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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935009/acute-occlusion-of-the-abdominal-aorta-with-sudden-paraplegia-in-a-captive-mustached-tamarin-saguinus-mystax
#1
Carmen R Michaud, Richard Herbert, William R Elkins, Alfonso S Gozalo
A wild-caught, research-naïve, adult male mustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) experienced sudden onset of bilateral hindlimb paresis. Physical examination established the presence of paralysis and the lack of femoral pulses and deep pain in both legs. There were no signs of external trauma and, due to a poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included pleural effusion, partial pulmonary atelectasis and congestion, dilatatory cardiomyopathy, a renal hemorrhagic infarct, and a thromboembolus located at the trifurcation of the distal abdominal aorta...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935008/coccidioidomycosis-in-an-indoor-housed-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#2
Mila C Kundu, Michael A Ringenberg, Denise L d'Epagnier, Heather L Haag, Sean Maguire
Coccidioides spp. are saprophytic, dimorphic fungi that are endemic to arid climates, are capable of infecting many species, and result in diverse clinical presentations. An indoor-housed laboratory rhesus macaque presented with weight loss and decreased activity and appetite. During the diagnostic evaluation, a bronchiolar-alveolar pattern in the cranial lung lobes, consistent with bronchopneumonia, was noted on radiographs. Given the poor prognosis, the macaque was euthanized. Confirming the radiographic assessment, gross necropsy findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of consolidation in the right and left cranial lung lobes...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935007/an-international-survey-of-approaches-to-chair-restraint-of-nonhuman-primates
#3
Jennifer L McMillan, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Mark J Prescott
Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935006/novel-h-shunt-venovenous-bypass-for-liver-transplantation-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#4
Yojiro Kato, Adam D Griesemer, Anette Wu, Hugo P Sondermeijer, Joshua I Weiner, Raimon Duran-Struuck, Mercedes Martinez, Andrea R Slate, Alexander Romanov, Jay H Lefkowitch, Megan Sykes, Tomoaki Kato
Cynomolgus monkeys are often used in preclinical transplantation research. Performing liver transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys is challenging because they poorly tolerate portal vein clamping during the anhepatic phase. Finding an alternative to portal vein clamping is necessary before preclinical liver transplant models can be performed with reliable outcomes. We used 3 different techniques to perform 5 liver transplants in male cynomolgus macaques (weight, 7.4-10.8 kg; mismatched for MHC I and II; matched for ABO)...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935005/sequelae-of-occult-aggression-disqualifying-young-socially-housed-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-from-participation-in-dermal-toxicology-studies
#5
Jeffrey D Wyatt, Diane M Moorman-White, Donnalee Ventura, Brett W Schneider, Thomas W Bittner
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935004/intestinal-parasites-and-anthelmintic-treatments-in-a-laboratory-colony-of-wild-caught-african-pouched-rats-cricetomys-ansorgei
#6
Cassandra O Cullin, Matthew S Sellers, Erin R Rogers, Kathleen E Scott, Danielle N Lee, Alexander G Ophir, Todd A Jackson
African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935003/spontaneous-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-kk-a-y-mice
#7
Tetsufumi Koga, Wataru Aoki, Miki Fujii, Kiyoshi Satou, Yoshinori Ikeda
During 2006 through 2012, spontaneous group B Streptococcus infections were reported in 22 female KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The affected mice were 5 to 27 wk old, and the cases involved various body sites, including cases of submandibular, caudal, and lumbar abscesses (n =18) or led to torticollis (n = 2), hydrocephalus (n = 1), or moribund clinical signs (n = 1). At necropsy, the mouse with hydrocephalus also demonstrated retained exudate in the uterus, and the moribund mouse showed renal inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935002/spontaneous-development-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-mice-with-cell-specific-deletion-of-inhibitor-of-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-kinase-2
#8
Kelly S Kirkley, Kelly D Walton, Colleen Duncan, Ronald B Tjalkens
The deletion of NFκB in epithelial tissues by using skin-specific promoters can cause both tumor formation and severe inflammatory dermatitis, indicating that this signaling pathway is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in epithelial tissues. In the present study, we crossed mice transgenic for loxP-Ikbk2 and human Gfap-cre to selectively delete IKK2 in CNS astrocytes. Unexpectedly, a subset of mice developed severe and progressive skin lesions marked by hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, inflammation, and neoplasia with a subset of lesions diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935001/lack-of-effect-of-murine-astrovirus-infection-on-dextran-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-nlrp3-deficient-mice
#9
Susan R Compton, Carmen J Booth, James D Macy
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. MuAstV is found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Human and turkey astroviruses have been shown to disrupt tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium. The potential of MuAstV to alter research results was tested in a well-established dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-deficient mice. This model offers a direct approach to determine whether MuAstV, as a component of the mouse microbiome, contributes to the issue of poor reproducibility in murine inflammatory bowel disease research...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935000/effect-of-early-life-gut-mucosal-compromise-on-disease-progression-in-nod-mice
#10
Katja M Bendtsen, Camilla Hf Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Karsten Buschard, Helene Farlov, Axel K Hansen
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We hypothesized that the mucus-reducing effect of this compound and subsequent increased host-bacterial contact would delay disease onset and decrease insulitis due to enhanced oral tolerance. However, disease incidence did not differ between groups, although median survival (time point when 50% of the mice are still alive) of the control group was 184 d compared with 205 d for DSS-treated mice...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830586/uterus-like-masses-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#11
Mary F Dickerson, Lauren D Martin, Anne D Lewis
Endometriosis is a relatively common condition in women and some populations of adult female rhesus macaques. However, endometriosis with extensive smooth muscle proliferation, as occurs in endomyometrioma and uterus-like mass (ULM), is rare in women. This report describes a case of endometriosis with extensive smooth muscle metaplasia resembling multiple ULM in a 20-y-old female rhesus macaque. During a protocol-related procedure, a large, smooth, globoid, freely moveable mass was palpated in the midabdomen...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830585/mycobacterium-kansasii-isolated-from-tuberculinpositive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-in-the-absence-of-disease
#12
Steven T Shipley, David K Johnson, Morteza Roodgar, David Glenn Smith, Charles A Montgomery, Steven M Lloyd, James A Higgins, Edwin H Kriel, Hilton J Klein, William P Porter, Jerome B Nazareno, Paul W Houghton, Aruna Panda, Louis J DeTolla
Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830584/immune-activation-of-platelets-in-response-to-serial-phlebotomy-in-pigtailed-macaques-macaca-nemestrina
#13
Meghan S Vermillion, Claire E Lyons, Kevin M Najarro, Robert J Adams, Kelly A Metcalf Pate
Serial phlebotomy is a common sampling practice for repeated-measures studies in biomedical research. In NHP, the effect of serial blood collection on RBC parameters has been characterized, but the effects on platelet parameters and other aspects of the hemogram have not been well studied. We sought to characterize the circulating platelet phenotype throughout the course of 7 serial phlebotomies spanning 30 d in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Phlebotomy was performed on 23 animals at days 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, and 30 to quantify the circulating platelet count and markers of both hemostatic and immune platelet activation...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830583/a-simple-way-to-eradicate-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#14
Tae M Kim, Hyojun Park, Kyo W Lee, Eun W Choi, Sang H Moon, Yong S Lee, Kahee Cho, Wan J Park, Jae B Park, Sung J Kim
Our investigation of indoor-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by using automated identification followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 1 of 7 immunocompetent animals and 2 of 9 immunosuppressed monkeys as carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Follow-up management involving mupirocin treatment resulted in the conversion of the 3 MRSA carriers into MRSA-negative cases. Prospective assessment of newly imported monkeys involving 24-h culture of nasal swabs on chromogenic agar revealed that 22% (18 of 82 animals) were MRSA-positive...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830582/differences-in-vascular-response-between-balloon-overstretch-and-stent-overexpansion-in-nonatherosclerotic-porcine-coronary-arteries
#15
Yoshiaki Mitsutake, Jörg Reifart, Wook Bum Pyun, Jennifer K Lyons, Tobias Deuse, Sonja Schrepfer, Fumiaki Ikeno
