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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734577/characterization-of-a-pvl-negative-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-of-sequence-type-88-in-china
#1
Lu Sun, Dandan Wu, Yan Chen, Qian Wang, Haiping Wang, Yunsong Yu
Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711315/characterization-of-mobile-genetic-elements-carrying-vim-1-and-kpc-2-carbapenemases-in-citrobacter-freundii-isolates-in-madrid
#2
Jennifer Villa, David M Arana, Esther Viedma, Dafne Perez-Montarelo, Fernando Chaves
Carbapenemase producing Citrobacter freundii (CPCF) infections are still uncommon in European countries. Here we report a molecular study conducted in a tertiary care facility in southern Madrid, Spain, from 2009 to 2014 to investigate the epidemiology of CPCF. The blaIMP-1,blaIMP-2,blaKPC,blaNDM,blaOXA-48,blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-2 genes were screened by PCR. Molecular typing was carried out by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to characterize the resistome and the mobile genetic elements associated with the carbapenems resistance of CPCF...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648357/acidic-stress-enhances-covr-s-dependent-gene-repression-through-activation-of-the-covr-s-promoter-in-emm1-type-group-a-streptococcus
#3
Chuan Chiang-Ni, Huei-Chuan Tseng, Chia-Hui Hung, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is a clinically important gram-positive bacterium that causes severe diseases with high mortality. Spontaneous mutations in genes encoding the CovR/CovS two-component regulatory system have been shown to derepress expression of virulence factors and are significantly associated with invasiveness of infections. Sensor kinase CovS senses environmental signals and then regulates the levels of phosphorylated CovR. In addition, CovS is responsible for survival of group A Streptococcus under acidic stress...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610835/antibiofilm-effect-of-ultrasound-combined-with-microbubbles-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilm
#4
Ying Dong, Yaling Xu, Pan Li, Chuanqing Wang, Yun Cao, Jialin Yu
Biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antibiotics and host immune cells. Ultrasound microbubbles have emerged as a new treatment modality with the underlying mechanisms largely unknown. In this study, we exposed 24-h-old Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms established in OptiCell™ chambers to ultrasound in combination with microbubbles, and investigated the activities of vancomycin and neutrophils against S. epidermidis biofilms after treatment. The antibiofilm mechanims of ultrasound microbubbles were explored in terms of bacterial permeability and biofilm-associated gene expression...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619474/high-metabolic-versatility-of-different-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-clostridioides-difficile-isolates
#5
Thomas Riedel, Daniela Wetzel, Julia Danielle Hofmann, Simon Paul Erich Otto Plorin, Henning Dannheim, Mareike Berges, Ortrud Zimmermann, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Heiko Liesegang, Dieter Jahn, Jörg Overmann, Uwe Groß, Meina Neumann-Schaal
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600123/multifunctional-and-redundant-roles-of-leptospira-interrogans-proteins-in-bacterial-adhesion-and-fibrin-clotting-inhibition
#6
Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gisele O de Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
Pathogenic Leptopira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease represents a major public health problem, especially in tropical countries. The present work focused on two hypothetical proteins of unknown function, encoded by the genes LIC13059 and LIC10879, and predicted to be surface-exposed proteins. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using E. coli as a host system. We report that the recombinant proteins interacted with extracellular matrix (ECM) laminin, in a dose-dependent fashion and are novel potential adhesins...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579477/two-highly-divergent-lineages-of-exfoliative-toxin-b-encoding-plasmids-revealed-in-impetigo-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Tibor Botka, Vladislava Růžičková, Karla Svobodová, Roman Pantůček, Petr Petráš, Darina Čejková, Jiří Doškař
Exfoliative toxin B (ETB) encoded by some large plasmids plays a crucial role in epidermolytic diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We have found as yet unknown types of etb gene-positive plasmids isolated from a set of impetigo strains implicated in outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals. Plasmids from the strains of clonal complex CC121 were related to archetypal plasmid pETBTY4. Sharing a 33-kb core sequence including virulence genes for ETB, EDIN C, and lantibiotics, they were assigned to a stand-alone lineage, named pETBTY4-based plasmids...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587735/the-invasive-menc-cc103-lineage-with-penicillin-reduced-susceptibility-persisting-in-brazil
#8
