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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Xiangying Deng, Pei Dai, Minjun Yu, Liesong Chen, Cuiming Zhu, Xiaoxing You, Lingling Li, Yanhua Zeng
The Mycoplasma genitalium adhesion protein (MgPa), the most important outer membrane protein of M. genitalium, plays a vital role in the adhesion to and invasion of host cells by M. genitalium. Identification of MgPa receptors will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of M. genitalium. However, the receptor protein of MgPa has not been reported to date. In this study, an MgPa-binding protein with a molecular weight of approximately 17 kDa was screened from SV-HUC-1 cell membrane proteins by a modified virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Doreen Baumann, Helen Salia, Lilo Greune, Stephanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Zina M Uckeley, Gad Frankel, Marianne Guenot, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subvert host cell signaling pathways by injecting effector proteins via a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The T3SS-dependent EspB protein is a multi-functional effector protein, which contributes to adherence and translocator pore formation and after injection exhibits several intracellular activities. In addition, EspB is also secreted into the environment. Effects of secreted EspB have not been reported thus far. As a surrogate for secreted EspB we employed recombinant EspB (rEspB) derived from the prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 and investigated the interactions of the purified protein with different human epithelial and immune cells including monocytic THP-1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, U-937, epithelial T84, Caco-2, and HeLa cells...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jianrong Li, Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Chenpeng Xiao, Tianyu Ma, Xiao Yi, Chao Liang, Mingchun Li
Cellular stresses could activate several response processes, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and oxidative stress response to restore cellular homeostasis or render cell death. Herein, we identified the Candida albicans stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1), also known as Ysy6, which was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We found that deletion of both SERP1/YSY6 and ATG8 led to hypersensitivity to tunicamycin (TN), and resulted in severe mitochondrial dysfunction under this stress...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mathias Schwerdt, Claudia Neumann, Bianca Schwartbeck, Stefanie Kampmeier, Susann Herzog, Dennis Görlich, Angelika Dübbers, Jörg Große-Onnebrink, Christina Kessler, Peter Küster, Holger Schültingkemper, Janina Treffon, Georg Peters, Barbara C Kahl
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with chronic airway infections by Staphylococcus aureus as one of the earliest and most prevalent pathogens. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the S. aureus infection status of CF patients treated since 1994 at two certified CF-centres in Münster, Germany, to get insights into the dynamics of S. aureus airway infection and the clinical impact on lung function on a long-term perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from our microbiological database collected between 1994 and 2016 for patients treated at two centres in Münster, Germany, respectively, to determine the infection status for S...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Fabian K Berger, Sari S Rasheed, George F Araj, Rami Mahfouz, Hussein H Rimmani, Walid R Karaoui, Ala I Sharara, Ghassan Dbaibo, Sören L Becker, Lutz von Müller, Markus Bischoff, Ghassan M Matar, Barbara Gärtner
Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile is the main cause for nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised nations. Epidemiologic data on the pathogen's occurrence in other world regions are still scarce. In this context we characterized with phenotypic and molecular genetic methods C. difficile isolates stemming from hospitalised patients with diarrhoea in Lebanon. From 129 stool samples of symptomatic patients at a tertiary care University hospital in Lebanon, a total of 107 C. difficile strains were cultivated and underwent ribotyping, toxin gene detection and antibiotic resistance testing...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
V Hoerr, M Franz, M W Pletz, M Diab, S Niemann, C Faber, T Doenst, P C Schulze, S Deinhardt-Emmer, B Löffler
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease, caused by septic vegetations and inflammatory foci on the surface of the endothelium and the valves. Due to its complex and often indecisive presentation the mortality rate is still about 30%. Most frequently bacterial microorganisms entering the bloodstream are the underlying origin of the intracardiac infection. While the disease was primarily restricted to younger patients suffering from rheumatic heart streptococci infections, new at risk categories for Staphylococcus (S...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
F E Sachsenheimer, I Yang, O Zimmermann, C Wrede, L V Müller, K Gunka, U Groß, S Suerbaum
Infection with the emerging pathogen Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile might lead to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and mammals eventually resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which can be mild to possibly life-threatening. Recurrences after antibiotic treatment have been described in 15-30% of the cases and are either caused by the original (relapse) or by new strains (reinfection). In this study, we describe a patient with ongoing recurrent C. difficile infections over 13 months...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Juliane Hoyer, Jürgen Bartel, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Manfred Rohde, Claudia Hirschfeld, Nathalie Heß, Thomas Sura, Sandra Maaß, Sven Hammerschmidt, Dörte Becher
Iron is an essential trace element and involved in various key metabolic pathways in bacterial lifestyle. Within the human host, iron is extremely limited. Hence, the ability of bacteria to acquire iron from the environment is critical for a successful infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathobiont colonizing symptomless the human respiratory tract, but can also cause various local and invasive infections. To survive and proliferate pneumococci have therefore to adapt their metabolism and virulence factor repertoire to different host compartments...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Monica Feng, Andrew C Schaff, Sara A Cuadra Aruguete, Hailey E Riggs, Steven L Distelhorst, Mitchell F Balish
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen of humans that is a major causative agent of chronic respiratory disease. M. pneumoniae infections often recur even after successful treatment of symptoms with antibiotics, and resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, with nearly complete resistance in some places. Although biofilms often contribute to chronicity and resistance, M. pneumoniae biofilms remain poorly characterized. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells of wild-type (WT) M. pneumoniae strain M129 biofilms, as well as mutants II-3 and II-3R, in vitro became increasingly rounded as the biofilm towers matured over 5 days...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Anica Graf, Richard J Lewis, Stephan Fuchs, Martin Pagels, Susanne Engelmann, Katharina Riedel, Jan Pané-Farré
