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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416278/ai-2-quorum-sensing-negatively-regulates-rbf-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ronghua Ma, Shuwan Qiu, Qiu Jiang, Haipeng Sun, Ting Xue, Gang Cai, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on biomaterial surfaces to cause biofilm-associated infections. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a universal language for interspecies communication, is involved in a variety of physiological activities, although its exact role in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in S. aureus, is not yet thoroughly characterized. Herein we demonstrate that inactivation of luxS, which encodes AI-2 synthase, resulted in increased biofilm formation and higher polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) production compared with the wild-type strain in S...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412040/ros-formation-is-a-differential-contributory-factor-to-the-fungicidal-action-of-amphotericin-b-and-micafungin-in-candida-albicans
#2
José P Guirao-Abad, Ruth Sánchez-Fresneda, Begoña Alburquerque, José A Hernández, Juan-Carlos Argüelles
The hypothetical role played by the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the fungicidal action carried out by Amphotericin B (AmB) and Micafungin (MF) was examined in Candida albicans, which remains the most prevalent fungal pathogen. The clinical MICs for MF and AmB were 0.016 and 0.12μg/ml, respectively. Whereas AmB (0.5-1.0×MIC) induced a marked production of intracellular ROS accompanied by a high degree of cell killing in the C. albicans SC5314 strain, the fungicidal effect of MF was still operative, but ROS generation was slight...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408091/accessory-genetic-content-in-campylobacter-jejuni-st21cc-isolates-from-feces-and-blood
#3
C P A Skarp, O Akinrinade, R Kaden, C Johansson, H Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen and the most commonly reported bacterial cause of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is occasionally found in blood, although mechanisms important for invasiveness have remained unclear. C. jejuni is divided into many different lineages, of which the ST21 clonal complex (CC) is widely distributed. Here, we performed comparative genomic and in vitro analyses on 17C. jejuni ST21CC strains derived from human blood and feces in order to identify features associated with isolation site...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391992/protein-protein-dna-dna-and-dna-protein-based-vaccination-strategies-using-truncated-omp2b-against-brucella-infection-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Maryam Golshani, Sima Rafati, Mehdi Nejati-Moheimani, Somaye Pourabdi, Amin Arsang, Saeid Bouzari
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the truncated form of outer membrane protein 2b (TOmp2b) from Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. Three immunization regimens Protein/Protein, DNA/DNA and DNA/Protein were used. Immunization of mice with all vaccine strategies elicited a strong specific IgG responses (IgG2a titers over IgG1) and provided T helper1 (Th1) oriented immune responses. Furthermore, Protein/Protein (Pro/Pro-) and DNA/Pro- vaccinated groups conferred protection levels against B...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389211/role-of-the-srrz-rz1-lambdoid-lysis-cassette-in-the-pathoadaptive-evolution-of-shigella
#5
Adriano Leuzzi, Milena Grossi, Maria Letizia Di Martino, Martina Pasqua, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377051/chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-promotes-vascular-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-through-an-iqgap1-related-signaling-pathway
#6
Beibei Wang, Lijun Zhang, Jingya Liu, Lu Ma, Haiwei Wang, Ningbo Zheng, Xiaoyu Chen, Bingling Shen, Zhelong Xu, Lijun Zhang
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection plays a potential role in angiogenesis. However, it is still an enigma how C. pneumoniae is involved in this process. Therefore, we investigated the effect of C. pneumoniae infection on angiogenesis, and then explored the roles of IQGAP1-related signaling in C. pneumoniae infection-induced angiogenesis. C. pneumoniae infection significantly enhanced angiogenesis as assessed by the tube formation assay possibly by inducing vascular endothelial cell (VEC) migration in the wound healing and Transwell migration assays...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274699/members-of-a-new-subgroup-of-streptococcus-anginosus-harbor-virulence-related-genes-previously-observed-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#7
