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Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709779/bronchial-hyper-responsiveness-after-preterm-birth
#1
REVIEW
Hege H Clemm, Merete Engeseth, Maria Vollsæter, Sailesh Kotecha, Thomas Halvorsen
Being born preterm often adversely affects later lung function. Airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are common findings. Respiratory symptoms in asthma and in lung disease after preterm birth might appear similar, but clinical experience and studies indicate that symptoms secondary to preterm birth reflect a separate disease entity. BHR is a defining feature of asthma, but can also be found in other lung disorders and in subjects without respiratory symptoms. We review different methods to assess BHR, and findings reported from studies that have investigated BHR after preterm birth...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712576/comparing-effectiveness-and-outcomes-in-asthma-and-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Michael S Schechter
As technology yields new treatments, pediatric pulmonologists need determine how best to use them and how to decide which ones are best for any specific group or individual patient. Physicians have always customized therapies based upon patient response, but the new concept of "Personalized (or precision) medicine" focuses attention to a greater degree on the individual needs of patients based on their genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics. The newly developed biologics for treatment of asthma and CFTR modulators for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) highlight this newer approach...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697970/cystic-fibrosis-priorities-and-progress-for-future-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Eitan Kerem
Significant improvement in the survival of patients with CF has been achieved in the last decades. The improved clinical status of the patients is mainly the result of a better understanding of the natural course of infection and inflammation in CF that has led to the implementation of strategies that increase the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients. These strategies include prompt diagnosis, timely and aggressive nutritional support, augmentation of MCC and improved mucous drainage, initiation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy as soon as possible, early treatment of acute exacerbations, implementation of effective hygienic measures in and outside CF centers and prompt identification and treatment of CF-related complications...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697969/childhood-severe-asthma-new-insights-on-remodelling-and-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Sejal Saglani
Severe asthma in children is characterised by severe and multiple aeroallergen sensitisation, food allergy, eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodelling. However, it is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in the manifestation of each of these characteristics between patients. Recent data from mechanistic studies that have used translational approaches including neonatal mouse models and airway bronchoscopic samples, have shown specific molecular mediators that drive remodelling and steroid resistance in paediatric severe asthma will be discussed...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697968/update-on-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-childhood-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Justin C Brockbank
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is common in childhood and is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstructive events during sleep that produce significant neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of childhood OSAS is complex and involves mechanical airway obstruction often secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, neuromotor abnormalities and instability of central ventilatory control are also implicated. Several surgical and non-surgical treatment options for childhood OSAS are available, and will be discussed...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697967/-new-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-chronic-lung-disease
#6
REVIEW
Judith A Voynow
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the major cause of chronic lung disease and morbidity in preterm infants. Since it was first described fifty years ago, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment for BPD has changed dramatically. This review summarizes these changes and the clinical outcomes for infants diagnosed with BPD.
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687245/movement
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Ferkol
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an inherited disease characterized by impaired ciliary function leading to diverse clinical manifestations, including chronic sinopulmonary disease, persistent middle ear effusions, laterality defects, and infertility. Our understanding of the complex genetics and functional phenotypes of primary ciliary dyskinesia has rapidly grown, and over 35 disease-associated genes have been identified, which segregate into genes that encode axonemal motor proteins, regulatory proteins within the cilium, and cytoplasmic proteins involved in ciliary assembly...
June 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687247/bacterial-and-viral-pneumonia-new-insights-from-the-drakenstein-child-health-study
#8
REVIEW
Heather J Zar
Pneumonia remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite improved preventative strategies. Increasing evidence also links early life pneumonia with the development of chronic non-communicable respiratory diseases into childhood and adulthood. The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a unique, multidisciplinary, South African birth cohort, investigating the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long term impact of early life pneumonia on child health. The study provides novel data showing a high incidence of pneumonia despite excellent immunisation coverage; that pneumonia is due to multiple pathogens; that dysbiosis of the nasopharyngeal flora precedes and predisposes to pneumonia; and that early life pneumonia results in reduced lung function...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687246/edwin-lawrence-kendig-jr-md-dsc-hon-1911-2003
#9
REVIEW
Barry V Kirkpatrick
Edwin Kendig, MD is considered one of the founders of pediatric pulmonology. Prompted by his own experience with tuberculosis, he opened a 'chest clinic' for children, where he worked for 50years. He systematically published his observations and was the original editor of the first textbook in pediatric pulmonology in 1967. His book, now called Kendig and Chernick's Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children will publish its 9th edition in 2018. All of this was in addition to his primary care pediatric practice, his teaching and his work at the national and international level of pediatric care...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673835/when-should-parapneumonic-pleural-effusions-be-drained-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Helena Teresinha Mocelin, Cistiano Feijó Andrade, Edgar E Sarria
Pneumonia is an important health problem in children, and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) is a frequent complication. There is no standard strategy for treating PPE, reflected in the few international guidelines that have been published on the issue. Compared to adults, there is no consensus on the utility of pleural fluid analysis in paediatric PPE. This is because of the lack of good evidence either in favour or against it and the risks of procedural sedation for acquiring pleural fluid for analysis to guide management...
