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Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209474/daytime-sleepiness-in-children-when-a-quiet-child-is-not-necessarily-a-good-thing
#1
EDITORIAL
Carole L Marcus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159510/immune-and-inflammatory-response-in-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-rhinovirus-infections-in-infants
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Elisabetta Calamelli, Giacomo Faldella, Marcello Lanari
Bronchiolitis is a common disease in infancy, mostly due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus. In addition to acute infection, viral bronchiolitis is responsible for sequelae including recurrent wheezing and asthma. The analysis of the viral characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the infection shows differences between the two viruses that may be helpful for the development of therapies and preventive strategies.
January 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185814/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-pulmonary-hypertension-in-children
#3
REVIEW
David G Ingram, Alvin V Singh, Zarmina Ehsan, Brian F Birnbaum
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric breathing disorder, affecting 1-5% of all children. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a severe complication of OSA, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this important relationship between OSA and PH, there is sparse literature addressing this subject in children. This review will examine the putative relationship between OSA and PH, synthesize the available literature in children, and suggest a reasonable approach, despite limited data, for clinicians...
January 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162941/stem-cells-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-the-five-questions-which-cells-when-in-which-dose-to-which-patients-via-which-route
#4
REVIEW
Martin Mueller, Boris W Kramer
Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Despite advances in perinatology, immature infants continue to face serious risks such chronic respiratory impairment from bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Current treatment options are insufficient and novel approaches are desperately needed. In recent years stem cells have emerged as potential candidates to treat BPD with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) being particularly promising. MSCs originate from several stem cell niches including bone marrow, skin, or adipose, umbilical cord, and placental tissues...
December 24, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216256/kleine-levin-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Olufunke Afolabi-Brown, Thornton B A Mason
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder characterized by discrete episodes of hypersomnia associated with cognitive and behavioural abnormalities, as well as normal alertness and function between episodes. The prevalence of KLS may be underestimated as it is often misdiagnosed and managed as another sleep disorder, neurological disorder or psychiatric condition. KLS is more typically seen in adolescence than at other ages, and is more common in males than in females. There are currently neither standard biomarkers nor specific imaging study findings, making the diagnosis of KLS a challenge...
December 23, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108192/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-childhood-narcolepsy
#6
REVIEW
Thomas J Dye, Neepa Gurbani, Narong Simakajornboon
It is now recognized that there are two types of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type I or Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by the loss of hypocretin or orexin neurons. Narcolepsy type II or narcolepsy without cataplexy has normal hypocretin and the etiology is unknown. Hypocretin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Most patients with narcolepsy type I and half of patients with narcolepsy type II carry HLA-DQB1*0602...
December 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139427/tobacco-vaccine-preventable-diseases-and-malnutrition-more-to-be-done-to-prevent-respiratory-disease
#7
EDITORIAL
Dominic A Fitzgerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639458/pulmonary-effects-of-maternal-smoking-on-the-fetus-and-child-effects-on-lung-development-respiratory-morbidities-and-life-long-lung-health
#8
REVIEW
Cindy T McEvoy, Eliot R Spindel
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of abnormal in-utero lung development. Despite well known risks, rates of smoking during pregnancy have only slightly decreased over the last ten years, with rates varying from 5-40% worldwide resulting in tens of millions of fetal exposures. Despite multiple approaches to smoking cessation about 50% of smokers will continue to smoke during pregnancy. Maternal genotype plays an important role in the likelihood of continued smoking during pregnancy and the degree to which maternal smoking will affect the fetus...
January 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613232/in-utero-alcohol-effects-on-foetal-neonatal-and-childhood-lung-disease
#9
REVIEW
Theresa W Gauthier, Lou Ann S Brown
Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy exposes both premature and term newborns to the toxicity of alcohol and its metabolites. Foetal alcohol exposure adversely effects the lung. In contrast to the adult "alcoholic lung" phenotype, an inability to identify the newborn exposed to alcohol in utero has limited our understanding of its effect on adverse pulmonary outcomes. This paper will review advances in biomarker development of in utero alcohol exposure. We will highlight the current understanding of in utero alcohol's toxicity to the developing lung and immune defense...