Anshu Babbar, Venkatesan Naveen Kumar, René Bergmann, Israel Barrantes, Dietmar H Pieper, Andreas Itzek, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Conventionally categorized as commensals, the Streptococci of the species S. anginosus are facultative human pathogens that are difficult to diagnose and often overlooked. Furthermore, detailed investigation and diagnosis of S. anginosus infections is hampered by unexplored taxonomy and widely elusive molecular pathogenesis. To explore their pathogenic potential, S. anginosus isolates collected from patients of two geographical locations (Vellore, India and Leipzig, Germany) were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA)...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268063/human-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-hemocultures-septicemia-linked-to-urogenital-tract-infections-is-caused-by-isolates-harboring-more-virulence-genes-than-bacteraemia-linked-to-other-conditions
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lenka Micenková, Alžbeta Beňová, Lucia Frankovičová, Juraj Bosák, Martin Vrba, Alena Ševčíková, Marta Kmeťová, David Šmajs
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of bloodstream infections and community-acquired sepsis. The main aim of this study was to determine virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates from hemocultures of patients with a primary disease of urogenital tract, digestive system, a neoplastic blood disease, or other conditions. Results from a set of 314 E. coli isolates from hemocultures were compared to data from a previously published analysis of 1283 fecal commensal E. coli isolates. Genetic profiling of the 314 E...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238573/the-first-case-report-of-emphysematous-pyelonephritis-and-bacteremia-due-to-oligella-urethralis
#9
Hirotaka Yamaguchi, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Yoshiro Hadano, Kenichi Hayashi, Chie Nagahara, Tetsuro Muratani, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
Oligella urethralis (O. urethralis) is an organism that rarely causes infections in humans. We report the case of a 90-year-old bedridden woman with progressive dementia who was placed in a long-term-care facility. She was admitted to our hospital due to fever and unconsciousness with pyuria. The abdominal computed tomography showed left pneumatosis and urinary stone. Fluoroquinolones-resistant O. urethralis, which was identified by the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was isolated form the blood and urine cultures at admission...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228329/stringent-factor-and-proteolysis-control-of-sigma-factor-rpos-expression-in-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Philipp Wurm, Sarah Tutz, Beatrice Mutsam, Dina Vorkapic, Barbara Heyne, Claudia Grabner, Katharina Kleewein, Anja Halscheidt, Stefan Schild, Joachim Reidl
Vibrio cholerae can colonize the gastrointestinal track of humans and cause the disease cholera. During colonization, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, controls a process known as "mucosal escape response," defining a specific spatial and temporal response and effecting chemotaxis and motility. In this report, the expression and proteolytic control of RpoS in V. cholerae was characterized. To date, aspects of proteolysis control, the involved components, and proteolysis regulation have not been addressed for RpoS in V...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202229/requirement-of-the-rna-binding-protein-smpb-during-intracellular-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#11
Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Renate Frantz, Lisa Teubner, Heiko Wendt, Uwe Linne, Jessica Wingerath, Thomas Wirth, Trinad Chakraborty
Bacterial trans-translation is the main quality control mechanism employed to relieve stalled ribosomes. Trans-translation is mediated by the small protein B (SmpB) and transfer-mRNA (tmRNA) ribonucleoprotein complex, which interacts with translational complexes stalled at the 3' end of non-stop mRNAs to release the stalled ribosomes thereby targeting the nascent polypeptides and truncated mRNAs for degradation. The trans-translation system exists with a few exceptions in all bacteria. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of SmpB to the growth and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, a human intracellular food-borne pathogen that colonizes host tissues to cause severe invasive infections...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242005/corrigendum-to-immunogencity-of-antigens-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-self-assembled-as-particulate-vaccines-int-j-med-microbiol-306-2016-624-632
#12
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179078/serum-resistance-and-phase-variation-of-a-nasopharyngeal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-isolate
#13
Sabine Lichtenegger, Isabelle Bina, Sanel Durakovic, Philippe Glaser, Sarah Tutz, Stefan Schild, Joachim Reidl
Haemophilus influenzae harbours a complex array of factors to resist human complement attack. As non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains do not possess a capsule, their serum resistance mainly depends on other mechanisms including LOS decoration. In this report, we describe the identification of a highly serum resistant, nasopharyngeal isolate (NTHi23) by screening a collection of 77 clinical isolates. For NTHi23, we defined the MLST sequence type 1133, which matches the profile of a previously published invasive NTHi isolate...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161108/rv0774c-an-iron-stress-inducible-extracellular-esterase-is-involved-in-immune-suppression-associated-with-altered-cytokine-and-tlr2-expression