Érica L Fonseca, Michel A Marin, Fernanda S Freitas, Bruna S A Vitório, Flávio M G de Araújo, Dhian R A Camargo, Roney S Coimbra, Ivano R De Filippis, Ana Carolina P Vicente
Penicillin is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of meningococcal infections, and mutations in penA gene are involved with reduced susceptibility (pen(I)) emergence to this antibiotic. This study aimed to characterize the penA allelic diversity, their association with pen(I) phenotype and distribution among prevalent meningococci serogroups in Brazil. The entire penA from 49 invasive strains of distinct serogroups circulating in Brazil for more than two decades were obtained by PCR and sequencing. Additionally, the penA from 22 publicly available complete Neisseria meningitidis genomes from Brazil were included in the study...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549830/high-virulence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st30-sccmecivc-spat019-the-dominant-community-associated-clone-in-argentina
#9
Silvina Fernandez, Camila Ledo, Santiago Lattar, Mariángeles Noto Llana, Andrea Mendoza Bertelli, Sabrina Di Gregorio, Daniel O Sordelli, Marisa I Gómez, Marta E Mollerach
Community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged as a worldwide health problem in the last few years. In Argentina, it is found in 70% of skin and skin structure infections in previously healthy adult patients and causes severe invasive diseases. The ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019 clone is predominant in adult infections and has displaced the previously prevalent ST5-SCCmecIVa-spat311 clone in community settings. In the present work we compared the virulence of both clones in order to explain the displacement, and found that ST30-IVc is associated with invasive infections in adult patients from Argentina and possesses a different virulence-associated genes profile compared to ST5-IVa...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527583/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-tcsc-a-characteristic-type-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-of-filamentous-fungi-harboring-six-hamp-domains
#10
Anja Spadinger, Frank Ebel
The type III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK) TcsC enables the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive under hyperosmotic conditions. It is, moreover, of particular interest, since it is the target of certain antifungal agents, such as fludioxonil. This study was aimed at a functional characterization of the domains that constitute the sensing and the kinase module of TcsC. The sensing module consists of six HAMP domains, an architecture that is commonly found in type III HHKs of filamentous fungi. To dissect the functional role of the individual domains, we have analyzed a set of truncated derivatives of TcsC with respect to their impact on fungal growth and their ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress and fludioxonil...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506425/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-germany-from-2004-2005-to-2014-2015
#11
Julia Schmitz, Mark van der Linden, Adnan Al-Lahham, Natalia Levina, Mathias W Pletz, Matthias Imöhl
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. 21,764 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates from Germany, isolated in the epidemiological seasons from 2004/05 to 2014/15 were analyzed at the German National Reference Centre for Streptococci (GNRCS) for their levofloxacin resistance by micro broth dilution method...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495466/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-screening-pcr-adapted-to-locally-emerging-variants-evaluation-of-novel-sccmec-primers
#12
Miriam Herma, Sabine Petersdorf, Birgit Henrich
Infections with multi-resistant bacteria, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), represent a world-wide health-care problem. The original MRSA Screening TaqMan PCR was based on the detection of the SCCmec-orfX-junction as described by the group of Huletsky in 2004. In the recent years, this assay increasingly failed to detect new MRSA variants in swab specimens. In this work, we analyzed the usefulness of 17 additional SCCmec primers to increase PCR sensitivity by testing 290 collected samples with negative PCR results and positive MRSA culture in a retrospective analysis, and 380 samples of the daily routine diagnostics...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442219/virulence-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-buruli-ulcer-patients
#13
Nana Ama Amissah, Monika A Chlebowicz, Anthony Ablordey, Caitlin S Tetteh, Isaac Prah, Tjip S van der Werf, Alex W Friedrich, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra, John W Rossen
