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Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#1
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887916/interfaces-for-noninvasive-ventilation-in-the-acute-setting-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Guillaume Mortamet, Alessandro Amaddeo, Sandrine Essouri, Sylvain Renolleau, Guillaume Emeriaud, Brigitte Fauroux
The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is very specific in the acute setting as compared to its use in a chronic setting. In the Pediatric Intensive care Unit (PICU), NIV may be required around the clock and initiation has to be fast and easy. Despite the increasing use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and the larger choice of interfaces, data comparing the use of different interfaces for pediatric patients are scarce and recommendations for the most appropriate choice of interface are lacking. However, this choice in acute settings is crucial and a major contributor of the success of NIV...
October 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856213/ralstonia-species-do-these-bacteria-matter-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Anna-Rose Prior, Cedric Gunaratnam, Hilary Humphreys
Ralstonia species, often regarded as an environmental organism of low pathogenicity, can cause significant disease in certain at-risk patient groups, including those with cystic fibrosis. Difficulties with its identification in the clinical laboratory mean that it may be misidentified and therefore under recognised as a cause of disease. A number of outbreaks have been associated with the use of devices for inhaled respiratory therapy, putting those with chronic respiratory conditions at risk. Antimicrobial treatment of infection is challenging and limited due to frequent antimicrobial resistance...
October 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856214/inflammation-induced-preterm-lung-maturation-lessons-from-animal-experimentation
#4
REVIEW
Timothy J M Moss, Alana J Westover
Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways...
October 20, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838161/obesity-and-common-respiratory-diseases-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Melissa Xanthopoulos, Ignacio E Tapia
Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls.
October 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818069/maternal-obesity-mediated-predisposition-to-respiratory-complications-at-birth-and-in-later-life-understanding-the-implications-of-the-obesogenic-intrauterine-environment
#6
REVIEW
Erin V McGillick, Mitchell C Lock, Sandra Orgeig, Janna L Morrison
More women than not are entering pregnancy either overweight or obese. This presents a significant health care burden with respect to maternal morbidities and offspring complications at birth and in later life. In recent years it has also become clear that maternal obesity is an even greater global health problem than anticipated, because the effects are not limited to the mother but are also programmed in the fetus, known as the 'intergenerational cycle of obestiy'. Despite a large body of epidemiological evidence reporting outcomes of obese pregnancies, including offspring respiratory complications, much less is known about the molecular effects of maternal obesity on fetal lung development...
October 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825614/impulse-oscillometry-in-the-assessment-of-asthmatic-children-and-adolescents-from-a-narrative-to-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Karoliny Dos Santos, Lílian L Fausto, Paulo A M Camargos, Maicon R Kviecinski, Jane da Silva
Diagnosis and management of asthma often relies mostly on symptoms because spirometry is not always reliable in some age groups, such as preschoolers. It is unclear whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) can supplement or replace spirometry. Available reports suggest that IOS has been applied with success in asthmatic children and adolescents to assess exacerbations, level of control, severity and response to treatment in the short and long term. Very few studies using adequate sample sizes and methods have been performed comparing the accuracy of IOS to spirometry for the diagnosis of asthma...
September 28, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793738/interventions-to-prevent-respiratory-diseases-nutrition-and-the-developing-world
#8
REVIEW
Tasneem Karim, Mohammad Muhit, Gulam Khandaker
Malnutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and nutrition plays a critical role in both acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Inadequacies in the nutritional requirements of a developing lung in utero and in early life can compromise the respiratory system integrity and result in poor lung function, reduced protection against infections, greater likelihood of acute illnesses in childhood and chronic illness in adulthood. Nutritional interventions harness great potential in reducing respiratory illness related morbidity and mortality in the developing world...
September 28, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843119/potential-nutrients-for-preventing-or-treating-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#9
REVIEW
Liya Ma, Ping Zhou, Josef Neu, Hung-Chih Lin
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a frequent complication occurring in extremely preterm infants. Despite recent advances in newborn medicine, the incidence of BPD does not appear to have changed markedly, and specific treatments and prevention strategies are still lacking. Nutrition plays an important role in normal lung development and maturation. Malnutrition may delay somatic growth and new alveoli development, thus aggravating pulmonary injury involved in the pathogenesis of BPD. However, few nutrients have been investigated for their potential to mitigate the pathogenesis of BPD...
September 15, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769785/dornase-alfa-for-cystic-fibrosis
#10
C L Yang, M Chilvers, M Montgomery, S J Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972477/mechanical-ventilation-during-acute-brain-injury-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Jordan S Rettig, Elizabeth D Duncan, Robert C Tasker
Mechanical ventilation in the brain-injured pediatric patient requires many considerations, including the type and severity of lung and brain injury and how progression of such injury will develop. This review focuses on neurological breathing patterns at presentation, the effect of brain injury on the lung, developmental aspects of blood gas tensions on cerebral blood flow, and strategies used during mechanical ventilation in infants and children receiving neurological intensive care. Taking these basic principles, our clinical approach is informed by balancing the blood gas tension targets that follow from the ventilation support we choose and the intracranial consequences of these choices on vascular and hydrodynamic physiology...
