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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212587/nonreducible-inguinal-hernia-containing-the-uterus-and-bilateral-adnexa-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#1
Melissa R Berg, Rhonda P MacAllister, Lauren D Martin
Inguinal herniation of abdominal viscera is a relatively common condition in both humans and domestic animal species. In captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the highest incidence occurs in overweight, aged males. However, inguinal herniation of the uterus with bilateral adnexa is extremely rare in both human and veterinary medicine. Here we report a previously undescribed uterine inguinal herniation with bilateral adnexa in a 3-y-old female rhesus macaque. Although uterine herniation remains a rare condition in rhesus macaques, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in animals with unilateral subcutaneous enlargements in the inguinal region...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212586/hypercortisolemia-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-involved-in-visual-research
#2
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212585/clinical-salmonellosis-in-a-closed-colony-of-blood-donor-cats
#3
Amie Koenig, Tanya L Cooper, Craig E Greene, Ajay Sharma, Kaori Sakamoto
An adult feline blood donor, group-housed in a closed colony with other blood donor cats in a laboratory animal facility, developed anorexia, abdominal pain, an abdominal mass effect, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Ultimately Salmonella infection was diagnosed. The index cat and 2 additional cats in the closed colony had clinical signs consistent with Salmonella and yielded Salmonella serotype 4,12:i:- in fecal cultures. An extensive search for the source of Salmonella was unrewarding. With the implementation of individual housing and additional barrier precautions, combined with antibiotic treatment of the index case, all the cats survived and subsequently had multiple, negative Salmonella PCR test results...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212584/horner-syndrome-in-2-pigs-sus-scrofa-after-vascular-grafting-of-the-carotid-artery-and-jugular-vein
#4
Gabrielle C Musk, Martyn King, Bulang He
The term Horner syndrome refers to the clinical presentation of oculosympathoparesis, comprising miosis, ptosis, and facial anhydrosis. To date, there are 2 reports of postoperative Horner syndrome in pigs. In this species the cervical sympathetic chain and cranial cervical sympathetic ganglion are consistently within the carotid artery sheath. This case study describes the sudden onset of Horner syndrome in 2 pigs, from a study cohort of 8, after the placement of a vascular graft between the carotid artery and external jugular vein...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212583/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-metabolic-dysfunction-of-young-rapacz-familial-hypercholesterolemic-swine-sus-scrofa
#5
Nell A Bekiares, Andrea S Chen, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam, Adrienne Dardenne Meyers, Thomas D Crenshaw, Christian G Krueger, Jess D Reed
The Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine model is well-characterized and used for studies of both spontaneous and inducible atherosclerosis but has not been used for studies of metabolic dysfunction to date. We examined whether parameters of metabolic syndrome including weight and adiposity, serum cholesterol, and glucoregulatory function could be modulated by restriction of caloric intake in the FH swine. Three groups of FH swine (n = 6 per group) were fed without restriction (AL), 80% of AL caloric intake, or 60% of AL caloric intake for 8...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212582/benefits-of-intraluminal-agarose-stents-during-end-to-end-intestinal-anastomosis-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#6
Wen-Yao Kuo, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Shih-Wei Huang, Kuan-Hua Yu, Feng-Pang Cheng, Jiann-Hsiung Wang, Jui-Te Wu
In the present study, we evaluated the utility of an intraluminal agarose stent (IAS) for end-to-end intestinal anastomoses in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 14) underwent conventional sutured anastomosis (CSA) with or without an IAS. IAS were used to maintain the luminal diameter for more rapid and accurate suturing, and then was squeezed transluminally to crush it into fragments, which passed through the intestines and were eliminated. The rabbits were euthanized on postoperative day 21. At necropsy, the anastomoses were assessed for adhesion formation, stenosis, and bursting pressure and were examined histologically for collagen content and blood vessel formation...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212581/cationic-liposome-oligonucleotide-complex-as-an-alternative-adjuvant-for-polyclonal-antibody-production-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolaguscuniculus
#7
Erin S Lee, Clinton Sc Walker, Jacob E Moskowitz, Valerie A Johnson, Lon V Kendall
Because of their ideal size and temperament, rabbits are commonly used in polyclonal antibody production. Immunostimulatory adjuvants-such as Freund complete and incomplete adjuvants as well as various proprietary products-trigger a robust immune response, which increases antibody concentrations. However, these adjuvants can cause excessive soft tissue reactions, prompting concerns regarding animal wellbeing. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of cationic liposome- oligonucleotide complexes (CLDC) as an alternative adjuvant to conventional adjuvants...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212580/mice-housed-at-elevated-vivarium-temperatures-display-enhanced-t-cell-response-and-survival-to-francisella-tularensis
#8
Robert L Rubin
The inability to translate findings from studies performed in mouse models to the corresponding human condition is well known, especially those involving infectious, atherosclerotic, and other inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that mice fail to a mount robust or adequate immune response to infectious agents because of physiologic effects of cold stress due to housing temperatures below the mouse thermoneutral zone (TNZ). This hypothesis was tested by comparing the immune response to the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain in mice housed at a typical vivarium temperature, which is below the TNZ, with that of mice housed at a temperature near their TNZ...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212579/time-course-of-vitamin-d-depletion-and-repletion-in-reproductive-age-female-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Alyssa C Kieschnick, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Catherine A Peterson
The use of animal models in vitamin D deficiency (VDD) research, particularly in regard to maternal deficits, has increased dramatically, yet these studies may be confounded due to ill-conceived experimental timelines. We conducted 2 experiments to (1) characterize the time course of VDD induction and repletion and (2) explore the long-term consequences of VDD on calcium homeostasis and body composition in reproductive-age female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomized to receive either a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) or VDD diet; serum was collected weekly...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212578/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-the-effects-of-pain-on-experimental-parameters