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients. Previously sequenced genomes of 21 S. aureus isolates from BU patients were screened for the presence of virulence genes. The results show that all S. aureus isolates harbored on their core genomes genes for known virulence factors like α-hemolysin, and the α- and β-phenol soluble modulins...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416278/ai-2-quorum-sensing-negatively-regulates-rbf-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Ronghua Ma, Shuwan Qiu, Qiu Jiang, Haipeng Sun, Ting Xue, Gang Cai, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on biomaterial surfaces to cause biofilm-associated infections. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a universal language for interspecies communication, is involved in a variety of physiological activities, although its exact role in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in S. aureus, is not yet thoroughly characterized. Herein we demonstrate that inactivation of luxS, which encodes AI-2 synthase, resulted in increased biofilm formation and higher polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) production compared with the wild-type strain in S...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412040/ros-formation-is-a-differential-contributory-factor-to-the-fungicidal-action-of-amphotericin-b-and-micafungin-in-candida-albicans
#15
José P Guirao-Abad, Ruth Sánchez-Fresneda, Begoña Alburquerque, José A Hernández, Juan-Carlos Argüelles
The hypothetical role played by the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the fungicidal action carried out by Amphotericin B (AmB) and Micafungin (MF) was examined in Candida albicans, which remains the most prevalent fungal pathogen. The clinical MICs for MF and AmB were 0.016 and 0.12μg/ml, respectively. Whereas AmB (0.5-1.0×MIC) induced a marked production of intracellular ROS accompanied by a high degree of cell killing in the C. albicans SC5314 strain, the fungicidal effect of MF was still operative, but ROS generation was slight...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408091/accessory-genetic-content-in-campylobacter-jejuni-st21cc-isolates-from-feces-and-blood
#16
C P A Skarp, O Akinrinade, R Kaden, C Johansson, H Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen and the most commonly reported bacterial cause of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is occasionally found in blood, although mechanisms important for invasiveness have remained unclear. C. jejuni is divided into many different lineages, of which the ST21 clonal complex (CC) is widely distributed. Here, we performed comparative genomic and in vitro analyses on 17C. jejuni ST21CC strains derived from human blood and feces in order to identify features associated with isolation site...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391992/protein-protein-dna-dna-and-dna-protein-based-vaccination-strategies-using-truncated-omp2b-against-brucella-infection-in-balb-c-mice
#17
Maryam Golshani, Sima Rafati, Mehdi Nejati-Moheimani, Somaye Pourabdi, Amin Arsang, Saeid Bouzari
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the truncated form of outer membrane protein 2b (TOmp2b) from Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. Three immunization regimens Protein/Protein, DNA/DNA and DNA/Protein were used. Immunization of mice with all vaccine strategies elicited a strong specific IgG responses (IgG2a titers over IgG1) and provided T helper1 (Th1) oriented immune responses. Furthermore, Protein/Protein (Pro/Pro-) and DNA/Pro- vaccinated groups conferred protection levels against B...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389211/role-of-the-srrz-rz1-lambdoid-lysis-cassette-in-the-pathoadaptive-evolution-of-shigella
#18
Adriano Leuzzi, Milena Grossi, Maria Letizia Di Martino, Martina Pasqua, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377051/chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-promotes-vascular-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-through-an-iqgap1-related-signaling-pathway
#19
Beibei Wang, Lijun Zhang, Jingya Liu, Lu Ma, Haiwei Wang, Ningbo Zheng, Xiaoyu Chen, Bingling Shen, Zhelong Xu, Lijun Zhang
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection plays a potential role in angiogenesis. However, it is still an enigma how C. pneumoniae is involved in this process. Therefore, we investigated the effect of C. pneumoniae infection on angiogenesis, and then explored the roles of IQGAP1-related signaling in C. pneumoniae infection-induced angiogenesis. C. pneumoniae infection significantly enhanced angiogenesis as assessed by the tube formation assay possibly by inducing vascular endothelial cell (VEC) migration in the wound healing and Transwell migration assays...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274699/members-of-a-new-subgroup-of-streptococcus-anginosus-harbor-virulence-related-genes-previously-observed-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#20
Anshu Babbar, Venkatesan Naveen Kumar, René Bergmann, Israel Barrantes, Dietmar H Pieper, Andreas Itzek, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Conventionally categorized as commensals, the Streptococci of the species S. anginosus are facultative human pathogens that are difficult to diagnose and often overlooked. Furthermore, detailed investigation and diagnosis of S. anginosus infections is hampered by unexplored taxonomy and widely elusive molecular pathogenesis. To explore their pathogenic potential, S. anginosus isolates collected from patients of two geographical locations (Vellore, India and Leipzig, Germany) were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA)...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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