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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053572/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-at-the-california-national-primate-research-center-1992-2014
#1
J Rachel Reader, Don R Canfield, Jennifer F Lane, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Amir Ardeshir, A Mark Allen, Ross P Tarara
Necropsy records and associated clinical histories from the rhesus macaque colony at the California National Primate Research Center were reviewed to identify mortality related to cardiac abnormalities involving left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Over a 21-y period, 162 cases (female, 90; male, 72) of idiopathic LVH were identified. Macaques presented to necropsy with prominent concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle associated with striking reduction of the ventricular lumen. Among all LVH cases, 74 macaques (female, 39; male, 35), mostly young adults, presented for spontaneous (sudden) death; more than 50% of these 74 cases were associated with a recent history of sedation or intraspecific aggression...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053571/malignant-neoplasia-of-the-sex-skin-in-2-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#2
Amanda P Beck, Elizabeth R Magden, Stephanie J Buchl, Wallace B Baze
This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053570/cercopithecine-herpesvirus-9-simian-varicella-virus-infection-after-total-body-irradiation-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#3
Jatinder Gulani, Amory Koch, Mark G Chappell, Christine L Christensen, Paul Facemire, Vijay K Singh, Natalia I Ossetrova, Venkataraman Srinivasan, Rebecca K Holt
This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy ((60)Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053569/retrospective-analysis-of-the-incidence-of-retained-placenta-in-3-large-colonies-of-nhp
#4
Cassondra Bauer, Tara Harrison
During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053568/serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-baboons-papio-spp-during-pregnancy-and-obesity
#5
Natalia E Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Anthony G Comuzzie, Michael M Mahaney, Gene B Hubbard, Edward J Dick, Mehmet Kocak, Sonali Gupta, Maira Carrillo, Mauro Schenone, Arnold Postlethwaite, Andrzej Slominski
Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to serious problems during pregnancy. However, the mechanisms of the deficiency and guidelines for vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are not established yet, and variations in environmental exposures combined with the difficulties of performing research in pregnant women are obstacles in the evaluation of vitamin D metabolism. Baboons (Papio spp.) are an excellent, well-established model for reproductive research and represent a unique opportunity to study vitamin D metabolism in a controlled environment...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053567/persistent-effects-of-peer-rearing-on-abnormal-and-species-appropriate-activities-but-not-social-behavior-in-group-housed-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#6
Sharon A Bauer, Kate C Baker
Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing)...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053566/vaxar-a-web-based-database-of-laboratory-animal-responses-to-vaccinations-and-its-application-in-the-meta-analysis-of-different-animal-responses-to-tuberculosis-vaccinations
#7
Thomas Todd, Natalie Dunn, Zuoshuang Xiang, Yongqun He
Animal models are indispensable for vaccine research and development. However, choosing which species to use and designing a vaccine study that is optimized for that species is often challenging. Vaxar (http://www.violinet.org/vaxar/) is a web-based database and analysis system that stores manually curated data regarding vaccine-induced responses in animals. To date, Vaxar encompasses models from 35 animal species including rodents, rabbits, ferrets, primates, and birds. These 35 species have been used to study more than 1300 experimentally tested vaccines for 164 pathogens and diseases significant to humans and domestic animals...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053565/efficacy-of-several-therapeutic-agents-in-a-murine-model-of-dry-eye-syndrome
#8
Servet Kilic, Kadri Kulualp
In the current study, we used 56 female BALB/c mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the therapeutic effects of formal saline (FS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), diclofenac sodium (DS), olopatadine (OP), retinoic acid (RA), fluoromethanole (FML), cyclosporine A (CsA), and doxycycline hyclate (DH). All subjects were kept in an evaporative 'dry eye cabinet' for the assessment of blink rate, tear production, tear break-up time, and impression cytology prior to (baseline) and during weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the study...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053564/lack-of-chronic-histologic-lesions-supportive-of-sublethal-spontaneous-seizures-in-fvb-n-mice
#9
Rebecca A Kohnken, Denise J Schwahn
FVB/N mice with 'space cadet' syndrome are prone to audiogenic seizures and are considered excitotoxic 'sensitive' mice due to the neuronal damage that accompanies seizures. FVB/N mice found dead demonstrate acute neuronal cell death--attributed to a massive seizure episode--within the hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae. However, the behavioral features of FVB/N mice and numerous studies using excitotoxins to induce seizure activity indicate that this strain experiences multiple sublethal seizures. To assess whether FVB/N mice develop histologically detectable lesions, we evaluated the brains of 86 aged (154-847 d) FVB/N mice without a history of seizures...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053563/comparison-of-3-topical-treatments-against-ulcerative-dermatitis-in-mice-with-a-c57bl-6-background
#10
Carmen R Michaud, Jing Qin, William R Elkins, Alfonso S Gozalo
Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common condition in C57BL/6 mice and strains with this background. The etiology of UD is unclear but appears to have a genetic component associated with the C57BL/6 strain and has been reported as secondary to a variety of conditions. Treatment is unrewarding, resulting in euthanasia in many cases. In the present study we compared 3 topical treatments against spontaneous UD in mice with a C57BL/6 background. In total, 301 mice of both sexes were included in this study, and the tested treatments comprised bacitracin-neomycin sulfate-polymixin B sulfate ointment twice daily, 10% povidone-iodine ointment plus 1% silver sulfadiazine cream once daily, and 0...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053562/biodistribution-analyses-of-a-near-infrared-fluorescently-labeled-bispecific-monoclonal-antibody-using-optical-imaging
#11
Norman C Peterson, George G Wilson, Qihui Huang, Nazzareno Dimasi, Kris F Sachsenmeier
