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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Lukas Page, Philipp Weis, Tobias Müller, Marcus Dittrich, Maria Lazariotou, Mariola Dragan, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Johanna Helm, Thomas Dandekar, Hermann Einsele, Jürgen Löffler, Andrew J Ullmann, Sebastian Wurster
Mold specific T-cells have been described as a supportive biomarker to monitor invasive mycoses and mold exposure. This study comparatively evaluated frequencies and cytokine profiles of Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucorales reactive T-cells depending on environmental mold exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 35 healthy donors were stimulated with mycelial lysates of A. fumigatus and three human pathogenic Mucorales species. CD154+ specific T-cells were quantified by flow cytometry...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
C Oliver Morton, Sebastian Wurster, Mirjam Fliesser, Frank Ebel, Lukas Page, Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai, Anna Lena Schmitt, Denise Michel, Jan Springer, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Interactions between fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus with host alveolar epithelium and innate immune cells are crucial in the defense against opportunistic fungal infections. In this study a simplified Transwell® system with a confluent layer of A549 cells acted as a model for the alveolar surface. A. fumigatus and dendritic cells were added to simulate the spatial and cellular complexity in the alveolus. Fungal growth into the lower chamber was validated by galactomannan assays. Addition of moDCs to the upper chamber led to a reduced GM signal and fungal growth, indicating moDC antifungal activity...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ashish Sharma, Mohd Saqib, Javaid A Sheikh, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Sangeeta Bhaskar, Tapan K Chaudhuri, Seyed E Hasnain
Utility of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as a multistage vaccine against mycobacterial infections demands identification of its protective antigens. We explored antigenicity and immunogenicity of a candidate protein MIP_05962 that depicts homology to HSP18 of M. leprae and antigen1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This protein elicited substantial antibody response in immunized mice along with modulation of cellular immune response towards protective Th1 type. Both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets from immunized mice produced hallmark protective cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Martin Bitzan, Omar AlKandari, Blair Whittemore, Xiao-Ling Yin
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal infection (pnHUS). Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and treatment remains controversial. The emerging role of complement in various forms of HUS warrants a new look at this "old" disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory features of three sequential cases of pnHUS since 2008 associated with pneumonia/pleural empyema, two due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19 A. Profound depletion of complement C3 (and less of C4) was observed in two patients...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mohamed A Karmali
The appearance of highly pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producingEscherichia. coli (STEC) has owed largely to the acquisition of Stx-encoding prophages by strains of E. coli that have pre-existing potential as enteric pathogens, such as atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). However, while high pathogenic potential is necessary, it is not sufficient for such strains to have a serious public health impact (i.e., large outbreaks, many cases of HUS, or both). To do so requires susceptible hosts and additional elements related to transmission, such as, socio-economic, societal, and lifestyle, factors...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jiale Ma, Xuwang Cai, Yinli Bao, Huochun Yao, Ganwu Li
Growth in urinary tract depends on the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to adjust metabolism in response to available nutrients, especially to synthesize metabolites that are present in urinary tract with limited concentrations. In this study, a genome-wide assay was applied and identified five nucleotide biosynthetic genes purA, guaAB and carAB that are required for optimal growth of UPEC in human urine and colonization in vivo. Subsequent functional analyses revealed that either interruption of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis or blocking of salvage pathways alone could not decrease UPEC's growth, while only simultaneous interruption of both two pathways significantly reduced UPEC's growth in urine...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song, Kwan Soo Ko
Recently, we have identified an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 15A isolate from a patient with bacterial meningitis. It belonged to sequence type 8279 (ST8279), a clone identified as XDR serotype 11A isolated in South Korea. We obtained and compared the genome sequences of an XDR 15A and an XDR 11A isolate. The genomes of two XDR isolates were highly identical, except for the capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus and another small region. Capsular switching from 11A to 15A may have occurred via recombination of the cps locus...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Alexander Mellmann, Derek Pickard, Muna F Anjum, Angelika Fruth, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Magdalena J Grzeszczuk, Katarzyna M Bocian-Ostrzycka, Anna M Banaś, Paula Roszczenko-Jasinska, Agata Malinowska, Hanna Stralova, Rainer Haas, Thomas F Meyer, Elżbieta K Jagusztyn-Krynicka
Thioloxidoreductase HP0231 of Helicobacter pylori plays essential roles in gastric colonization and related gastric pathology. Comparative proteomics and analysis of complexes between HP0231 and its protein substrates suggested that several Hop proteins are its targets. HP0231 is a dimeric oxidoreductase that functions in an oxidizing Dsb (disulfide bonds) pathway of H. pylori. H. pylori HopQ possesses six cysteine residues, which generate three consecutive disulfide bridges. Comparison of the redox state of HopQ in wild-type cells to that in hp0231-mutated cells clearly indicated that HopQ is a substrate of HP0231...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
B Otgonjargal, G Batbaatar, K Pfeffer, T Bruhn, C Battogtokh, B Henrich
The role of Ureaplasma parvum in abnormal outcomes of human pregnancy has been discussed controversially in the past. Of the 14 known ureaplasma serovars, the Ureaplasma parvum serovars 1, 3, 6 and 14, have been found to derive from smaller genomes. Serovars 3 and 6 have been described more often to cause complications in pregnancy. To elucidate the serovar distribution in U. parvum positive specimens of 200 Mongolian mothers and their offspring, a new set of mba-targeting PCRs was developed enabling a fast and reliable serovar differentiation by melting peak analysis in a Real time PCR approach or by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Vivek Kumar Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Manmohit Kalia, Deepmala Sharma, Sunil Kumar Singh, Vishnu Agarwal
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen release N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12 HSL) and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4 -HSL) quorum sensing (QS) molecules to regulate various virulence factors responsible for infection in the host. 3-oxo-C12 HSL not only regulates the bacterial gene expression but also modulates the host cell system. Thus, it is pertinent to evaluate the effect of these QS molecules on blood platelets which is responsible for the maintenance of hemostasis and thrombus formation...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Fan Yang, Lei Yang, Zhanhe Chang, Lianxia Chang, Bin Yang
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli colonizes the human small intestine and causes severe diarrhea. Short-chain fatty acids are abundant in the intestine owing to the metabolic activity of the microflora and are important for intestinal health. Here, we found that acetate promotes the adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli O127:H6 to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and its motility on semi-solid Luria-Bertani agar by activating the expression of locus of enterocyte effacement genes and flagellar genes, respectively...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ludwig Knabl, Michael Berktold, Osama A Hamad, Karin Fromell, Sneha Chatterjee, Cornelia Speth, Heribert Talasz, Katharina Lindner, Martin Hermann, Kristina Nilsson-Ekdahl, Bo Nilsson, Werner Streif, Judith Martini, Reinhard Würzner, Dorothea Orth-Höller
Escherichia coli-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS) is a life-threatening complication of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx), in particular Stx2a-producing Escherichia coli. Enhanced coagulation activation with formation of microthrombi seems to be a key event in development of eHUS. Platelet activation has been postulated as a possible, but controversially debated mechanism. The present study investigated the effect of Stx2a on plasmatic coagulation and platelets. Binding studies were initially performed with ELISA and co-immunoprecipitation and supported by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)...