Lipoproteins are attached to the outer leaflet of the membrane by a di- or tri-acylglyceryl moiety and are thus positioned in the membrane-cell wall interface. Consequently, lipoproteins are involved in many surface associated functions, including cell wall synthesis, electron transport, uptake of nutrients, surface stress response, signal transduction, and they represent a reservoir of bacterial virulence factors. Inspection of 123 annotated Staphylococcus aureus genome sequences in the public domain revealed that this organism devotes about 2-3% of its coding capacity to lipoproteins, corresponding to about 70 lipoproteins per genome...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lisa J Lojek, Allison J Farrand, Andy Weiss, Eric P Skaar
Heme is a cofactor that is essential for cellular respiration and for the function of many enzymes. If heme levels become too low within the cell, S. aureus switches from producing energy via respiration to producing energy by fermentation. S. aureus encodes two heme oxygenases, IsdI and IsdG, which cleave the porphyrin heme ring releasing iron for use as a nutrient source. Both isdI and isdG are only expressed under low iron conditions and are regulated by the canonical Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur). Here we demonstrate that unregulated expression of isdI and isdG within S...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Noemí Yokobori, Beatriz López, Johana Monteserin, Roxana Paul, Andrea Von Groll, Anandi Martin, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Juan Carlos Palomino, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, María Del Carmen Sasiain, Viviana Ritacco
Determining bacterial fitness represents a major challenge and no single parameter can accurately predict the ability of a certain pathogen to succeed. The M strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis managed to spread and establish in the community and caused the largest multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak in Latin America. We have previously shown that the M strain can manipulate the host immune response, but we still have no direct evidence, other than epidemiology, that can account for the enhanced fitness of the M strain...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Karoline Wagner, Burkard Springer, Frank Imkamp, Onya Opota, Gilbert Greub, Peter M Keller
Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Pedro Henrique N Panzenhagen, Narayan C Paul, Carlos A Conte, Renata G Costa, Dália P Rodrigues, Devendra H Shah
In sub-Saharan Africa, two genetically distinct lineages of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovar Typhimurium sequence type 313 (ST313) are known to cause invasive disease among people. S. Typhimurium ST313 has evolved to become more human-adapted and is commonly isolated from systemic sites (eg., blood) from febrile patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological studies indicate that S. Typhimurium is frequently isolated from systemic sites from human patients in Brazil, however, it is currently unknown if this pathogen has also evolved to become more invasive and human-adapted in this country...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Michael Hecker, Ulrike Mäder, Uwe Völker
While the genome sequence is the blueprint of life, functional genomics is required to transfer the genome sequence to cell physiology. Among the Omics technologies, proteomics holds a privileged position because it deals with the main players of life, the proteins. For the model organism Staphylococcus aureus comprehensive coverage of the proteome was accomplished and used to address physiological and pathophysiological questions. This review article demonstrates that the proteomic view of physiology and pathophysiology of S...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Anne Leonard, Philipp Gierok, Karen Methling, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Sven Hammerschmidt, Michael Lalk
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a broad range of severe diseases including pneumonia and septicemia. The pneumococcal pathophysiology is highly dependent on host nutrients such as purines, pyrimidines, amino acids and carbon sources. Therefore, we aimed to decipher the metabolome with a metabolomics approach that allows for the investigation of the basic metabolic characteristics during growth in a chemical defined medium composed of typical host metabolites. By using a combination of 1H-NMR, HPLC-MS and GC-MS methods we monitored extracellular uptake and secretion of metabolites as well as the intracellular metabolic composition...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Shrilakshmi Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas. Although implicated to have a significant influence on the pathogenicity, their exact role in pathogen-host interactions has not been investigated so far. Initial attachment to host cells is regarded as one of the most important steps for colonization but this pathogen lacks the typical mycoplasma attachment organelle. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Vpmas in adhesion of M...
March 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Anna Müller, Fabian Grein, Andreas Otto, Kathrin Gries, Dmitriy Orlov, Vladimir Zarubaev, Myriam Girard, Xinwei Sher, Olga Shamova, Terry Roemer, Patrice François, Dörte Becher, Tanja Schneider, Hans-Georg Sahl
The first-in-class lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin (DAP) is highly active against Gram-positive pathogens including ß-lactam and glycopeptide resistant strains. Its molecular mode of action remains enigmatic, since a defined target has not been identified so far and multiple effects, primarily on the cell envelope have been observed. Reduced DAP susceptibility has been described in S. aureus and enterococci after prolonged treatment courses. In line with its pleiotropic antibiotic activities, a unique, defined molecular mechanism of resistance has not emerged, instead non-susceptibility appears often accompanied by alterations in membrane composition and changes in cell wall homeostasis...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Alamelu Raja
High global prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is a key challenge in distinguishing patients with active pulmonary TB (PTB) from those with LTBI. The functional profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokines produced as a response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens vary during the course of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We evaluated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokine response after overnight in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood with mycobacterial antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, Rv2204c, Rv0753c and Rv0009 by flow cytometry...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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