In recent years, biodistribution analyses of pharmaceutical compounds in preclinical animal models have become an integral part of drug development. Here we report on the use of optical imaging biodistribution analyses in a mouse xenograft model to identify tissues that nonspecifically retained a bispecific antibody under development. Although our bispecific antibody bound both the epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin growth factor 1 receptor are expressed on H358, nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma cells, the fluorescence from labeled bispecific antibody was less intense than expected in xenografted tumors...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053561/systematic-literature-review-of-risk-factors-and-treatments-for-ulcerative-dermatitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#12
LETTER
David K Chu, Sean C Adams, Stephen A Felt, Jerome Geronimo, Joseph P Garner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884413/asthma-in-an-adult-female-vervet-monkey-chlorocebus-sabaeus
#13
Liza S Köster, Bradley Simon, Gilda Rawlins, Amy Beierschmitt
A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol-fluticasone (25 μg-250 μg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884412/spontaneous-cholelithiasis-in-a-squirrel-monkey-saimiri-sciureus
#14
Mia T Lieberman, Lynn M Wachtman, Robert P Marini, Vasu Bakthavatchalu, James G Fox
A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884411/granuloma-due-to-oxidized-regenerated-cellulose-in-an-aged-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#15
Marie-Josee Mf Lemoy, Angela Colagross Schouten, Don R Canfield
Bioabsorbable hemostatic agents such as oxidized regenerated cellulose are widely used to control intraoperative diffuse capillary bleeding. Compared with electrocautery or ligation, oxidized regenerated cellulose has the advantage of controlling bleeding without occluding the vessel lumen or causing thermal injuries to adjacent tissue. Although the manufacturer recommends removal of the material once hemostasis is achieved, oxidized regenerated cellulose is a bioabsorbable hemostatic agent and is often left in the surgical bed to prevent subsequent bleeding after surgical closure...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884410/use-of-an-implantable-loop-recorder-in-a-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-to-monitor-cardiac-arrhythmias-and-assess-the-effects-of-acupuncture-and-laser-therapy
#16
Elizabeth R Magden, Meg M Sleeper, Stephanie J Buchl, Rebekah A Jones, Erica J Thiele, Gregory K Wilkerson
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in captive chimpanzees and is often associated with myocardial fibrosis, which increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present a 36-y-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) diagnosed with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC). We placed a subcutaneous implantable loop recorder for continual ECG monitoring to assess his arrhythmias without the confounding effects of anesthetics. During his initial treatment with the antiarrhythmia medication amiodarone, he developed thrombocytopenia, and the drug was discontinued...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884409/natural-progression-of-canine-glycogen-storage-disease-type-iiia
#17
Elizabeth D Brooks, Haiqing Yi, Stephanie L Austin, Beth L Thurberg, Sarah P Young, John C Fyfe, Priya S Kishnani, Baodong Sun
Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa) is caused by a deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme activity. Hepatomegaly, muscle degeneration, and hypoglycemia occur in human patients at an early age. Long-term complications include liver cirrhosis, hepatic adenomas, and generalized myopathy. A naturally occurring canine model of GSD IIIa that mimics the human disease has been described, with progressive liver disease and skeletal muscle damage likely due to excess glycogen deposition. In the current study, long-term follow-up of previously described GSD IIIa dogs until 32 mo of age (n = 4) and of family-owned GSD IIIa dogs until 11 to 12 y of age (n = 2) revealed that elevated concentrations of liver and muscle enzyme (AST, ALT, ALP, and creatine phosphokinase) decreased over time, consistent with hepatic cirrhosis and muscle fibrosis...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884408/analysis-of-gene-expression-and-ultrastructure-of-stifle-menisci-from-juvenile-and-adult-pigs
#18
Michael Kreinest, Gregor Reisig, Philipp Ströbel, Stefan Fickert, Joachim Brade, Gunther Wennemuth, Peter Lipp, Markus L Schwarz
The origin of the age-associated degenerative processes in meniscal tissue is poorly understood and may be related to an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare medial menisci isolated from juvenile pigs and degenerated medial menisci from adult pigs in terms of gene expression profile and ultrastructure. Medial menisci were isolated from the knee joints of juvenile and adult pigs (n = 8 for each group). Degeneration was determined histologically according to a scoring system...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884407/effect-of-gonadectomy-on-the-androgen-dependent-behavior-of-ganglion-cell-like-cells-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#19
Rei Nakahira, Rumika Yoshida, Masaki Michishita, Kozo Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kimimasa Takahashi
Ganglion cell-like (GL) cells reside in the dermis of the ventral skin of mature male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sugorus) and express androgen receptor (AR). To assess whether GL cells have androgen-dependent behavior, we evaluated the histologic changes of GL cells after gonadectomy. Five male and 5 female hamsters were gonadectomized at the age of 4 wk and necropsied 14 wk later. The number, distribution, and proliferative activity of GL cells in the thoracoabdominal and dorsal skins were evaluated histologically and compared with those of corresponding intact animals...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884406/collagenoma-in-an-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#20
Jessica M Johnston, Blythe H Philips, Anthony J Carty, Peter S Klein, Angela K Brice
A 3-y-old female Xenopus laevis was reported for a gray mass on the abdomen. The frog was used for egg collection and was otherwise experimentally naïve. On physical exam, the frog was bright and active and had a firm, gray, lobulated mass (1.5 cm × 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm) in the cutaneous tissue of the left lateral abdomen. An excisional biopsy was performed under anesthesia, and the entire mass was removed and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the dermis was greatly expanded by connective tissue with a marked decrease in the number of glands, and occasional degenerative glands were present...
February 2016: Comparative Medicine
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