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Comparative Medicine

Kendra L Bauer, James C Steeil, Elizabeth A Adkins, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan, Kenton L Kerns, Steven J Sarro, Kali A Holder
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Ana M Misic, Emily L Miedel, Angela K Brice, Stephen Cole, Grace F Zhang, Cecilia D Dyer, Anthony Secreto, Abigail L Smith, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Daniel P Beiting
Immunocompromised mice are used frequently in biomedical research, in part because they accommodate the engraftmentandstudy of primary human cells within a mouse model; however, these animals are susceptible to opportunistic infectionsand require special husbandry considerations. In 2015, an outbreak marked by high morbidity but low mortality swept througha colony of immunocompromised mice; this outbreak rapidly affected 75% of the colony and ultimately required completedepopulation of the barrier suite. Conventional microbiologic and molecular diagnostics were unsuccessful in determiningthe cause; therefore, we explored culture-independent methods to broadly profile the microbial community in the feces of affected animals...
June 13, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Robert T Dauchy, Melissa A Wren-Dail, Lynell M Dupepe, Steven M Hill, Shulin Xiang, Muralidharan Anbalagan, Victoria P Belancio, Erin M Dauchy, David E Blask
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Metabolic pathways within the liver and liver cancersare highly regulated by the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Daily light and dark cycles regulate the SCN-driven pineal production of the circadian anticancer hormone melatonin and temporally coordinate circadianrhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. In previous studies, we demonstrated that melatonin suppresses linoleicacid metabolism and the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis)in human breast cancer xenografts and that blue-enriched light(465-485 nm) from light-emitting diode lighting at daytime (bLAD) amplifies nighttime circadian melatonin levels in ratsby 7-fold over cool white fluorescent (CWF) lighting...
June 6, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Hannah M Atkins, Susan E Appt, Robert N Taylor, Yaritbel Torres-Mendoza, Emily E Lenk, Nancy S Rosenthal, David L Caudell
Endometriosis is characterized by endometrial tissue development outside the uterus. Anemia and iron depletion do notcommonly accompany endometriosis in women, despite chronic abdominal inflammation and heavy menstrual bleeding.The objective of this study was to examine iron kinetics associated with endometriosis by using a NHP model, to betterunderstand the underlying mechanism of abnormal hematogram values in women with endometriosis. Hematologic datafrom 46 macaques with endometriosis were examined for signs of iron depletion...
June 5, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Sarah E Wills, Hugues H Beaufrère, Brigitte A Brisson, Russell S Fraser, Dale A Smith
A 1-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for additional diagnostic evaluation after physicalexamination by the referring veterinarian revealed a cranial abdominal mass. The ferret had a 2-wk history of inappetence,weight loss, and lethargy. On presentation, the ferret was thin, and an approximately 3-cm mass was palpable in the cranialabdomen. No other abnormalities were noted. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of a soft-tissue structure, with a moderate blood supply and mesenteric lymphadenopathy...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Gabrielle C Musk, Nolan J McDonnell, Mark Newman, Matthew W Kemp
A study using an ovine model of transdermal intrathecal catheterization was planned to investigate the neurotoxicity ofmagnesium sulfate. Nonpregnant Merino cross ewes (n = 8; age, 5 y; weight, 55.0 ± 6.5 kg) were anesthetized for placementof a lumbar intrathecal catheter. The study protocol defined a 5-d recovery period after introduction of the catheter before theadministration of test substances (2 mL of 0.9% saline or 50 or 150 mg MgSO4) followed by euthanasia 1 wk later. Although 3sheep successfully completed the study as planned, one of the remaining 5 sheep was withdrawn when the catheter was accidentally dislodged 2 d after anesthesia; another was withdrawn because of persistent neurologic deficits of the left hindlimb and intense pruritus during the first 24 h after placement of the catheter; and the remaining 3 animals experienced unacceptable complications within the first 4 h of administration of the test substance...
April 19, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Sarah E Wills, Hugues H Beaufrère, Brigitte A Brisson, Russell S Fraser, Dale A Smith
A 1-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for additional diagnostic evaluation after physical examination by the referring veterinarian revealed a cranial abdominal mass. The ferret had a 2-wk history of inappetence, weight loss, and lethargy. On presentation, the ferret was thin, and an approximately 3-cm mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen. No other abnormalities were noted. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of a soft-tissue structure, with a moderate blood supply and mesenteric lymphadenopathy...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Brandi M Heckel, David Eshar, Kelli M Almes
Because black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used as a model for research on gallstones and bacterial infections, performing urinary evaluations can provide invaluable data. This case report involves 5 prairie dogs that developed moist necrotic skin lesions after urine collection by cystocentesis. The information presented here serves as a resource regarding a potential adverse event that may develop after cystocentesis in black-tailed prairie dogs.
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Kathleen E Scott, Galit Frydman, James G Fox, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu
Here we report the case of a urinary bladder leiomyoma in a rhesus macaque. The animal was clinically normal and had a lipoma localized to the stifle. Endovesicular leiomyomas are the most common form of urinary bladder leiomyoma in humans. In contrast, this macaque's tumor exhibited extravesicular localization in the bladder. Urinary bladder leiomyomas account for less than 0.5% of all bladder tumors in humans, with only 250 cases reported in total.
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Hirotaka Kondo, Iori Koizumi, Narumi Yamamoto, Hisashi Shibuya
A 56-mo-old male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) presented with gradual weight loss from 757 to 691 g during the preceding month. Cardiac-specific diagnostics detected decreased cardiac contractility, moderate cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary edema. At 1 mo after presentation, the guinea pig died while under treatment. Necropsy revealed a 5 × 3 × 3-mm, tan, smooth nodule on the base of the heart. On histology, the nodule contained moderately cellular neoplastic tissue comprising cuboidal cells arranged in variably sized follicles...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Yasuyo Ito Fujishiro, Hiroshi Koie, Shunya Nakayama, Hiroaki Shibata, Sachi Okabayashi, Yuko Katakai, Kiichi Kanayama, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Naohide Ageyama
Although the number of reports describing tumors in aged NHP has increased, spontaneous neoplasias in NHP are extremely rare, with the notable exception of prosimians, in which spontaneous hepatic neoplasms arise. In addition to radiography and ultrasonography, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI tends to be applied in human practice to non-invasively locate, identify, and size liver tumors and to define the border between neoplastic and normal tissues. Here we report a 13-y-old female cynomolgus monkey with anorexia and serologically normal liver enzymes...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Ryan J Sprenger, Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Courtney C Kurtz
Retinoic acid, a bioactive metabolite of vitamin A, plays key roles in immune function and vision and adipose tissue development. Our goal was to study the effect of vitamin A deficiency in physiologic changes seen in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). In this study, we first developed a model of vitamin A deficiency that was based on published mouse models; we then examined the role of RA in the circannual cycle of and adipose accumulation in this hibernating species. Gravid female ground squirrels began consuming a deficient diet during the last 2 wk of their 4-wk gestation; pups received the diet until they were 8 wk old, when severe symptoms of hypovitaminosis were observed, requiring the animals' removal from the protocol...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Jason P Dufour, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kathrine P Falkenstein, Robert V Blair, Elizabeth S Didier, Nadia Slisarenko, Kenneth C Williams, Marcelo J Kuroda
Dextrans have been used extensively as medical therapies and labeling agents in biomedical research to investigate the blood-brain barrier and CSF flow and absorption. Adverse effects from dextrans include anaphylactic reaction and dilation of the cerebral ventricles due to administration into the subarachnoid space. This retrospective study describes 51 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that received dextran intrathecally. The purpose of intrathecal administration was to enable detection of long-lived, dextran-labeled macrophages and to study monocyte-macrophage turnover in the CNS of SIV- or SHIV- infected and uninfected animals by using immunofluorescence...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Hylton P Gordon, Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Virginia L Gillespie, Roger J Hajjar, Charles R Bridges
In humans, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of heart failure due to myocardial impairment, yet the progression of the resultant dysfunction is often undetected after incidental or induced myocardial infarction. In this study we tracked the progression of left-sided heart failure in 6-mo-old male castrated sheep in which we created 2 models of myocardial infarction, small and large. Myocardial infarction was induced through ligation of a single branch (obtuse marginal [OM] 1) of the left circumflex coronary artery to create small (mild) infarcts and of 2 branches (OM1 and OM2) for large (severe) infarcts...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Gayathriy Balamayooran, Hannah M Atkins, Christopher T Whitlow, Samuel T Aycock, Michael A Nader, J Mark Cline, David L Caudell
Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Labyrinthitis in humans has been reportedconcurrently with infection due to various viruses (for example, varicella-zoster, measles, mumps) and bacteria (for example,Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and may be associated with vertebrobasilar ischemia and meningitis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Cynthia J Doane, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Katalin M Gothard, David G Besselsen
A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Subsequently, necropsy at study end revealed a cerebrocortical foreign body composed of silicon...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Steve J Kempton, Jacqueline S Israel, Saverio Capuano, Samuel O Poore
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Skin breakdown was noted with areas of exposed mesh through the skin with associated acute on chronic infection. Clinically, the animal was lethargic, not eating, and failing to thrive...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Steven R Wilson, Jodi A Scholz
Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the male or female. Vasectomy is a simple, highly effective, and minimally invasive method of contraception that is used at our institution to facilitate social housing. We performed a retrospective review to analyze the surgical outcomes and rate of postoperative complications after vasectomy of adult rhesus macaques at our research facility...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Carissa E Hunter, Alvince L Pongos, Tim Y Chi, Christa Payne, Fawn C Stroud, Anthony W S Chan
The neurodegeneration associated with Huntington disease (HD) leads to the onset of motor and cognitive impairment and their advancement with increased age in humans. In children at risk for HD, body measurement growth abnormalities include a reduction in BMI, weight, height, and head circumference. The transgenic HD NHP model was first reported in 2008, and progressive decline in cognitive behaviors and motor impairment have been reported. This study focuses on longitudinal body measurements in HD macaques from infancy through adulthood...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Bruna C Brüler, Thayane C Vieira, Marcela Wolf, Stephany B Lucina, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Marlos G Sousa
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by reduced heart rate variability. Although various methods to achieve parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation have been documented, stimulation of the vagal nerve (that is, vagal maneuvers) has not often been used to assess the autonomic impairment associated with disease progression in veterinary species. In this study, we investigated cardiac autonomic control in a naturally occurring canine model of mitral insufficiency by means of individual responses to oculocardiac reflex...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
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