Which preclinical models are best suited for restenosis research remains uncertain. Here we compared the restenotic responses after balloon or stent overstretch injury in a porcine coronary artery. A total of 30 coronary lesions in 5 pigs were treated by balloon overdilatation or oversized stent implantation at various balloon-to-artery (B:A) ratios. Four weeks later, the lesions were examined in vivo by using coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). At follow-up, the lumen area stenosis and plaque burden at the minimal lumen area site were greater in stented sites than in balloon injury site (lumen area stenosis, 21...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830581/severe-dermatitis-associated-with-spontaneous-staphylococcus-xylosus-infection-in-rag-tpl2-mice
#16
Nicole V Acuff, Monica LaGatta, Tamas Nagy, Wendy T Watford
Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal bacterium found on the skin and mucosal surfaces of SPF mice. S. xylosus is rarely pathogenic, most often causing skin lesions and dermatitis in immunocompromised mice, particularly those with impaired NADPH oxidase function. Here we report spontaneous infection with S. xylosus in Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice. Infection was characterized by the presence of alopecia, crusts, and scaly skin. S. xylosus was detected in the feces, skin, lymph nodes, and lungs of Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice and led to mortality or euthanasia due to humane endpoints...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830580/antibiotic-associated-manipulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-phenotypic-restoration-in-nod-mice
#17
James R Fahey, Bonnie L Lyons, Haiyan L Olekszak, Anthony J Mourino, Jeremy J Ratiu, Jeremy J Racine, Harold D Chapman, David V Serreze, Dina L Baker, N Ken Hendrix
Segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB) a gram-positive, anaerobic, and intestinal commensal organism directly influences the development of Th17 helper cells in the small intestine of mice. In NOD mice, SFB colonization interferes with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting that SFB may influence Th17 cells to inhibit Th1 populations associated with the anti-β-cell immune response. This effect is a serious concern for investigators who use NOD mice for diabetes research because the expected incidence of disease decreases markedly when they are colonized by SFB...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830579/use-of-microcomputed-tomography-to-measure-the-relaxin-induced-expansion-of-intrapubic-ligaments-in-mice
#18
Heather A Zimmerman, Richard P Kennan, Chunlian Zhang, Kashmira Shah, Douglas G Johns, Joseph J Lynch, Maya Dajee
Relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide in the insulin superfamily of hormones. In addition to its effects on reproductive and musculoskeletal ligaments, relaxin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiac, renal, and vascular systems in preclinical models. The mouse intrapubic ligament ex vivo bioassay is the current standard for measuring in vivo relaxin bioactivity. However, this bioassay necessitates euthanasia and dissection of large cohorts to measure the intrapubic ligament at specified time points. We hypothesized that μCT imaging could be used to reduce the number of animals necessary for the intrapubic ligament bioassay by enabling a single animal to be followed longitudinally throughout the study rather than euthanizing different cohorts at established time points...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830578/characterization-of-demodex-musculi-infestation-associated-comorbidities-and-topographic-distribution-in-a-mouse-strain-with-defective-adaptive-immunity
#19
Melissa A Nashat, Kerith R Luchins, Michelle L Lepherd, Elyn R Riedel, Joanna N Izdebska, Neil S Lipman
A colony of B6.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Tyrp1B-w Tg(Tcra,Tcrb)9Rest (TRP1/TCR) mice presented with ocular lesions and ulcerative dermatitis. Histopathology, skin scrapes, and fur plucks confirmed the presence of Demodex spp. in all clinically affected and subclinical TRP1/TCR mice examined (n = 48). Pasteurella pneumotropica and Corynebacterium bovis, both opportunistic pathogens, were cultured from the ocular lesions and skin, respectively, and bacteria were observed microscopically in abscesses at various anatomic locations (including retroorbital sites, tympanic bullae, lymph nodes, and reproductive organs) as well as the affected epidermis...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830577/optimization-of-glioblastoma-mouse-orthotopic-xenograft-models-for-translational-research
#20
Susan M Irtenkauf, Susan Sobiechowski, Laura A Hasselbach, Kevin K Nelson, Andrea D Transou, Enoch T Carlton, Tom Mikkelsen, Ana C deCarvalho
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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