#14
Arbind Kumar, Sukh Mahendra Singh, Ranvir Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
Tuberculosis, one of the leading cause of death from infectious diseases, is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The genome of M. tuberculosis has been sequenced and nearly 40% of the whole genome sequence was categorized as hypothetical. Rv0774c was annotated as membrane exported hypothetical protein in TB database. In silico analysis revealed that Rv0774c is a paralog of PE-PGRS multi gene family with 100 aa N-terminal domain similar to PE domain of PE-PGRS proteins. Its C-terminal domain is quite different from PGRS domain, having characteristic lipase signature GXSXG & HG and catalytic residues predicted for lipolytic activity...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122677/colistin-and-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-oxytoca-harboring-blavim-2-and-an-insertion-in-the-mgrb-gene-isolated-from-blood-culture
#15
Michaela Simon, Holger Melzl, Andreas Hiergeist, Katharina Richert, Linda Falgenhauer, Yvonne Pfeifer, Roman G Gerlach, Kornelius Fuchs, Udo Reischl, André Gessner, Jonathan Jantsch
A carbapenemase-producing colistin-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolate was recovered from a blood culture of a female patient without previous report of risk factors to obtain multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. A combination of biochemical and molecular methods was used to identify the resistance mechanism of this isolate. Carbapenemase production was mediated by Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-2. Colistin resistance was not due to plasmid- borne mcr-1 gene, but we found an integration of IS5-like sequence in the mgrB gene of K...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117265/the-extracellular-adherence-protein-eap-of-staphylococcus-aureus-acts-as-a-proliferation-and-migration-repressing-factor-that-alters-the-cell-morphology-of-keratinocytes
#16
Janina Eisenbeis, Henrik Peisker, Christian S Backes, Stephanie Bur, Sebastian Hölters, Nicolas Thewes, Markus Greiner, Christian Junker, Eva C Schwarz, Markus Hoth, Kerstin Junker, Klaus T Preissner, Karin Jacobs, Mathias Herrmann, Markus Bischoff
Staphyloccocus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause for superficial and deep seated wound infections. The pathogen is equipped with a large arsenal of virulence factors, which facilitate attachment to various eukaryotic cell structures and modulate the host immune response. One of these factors is the extracellular adherence protein Eap, a member of the "secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules" (SERAM) protein family that possesses adhesive and immune modulatory properties. The secreted protein was previously shown to impair wound healing by interfering with host defense and neovascularization...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024924/recognition-of-propionibacterium-acnes-by-human-tlr2-heterodimers
#17
Qi Su, Maria Grabowski, Günther Weindl
Propionibacterium acnes has been considered as a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The interaction between P. acnes and the host is mainly mediated by Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 recognition. TLR2 homodimers recognize P. acnes in mice, but here we describe the prerequisite of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers in human cells for P. acnes recognition. P. acnes-induced NF-κB and AP-1activation observed in HEK hTLR2-transfected but not control cells confirmed the specificity of TLR2 recognition...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965080/influence-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-the-immune-response-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-stimulated-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
Kristin Czakai, Marcus Dittrich, Martin Kaltdorf, Tobias Müller, Sven Krappmann, Anette Schedler, Michael Bonin, Sybille Dühring, Stefan Schuster, Cornelia Speth, Günter Rambach, Hermann Einsele, Thomas Dandekar, Jürgen Löffler
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ) are critical for protection against pathogenic fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. To analyze the role of platelets in the innate immune response, human DCs and MΦs were challenged with A. fumigatus in presence or absence of human platelet rich plasma (PRP). Gene expression analyses and functional investigations were performed. A systems biological approach was used for initial modelling of the DC - A. fumigatus interaction. DCs in a quiescent state together with different corresponding activation states were validated using gene expression data from DCs and MΦ stimulated with A...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017539/staphylococcus-aureus-from-the-german-general-population-is-highly-diverse
#19
Karsten Becker, