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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931949/differentiation-of-staphylococcus-argenteus-formerly-staphylococcus-aureus-clonal-complex-75-by-mass-spectrometry-from-s-aureus-using-the-first-strain-isolated-from-a-wild-african-great-ape
#1
Dominik Schuster, Jasmin Rickmeyer, Mike Gajdiss, Thorsten Thye, Stephan Lorenzen, Marion Reif, Michaele Josten, Christiane Szekat, Luís D R Melo, Ricarda M Schmithausen, Florian Liégeois, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Michael Nagel, Gabriele Bierbaum
The species Staphylococcus argenteus was separated recently from Staphylococcus aureus (Tong S.Y., F. Schaumburg, M.J. Ellington, J. Corander, B. Pichon, F. Leendertz, S.D. Bentley, J. Parkhill, D.C. Holt, G. Peters, and P.M. Giffard, 2015). The objective of this work was to characterise the genome of a non-human S. argenteus strain, which had been isolated from the faeces of a wild-living western lowland gorilla in Gabon, and analyse the spectrum of this species in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#2
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923724/strain-specific-impact-of-the-high-pathogenicity-island-on-virulence-in-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Mounira Smati, Giuseppe Magistro, Sandrine Adiba, Andreas Wieser, Bertrand Picard, Sören Schubert, Erick Denamur
In order to clarify the role of the high-pathogenicity island (HPI) in the experimental virulence of Escherichia coli, we constructed different deletion mutants of the entire HPI and of three individual genes (irp2, fyuA and ybtA), encoding for three main functions within the HPI. Those mutants were constructed for three phylogroup B2 strains (536-STc127, CFT073-STc73, and NU14-STc95), representative of the main B2 subgroups causing extra-intestinal infections. Transcriptional profiles obtained for the selected HPI genes irp2, fyuA and ybtA revealed similar patterns for all strains, both under selective iron-deplete conditions and in intracellular bacterial communities in vitro, with a high expression of irp2...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876297/host-transcriptomic-responses-to-pneumonic-plague-reveal-that-yersinia-pestis-inhibits-both-the-initial-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-in-mice
#4
Huiying Yang, Tong Wang, Guang Tian, Qingwen Zhang, Xiaohong Wu, Youqian Xin, Yanfeng Yan, Yafang Tan, Shiyang Cao, Wanbing Liu, Yujun Cui, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Pneumonic plague is the most deadly form of infection caused by Yersinia pestis and can progress extremely fast. However, our understanding on the host transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague is insufficient. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze transcriptomic responses in mice infected with fully virulent strain 201 or EV76, a live attenuated vaccine strain lacking the pigmentation locus. Approximately 600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in lungs from both 201- and EV76-infected mice at 12h post-infection (hpi)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876296/pathogenic-features-of-clinically-significant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-hospital-and-community-infections-in-benin
#5
Chimène Nanoukon, Xavier Argemi, Frédéric Sogbo, Jeanne Orekan, Daniel Keller, Dissou Affolabi, Frédéric Schramm, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
In West Africa, very little consideration has been given to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Herein, we describe the features contributing to the pathogenicity of 99 clinically-significant independent CNS isolates associated with infections encountered at the National Teaching Hospital Center of Cotonou (Benin). The pathogenic potentials of nosocomial strains were compared with community strains. S. haemolyticus (44%), S. epidermidis (22%) and S. hominis (7%) were the most frequently isolated while bacteremia (66...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865623/key-role-of-an-adp-ribose-dependent-transcriptional-regulator-of-nad-metabolism-for-fitness-and-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Elza Okon, Sarah Dethlefsen, Anna Pelnikevich, Andrea van Barneveld, Antje Munder, Burkhard Tümmler
NAD is an essential co-factor of redox reactions and metabolic conversions of NAD-dependent enzymes. NAD biosynthesis in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has yet not been experimentally explored. The in silico search for orthologs in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome identified the operon pncA - pncB1-nadE (PA4918-PA4920) to encode the nicotinamidase, nicotinate phosporibosyltransferase and Nad synthase of salvage pathway I. The functional role of the preceding genes PA4917 and PA4916 was resolved by the characterization of recombinant protein...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825516/adaptation-of-escherichia-coli-traversing-from-the-faecal-environment-to-the-urinary-tract
#7
Karen L Nielsen, Marc Stegger, Paul A Godfrey, Michael Feldgarden, Paal S Andersen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient's own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765533/a-novel-comprehensive-set-of-fungal-real-time-pcr-assays-fupcr-for-the-detection-of-fungi-in-immunocompromised-haematological-patients-a-pilot-study
