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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776458/hydrocephalus-after-intrathecal-administration-of-dextran-to-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#1
Jason P Dufour, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kathrine P Falkenstein, Robert V Blair, Elizabeth S Didier, Nadia Slisarenko, Kenneth C Williams, Marcelo J Kuroda
Dextrans have been used extensively as medical therapies and labeling agents in biomedical research to investigate theblood-brain barrier and CSF flow and absorption. Adverse effects from dextrans include anaphylactic reaction and dilation ofthe cerebral ventricles due to administration into the subarachnoid space. This retrospective study describes 51 rhesus macaques(Macaca mulatta) that received dextran intrathecally. The purpose of intrathecal administration was to enable detection oflong-lived, dextran-labeled macrophages and to study monocyte-macrophage turnover in the CNS of SIV- or SHIV- infectedand uninfected animals by using immunofluorescence...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776456/pancreatitis-and-systemic-coronavirus-infection-in-a-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#2
Sarah E Wills, Hugues H Beaufrère, Brigitte A Brisson, Russell S Fraser, Dale A Smith
A 1-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for additional diagnostic evaluation after physicalexamination by the referring veterinarian revealed a cranial abdominal mass. The ferret had a 2-wk history of inappetence,weight loss, and lethargy. On presentation, the ferret was thin, and an approximately 3-cm mass was palpable in the cranialabdomen. No other abnormalities were noted. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of a soft-tissue structure, with a moderate blood supply and mesenteric lymphadenopathy...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747722/scar-size-and-other-parameters-for-tracking-left-ventricular-dysfunction-after-induction-of-myocardial-infarcts-in-sheep-ovis-aries
#3
Hylton P Gordon, Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Virginia L Gillespie, Roger J Hajjar, Charles R Bridges
In humans, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI)is a leading cause of heart failure due to myocardial impairment, yet the progression of the resultant dysfunction is often undetected after incidental or induced myocardial infarction. In this study we tracked the progression of left-sided heart failure in 6-mo-old male castrated sheep in which we created 2 models of myocardial infarction, small and large. Myocardial infarction was induced through ligation of a single branch (obtuse marginal [OM] 1) of the left circumflex coronary artery to create small (mild) infarcts and of 2 branches (OM1 and OM2) for large (severe) infarcts...
May 10, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673420/neurologic-complications-associated-with-transdermal-placement-of-intrathecal-catheters-in-sheep
#4
Gabrielle C Musk, Nolan J McDonnell, Mark Newman, Matthew W Kemp
A study using an ovine model of transdermal intrathecal catheterization was planned to investigate the neurotoxicity ofmagnesium sulfate. Nonpregnant Merino cross ewes (n = 8; age, 5 y; weight, 55.0 ± 6.5 kg) were anesthetized for placementof a lumbar intrathecal catheter. The study protocol defined a 5-d recovery period after introduction of the catheter before theadministration of test substances (2 mL of 0.9% saline or 50 or 150 mg MgSO4) followed by euthanasia 1 wk later. Although 3sheep successfully completed the study as planned, one of the remaining 5 sheep was withdrawn when the catheter was accidentally dislodged 2 d after anesthesia; another was withdrawn because of persistent neurologic deficits of the left hindlimb and intense pruritus during the first 24 h after placement of the catheter; and the remaining 3 animals experienced unacceptable complications within the first 4 h of administration of the test substance...
April 19, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650059/labyrinthitis-ossificans-in-a-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis
#5
Gayathriy Balamayooran, Hannah M Atkins, Christopher T Whitlow, Samuel T Aycock, Michael A Nader, J Mark Cline, David L Caudell
Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Labyrinthitis in humans has been reportedconcurrently with infection due to various viruses (for example, varicella-zoster, measles, mumps) and bacteria (for example,Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and may be associated with vertebrobasilar ischemia and meningitis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631660/silicon-foreign-body-in-the-cerebrum-of-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#6
Cynthia J Doane, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Katalin M Gothard, David G Besselsen
A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Subsequently, necropsy at study end revealed a cerebrocortical foreign body composed of silicon...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631659/repair-of-a-large-ventral-hernia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-by-using-an-abdominal-component-separation-technique
#7
Steve J Kempton, Jacqueline S Israel, Saverio Capuano Iii, Samuel O Poore
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631658/retrospective-review-of-surgical-outcomes-and-pair-housing-success-in-vasectomized-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#8
Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Steven R Wilson, Jodi A Scholz
Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the male or female. Vasectomy is a simple, highly effective, and minimally invasive method of contraception that is used at our institution to facilitate social housing. We performed a retrospective review to analyze the surgical outcomes and rate of postoperative complications after vasectomy of adult rhesus macaques at our research facility...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631657/longitudinal-anthropometric-assessment-of-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-model-of-huntington-disease
#9
Carissa E Hunter, Alvince L Pongos, Tim Y Chi, Christa Payne, Fawn C Stroud, Anthony W S Chan
The neurodegeneration associated with Huntington disease (HD) leads to the onset of motor and cognitive impairment and their advancement with increased age in humans. In children at risk for HD, body measurement growth abnormalities include a reduction in BMI, weight, height, and head circumference. The transgenic HD NHP model was first reported in 2008, and progressive decline in cognitive behaviors and motor impairment have been reported. This study focuses on longitudinal body measurements in HD macaques from infancy through adulthood...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631656/using-the-oculocardiac-reflex-to-characterize-autonomic-imbalance-in-a-naturally-occurring-canine-model-of-valvular-insufficiency
#10
