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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Qing Zhu, Wen Wen, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus can produce numerous surface proteins involved in the adhesion and internalization of host cells, immune evasion, and inflammation initiation. Among these surface proteins, the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules contain many crucial cell wall-anchored virulence factors. The Sar-family regulatory protein Rot has been reported to regulate many important extracellular virulence factors at the transcriptional level, including Spa and clumping factor B. SpoVG, a global regulator in S...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Laure Surgers, Anders Boyd, Pierre-Marie Girard, Guillaume Arlet, Dominique Decré
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm production in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae provides a favourable environment for the exchange of antibiotic-resistance genes and could facilitate widespread dissemination. We aimed to assess biofilm development in ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates and determine how development relates to microbiological characteristics and clinical outcomes. METHODS: 147 ESBL-producing E. coli and 82 K. pneumoniae were genetically characterized...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Patricia Trübe, Tobias Hertlein, Daniel M Mrochen, Daniel Schulz, Ilka Jorde, Bettina Krause, Julia Zeun, Stefan Fischer, Silver A Wolf, Birgit Walther, Torsten Semmler, Barbara M Bröker, Rainer G Ulrich, Knut Ohlsen, Silva Holtfreter
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infection world-wide, and currently no vaccine is available for humans. Vaccine development relies heavily on clinically relevant infection models. However, the suitability of mice for S. aureus infection models has often been questioned, because experimental infection of mice with human-adapted S. aureus requires very high infection doses. Moreover, mice were not considered to be natural hosts of S. aureus. The latter has been disproven by our recent findings, showing that both laboratory mice, as well as wild small mammals including mice, voles, and shrews, are naturally colonized with S...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ina Gajic, Celine Plainvert, Dusan Kekic, Nicolas Dmytruk, Vera Mijac, Asmaa Tazi, Philippe Glaser, Lazar Ranin, Claire Poyart, Natasa Opavski
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) remains the leading cause of invasive diseases in neonates and an important cause of infections in the elderly. The aim of this study was to access the prevalence of GBS genito-rectal colonisation of pregnant women and to evaluate the genetic characteristics of invasive and non-invasive GBS isolates recovered throughout Serbia. A total of 432 GBS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types and the presence of the hvgA gene...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ana Margarida Sousa, Rosana Monteiro, Maria Olívia Pereira
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections are the major cause of high morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients due to the use of sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including clonal diversification into specialized CF-adapted phenotypes. In contrast to chronic infections, very little is known about what occurs after CF lungs colonization and at early infection stages. This study aims to investigate the early events of P. aeruginosa adaptation to CF environment, in particular, to inspect the occurrence of clonal diversification at early stages of infection development and its impact on antibiotherapy effectiveness...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
S Feuerbaum, N Saile, G Pohlentz, J Müthing, H Schmidt
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 encodes the single chromosomal 9-O-acetylesterase NanS, and several copies of prophage-encoded 9-O-acetylesterases (NanS-p). These enzymes have recently been shown to cleave 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2 ) to yield de-O-acetylated Neu5Ac, the latter of which may serve as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. In the current study, we investigated the NanS- and NanS-p-mediated digestion of synthetic O-acetylated neuraminic acids and bovine submaxillary glands mucin (BSM)-derived O-acetylneuraminic acids by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and nano electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI MS)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Alipio Pinto, Clara Berdasco, David Arenas-Mosquera, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia A Geoghegan, Myriam C Nuñez, Jorge Goldstein
Infections by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli may cause in addition to hemolytic uremic syndrome neurological disorders which may lead to fatal outcomes in patients. The brain striatum is usually affected during this outcome. The aim of this study was to determine in this area the role of the microglia in pro-inflammatory events that may occur during Shiga toxin 2 intoxication and consequently to this, whether oligodendrocytes were being affected. In the present paper we demonstrated that anti-inflammatory treatments reduced deleterious effects in brain striatal cells exposed to Shiga toxin 2 and LPS...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Sebastian Suerbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Torben Kuehnast, Fatih Cakar, Theresa Weinhäupl, Andreas Pilz, Sanja Selak, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter, Stefan Schild
The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a commensal of the human skin, but also an opportunistic pathogen that contributes to the pathophysiology of the skin disease acne vulgaris. Moreover, C. acnes, in addition to other skin-colonizing bacteria such as S. epidermidis and S. aureus, is an emerging pathogen of implant-associated infections. Notably, C. acnes isolates exhibit marked heterogeneity and can be divided into at least 6 phylotypes by multilocus sequence typing. It is becoming increasingly evident that biofilm formation is a relevant factor for C...
September 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Anni Bommer, Olga Böhler, Eva Johannsen, Ulrich Dobrindt, Thorsten Kuczius
The worldwide spread of toxin-producing and multi-drug resistant bacteria in water, food and the environment is considered a major threat to human health. Drinking water quality is controlled by inspection of fecal indicators presence whereby viable contaminants will be efficiently reduced by chlorination which is a common process for disinfection. However, the all-out efficiency is arguable, because bacterial regrowth has been documented after disinfection. In this study, we investigated the stability of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and β-lactamase expressing E...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nadine Legros, Gottfried Pohlentz, Daniel Steil, Johannes Müthing
Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated injury of the kidneys and the brain represent the major extraintestinal complications in humans upon infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Damage of renal and cerebral endothelial cells is the key event in the pathogenesis of the life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Stxs are AB5 toxins and the B-pentamers of the two clinically important Stx subtypes Stx1a and Stx2a preferentially bind to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and to less extent to globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1), which are expected to reside in lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of the human endothelium...