#8
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760693/iron-acquisition-pathways-and-colonization-of-the-inflamed-intestine-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#9
Luciana F Costa, Juliana P S Mol, Ana Patricia C Silva, Auricélio A Macêdo, Teane M A Silva, Geraldo E S Alves, Sebastian Winter, Maria G Winter, Eric M Velazquez, Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler, Renée M Tsolis, Tatiane A Paixão, Renato L Santos
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is able to expand in the lumen of the inflamed intestine through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. Here we utilized streptomycin-pretreated mice and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice to investigate how pathways for S. Typhimurium iron acquisition contribute to pathogen expansion in the inflamed intestine. Competitive infection with an iron uptake-proficient S. Typhimurium strain and mutant strains lacking tonB feoB, feoB, tonB or iroN in streptomycin pretreated mice demonstrated that ferric iron uptake requiring IroN and TonB conferred a fitness advantage during growth in the inflamed intestine...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756533/immunogencity-of-antigens-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-self-assembled-as-particulate-vaccines
#10
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Traditional approaches to vaccine development have failed to identify better vaccines to replace or supplement BCG for the control of tuberculosis (TB). Subunit vaccines offer a safer and more reproducible alternative for the prevention of diseases. In this study, the immunogenicity of bacterially derived polyester beads displaying three different Rv antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. Polyester beads displaying the antigens Rv1626, Rv2032, Rv1789, respectively, were produced in an endotoxin-free Escherichia coli strain...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713027/the-secretome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-atcc-17978-type-ii-secretion-system-reveals-a-novel-plasmid-encoded-phospholipase-that-could-be-implicated-in-lung-colonization
#11
Noha M Elhosseiny, Ossama M El-Tayeb, Aymen S Yassin, Stephen Lory, Ahmed S Attia
Acinetobacter baumannii infections are compounded with a striking lack of treatment options. In many Gram-negative bacteria, secreted proteins play an important early role in avoiding host defences. Typically, these proteins are targeted to the external environment or into host cells using dedicated transport systems. Despite the fact that medically relevant species of Acinetobacter possess a type II secretion system (T2SS), only recently, its significance as an important pathway for delivering virulence factors has gained attention...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713026/agents-that-activate-the-high-osmolarity-glycerol-pathway-as-a-means-to-combat-pathogenic-molds
#12
Annegret Wiedemann, Anja Spadinger, Axel Löwe, Allison Seeger, Frank Ebel
Treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. We found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic Aspergillus, Lichtheimia, Rhizopus and Scedosporium species. Only A. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even though it is sensitive to iprodione and able to adapt to hyperosmotic conditions...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693000/high-prevalence-of-nontoxigenic-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitalized-and-non-hospitalized-individuals-in-rural-ghana
#13
Iryna Janssen, Paul Cooper, Katrin Gunka, Maja Rupnik, Daniela Wetzel, Ortrud Zimmermann, Uwe Groß
Since data about Clostridium difficile infection in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, we determined its epidemiology and risk factors in a cross-sectional study in Eikwe, a rural community in Ghana. We tested stool samples from 176 hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and from 131 asymptomatic non-hospitalized individuals for C. difficile and some other enteric pathogens. The overall prevalence rate of C. difficile was 4.9% with ribotype 084 being predominant. With 75% of the isolates, a high rate of nontoxigenic strains was present in symptomatic patients, most of whom had no other identified enteric pathogens...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670078/role-of-a-sensor-histidine-kinase-chis-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-pathogenesis
#14
Rhishita Chourashi, Moumita Mondal, Ritam Sinha, Anusuya Debnath, Suman Das, Hemanta Koley, Nabendu Sekhar Chatterjee
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616282/staphylococcus-aureus-psm-peptides-induce-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-upon-treatment-with-ligands-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-tlrs
#15
Nicole S Armbruster, Jennifer R Richardson, Jens Schreiner, Juliane Klenk, Manina Günter, Stella E Autenrieth
