host type I IFN signaling and its interaction with other immune pathways during bacterial infections is incompletelyunderstood. Type II IFN signaling plays a key role during numerous bacterial infections including granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA)caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. The function of combined type I and type II IFN signaling and their potentialsynergism during GA and similar tick-borne diseases is a topic of current research investigation. The goal of this study was toevaluate 2 mouse models of absent type I/type II IFN signaling in experimental A...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322186/effect-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-circadian-metabolism-and-physiology-in-rats
#4
Melissa A Wren-Dail Robert T Dauchy David E Blask Steven M Hill Tara G Ooms Lynell M Dupepe And Rudolf P Bohm
Isoflurane anesthesia alters the blood levels of several neuroendocrine hormones associated with normal metabolism andphysiology and increases stress, but the effect of brief CO2 anesthesia on these parameters is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of isoflurane (4%) compared with brief CO2 (70% CO2, 30% air) anesthesia on circadian rhythms of plasma measures of physiology and metabolism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD; n = 6 per group) were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark(300 lx; lights on, 0600) photoperiod...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322185/well-differentiated-liposarcoma-in-a-bonnet-macaque-macaca-radiata
#5
Cynthia J Doane Paula J Johnson And David G Besselsen
Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinicalpresentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300028/comparison-of-allogeneic-and-syngeneic-rat-glioma-models-by-using-mri-and-histopathologic-evaluation
#6
Elena Biasibetti Alberto Valazza Maria T Capucchio Laura Annovazzi Luigi Battaglia Daniela Chirio Marina Gallarate Marta Mellai Elisabetta Muntoni Elena Peira Chiara Riganti Davide Schiffer Pierpaolo Panciani And Michele Lanotte
Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies aretestedbefore human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin,grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300027/cystic-calculus-in-a-laboratory-housed-green-anole-anolis-carolinensis
#7
Leslie L Birke Ann M Cespedes Emma R Schachner And Simon P Lailvaux
An adult, male, wild-caught, laboratory-housed green anole (Anolis carolinensis) on a locomotor performance study was presented for anorexia. The anole exhibited a 26% weight loss and a thin body condition but was otherwise alert and active. Despitesupportive care, the anole's clinical condition deteriorated, necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed a 4.5 mm × 2.5-mm cystic calculus, which consisted entirely of sodium urate. Here we describe the clinical findings and locomotor consequences of this disease in a green anole...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300026/effects-of-racecadotril-on-weight-loss-and-diarrhea-due-to-human-rotavirus-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs-sus-scrofa-domesticus
#8
Tammy Bui Guohua Li Inyoung Kim Ke Wen Erica L Twitchell Shaohua Lei Ashwin K Ramesh Mariah D Weiss Xingdong Yang Sherrie G Clark-Deener Robert Km Choy And Lijuan Yuan
Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acutewatery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable adjunctive treatment to supportive fluid therapy to decrease the mortality rate of diarrheal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an antisecretory drug, racecadotril, in treating human rotavirus (HRV)-induced diarrhea in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271821/animal-models-of-zika-virus
#9
Michael P Bradley And Claude M Nagamine
Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266283/biochemical-histopathologic-physiologic-and-behavioral-effects-of-nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory-drugs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Amy L Rizzo Gregory A Wooster Luce E Guanzini Christine M Peterson Karryssa S Fenderson Hollis N Erb Paul R Bowser And Mary E Martin
Because the number of fish being used in research is increasing rapidly, evaluating the analgesic and pathologic effects of NSAIDin fish is essential. To determine the biochemical, histopathologic, physiologic and behavioral effects of 3 NSAID, 48 rainbow trout underwent anesthesia with tricaine methanesulfonate and exploratory celiotomy and were randomly assigned to receive flunixin(0.5 mg/kg IM), ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg IM), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg IM), or saline. Clinical pathologic variables were assessed 1 wk before surgery and 48 h after surgery...
March 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233508/viral-vector-biosafety-in-laboratory-animal-research
#11
Dalis E Collins Jon D Reuter Howard G Rush And Jason S Villano
Viral vector research presents unique occupational health and safety challenges to institutions due to the rapid development ofboth in vivo and in vitro gene-editing technologies. Risks to human and animal health make it incumbent on institutions to appropriately evaluate viral vector usage in research on the basis of available information and governmental regulations and guidelines.Here we review the factors related to risk assessment regarding viral vector usage in animals and the relevant regulatory documents associated with this research, and we highlight the most commonly used viral vectors in research today...
February 23, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211307/local-and-systemic-changes-associated-with-long-term-percutaneous-static-implantation-of-titanium-alloys-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#12
Galit H Frydman Robert P Marini Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu Kathleen E Biddle Sureshkumar Muthupalani Charles R Vanderburg Barry Lai Pavan K Bendapudi Ronald G Tompkins And James G Fox
Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many alloys induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (duration, 0 to 14 y) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation, and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n = 28) did not have implants. Macaques with implants had higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations than nonimplanted animals...