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lukas Page, Philipp Weis, Tobias Müller, Marcus Dittrich, Maria Lazariotou, Mariola Dragan, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Johanna Helm, Thomas Dandekar, Hermann Einsele, Jürgen Löffler, Andrew J Ullmann, Sebastian Wurster
Mold specific T-cells have been described as a supportive biomarker to monitor invasive mycoses and mold exposure. This study comparatively evaluated frequencies and cytokine profiles of Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucorales reactive T-cells depending on environmental mold exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 35 healthy donors were stimulated with mycelial lysates of A. fumigatus and three human pathogenic Mucorales species. CD154+ specific T-cells were quantified by flow cytometry...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
C Oliver Morton, Sebastian Wurster, Mirjam Fliesser, Frank Ebel, Lukas Page, Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai, Anna Lena Schmitt, Denise Michel, Jan Springer, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Interactions between fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus with host alveolar epithelium and innate immune cells are crucial in the defense against opportunistic fungal infections. In this study a simplified Transwell® system with a confluent layer of A549 cells acted as a model for the alveolar surface. A. fumigatus and dendritic cells were added to simulate the spatial and cellular complexity in the alveolus. Fungal growth into the lower chamber was validated by galactomannan assays. Addition of moDCs to the upper chamber led to a reduced GM signal and fungal growth, indicating moDC antifungal activity...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ashish Sharma, Mohd Saqib, Javaid A Sheikh, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Sangeeta Bhaskar, Tapan K Chaudhuri, Seyed E Hasnain
Utility of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as a multistage vaccine against mycobacterial infections demands identification of its protective antigens. We explored antigenicity and immunogenicity of a candidate protein MIP_05962 that depicts homology to HSP18 of M. leprae and antigen1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This protein elicited substantial antibody response in immunized mice along with modulation of cellular immune response towards protective Th1 type. Both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets from immunized mice produced hallmark protective cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Martin Bitzan, Omar AlKandari, Blair Whittemore, Xiao-Ling Yin
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal infection (pnHUS). Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and treatment remains controversial. The emerging role of complement in various forms of HUS warrants a new look at this "old" disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory features of three sequential cases of pnHUS since 2008 associated with pneumonia/pleural empyema, two due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19 A. Profound depletion of complement C3 (and less of C4) was observed in two patients...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mohamed A Karmali
The appearance of highly pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producingEscherichia. coli (STEC) has owed largely to the acquisition of Stx-encoding prophages by strains of E. coli that have pre-existing potential as enteric pathogens, such as atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). However, while high pathogenic potential is necessary, it is not sufficient for such strains to have a serious public health impact (i.e., large outbreaks, many cases of HUS, or both). To do so requires susceptible hosts and additional elements related to transmission, such as, socio-economic, societal, and lifestyle, factors...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jiale Ma, Xuwang Cai, Yinli Bao, Huochun Yao, Ganwu Li
Growth in urinary tract depends on the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to adjust metabolism in response to available nutrients, especially to synthesize metabolites that are present in urinary tract with limited concentrations. In this study, a genome-wide assay was applied and identified five nucleotide biosynthetic genes purA, guaAB and carAB that are required for optimal growth of UPEC in human urine and colonization in vivo. Subsequent functional analyses revealed that either interruption of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis or blocking of salvage pathways alone could not decrease UPEC's growth, while only simultaneous interruption of both two pathways significantly reduced UPEC's growth in urine...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Sabine Schlager, Sarah Lepuschitz, Werner Ruppitsch, Oksana Ableitner, Ariane Pietzka, Sabine Neubauer, Anna Stöger, Heimo Lassnig, Claudia Mikula, Burkhard Springer, Franz Allerberger
Despite their general low incidence, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia (E.) coli (STEC) infections are considered an important public health issue due to the severity of illness that can develop, particularly in young children. We report on two Austrian petting zoos, one in Tyrol (2015) and one in Vorarlberg (2016), which were identified as highly likely infection sources of STEC infections. The petting zoo related cases involved a case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) due to STEC O157:HNM in 2015 and an outbreak of STEC O157:H7 infections affecting five young children and two adults in 2016...
October 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Gillian A M Tarr, Hanna N Oltean, Amanda I Phipps, Peter Rabinowitz, Phillip I Tarr
BACKGROUND: The veracity of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been a topic of debate. We postulated that criteria used to define HUS affect this association. METHODS: We reviewed 471 hospitalized E. coli O157:H7 cases reported in Washington State, 2005-2014, to determine HUS status by various case definitions and antibiotic treatment. We used age-adjusted logistic regression models to estimate the effect of treatment on HUS status according to four common, but heterogeneous, definitions: the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) definition, hematology-focused and age-focused definitions from the literature, and hospital diagnosis...
October 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Yutika Nath, Suvendra Kumar Ray, Alak Kumar Buragohain
Mycobacterial pathogens have evolved a unique secretory apparatus called the Type VII secretion system (T7SS) which comprises of five gene clusters designated as ESX1, ESX2, ESX3, ESX4, and ESX5. Of these the ESX3 T7SS plays an important role in the regulatory uptake of iron from the environment, thereby enabling the bacteria to establish successful infection in the host. However, ESX3 secretion system is conserved among all the mycobacterial species including the fast-growing nonpathogenic species M. smegmatis...
October 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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