#10
Norman C Peterson, Elizabeth A Nunamaker, Patricia V Turner
A common dilemma faced by all animal bioethics committees arises when exceptions are proposed to the use of analgesics in painful procedures. The committee and researcher must weigh the possible confounding effects of including additional drugs (analgesics) in their treatment regimen against the moral obligation to perform humane research. Often neglected in these considerations are the potential confounding effects of unrelieved pain and consistency with pain-relieving practices in human medicine. In this review, we summarize what is currently known regarding the molecular and physiologic effects of pain and analgesics in common animal models used across several therapeutic areas...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212577/aalas-publications-write-for-all-readers
#11
Amy Lb Frazier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935009/acute-occlusion-of-the-abdominal-aorta-with-sudden-paraplegia-in-a-captive-mustached-tamarin-saguinus-mystax
#12
Carmen R Michaud, Richard Herbert, William R Elkins, Alfonso S Gozalo
A wild-caught, research-naïve, adult male mustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) experienced sudden onset of bilateral hindlimb paresis. Physical examination established the presence of paralysis and the lack of femoral pulses and deep pain in both legs. There were no signs of external trauma and, due to a poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included pleural effusion, partial pulmonary atelectasis and congestion, dilatatory cardiomyopathy, a renal hemorrhagic infarct, and a thromboembolus located at the trifurcation of the distal abdominal aorta...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935008/coccidioidomycosis-in-an-indoor-housed-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#13
Mila C Kundu, Michael A Ringenberg, Denise L d'Epagnier, Heather L Haag, Sean Maguire
Coccidioides spp. are saprophytic, dimorphic fungi that are endemic to arid climates, are capable of infecting many species, and result in diverse clinical presentations. An indoor-housed laboratory rhesus macaque presented with weight loss and decreased activity and appetite. During the diagnostic evaluation, a bronchiolar-alveolar pattern in the cranial lung lobes, consistent with bronchopneumonia, was noted on radiographs. Given the poor prognosis, the macaque was euthanized. Confirming the radiographic assessment, gross necropsy findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of consolidation in the right and left cranial lung lobes...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935007/an-international-survey-of-approaches-to-chair-restraint-of-nonhuman-primates
#14
Jennifer L McMillan, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Mark J Prescott
Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935006/novel-h-shunt-venovenous-bypass-for-liver-transplantation-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#15
Yojiro Kato, Adam D Griesemer, Anette Wu, Hugo P Sondermeijer, Joshua I Weiner, Raimon Duran-Struuck, Mercedes Martinez, Andrea R Slate, Alexander Romanov, Jay H Lefkowitch, Megan Sykes, Tomoaki Kato
Cynomolgus monkeys are often used in preclinical transplantation research. Performing liver transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys is challenging because they poorly tolerate portal vein clamping during the anhepatic phase. Finding an alternative to portal vein clamping is necessary before preclinical liver transplant models can be performed with reliable outcomes. We used 3 different techniques to perform 5 liver transplants in male cynomolgus macaques (weight, 7.4-10.8 kg; mismatched for MHC I and II; matched for ABO)...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935005/sequelae-of-occult-aggression-disqualifying-young-socially-housed-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-from-participation-in-dermal-toxicology-studies
#16
Jeffrey D Wyatt, Diane M Moorman-White, Donnalee Ventura, Brett W Schneider, Thomas W Bittner
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935004/intestinal-parasites-and-anthelmintic-treatments-in-a-laboratory-colony-of-wild-caught-african-pouched-rats-cricetomys-ansorgei
#17
Cassandra O Cullin, Matthew S Sellers, Erin R Rogers, Kathleen E Scott, Danielle N Lee, Alexander G Ophir, Todd A Jackson
African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935003/spontaneous-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-kk-a-y-mice
#18
Tetsufumi Koga, Wataru Aoki, Miki Fujii, Kiyoshi Satou, Yoshinori Ikeda
During 2006 through 2012, spontaneous group B Streptococcus infections were reported in 22 female KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The affected mice were 5 to 27 wk old, and the cases involved various body sites, including cases of submandibular, caudal, and lumbar abscesses (n =18) or led to torticollis (n = 2), hydrocephalus (n = 1), or moribund clinical signs (n = 1). At necropsy, the mouse with hydrocephalus also demonstrated retained exudate in the uterus, and the moribund mouse showed renal inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935002/spontaneous-development-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-mice-with-cell-specific-deletion-of-inhibitor-of-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-kinase-2
#19
Kelly S Kirkley, Kelly D Walton, Colleen Duncan, Ronald B Tjalkens
The deletion of NFκB in epithelial tissues by using skin-specific promoters can cause both tumor formation and severe inflammatory dermatitis, indicating that this signaling pathway is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in epithelial tissues. In the present study, we crossed mice transgenic for loxP-Ikbk2 and human Gfap-cre to selectively delete IKK2 in CNS astrocytes. Unexpectedly, a subset of mice developed severe and progressive skin lesions marked by hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, inflammation, and neoplasia with a subset of lesions diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935001/lack-of-effect-of-murine-astrovirus-infection-on-dextran-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-nlrp3-deficient-mice
#20
Susan R Compton, Carmen J Booth, James D Macy
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. MuAstV is found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Human and turkey astroviruses have been shown to disrupt tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium. The potential of MuAstV to alter research results was tested in a well-established dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-deficient mice. This model offers a direct approach to determine whether MuAstV, as a component of the mouse microbiome, contributes to the issue of poor reproducibility in murine inflammatory bowel disease research...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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