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Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108868/does-vitamin-e-prevent-asthma-or-wheeze-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Hui Wu, Chunwei Zhang, Yongqing Wang, Yanlin Li
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple phenotypes. Epidemiologic studies suggest a close relationship between vitamin E and the occurrence of asthma, wheezing and atopic conditions during childhood. Previous results on its effects have been conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically examine the current evidence on the association of vitamin E with childhood asthma and wheezing. We searched electronic databases for observational studies in English-language journals published from 2000 to 2016...
October 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108867/medicolegal-issues-for-the-respiratory-paediatrician
#2
REVIEW
Ian M Balfour-Lynn
The legal profession depends on expert witnesses, and indeed the first time an English Court relied on an expert medical witness was in the 14th century. Asking a specialist to comment on the standard of professional practice expected in their own specialty was first introduced in a 1767 case [1]. This article draws on 20 years of experience in medicolegal work relating to paediatric respiratory medicine. It highlights some of the legal principles that lie behind an expert opinion and what constitutes clinical negligence...
October 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033215/treating-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-disease-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Sandy Z P Lim, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterial pathogen in the evolution of bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis. The appearance of resistant strains of pseudomonas is increasing with the earlier and more liberal use of a range of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial chest infections. The rationale for treatment and potential benefits of aggressive treatment of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from early in life are discussed.
September 1, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031795/pulmonary-sequelae-and-functional-limitations-in-children-and-adults-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#4
REVIEW
Daniel T Malleske, Olena Chorna, Nathalie L Maitre
Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often suffer from life-long pulmonary impairments in pulmonary physical function. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic pulmonary impairments and physical functional limitations associated with BPD from preterm birth to adulthood. It also identifies opportunities for intervention in children and adults living with chronic lung disease (CLD) after preterm birth.
August 24, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797888/the-weighty-issue-of-obesity-in-paediatric-respiratory-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Dominic A Fitzgerald
Some have observed that developed world is fat and getting fatter. This is even extending into the developing world, and it is important to appreciate that the consequences of childhood obesity last into adulthood and are associated with premature death. From the paediatric respiratory perspective, the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the thoraco-abdominal region begins early in life and is believed to alter diaphragm mobility and chest wall expansion, reduce lung compliance, and result in a rapid shallow breathing pattern with an increased work of breathing and reduction in maximum ventilatory capacity...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750746/presentations-from-the-edwin-l-kendig-jr-pediatric-pulmonary-symposium-richmond-virginia-may-25-2017
#6
EDITORIAL
Henry J Rozycki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712576/comparing-effectiveness-and-outcomes-in-asthma-and-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Michael S Schechter
As technology yields new treatments, pediatric pulmonologists need determine how best to use them and how to decide which ones are best for any specific group or individual patient. Physicians have always customized therapies based upon patient response, but the new concept of "Personalized (or precision) medicine" focuses attention to a greater degree on the individual needs of patients based on their genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics. The newly developed biologics for treatment of asthma and CFTR modulators for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) highlight this newer approach...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697970/cystic-fibrosis-priorities-and-progress-for-future-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Eitan Kerem
Significant improvement in the survival of patients with CF has been achieved in the last decades. The improved clinical status of the patients is mainly the result of a better understanding of the natural course of infection and inflammation in CF that has led to the implementation of strategies that increase the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients. These strategies include prompt diagnosis, timely and aggressive nutritional support, augmentation of MCC and improved mucous drainage, initiation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy as soon as possible, early treatment of acute exacerbations, implementation of effective hygienic measures in and outside CF centers and prompt identification and treatment of CF-related complications...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697969/childhood-severe-asthma-new-insights-on-remodelling-and-biomarkers
#9
REVIEW
Sejal Saglani
Severe asthma in children is characterised by severe and multiple aeroallergen sensitisation, food allergy, eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodelling. However, it is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in the manifestation of each of these characteristics between patients. Recent data from mechanistic studies that have used translational approaches including neonatal mouse models and airway bronchoscopic samples, have shown specific molecular mediators that drive remodelling and steroid resistance in paediatric severe asthma will be discussed...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697968/update-on-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-childhood-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Justin C Brockbank
