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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Maurizio Brigotti, Domenica Carnicelli, Valentina Arfilli, Elisa Porcellini, Elisabetta Galassi, Maria C Valerii, Enzo Spisni
The life-threatening sequela of hemorrhagic colitis induced by Shiga toxins (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans is hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood. The key step in the pathogenesis of HUS is the appearance of Stx in the blood of infected patients because these powerful virulence factors are capable of inducing severe microangiopathic lesions in the kidney. During precocious toxemia, which occurs in patients before the onset of HUS during the intestinal phase, Stx bind to several different circulating cells...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Rehema Marando, Jeremiah Seni, Mariam M Mirambo, Linda Falgenhauer, Nyambura Moremi, Martha F Mushi, Neema Kayange, Festo Manyama, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty, Stephen E Mshana
The study was conducted to establish predictors of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) neonatal sepsis and mortality in a tertiary hospital, Tanzania. Between July and December 2016, blood culture was performed in neonates with clinical features of sepsis and neonates/mothers/guardians were screened for ESBL colonization. Selected isolates underwent whole genome sequencing to investigate relatedness. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for ESBL-PE associated neonatal sepsis and mortality...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nadja Haarmann, Michael Berger, Ivan U Kouzel, Alexander Mellmann, Petya Berger
Escherichia coli O104:H4 (E. coli O104:H4), which caused in 2011 a massive foodborne outbreak in Germany, is characterized by an unusual combination of virulence traits. E. coli O104:H4 contains a prophage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) gene, which is the cardinal virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). However, the outbreak strain shares highest DNA sequence similarity with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and displays the EAEC-characteristic tight adherence to epithelial cells. The virulence potential of the underlying EAEC background has not been investigated and it is therefore not clear whether E...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Inga Eichhorn, Katrin Heidemanns, Rainer G Ulrich, Herbert Schmidt, Torsten Semmler, Angelika Fruth, Astrid Bethe, David Goulding, Derek Pickard, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Bacteriophages play an important role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. A phage-mediated transfer of stx-genes to atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) which are prevalent in different hosts, would convert them to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). We decided to confirm this hypothesis experimentally to provide conclusive evidence that aEPEC isolated from different mammalian hosts are indeed progenitors of typical EHEC which gain the ability to produce Shiga-Toxin by lysogeny with stx-converting bacteriophages, utilizing the model phage Φ3538 Δstx2 ::cat...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
S Stalb, S A Barth, K Sobotta, E Liebler-Tenorio, L Geue, C Menge
In 2011, Germany was struck by the largest outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome. The highly virulent E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain LB226692 possesses a blended virulence profile combining genetic patterns of human adapted enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), rarely detected in animal hosts before, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a subpopulation of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) basically adapted to the ruminant host. This study aimed at appraising the relative level of adaptation of the EAEC/EHEC hybrid strain LB226692 to humans and cattle...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Christian Rüter, Marie-Luise Lubos, Stefanie Norkowski, M Alexander Schmidt
Microbial pathogens have developed intriguing molecular strategies to modulate and/or control host cell functions to ensure their own survival and replication. During this molecular interplay between microbes and their respective hosts especially secreted virulence factors play a major role. These factors not only include a plethora of cytotoxins but also sophisticated effector proteins targeting intracellular decision points leading to inhibition of defense responses - and/or even to cell death. To be effective, most of these secreted factors have to get across the cytoplasmic membrane and reach their targets in the cytoplasm...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Martina Bielaszewska, Monika Marejková, Andreas Bauwens, Lisa Kunsmann-Prokscha, Alexander Mellmann, Helge Karch
Proinflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, but the spectrum of bacterial components involved in the proinflammatory responses is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the abilities of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), nanoparticles released by EHEC O157 during growth, to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in human intestinal epithelial cells. OMVs from both EHEC O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting (SF) EHEC O157:H- induced production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in Caco-2, HCT-8, and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cell lines...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Kristin Surmann, Maren Depke, Vishnu M Dhople, Jan Pané-Farré, Petra Hildebrandt, Janine Gumz, Ulrich E Schaible, Uwe Völker, Frank Schmidt
Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen is able to invade into and persist inside non-professional phagocytic cells. To do so, this bacterium possesses a wide range of secreted virulence factors which enable attachment to the host as well as intracellular survival. Hence, a monitoring of virulence factors specifically produced upon internalization might reveal targets for prevention or therapy of S. aureus infections. However, previous proteome approaches enriching S. aureus from lysed host cells after infection did not cover secreted virulence factors...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Qiong Liu, Kuang Tan, Jianhui Yuan, Kuangyu Song, Rong Li, Xiaotian Huang, Qing Liu
Salmonella enteric serovar infections result in high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cross-protective vaccines are an effective strategy in controlling salmonellosis caused by multiple serotypes. In our previous study, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from flagellin-deficient Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) were proven effective in mediating cross-protection against infection by multiple Salmonella serotypes; OMVs also exhibit potent adjuvant effects. In this study, we further investigated the adjuvant capacities of flagellin-deficient S...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lie-Song Chen, Chun Li, Xiao-Xing You, Ying-Wu Lin, Yi-Mou Wu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae), as an obligate parasite, has evolved a protective strategy for coping with oxidative challenges caused by M. pneumoniae itself as well as the host immune system. However, to date, few antioxidant enzymes have been identified in mycoplasmas. In this report, we identified a protein encoded by the mpn668 gene from M. pneumoniae with a putative function as an organic hydroperoxide reductase (Ohr). The results indicated that the recombinant 140 amino acid protein, designated rMPN668, displayed hydroperoxidase activity towards both organic (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) and inorganic (hydrogen peroxide) hydroperoxides in the presence of a reducing agent such as dithiothreitol...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Marcela Krutova, Monika Zouharova, Jana Matejkova, Jan Tkadlec, Josef Krejčí, Martin Faldyna, Otakar Nyc, Jan Bernardy