September 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746158/physical-activity-outcomes-following-preterm-birth
#12
John Lowe, Michael Cousins, Sarah J Kotecha, Sailesh Kotecha
Physical activity (PA) is an important mediator of health and disease. Many correlates may play an important role in explaining differences in PA between populations; however, the role of birth outcomes such as prematurity on levels of PA is relatively poorly represented in the literature. Children born preterm may be at risk for reduced levels of PA as they have increased respiratory symptoms as well as decrements in lung function and exercise capacity. Emerging evidence suggests that the effects are prevalent across the whole range of gestational age...
August 30, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743958/maternal-obesity-and-childhood-wheezing-and-asthma
#13
Franca Rusconi, Maja Popovic
Obesity represents one of the major public health problems worldwide, with an increased prevalence also among women of reproductive age. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are important risk factors for a number of maternal and foetal/neonatal complications. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent evidence regarding the associations between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood. Potential mechanisms, mediators and confounding factors involved in these associations are also discussed...
August 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818068/relation-between-asthma-and-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-is-the-association-causal
#14
REVIEW
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Pablo E Brockmann, Carole L Marcus
Over the last few decades, asthma and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children have experienced similar increases in prevalence, and have both been shown to have airway inflammation, leading investigators to postulate an association between asthma and SDB. However, whether this relationship is causal or not needs to be proven. In this manuscript, we use the most widely accepted epidemiologic criteria for causality, the Bradford Hill criteria, to test step-by-step whether the relation between asthma and SBD in children is causal or not...
August 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692868/chronic-hypoxaemia-as-a-molecular-regulator-of-fetal-lung-development-implications-for-risk-of-respiratory-complications-at-birth
#15
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Exposure to altered intrauterine conditions during pregnancy influences both fetal growth and organ development. Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that may influence the risk of infants experiencing respiratory complications at birth. There are a variety of signalling pathways that contribute to normal fetal lung development at the molecular level. The specific molecular effects of chronic hypoxaemia associated with IUGR on lung development are likely to be dependent on the specific aetiology (maternal, placental and/or fetal factors) that can alter hormone concentrations, oxygen and nutrient transport to the fetus...
August 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665512/diabetes-in-pregnancy-and-lung-health-in-offspring-developmental-origins-of-respiratory-disease
#16
M B Azad, B L Moyce, L Guillemette, C D Pascoe, B Wicklow, J M McGavock, A J Halayko, V W Dolinsky
Diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy. In parallel with this trend, a rise in chronic lung disease in children has been observed in recent decades. While several adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to diabetes in utero have been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies, few have examined the impact of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring lung health and respiratory disease. We provide a comprehensive overview of current literature on this topic, finding suggestive evidence that exposure to diabetes in utero may have adverse effects on lung development...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665511/maternal-hiv-and-paediatric-lung-health
#17
A L Slogrove, L Frigati, D M Gray
With improved prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, paediatric HIV disease is less common. However, the number of HIV exposed but uninfected infants is growing. Exposure to maternal HIV impacts infant respiratory health through an increase in known risk factors such as increased preterm birth and low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding, increased psychosocial stressors and increased exposure to infective pathogens. Exposure to the HIV virus and altered maternal immune environment result in immunologic changes in the infant that may contribute to respiratory disease risk...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665510/air-pollution-during-pregnancy-and-lung-development-in-the-child
#18
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639458/pulmonary-effects-of-maternal-smoking-on-the-fetus-and-child-effects-on-lung-development-respiratory-morbidities-and-life-long-lung-health
#19
Cindy T McEvoy, Eliot R Spindel
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of abnormal in-utero lung development. Despite well known risks, rates of smoking during pregnancy have only slightly decreased over the last ten years, with rates varying from 5-40% worldwide resulting in tens of millions of fetal exposures. Despite multiple approaches to smoking cessation about 50% of smokers will continue to smoke during pregnancy. Maternal genotype plays an important role in the likelihood of continued smoking during pregnancy and the degree to which maternal smoking will affect the fetus...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613232/in-utero-alcohol-effects-on-foetal-neonatal-and-childhood-lung-disease
#20
Theresa W Gauthier, Lou Ann S Brown
Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy exposes both premature and term newborns to the toxicity of alcohol and its metabolites. Foetal alcohol exposure adversely effects the lung. In contrast to the adult "alcoholic lung" phenotype, an inability to identify the newborn exposed to alcohol in utero has limited our understanding of its effect on adverse pulmonary outcomes. This paper will review advances in biomarker development of in utero alcohol exposure. We will highlight the current understanding of in utero alcohol's toxicity to the developing lung and immune defense...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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