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Comparative Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516833/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#1
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humansand NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
May 17, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513420/optimization-of-glioblastoma-mouse-orthotopic-xenograft-models-for-translational-research
#2
Susan M Irtenkauf, Susan Sobiechowski, Laura A Hasselbach, Kevin K Nelson, Andrea D Transou, Enoch T Carlton, Tom Mikkelsen, Ana C deCarvalho
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panelofpatient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508743/mycobacterium-kansasii-isolated-from-tuberculinpositive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-in-the-absence-of-disease
#3
Steven T Shipley, David K Johnson, Morteza Roodgar, David Glenn Smith, Charles A Montgomery, Steven M Lloyd, James A Higgins, Edwin H Kriel, Hilton J Klein, William P Porter, Jerome B Nazareno, Paul W Houghton, Aruna Panda, Louis J DeTolla
Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitoredand screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii thatexhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes;the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease...
May 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492131/personal-protective-equipment-in-animal-research
#4
Jason S Villano, Janet M Follo, Mark G Chappell, Morris T Collins
The occupational health and safety program is an integral component of a comprehensive animal care and use program. Itisimportant to mitigate the risk of exposures of animal care and research personnel to allergens and physical, chemical, radiologic,and biologic hazards during the conduct of various tasks. This need is especially true in infectious disease and biocontainment research. One aspect of the program is the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE). Commercially available PPE should be carefully evaluated based on their material composition and performance according to manufacturer data...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462776/a-simple-way-to-eradicate-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#5
Tae M Kim, Hyojun Park, Kyo W Lee, Eun W Choi, Sang H Moon, Yong S Lee, Kahee Cho, Wan J Park, Jae B Park, Sung J Kim
Our investigation of indoor-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by using automated identification followedbyantibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 1 of 7 immunocompetent animals and 2 of 9 immunosuppressed monkeys as carriers ofmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Follow-up management involving mupirocin treatment resulted in the conversion of the 3 MRSA carriers into MRSA-negative cases. Prospective assessment of newly imported monkeys involving 24-h culture of nasal swabs on chromogenic agar revealed that 22% (18 of 82 animals) were MRSA-positive...
May 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390116/an-overview-of-animal-models-for-arthropod-borne-viruses
#6
Erin S Reynolds, Charles E Hart, Meghan E Hermance, Douglas L Brining, Saravanan Thangamani
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have continued to emerge in recent years, posing a significant health threat to millions ofpeople worldwide. The majority of arboviruses that are pathogenic to humans are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, but othertypes of arthropod vectors can also be involved in the transmission of these viruses. To alleviate the health burdens associated with arbovirus infections, it is necessary to focus today's research on disease control and therapeutic strategies. Animal models for arboviruses are valuable experimental tools that can shed light on the pathophysiology of infection and will enable the evaluation of future treatments and vaccine candidates...
April 7, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387182/severe-dermatitis-associated-with-spontaneous-staphylococcus-xylosus-infection-in-rag-tpl2-mice
#7
Nicole V Acuff, Monica LaGatta, Tamas Nagy, Wendy T Watford
Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal bacterium found on the skin and mucosal surfaces of SPF mice. S. xylosus is rarely pathogenic,most often causing skin lesions and dermatitis in immunocompromised mice, particularly those with impaired NADPHoxidase function. Here we report spontaneous infection with S. xylosus in Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice. Infection was characterized by the presence of alopecia, crusts, and scaly skin. S. xylosus was detected in the feces, skin, lymph nodes, and lungs of Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice and led to mortality or euthanasia due to humane endpoints...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387174/institutional-oversight-of-occupational-health-and-safety-for-research-programs-involving-biohazards
#8
Melissa C Dyson, Calvin B Carpenter, Lesley A Colby
Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The fieldof microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382901/uterus-like-masses-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#9
Mary F Dickerson, Lauren D Martin, Anne D Lewis
Endometriosis is a relatively common condition in women and some populations of adult female rhesus macaques. However,endometriosis with extensive smooth muscle proliferation, as occurs in endomyometrioma and uterus-like mass (ULM), is rare inwomen. This report describes a case of endometriosis with extensive smooth muscle metaplasia resembling multiple ULM in a20-y-old female rhesus macaque. During a protocol-related procedure, a large, smooth, globoid, freely moveable mass was palpated in the midabdomen. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic structure from which dark brown fluid was aspirated...
