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Comparative Medicine

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February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Sophie V Goodall, Sathya K Chinnadurai, Toni Kwan, Copper Aitken-Palmer
A 13-y-old, multiparous female black-crested mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) underwent surgical treatment for chronically recurring rectal prolapse by laparotomy and subsequent colopexy. Initially, a laparoscopic approach was attempted but was converted to an open approach after intraabdominal adhesions were noted. The colopexy was performed through a ventral midline incision, with no complications intraoperatively or postoperatively. The predisposing factors responsible for the development of this condition likely were related to pelvic floor weakness due to multiple past pregnancies...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Jason P Dufour, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Robert V Blair
An 8-y-old female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for swelling of the left lower limb distal to the inguinal region and associated with the femoral artery. Physical and ultrasound examinations suggested an arteriovenous fistula combined with a pseudoaneurysm. After review of possible treatment options, we determined that open surgical repair was the best course of action. The pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula were surgically resected, and the macaque recovered without complication.
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Nitin Seth, Heather A Simmons, Farah Masood, William A Graham, Douglas L Rosene, Susan V Westmoreland, Sheila M Cummings, Basia Gwardjan, Ervin Sejdic, Amber F Hoggatt, Dane R Schalk, Hussein A Abdullah, John B Sledge, Shanker Nesathurai
Here we present the results of experiments involving cynomolgus macaques, in which a model of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) was created by using a balloon catheter inserted into the epidural space. Prior to the creation of the lesion, we inserted an EMG recording device to facilitate measurement of tail movement and muscle activity before and after TSCI. This model is unique in that the impairment is limited to the tail: the subjects do not experience limb weakness, bladder impairment, or bowel dysfunction...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Kathryn A Guerriero, Steven R Wilson, Nabil E Boutagy, Chi Liu, Albert J Sinusas, Caroline J Zeiss
An adult female beagle (Canis lupus familiaris) used in a model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy presented with epithelial desquamation on the shoulders and ventrum after receiving the 8th weekly intravenous dose of the free form of doxorubicin (20 mg/m2; total accumulation, 160 mg/m2). The lesions were empirically treated with topical disinfectants and topical and systemic antibiotics. Despite treatment, the lesions progressed and ulcerated. Bacterial culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus, but trichogram, skin scraping, and fungal culture were negative for microorganisms...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Corinna N Beale, Lara A Reyelt, Courtney A Bogins, Nathan Yl Chan, Scott E Perkins
Currently available animal models for delivery of drug capsules and pharmacokinetic testing are limited by either intersubject variability in gastric emptying time or the need to sedate animals when using targeted delivery methods of drug capsules. With the increasing development of large-molecule biologics, better in vivo models for testing the pharmacokinetics of capsule-delivered drugs are urgently needed. To this end, we made engineering modifications to an existing bovine surgical cannula device, successfully implanted this modified cannula into pigs, and delivered drug capsules directly to the proximal duodenum...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Chereen Collymore, Laura Kent, Sang Kyun Ahn, Wenxi Xu, Ming Li, Jun Liu, Patricia V Turner, E Kate Banks
Guinea pigs are a commonly used model for tuberculosis vaccine research. Loss of body weight is the most frequently described humane endpoint for animals used in these studies. During a chronic study, we noted labored breathing in some tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs. To develop consistent humane endpoints for these guinea pigs, we performed an observational study using multiple clinical signs. A combination of body weight loss, labored breathing, and activity level during handling estimated the time to euthanasia within approximately 7 d...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
M Gia Green, Natasha Petroff, Krista M D La Perle, Stefan Niewiesk
Eosinophils have been postulated to play a protective role against infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the severity of allergic asthma during respiratory viral infection, and drive vaccine-enhanced disease. To address these questions in the cotton rat model of RSV infection, we characterized cotton rat eosinophils by electron microscopy as well as by bronchoalveolar lavage and histology of lung sections. Using these methods, we demonstrated that eosinophils comprise approximately half of all cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from cotton rats...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Tyler J Caron, Stephen C Artim, William J Israelsen, Hilda R Holcombe, James G Fox, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu
A laboratory-housed, wild-caught, subadult, male meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius) presented with extensive scaling of the face, limbs, and tail and severe edema of the paws. Postmortem examination revealed marked distal limb edema with focal digital hematomas and white scales, scabs, and crusts affecting the majority of nonhaired skin. Histopathologic analysis revealed severe, multifocal, chronic-active exudative and proliferative dermatitis characterized by multilaminated crusts covering the epidermis...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Elisavet Kodela, Maria Moysidou, Sevasti Karaliota, Yassemi Koutmani, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Konstantia Kodella, Eleni A Karavia, Kyriakos E Kypreos, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Katia P Karalis
