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Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201135/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-pathophysiology-and-potential-anti-inflammatory-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Paris C Papagianis, J J Pillow, Timothy J Moss
Inflammation of the preterm lungs is key to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), whether it arises as a consequence of intrauterine inflammation or postnatal respiratory management. This review explores steroidal and non-steroidal therapies for reducing neonatal pulmonary inflammation, aimed at treating or preventing BPD.
July 29, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170958/diagnosis-management-and-pathophysiology-of-central-sleep-apnea-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Anya T McLaren, Saadoun Bin-Hasan, Indra Narang
Central sleep apnea (CSA) is thought to occur in about 1-5% of healthy children. CSA occurs more commonly in children with underlying disease and the presence of CSA may influence the course of their disease. CSA can be classified based on the presence or absence of hypercapnia as well as the underlying condition it is associated with. The management of CSA needs to be tailored to the patient and may include medication, non-invasive ventilation, and surgical intervention. Screening children at high risk will allow for earlier diagnosis and timely therapeutic interventions for this population...
July 25, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153979/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
REVIEW
Hemant Sawnani
Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in younger boys with DMD are often poorly perceived and/or articulated by the patients or their families. As a result it is the watchful eye of the care-provider that determines the need for early polysomnographic (PSG) assessments. The use of polysomnography without capnometry should be considered completely inadequate when it comes to diagnosis and management of SDB in these patients. The stabilization of gas exchange with non-invasive ventilation may be achieved by the use of pressure or volume support ventilation...
July 18, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145147/a-systematic-cochrane-review-of-autogenic-drainage-ad-for-airway-clearance-in-cystic-fibrosis
#4
EDITORIAL
P McCormack, P Burnham, K W Southern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158080/cftr-modulator-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-an-organ-transplant
#5
REVIEW
Ruth M Mitchell, Andrew M Jones, Peter J Barry
CFTR modulators are a class of drugs which directly target the defective CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis (CF), improving its function with resultant clinical improvements. Currently these drugs are confined to people with a limited selection of genetic mutations. New modulators are in development which will lead to the majority of patients with CF becoming eligible for treatment. CFTR modulators are currently considered contraindicated in patients with a solid organ transplant. This excludes many patients who may benefit from the multisystem effects of CFTR modulator treatment...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158079/exercise-testing-in-cystic-fibrosis-who-and-why
#6
REVIEW
D S Urquhart, Z L Saynor
Annual review exercise testing is recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Trust. Testing to date has focused on evaluating aerobic fitness, a key prognostic indicator. Tests available range from simple field tests, to comprehensive evaluations of aerobic exercise (dys)function - cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). 'Field tests', although easy to perform are limited in the information they provide,whereas CPET, the 'gold standard' measure of aerobic fitness, is recommended as the first-choice exercise test by the European CF Society Exercise Working Group...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153896/urinary-tract-stones-in-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
J Graham Young
Urinary tract stones are a common problem in a general population but increasingly so in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients as survival improves. Mechanisms of stone formation are discussed, particularly those unique to CF patients. Modalities of treatment and the decision making process in this choice is outlined as well as possible future preventative strategies.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937141/sleep-frequently-asked-questions-question-1-what-abnormalities-do-babies-with-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-have-on-polysomnography
#8
REVIEW
Joanna E MacLean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933897/assessment-of-liver-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Suzanne Davison
Liver disease in cystic fibrosis has many causes, with biliary fibrosis due to abnormal CFTR protein predominating. Assessment requires aetiology to be defined. Biliary fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which although initially asymptomatic, may cause varices and splenomegaly. Monitoring progression includes clinical and ultrasound assessment with endoscopic assessment of varices for those at risk. Extrapolated primarily from longitudinal assessment of viral hepatitis in adults, non-invasive elastography has a potential role...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914748/ready-steady-go-achieving-successful-transition-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Gary James Connett, Arvind Nagra
Successful transfer to adult services is the paediatric team's anticipated endpoint for the care they provide to their patients. The preceding transition process needs to be well planned and designed to address young peoples' psycho-social, educational and vocational as well as their medical needs. Ready, Steady, Go is a generic programme that has been successfully implemented to make the transition process an integral part of the routine care of young people with cystic fibrosis. Used in combination with other initiatives, the programme helps achieve the more seamless transfer of young people better prepared to meet their ongoing needs...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914747/royal-society-of-medicine-cystic-fibrosis-symposium-2017
#11
EDITORIAL