Bruna C Brüler, Thayane C Vieira, Marcela Wolf, Stephany B Lucina, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Marlos G Sousa
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by reduced heart rate variability. Although various methods to achieve parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation have been documented, stimulation of the vagal nerve (that is, vagal maneuvers) has not often been used to assess the autonomic impairment associated with disease progression in veterinary species. In this study, we investigated cardiac autonomic control in a naturally occurring canine model of mitral insufficiency by means of individual responses to oculocardiac reflex...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631655/ezh2-expression-in-naturally-occurring-canine-tumors
#11
Hyun-Ji Choi, Han-Byul Lee, Hyun-Kyu Park, Sung-Min Cho, Hyo-Jeong Han, Sang-Joon Lee, Ji-Young Lee, Su-Jeong Nam, Eun-Ho Cho, Woo-Chan Son
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) shows upregulated expression in tumors and is an important driver of tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation of tumor aggressiveness by EZH2 remains unclear. We here investigated the levels of EZH2 in various normal and tumorous dog tissues and compared these patterns with those of the corresponding human tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining for EZH2 in 76 of 82 cases of canine tumors, whereas low or negligible staining occurred in normal tissues and other canine tumors, including hepatocellular adenoma and lipoma...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631654/brain-iron-distribution-after-multiple-doses-of-ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles-in-rats
#12
Andrew W Gorman, Kofi M Deh, Caspar M Schwiedrzik, Julie R White, Ernest Victor Groman, Clark A Fisher, Kelly M Gillen, Pascal Spincemaille, Skye Rasmussen, Martin R Prince, Henning U Voss, Winrich A Freiwald, Yi Wang
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of high cumulative doses of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) used in neuroimaging studies. We intravenously administered 8 mg/kg of 2 USPIO compounds daily for 4 wk to male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD). Multiecho gradient-echo MRI, serum iron levels, and histology were performed at the end of dosing and after a 7-d washout period. R2* maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) were generated from multiecho gradient-echo data. R2* maps and QSM showed iron accumulation in brain ventricles on MR images acquired at the 4- and 5-wk time points...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631653/cohousing-male-mice-with-and-without-segmental-bone-defects
#13
Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul J Childress, David C Scofield, Faisal Khan, Marta B Alvarez, Aamir T Tucker, Jonathan S Harris, Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman, Tien-Min G Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reproducible surgical outcomes...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631652/comparative-review-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-humans-and-nonhuman-primates
#14
Jeffrey Kim, Dondrae J Coble, Gregory W Salyards, Gregory G Habing
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents serious threats to human and animal health. Although AMR of pathogens is often evaluated independently between humans and animals, comparative analysis of AMR between humans and animals is necessary for zoonotic pathogens. Major surveillance systems monitor AMR of zoonotic pathogens in humans and food animals, but comprehensive AMR data in veterinary medicine is not diligently monitored for most animal species with which humans commonly contact, including NHP. The objective of this review is to provide a complete report of the prevalences of AMR among zoonotic bacteria that present the greatest threats to NHP, occupational, and public health...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631651/animal-models-of-aspergillosis
#15
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. The growing importance of this infection over recent decades has created a need for practical and reproducible models of aspergillosis. The use of laboratory animals provides a platform to understand fungal virulence and pathophysiology, assess diagnostic tools, and evaluate new antifungal drugs. In this review, we describe the fungus, various Aspergillus-related diseases in humans and animals and various experimental animal models...
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631650/the-aalas-journals-2017-in-review
#16
Linda A Toth, Susan Compton, Ravi Tolwani, John Farrar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663945/silicon-foreign-body-in-the-cerebrum-of-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#17
Cynthia J Doane, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Katalin M Gothard, David G Besselsen
A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Subsequently, necropsy at study end revealed a cerebrocortical foreign body composed of silicon...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663944/repair-of-a-large-ventral-hernia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-by-using-an-abdominal-component-separation-technique
#18
Steve J Kempton, Jacqueline S Israel, Saverio Capuano Iii, Samuel O Poore
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663943/retrospective-review-of-surgical-outcomes-and-pair-housing-success-in-vasectomized-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#19
Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Steven R Wilson, Jodi A Scholz
Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the male or female. Vasectomy is a simple, highly effective, and minimally invasive method of contraception that is used at our institution to facilitate social housing. We performed a retrospective review to analyze the surgical outcomes and rate of postoperative complications after vasectomy of adult rhesus macaques at our research facility...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663942/longitudinal-anthropometric-assessment-of-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-model-of-huntington-disease
#20
Carissa E Hunter, Alvince L Pongos, Tim Y Chi, Christa Payne, Fawn C Stroud, Anthony W S Chan
The neurodegeneration associated with Huntington disease (HD) leads to the onset of motor and cognitive impairment and their advancement with increased age in humans. In children at risk for HD, body measurement growth abnormalities include a reduction in BMI, weight, height, and head circumference. The transgenic HD NHP model was first reported in 2008, and progressive decline in cognitive behaviors and motor impairment have been reported. This study focuses on longitudinal body measurements in HD macaques from infancy through adulthood...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
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