February 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128070/antimicrobial-use-for-and-resistance-of-zoonotic-bacteria-recovered-from-nonhuman-primates
#13
Jeffrey Kim Dondrae J Coble Gregory W Salyards Julie K Bower William J Rinaldi Gail B Plauche And Gregory G Habing
As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions...
January 26, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124638/clinical-assessment-of-urinary-tract-damage-during-sustained-release-estrogen-supplementation-in-mice
#14
Dalis E Collins Kathleen R Mulka Mark J Hoenerhoff Russell S Taichman And Jason S Villano
Estrogen supplementation is a key component of numerous mouse research models but can adversely affect the urinary system.The goal of this study was to develop a clinical scoring system and identify biomarkers of occult urinary tract lesions prior to the development of systemic illness in mice. Ovariectomized or sham-surgery SCID mice were implanted subcutaneously with a placebo pellet or one containing sustained-release estradiol (0.18 mg 60-d release 17β-estradiol). Mice were assessed twice weekly for 4 to 6 wk by using a clinical scoring system that included body condition, general activity, posture, hair coat, hydration, abdominal distension, urine staining of coat and skin, and ability to urinate...
January 25, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120745/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#15
Pramod N Nehete Bharti P Nehete Sriram Chitta Lawrence E Williams And Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model forhuman disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
January 24, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109081/shope-fibroma-in-the-external-ear-canal-of-a-domestic-rabbit
#16
Shawna J
A 5-y-old, intact, 2.5-kg female domestic rabbit was presented because of blood spatter on the wall of its cage and thetoenailsof its right hind limb. Physical examination revealed a red, gelatinous mass that spanned the width of the right vertical ear canal. Radiographic images revealed a soft-tissue opacity at the base of the right ear, which was superimposed over the tympanic bulla and extended to the pinna. A CT scan revealed that the soft-tissue mass was within the vertical and horizontal portions of the right external ear canal and extended to the level of the tympanic membrane, with no bony involvement...
January 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109072/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-renal-fibrosis-after-renal-ischemia-protocols-in-cats
#17
Vanna M
In an attempt to identify a feline model of acute or chronic kidney disease, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of 15 or 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia (RI) and 60 min of unilateral RI with delayed contralateral nephrectomy as models of acute kidney injury and chronic interstitial fibrosis in cats. Adult, purpose-bred, USDA Class A cats (n = 14) were randomly assigned to receive bilateral RI for 15 min (n = 3) or 30 min (n = 3), unilateral RI for 60 min with a delayed (2 wk) contralateral nephrectomy (n = 5), or sham unilateral RI with a delayed contralateral nephrectomy (n = 3)...
January 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087919/presumptive-spontaneous-lysosomal-storage-like-disease-in-a-crl-cd1-icr-mouse
#18
Krista M
A clinically unremarkable 4.5-mo-old female Crl:CD1(ICR) VAF/Elite mouse was euthanized for scheduled sentinel processing.Gross necropsy findings included significant hepatosplenomegaly and visceral lymphadenomegaly, resulting in a preliminarygross diagnosis of lymphoma. Histology revealed florid accumulations of large, 'foamy' macrophages present in the bone marrow, small intestines, and viscera including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, uterus, and ovaries. The cytoplasm of these cells was abundant, stained pale blue with Wright-Giemsa and was periodic acid-Schiff positive...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084204/use-of-the-rat-grimace-scale-to-evaluate-neuropathic-pain-in-a-model-of-cervical-radiculopathy
#19
Blythe H
Although neck and low-back pain are common sources of neuropathic pain with high societal costs, the pathophysiology ofneuropathic pain is not well-defined. Traditionally, most rodent pain studies rely on evoked reflex-based testing to measure pain.However, these testing methods do not reveal spontaneous pain, particularly early after injury. The rat grimace scale (RGS) forquantifying spontaneous pain has been validated after visceral, incisional, orthopedic, and inflammatory insults but not neuropathic pain...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084196/age-associated-differences-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-of-mice
#20
Samanta Gasco
Establishing the appropriate yet minimal number of control mice for experiments is a critical step in experimental design. Thisdecision is particularly important regarding the study of the hematopoietic system over time, given various age-associated changes in murine hematopoietic cell populations. Here we used flow cytometry to serially monitor the frequencies of hematopoietic stem cells, common lymphoid progenitor cells, and common myeloid progenitor cells and RT-PCR assays to study the levels of Ly6a(Sca1), Slamf1, Ikzf1, and Cebpa-4 genes that control the hematopoietic process-in wildtype male and female mice with a B6SJL genetic background...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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