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen in humans with an increasing incidence in the community. The "one-health" approach of research is needed to investigate possible reservoirs of C. difficile and route of its transmission. The objective of this study is to investigate the occurrence of C. difficile in pigs in the Czech Republic with characterisation of the isolates to determine their genetic relatedness to C. difficile isolates from European and Asian pigs. A total of 198 pig faeces samples from 23 farms were investigated and of those 57 samples (55 piglets, 2 sows) from 11 farms were confirmed as C...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lorena Tuchscherr, Èva Korpos, Hélène van de Vyver, Clais Findeisen, Salome Kherkheulidze, Anke Siegmund, Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Olaf Bach, Martin Rindert, Alexander Mellmann, Cord Sunderkötter, Georg Peters, Lydia Sorokin, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen causing diabetic foot infections. Here, we investigated the degree of bacterial virulence required to establish invasive tissue infections in diabetic organisms. Staphylococcal isolates from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers were tested for their virulence in in vitro functional assays of host cell invasion and cytotoxicity. Isolates from diabetes mellitus type I/II patients exhibited less virulence than isolates from non-diabetic patients, but were nevertheless able to establish severe infections...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Maria Nordengrün, Stephan Michalik, Uwe Völker, Barbara M Bröker, Lidia Gómez-Gascón
Allergies are complex diseases featuring local tissue inflammation, which is characterized by an exaggerated type 2 immune response to environmental compounds known as allergens. Pollens, environmental fungi, and house dust mites are examples of common allergens. Bacteria have a dual role in allergy. Usually, they are associated with protection, however, certain bacterial species promote the development and exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Notably, IgE antibodies specific for bacterial antigens are found in the sera of allergic individuals...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Nicole Cernela, Daniel Wüthrich, Adrian Egli, Roger Stephan
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O80:H2 is an uncommon hybrid pathotype that has recently emerged in France. We analysed 18 STEC O80:H2 isolated from humans in Switzerland during 2010-2017. All isolates carried stx2a or stx2d, the rare eae variant eae-ξ and at least seven virulence genes associated with pS88, a plasmid that is found in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identified additional chromosomal extraintestinal virulence genes encoding for type 1 fimbria (fimA, fimC and fimH), aerobactin (iuc/iutA) and afimbrial adhesins (afaA/C/D/E-VIII)...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Maren Mylius, Johannes Dreesman, Matthias Pulz, Gerhard Pallasch, Konrad Beyrer, Katja Claußen, Franz Allerberger, Angelika Fruth, Christina Lang, Rita Prager, Antje Flieger, Sabine Schlager, Daniela Kalhöfer, Elke Mertens
Following a school ski-trip to Austria from 10 to 18/02/2017, nine of 25 participants of the group from Lower Saxony (Germany) developed gastroenteritis. The students and teachers (17-41 years) shared meals in a hotel. Active case finding revealed further cases among German school groups from North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, staying at the same hotel in February 2017. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using self-administered questionnaires on clinical symptoms and food consumption...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Michael Hartmut Feige, Olga Sokolova, Anna Pickenhahn, Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
Helicobacter pylori infection persists in more than half of the world's population and represents a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Virulent strains of H. pylori carry a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with the capability to inject the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into eukaryotic cells. Colonisation of the gastric epithelium by H. pylori provokes direct activation of the proinflammatory and survival factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Charles Nkufi Tango, Byong H Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh
The human gut microbiome consists of many bacteria which are in symbiotic relationship with human beings. The gut microbial metabolism, as well as the microbial-host co-metabolism, has been found to greatly influence health and disease. Factors such as diet, antibiotic use and lifestyle have been associated with alterations in the gut microbial community and may result in several pathological conditions. For this reason, several strategies including fecal microbiota transplant and probiotic administration have been applied and proven to be feasible and effective in restoring the gut microbiota in humans...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Dominik Schuster, Michaele Josten, Kathrin Janssen, Isabel Bodenstein, Cathrin Albert, Anna Schallenberg, Mike Gajdiss, Esther Sib, Christiane Szekat, Katja Kehl, Marijo Parčina, Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Gabriele Bierbaum
The aim of this study was to test the identification of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci by routine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). SCCmec cassettes of type II, III and VIII encode a small peptide called PSM-mec in the vicinity of mecA. It is visible at m/z 2415 during MALDI-TOF MS of whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the fact that psm-mec has been identified in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, we evaluated a collection of clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci, that contained 77...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Gopala Krishna Mannala, Julian Koettnitz, Walid Mohamed, Ursula Sommer, Katrin Susanne Lips, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Torsten Hain, Christian Heiss, Eugen Domann, Volker Alt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause wide range of infections from simple soft skin infections to severe endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis and implant associated bone infections (IABI). The focus of the present investigation was to study virulence properties of S. aureus isolates from acute and chronic IABI by means of their in vivo lethality, in vitro osteoblasts invasion, biofilm formation and subsequently whole genome comparison between high and low virulent strains. Application of insect infection model Galleria mellonella revealed high, intermediate and low virulence phenotypes of these clinical isolates, which showed good correlation with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation assays...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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