January 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188008/risk-factors-for-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Mohamed Nagiub, Usama Kanaan, Dawn Simon, Lokesh Guglani
OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are at increased risk for development of Pulmonary Hypertension (PHT). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify risk factors for development of PHT in infants with BPD. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review identified risk factors for the development of PHT in infants with BPD. A meta-analysis of the pooled data was performed for each individual risk factor. RESULT: Of the 20 risk factors identified, 10 were repeated more than once in nine studies...
November 22, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040404/mini-symposium-maternal-effects-on-paediatric-lung-health-and-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Henry Rozycki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986503/sleep-is-an-eye-opener-behavioral-causes-and-consequences-of-hypersomnolence-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Jocelyn H Thomas, Darcy E Burgers
The most common behavioral cause of hypersomnia in children is insufficient sleep. Behavioral causes of insufficient sleep for children, ages six months through 12 years, include inadequate sleep hygiene, bedtime struggles, prolonged sleep onset latency, nighttime fears, and nightmares. Behavioral interventions are efficacious and should be individualized to meet the needs of the child and family. Insufficient sleep affects many areas of child development, including academic, cognitive, and psychosocial, as well as parents and caregivers...
November 22, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986504/the-consequences-of-chronic-cannabis-smoking-in-vulnerable-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Montaha Al Iede, Kenneth Nunn, Bronwyn Milne, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana...
November 9, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986502/pathophysiology-screening-and-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Gabriel Altit, Adrian Dancea, Claudia Renaud, Thérèse Perreault, Larry C Lands, Guilherme Sant'Anna
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of extreme prematurity, which has increased over the last 20 years. BPD is associated with increased morbidities and mortality. It has been increasingly recognized that BPD affects overall lung development including the pulmonary vasculature. More recent studies have demonstrated an increased awareness of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) in BPD patients and recent international guidelines have advocated for better screening. This review will describe the current understanding of the pathophysiology of PH in infants with BPD, the in-depth assessment of the available literature linking PH and BPD, and propose an approach of screening and diagnosis of PH in infants with BPD...
November 9, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964951/topical-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-gene-replacement-for-cystic-fibrosis-related-lung-disease
#15
L A Perry, J C Penny-Dimri, A A Aslam, T W Lee, K W Southern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986505/secondary-pulmonary-hypertension-who-to-consider-how-to-confirm-and-when-to-follow-up
#16
EDITORIAL
Dominic A Fitzgerald, Ernst Eber, Larry C Lands
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964949/vitamin-d-and-the-lung
#17
REVIEW
Sofia Konstantinopoulou, Ignacio E Tapia
Vitamin D metabolism is complex and its deficiency has proven to be deleterious in bone health, and to have significant effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D has also been associated with pulmonary diseases outcomes. This review will focus on vitamin D metabolism, and studies performed mostly in children with asthma or Cystic Fibrosis.
October 31, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964948/diagnostics-in-children-and-adolescents-with-suspected-or-confirmed-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Martin Koestenberger, Georg Hansmann, Christian Apitz, Heiner Latus, Astrid Lammers
We provide a practical approach on the initial assessment and diagnostic work-up of children and adolescents with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) often serves as initial study tool before invasive cardiac catheterization. Misinterpretation of TTE variables may lead to missed or delayed diagnosis with devastating consequences, or unnecessary invasive diagnostics that have inherited risks. In addition to clinical and biochemical markers, serial examination of patients with PH using a standardized TTE approach, determining conventional and novel echocardiographic variables, may allow early diagnosis and treatment in paediatric PH...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#19
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887916/interfaces-for-noninvasive-ventilation-in-the-acute-setting-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Guillaume Mortamet, Alessandro Amaddeo, Sandrine Essouri, Sylvain Renolleau, Guillaume Emeriaud, Brigitte Fauroux
The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is very specific in the acute setting as compared to its use in a chronic setting. In the Pediatric Intensive care Unit (PICU), NIV may be required around the clock and initiation has to be fast and easy. Despite the increasing use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and the larger choice of interfaces, data comparing the use of different interfaces for pediatric patients are scarce and recommendations for the most appropriate choice of interface are lacking. However, this choice in acute settings is crucial and a major contributor of the success of NIV...
October 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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