Andrew M Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914746/multi-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-st235-in-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Annabelle C Lee, Andrew L Jones
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with a decline in lung function and overall poorer prognosis in the cystic fibrosis population. Molecular typing of P. aeruginosa has identified multiple clonal strains with increased virulence and transmissibility. P. aeruginosa ST235 is an emerging clonal strain with multi-drug resistance and is associated with more virulent infections. Novel cephalosporins, which have recently been introduced to clinical practice, may have higher efficacy against multi-drug resistant bacteria...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914743/the-use-of-lumacaftor-ivacaftor-to-treat-acute-deterioration-in-paediatric-cystic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
James A Hammond, Gary J Connett
Lumacaftor/ivacaftor is a precision medicine targeting the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients homozygous for Phe508del genotype. Whilst there is evidence for efficacy in children aged 6-11 years who are stable with good lung function, there are little data about the use of this medication for children with acute deterioration in this age group. We describe the use of this drug to treat a child with an unusually severe exacerbation of CF lung disease and review the potential of lumacaftor/ivacaftor as a rescue therapy in the paediatric CF population...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703693/hypersensitivity-reactions-to-intravenous-antibiotics-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Marie F A Wright, Andrew Bush, Siobhan B Carr
Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous antibiotics are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). As well as causing immediate morbidity, the need for future avoidance of the causative antibiotic can have a long-term negative impact on CF management. This paper reviews the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hypersensitivity reactions in CF patients, and using an illustrative case describes a rare but severe form of delayed drug reaction for which a high index of suspicion is required.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685805/interventions-for-autumn-exacerbations-of-asthma-in-children
#15
Katharine C Pike, Melika Akhbari, Dylan Kneale, Katherine M Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627168/cystic-fibrosis-papers-of-the-year-2017
#16
REVIEW
Iolo Doull
The number of published articles on Cystic Fibrosis (CF) continues to increase year on year. The evidence base for small molecule therapies in CF has continued to expand, with evidence for lumacaftor/ivacaftor in younger patients and longer-term evidence in adults, and pivotal studies on tezacaftor/ivacaftor. There were reports on emerging CFTR mutation agnostic therapies, and new evidence for long standing therapies.
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576240/question-1-why-do-children-still-die-from-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Ana Maria Herrera, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Asthma is one of the commonest chronic conditions in children and can occasionally be fatal. Little has changed regarding the risk factors for children dying from asthma in the last 30 years. The majority of deaths from asthma occur in children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. These should be preventable with better education of families, oversight of medication adherence and improved communication between health care professionals and families. More needs to be done to deliver basic messages more effectively about asthma management to the most vulnerable in communities around the world...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395963/what-do-patients-want-from-their-asthma-care-doctors
#18
REVIEW
Bruce K Rubin, Wei Zhao, Tonya A Winders
One of the most important causes of asthma morbidity, hospital admissions, and death is non-adherence to prescribed therapy. It is generally assumed that adherence rates can be increased with asthma education, although well conducted studies have not always supported this assumption. Education can be achieved, or can fail, in many ways and no two patients have the same needs or perceived needs. In order to better understand what children with asthma and their parents or caregivers would desire as support from their physician providers, we conducted a survey of nearly 1000 parents of asthmatic children affiliated with the Asthma and Allergy Network...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336933/left-vocal-cord-paralysis-after-patent-ductus-arteriosus-ligation-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Merete Salveson Engeseth, Nina Rydland Olsen, Silje Maeland, Thomas Halvorsen, Adam Goode, Ola Drange Røksund
CONTEXT: Extremely premature (EP) infants are at increased risk of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) following surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). OBJECTIVE: A Systematical Review was conducted to investigate the incidence and outcomes of LVCP after PDA ligation in EP born infants. DATA SOURCES: Searches were performed in Cochrane, Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PsycInfo. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing EP infants undergoing PDA surgery and reporting incidence of LVCP were included...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239774/the-clinical-use-of-mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-in-children-with-neuromuscular-disorders-in-europe
#20
REVIEW
Brit Hov, Tiina Andersen, Vegard Hovland, Michel Toussaint
Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) is a strategy to treat pulmonary exacerbations in neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). Pediatric guidelines for optimal setting titration of MI-E are lacking and the settings used in studies vary. Our objective was to assess the actual MI-E settings being used in current clinical treatment of children with NMDs and a survey was sent in July 2016 to European expertise centers. Ten centers from seven countries gave information on MI-E settings for 240 children aged 4 months to 17...
June 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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