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is common in childhood and is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstructive events during sleep that produce significant neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of childhood OSAS is complex and involves mechanical airway obstruction often secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, neuromotor abnormalities and instability of central ventilatory control are also implicated. Several surgical and non-surgical treatment options for childhood OSAS are available, and will be discussed...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687247/bacterial-and-viral-pneumonia-new-insights-from-the-drakenstein-child-health-study
#11
REVIEW
Heather J Zar
Pneumonia remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite improved preventative strategies. Increasing evidence also links early life pneumonia with the development of chronic non-communicable respiratory diseases into childhood and adulthood. The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a unique, multidisciplinary, South African birth cohort, investigating the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long term impact of early life pneumonia on child health. The study provides novel data showing a high incidence of pneumonia despite excellent immunisation coverage; that pneumonia is due to multiple pathogens; that dysbiosis of the nasopharyngeal flora precedes and predisposes to pneumonia; and that early life pneumonia results in reduced lung function...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433261/dyspnea-in-children-what-is-driving-it-and-how-to-approach-it
#12
REVIEW
Larry C Lands
Dyspnea in children has important physical and psychosocial impact. It is useful to define the quality of the dyspnea and quantify its magnitude in a child-friendly manner. Through careful history taking and physical examination, a targeted investigation can lead to identification of the cause and potential treatment. This article provides a framework for the clinical approach to dyspnea in children, including important information to gather during the history, physical assessment, how to quantify dyspnea, and choice and use of laboratory measurements...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162941/stem-cells-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-the-five-questions-which-cells-when-in-which-dose-to-which-patients-via-which-route
#13
REVIEW
Martin Mueller, Boris W Kramer
Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Despite advances in perinatology, immature infants continue to face serious risks such chronic respiratory impairment from bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Current treatment options are insufficient and novel approaches are desperately needed. In recent years stem cells have emerged as potential candidates to treat BPD with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) being particularly promising. MSCs originate from several stem cell niches including bone marrow, skin, or adipose, umbilical cord, and placental tissues...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986504/the-consequences-of-chronic-cannabis-smoking-in-vulnerable-adolescents
#14
REVIEW
Montaha Al Iede, Kenneth Nunn, Bronwyn Milne, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964950/question-11-how-should-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-abpa-be-managed-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Mon Ohn, Paul Robinson, Hiran Selvadurai, Dominic A Fitzgerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964949/vitamin-d-and-the-lung
#16
REVIEW
Sofia Konstantinopoulou, Ignacio E Tapia
Vitamin D metabolism is complex and its deficiency has proven to be deleterious in bone health, and to have significant effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D has also been associated with pulmonary diseases outcomes. This review will focus on vitamin D metabolism, and studies performed mostly in children with asthma or Cystic Fibrosis.
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26515919/clinical-interpretation-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-implications-for-exercise-counselling
#17
REVIEW
D S Urquhart, F M Vendrusculo
The measurement of exercise capacity in persons with cystic fibrosis by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) offers a functional assessment of lung performance and efficiency in a dynamic setting. Exercise performance can measured against predicted values and the mechanism by which exercise limitation occurs can be identified. In healthy subjects, exercise is limited by cardiac output, such that a significant breathing reserve exists at the end of exercise. However, other mechanisms of exercise limitation which may be identified in CF subjects include ventilatory limitation, and/or limitation due to physical deconditioning...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033214/the-evaluation-and-management-of-respiratory-disease-in-children-with-down-syndrome-ds
#18
REVIEW
Haya S Alsubie, Dennis Rosen
Children with Down syndrome (DS) have wide range of respiratory problems. Although underlying abnormalities in the respiratory system are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children with DS, particularly in the young, abnormalities in other organ systems may also impact respiratory function. A comprehensive evaluation of the child with DS and respiratory disease may prevent short-term morbidity and mortality, and reduce the incidence of complications in the long term. This review provides an overview of the various causes of respiratory disease, and insight into some of the newer therapies available to treat obstructive sleep apnea, in this population...
August 23, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#19
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778740/oscillating-devices-for-airway-clearance-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#20
L Morrison, S Milroy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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