July 23, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Kannan Venugopal, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes (MIC) and rhoptries (ROP) during parasite replication. Pioneer works have studied the sorting motifs within MIC and ROP proteins, required for their trafficking towards their final destination. These studies led to the conclusion that protein processing and protein sorting are inter-dependent activities. More recent works have revealed the trafficking routes taken by the MIC and ROP proteins by examining the functions of the endo-exocytic compartments and identified key molecules involved in protein sorting and transport...
July 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Michael Berger, Petya Berger, Erick Denamur, Alexander Mellmann, Ulrich Dobrindt
The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolate that caused a large outbreak in 2011 carries three plasmids. Out of these, only one, the IncI plasmid pO104_90 that encodes two extended spectrum beta-lactamases, can transfer itself by conjugation. Considering its potential contribution to the emergence and virulence of the outbreak strain, we aimed to get a closer insight into pO104_90 transfer efficiency and control. We tested the host spectrum of the plasmid and observed transmission into Enterobactericeae including clinically relevant enterobacterial pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Xi Chen, Jing Huang, Hongmei Zhu, Yongpeng Guo, Farhan Anwar Khan, Harish Menghwar, Gang Zhao, Aizhen Guo
Mycoplasma bovis, one of the major pathogens of bovine respiratory disease, binds to respiratory epithelial cells resulting in severe pneumonia and tissue damage. This study was designed to identify the adhesive function of a putative 27-kDa M. bovis lipoprotein, encoded by the gene MBOV_RS03440 and designated as P27. The gene was cloned and overexpressed to produce antibodies against the recombinant P27 (rP27). The western blot and flow cytometry assay confirmed P27 to be a surface-localized protein, while ELISA confirmed it to be an immunogenic protein...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Svenja Häuser, Christian Wegele, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Julia Borkowski, Christel Weiss, Manfred Rohde, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Rüdiger Adam
The Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) can commensally colonize the upper respiratory tract, but also cause life threatening disease including epiglottitis, sepsis and meningitis. The H. influenzae capsule protects the bacteria against both phagocytosis and opsonization. Encapsulated H. influenzae strains are classified into serotypes ranging from a to f dependent on their distinct polysaccharide capsule. Due to the implementation of vaccination the incidence of invasive H. influenzae type b (Hib) infections has strongly decreased and infections with other capsulated types, including H...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Xucheng Huang, Yingli Qiao, Yixuan Zhou, Zhi Ruan, Yingying Kong, Guoli Li, Xinyou Xie, Jun Zhang
Ureaplasma spp. are known to be associated with human genitourinary tract diseases and perinatal diseases and Ureaplasma spp. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) play important roles in their related diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying pathogenesis of Ureaplasma spp. LAMPs is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanisms of Ureaplasma spp. LAMPs by elucidating their role in modulating the cell cycle and related signaling pathways in human monocytic cell U937, which is highly related to the inflammatory and protective effect in infectious diseases...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Gerald B Koudelka, Jason W Arnold, Dolonchapa Chakraborty
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a diverse group of strains that are implicated in over 270,000 cases of human illness annually in the United States alone. Shiga toxin (Stx), encoded by a resident temperate lambdoid bacteriophage, is the main STEC virulence factor. Although the population structure of E. coli O157:H7, the most common disease-causing STEC strain, is highly homogenous, the range of clinical illness caused by this strain varies by dramatically outbreak, suggesting that human virulence is evolving...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Valeria Michelacci, Antonella Maugliani, Rosangela Tozzoli, Giulia Corteselli, Paola Chiani, Fabio Minelli, Federica Gigliucci, Silvia Arancia, Gabriella Conedera, Chiara Targhetta, Alessandro Pierasco, Lucia Collini, Antonio Parisi, Gaia Scavia, Stefano Morabito
In February 2017 a case of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS) was reported to the National Registry of HUS in an adult living in Northern Italy. Stool specimens from the patient and his family contacts were collected and the analyses led to the isolation of a Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE)-negative Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli. The epidemiological investigations performed brought to collect fecal samples from the animals reared in a farm held by the case's family and a mixture of bovine and swine feces proved positive for Shiga toxin-producing E...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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