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players of the immune system and thus a target for immune evasion by pathogens. We recently showed that the virulence factor phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) produced by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains induces tolerogenic DCs upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 activation via the p38-CREB-IL-10 pathway. Here, we addressed the question whether this tolerogenic phenotype of DCs induced by PSMs is specific for TLR2 activation. Therefore, bone marrow-derived DCs were treated with various ligands for extracellular and intracellular TLRs simultaneously with PSMα3...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616281/potential-of-combination-therapy-of-endolysin-mr-10-and-minocycline-in-treating-mrsa-induced-systemic-and-localized-burn-wound-infections-in-mice
#16
Shivani Chopra, Kusum Harjai, Sanjay Chhibber
MRSA is the predominant pathogen responsible for fatal burn wound infection in patients. Antibiotic resistance and its ability to form biofilms on the surface of burn wounds limit the use of antibiotics to contain this pathogen. The results of present study have shown that single dose of combination therapy of endolysin MR-10 (50μg/s.c) and minocycline (50mg/kg/orally) resulted in 100% survival of group of mice with systemic MRSA infection. Maximum reduction in bacterial load in various organs was observed in the group that received combination therapy...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616280/interactions-of-surface-displayed-glycolytic-enzymes-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-components-of-the-human-extracellular-matrix
#17
Anne Gründel, Enno Jacobs, Roger Dumke
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired respiratory infections worldwide. Due to the strongly reduced genome, the number of virulence factors expressed by this cell wall-less pathogen is limited. To further understand the processes during host colonization, we investigated the interactions of the previously confirmed surface-located glycolytic enzymes of M. pneumoniae (pyruvate dehydrogenase A-C [PdhA-C], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GapA], lactate dehydrogenase [Ldh], phosphoglycerate mutase [Pgm], pyruvate kinase [Pyk] and transketolase [Tkt]) to the human extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibrinogen (Fn), fibronectin (Fc), lactoferrin (Lf), laminin (Ln) and vitronectin (Vc), respectively...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600408/identification-and-functional-study-of-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-systems-in-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Linyan Cao, Chun-Hui Gao, Jiade Zhu, Liping Zhao, Qingfa Wu, Min Li, Baolin Sun
The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]-CRISPR associated proteins [Cas]) system can provide prokaryote with immunity against invading mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as phages and plasmids, which are the main sources of staphylococcal accessory genes. To date, only a few Staphylococcus aureus strains containing CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified, but no functional study in these strains has been reported. In this study, 6 clinical isolates of S. aureus with type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems were identified, and whole-genome sequencing and functional study were conducted subsequently...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578609/outer-membrane-vesicles-derived-from-salmonella-typhimurium-mutants-with-truncated-lps-induce-cross-protective-immune-responses-against-infection-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-in-the-mouse-model
#19
Qiong Liu, Qing Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Tian Liu, Kenneth L Roland, Yanlong Jiang, Qingke Kong
Salmonella enterica cause diarrheal and systemic diseases and are of considerable concern worldwide. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serovars could provide effective control of Salmonella-mediated diseases. Bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are highly immunogenic and are capable of eliciting protective immune responses. Alterations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) length can result in outer membrane remodeling and composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) changing. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncated LPS on both the production and immunogenicity of Salmonella OMVs, including the ability of OMVs to elicit cross-protection against challenge by heterologous Salmonella strains...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554790/stability-of-the-cargo-regions-of-the-cfr-carrying-multiresistance-plasmid-psp01-from-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#20
Andrea Brenciani, Gianluca Morroni, Marina Mingoia, Pietro E Varaldo, Eleonora Giovanetti
This study investigated the stability or instability - i.e. the ability or inability to undergo excision in circular form - of the four cargo regions (cr1 to cr4) of the novel cfr-carrying, multiresistance plasmid pSP01, arboured by a clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate. Only cr4 proved unstable. The stability of cr1 and cr2 was substantially expected. Insertion sequences (ISs) played an important role in the stability of cr3 (the cfr gene context) and in the instability of cr4. Whereas the stability of cfr genetic contexts is associated with the presence of a single IS copy (istAS-istBS in cr3), their instability is associated with two identical, flanking ISs with the same orientation...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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