June 1, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666768/strategies-for-improving-early-nutritional-outcomes-in-children-with-oesophageal-atresia-and-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#11
REVIEW
Dominic A Fitzgerald, Andrea Kench, Lucy Hatton, Jonathan Karpelowsky
Post-natal growth in surgical lung conditions, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula, is often sub-optimal in the early years of life when lung growth is occurring. Whilst constitutional, behavioural and mechanical factors may contribute to poor feeding and weight gain, there is a common path of management with greater caloric supplementation that may change growth trajectories and potentially lead to better respiratory, anthropometric and cognitive outcomes...
May 31, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651937/postnatal-steroids-in-extreme-preterm-infants-intra-tracheal-instillation-using-surfactant-as-a-vehicle
#12
REVIEW
L Boel, S Banerjee, M Chakraborty
Chronic Lung Disease (CLD) is a common respiratory morbidity in survivors following extreme preterm birth, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopment in the long term. Besides demographics, multiple risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of CLD. However, early lung inflammation appears to be the common pathway that leads to the pathological and clinical changes observed in CLD. Postnatal use of systemic steroids has been successful in reducing the incidence of CLD but resulted in unacceptable adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes...
May 31, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625493/question-12-what-do-you-consider-when-discussing-treatment-adherence-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Mon Ohn, Dominic A Fitzgerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566196/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Aisha Aslam, Nikki Jahnke, Tracey Remmington, Kevin W Southern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479112/interventions-to-improve-inhaler-technique-and-adherence-to-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-children-with-asthma
#15
Rebecca Normansell, Kayleigh Kew, Elizabeth Stovold, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Emma Dennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416135/all-the-rage-in-lung-disease-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-rage-is-a-major-mediator-of-pulmonary-inflammatory-responses
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Oczypok, Timothy N Perkins, Tim D Oury
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. It was discovered in 1992 on endothelial cells and was named for its ability to bind advanced glycation endproducts and promote vascular inflammation in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Further studies revealed that RAGE is most highly expressed in lung tissue and spurred numerous explorations into RAGE's role in the lung...
June 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986505/secondary-pulmonary-hypertension-who-to-consider-how-to-confirm-and-when-to-follow-up
#17
EDITORIAL
Dominic A Fitzgerald, Ernst Eber, Larry C Lands
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986502/pathophysiology-screening-and-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Gabriel Altit, Adrian Dancea, Claudia Renaud, Thérèse Perreault, Larry C Lands, Guilherme Sant'Anna
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of extreme prematurity, which has increased over the last 20 years. BPD is associated with increased morbidities and mortality. It has been increasingly recognized that BPD affects overall lung development including the pulmonary vasculature. More recent studies have demonstrated an increased awareness of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) in BPD patients and recent international guidelines have advocated for better screening. This review will describe the current understanding of the pathophysiology of PH in infants with BPD, the in-depth assessment of the available literature linking PH and BPD, and propose an approach of screening and diagnosis of PH in infants with BPD...
June 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433261/dyspnea-in-children-what-is-driving-it-and-how-to-approach-it
#19
REVIEW
Larry C Lands
Dyspnea in children has important physical and psychosocial impact. It is useful to define the quality of the dyspnea and quantify its magnitude in a child-friendly manner. Through careful history taking and physical examination, a targeted investigation can lead to identification of the cause and potential treatment. This article provides a framework for the clinical approach to dyspnea in children, including important information to gather during the history, physical assessment, how to quantify dyspnea, and choice and use of laboratory measurements...
March 31, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539256/anorexia-nervosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Lynette Linkson, Patricia Macedo, Felicity M R Perrin, Caroline M Elston
This article explores the challenges associated with diagnosing and managing eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa amongst adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis. It reviews the known risk factors, generic verses disease specific eating disorder risk screening tools and considers the ethical dilemmas associated with critically low body mass indices. A case review is included to illustrate the complexities of managing both conditions in the context of declining respiratory function.
March 23, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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