April 5, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374667/effect-of-antibiotic-administration-during-infancy-on-growth-curves-through-young-adulthood-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
Heather M Sidener, Byung Park, Lina Gao
Recent human studies indicate a possible correlation between the administration of antibiotics during early life and the risk oflater obesity, potentially due to antibiotic-induced alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome. In humans, the risk of obesity increases with multiple courses of antibiotics and when fetuses or infants are treated with broad-spectrum and macrolide antibiotics.In addition, the obesity risk in humans seems higher for males than females. We used a retrospective, case-control, matched-pair study design to evaluate health records for 99 control-matched pairs of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from an outdoor breeding colony...
April 3, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351452/abdominal-wall-endometriosis-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#11
Hannah M Atkins, David L Caudell, A Robert Hutchison, Andre C LeGrande, Nancy D Kock
Endometriosis is the presence of endometrium outside of the uterus. Although endometriosis occurs in both pelvic and extrapelvic locations, extrapelvic locations are less common. The development of abdominal wall or incisional endometriosis in women is associated with gynecologic surgeries and is often misdiagnosed. Because they naturally develop endometriosis similar to women,Old World NHP, including rhesus macaques, provide excellent opportunities for studying endometriosis. Here, we describe a case of abdominal wall endometriosis in a rhesus macaque that had undergone cesarean section...
March 28, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349861/stress-leukogram-induced-by-acute-and-chronic-stress-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Agata K Grzelak, Daniel J Davis, Susan M Caraker, Marcus J Crim, Jan M Spitsbergen, Charles E Wiedmeyer
The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model for experimental studies of stress has increased rapidly over theyears. Although many physiologic and behavioral characteristics associated with stress have been defined in zebrafish, the effects of stress on hematologic parameters have not been described. The purpose of our study was to induce a rise in endogenous cortisol through various acute and chronic stressors and compare the effects of these stressors on peripheral WBC populations. Acutely stressed fish underwent dorsal or full-body exposure to air for 3 min, repeated every 30 min over the course of 90 min...
March 27, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337953/influence-of-chronic-exposure-to-simulated-shift-work-on-disease-and-longevity-in-disease-prone-inbred-mice
#13
Linda A Toth Rita A Trammell Teresa Liberati Steve Verhulst Marcia L Hart Jacob E Moskowitz And Craig Franklin
Shift work (SW) is viewed as a risk factor for the development of many serious health conditions, yet prospective studies thatdocument such risks are rare. The current study addressed this void by testing the hypothesis that long-term exposure to repeated diurnal phase shifts, mimicking SW, will accelerate disease onset or death in inbred mice with genetic risk of developing cancer,diabetes, or autoimmune disease. The data indicate that 1) life-long exposure to simulated SW accelerates death in female cancerprone AKR/J mice; 2) a significant proportion of male NON/ShiLtJ mice, which have impaired glucose tolerance but do not normally progress to type 2 diabetes, develop hyperglycemia, consistent with diabetes (that is, blood glucose 250 mg/dL or greater) after exposure to simulated SW for 8 wk; and 3) MRL/MpJ mice, which are prone to develop autoimmune disease, showed sex-related acceleration of disease development when exposed to SW as compared with mice maintained on a stable photocycle...