Obesity is characterized as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease owing to the infiltration of the adipose tissue by macrophages. Although the role of macrophages in this process is well established, the role of lymphocytes in the development of obesity and metabolism remains less well defined. In the current study, we fed WT and Rag1-/- male mice, of C57BL/6J and BALB/c backgrounds, high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 15 wk. Compared with WT mice, Rag1-/- mice of either of the examined strains were found less prone to insulin resistance after HFD, had higher metabolic rates, and used lipids more efficiently, as shown by the increased expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation in epidydimal white adipose tissue...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Devra D Huey, Brad Bolon, Krista M D La Perle, Priya Kannian, Steven Jacobson, Lee Ratner, Patrick L Green, Stefan Niewiesk
Chronic infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). In contrast, infection with HTLV2 does not lead to leukemia, potentially because of distinct virus-host interactions and an active immune response that controls virus replication and, therefore, leukemia development. We created a humanized mouse model by injecting human umbilical-cord stem cells into the livers of immunodeficient neonatal NSG mice, resulting in the development of human lymphocytes that cannot mount an adaptive immune response...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Linda Toth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Melissa R Berg, Rhonda P MacAllister, Lauren D Martin
Inguinal herniation of abdominal viscera is a relatively common condition in both humans and domestic animal species. In captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the highest incidence occurs in overweight, aged males. However, inguinal herniation of the uterus with bilateral adnexa is extremely rare in both human and veterinary medicine. Here we report a previously undescribed uterine inguinal herniation with bilateral adnexa in a 3-y-old female rhesus macaque. Although uterine herniation remains a rare condition in rhesus macaques, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in animals with unilateral subcutaneous enlargements in the inguinal region...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Amie Koenig, Tanya L Cooper, Craig E Greene, Ajay Sharma, Kaori Sakamoto
An adult feline blood donor, group-housed in a closed colony with other blood donor cats in a laboratory animal facility, developed anorexia, abdominal pain, an abdominal mass effect, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Ultimately Salmonella infection was diagnosed. The index cat and 2 additional cats in the closed colony had clinical signs consistent with Salmonella and yielded Salmonella serotype 4,12:i:- in fecal cultures. An extensive search for the source of Salmonella was unrewarding. With the implementation of individual housing and additional barrier precautions, combined with antibiotic treatment of the index case, all the cats survived and subsequently had multiple, negative Salmonella PCR test results...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Gabrielle C Musk, Martyn King, Bulang He
The term Horner syndrome refers to the clinical presentation of oculosympathoparesis, comprising miosis, ptosis, and facial anhydrosis. To date, there are 2 reports of postoperative Horner syndrome in pigs. In this species the cervical sympathetic chain and cranial cervical sympathetic ganglion are consistently within the carotid artery sheath. This case study describes the sudden onset of Horner syndrome in 2 pigs, from a study cohort of 8, after the placement of a vascular graft between the carotid artery and external jugular vein...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Nell A Bekiares, Andrea S Chen, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam, Adrienne Dardenne Meyers, Thomas D Crenshaw, Christian G Krueger, Jess D Reed
The Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine model is well-characterized and used for studies of both spontaneous and inducible atherosclerosis but has not been used for studies of metabolic dysfunction to date. We examined whether parameters of metabolic syndrome including weight and adiposity, serum cholesterol, and glucoregulatory function could be modulated by restriction of caloric intake in the FH swine. Three groups of FH swine (n = 6 per group) were fed without restriction (AL), 80% of AL caloric intake, or 60% of AL caloric intake for 8...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Wen-Yao Kuo, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Shih-Wei Huang, Kuan-Hua Yu, Feng-Pang Cheng, Jiann-Hsiung Wang, Jui-Te Wu
In the present study, we evaluated the utility of an intraluminal agarose stent (IAS) for end-to-end intestinal anastomoses in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 14) underwent conventional sutured anastomosis (CSA) with or without an IAS. IAS were used to maintain the luminal diameter for more rapid and accurate suturing, and then was squeezed transluminally to crush it into fragments, which passed through the intestines and were eliminated. The rabbits were euthanized on postoperative day 21. At necropsy, the anastomoses were assessed for adhesion formation, stenosis, and bursting pressure and were examined histologically for collagen content and blood vessel formation...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Erin S Lee, Clinton Sc Walker, Jacob E Moskowitz, Valerie A Johnson, Lon V Kendall
Because of their ideal size and temperament, rabbits are commonly used in polyclonal antibody production. Immunostimulatory adjuvants-such as Freund complete and incomplete adjuvants as well as various proprietary products-trigger a robust immune response, which increases antibody concentrations. However, these adjuvants can cause excessive soft tissue reactions, prompting concerns regarding animal wellbeing. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of cationic liposome- oligonucleotide complexes (CLDC) as an alternative adjuvant to conventional adjuvants...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Robert L Rubin
The inability to translate findings from studies performed in mouse models to the corresponding human condition is well known, especially those involving infectious, atherosclerotic, and other inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that mice fail to a mount robust or adequate immune response to infectious agents because of physiologic effects of cold stress due to housing temperatures below the mouse thermoneutral zone (TNZ). This hypothesis was tested by comparing the immune response to the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain in mice housed at a typical vivarium temperature, which is below the TNZ, with that of mice housed at a temperature near their TNZ...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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