March 23, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327255/the-interplay-of-ethics-animal-welfare-and-iacuc-oversight-on-the-reproducibility-of-animal-studies
#14
Stacy L Pritt And Robert E Hammer
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experimentswithin the same or among different laboratories. Over the past few years, much has been written and said about the lack of reproducibility of animal studies. Reasons that are commonly cited for this lack of reproducibility include inappropriate study design,errors in conducting the research, and potential fraud. In the quest to understand the basis for this lack of reproducibility, scientists have not fully considered the potential ramifications on ethical constructs for animal research, animal welfare considerations in animal research programs, the regulatory environment, and oversight by IACUCs...
March 21, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322187/influence-of-genetic-background-on-hematologic-and-histopathologic-alterations-during-acute-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-in-129-svev-and-c57bl-6j-mice-lacking-type-i-and-type-ii-interferon-signaling
#15
Jennifer L Johns Marielle L Discipulo Amanda L Koehne Kaitlin A Moorhead And Claude M Nagamine
The role of host type I IFN signaling and its interaction with other immune pathways during bacterial infections is incompletelyunderstood. Type II IFN signaling plays a key role during numerous bacterial infections including granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA)caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. The function of combined type I and type II IFN signaling and their potentialsynergism during GA and similar tick-borne diseases is a topic of current research investigation. The goal of this study was toevaluate 2 mouse models of absent type I/type II IFN signaling in experimental A...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322186/effect-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-circadian-metabolism-and-physiology-in-rats
#16
Melissa A Wren-Dail Robert T Dauchy David E Blask Steven M Hill Tara G Ooms Lynell M Dupepe And Rudolf P Bohm
Isoflurane anesthesia alters the blood levels of several neuroendocrine hormones associated with normal metabolism andphysiology and increases stress, but the effect of brief CO2 anesthesia on these parameters is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of isoflurane (4%) compared with brief CO2 (70% CO2, 30% air) anesthesia on circadian rhythms of plasma measures of physiology and metabolism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD; n = 6 per group) were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark(300 lx; lights on, 0600) photoperiod...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322185/well-differentiated-liposarcoma-in-a-bonnet-macaque-macaca-radiata
#17
Cynthia J Doane Paula J Johnson And David G Besselsen
Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinicalpresentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300028/comparison-of-allogeneic-and-syngeneic-rat-glioma-models-by-using-mri-and-histopathologic-evaluation
#18
Elena Biasibetti Alberto Valazza Maria T Capucchio Laura Annovazzi Luigi Battaglia Daniela Chirio Marina Gallarate Marta Mellai Elisabetta Muntoni Elena Peira Chiara Riganti Davide Schiffer Pierpaolo Panciani And Michele Lanotte
Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies aretestedbefore human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin,grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300027/cystic-calculus-in-a-laboratory-housed-green-anole-anolis-carolinensis
#19
Leslie L Birke Ann M Cespedes Emma R Schachner And Simon P Lailvaux
An adult, male, wild-caught, laboratory-housed green anole (Anolis carolinensis) on a locomotor performance study was presented for anorexia. The anole exhibited a 26% weight loss and a thin body condition but was otherwise alert and active. Despitesupportive care, the anole's clinical condition deteriorated, necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed a 4.5 mm × 2.5-mm cystic calculus, which consisted entirely of sodium urate. Here we describe the clinical findings and locomotor consequences of this disease in a green anole...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300026/effects-of-racecadotril-on-weight-loss-and-diarrhea-due-to-human-rotavirus-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs-sus-scrofa-domesticus
#20
Tammy Bui Guohua Li Inyoung Kim Ke Wen Erica L Twitchell Shaohua Lei Ashwin K Ramesh Mariah D Weiss Xingdong Yang Sherrie G Clark-Deener Robert Km Choy And Lijuan Yuan
Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acutewatery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable adjunctive treatment to supportive fluid therapy to decrease the mortality rate of diarrheal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an antisecretory drug, racecadotril, in treating human rotavirus (HRV)-induced diarrhea in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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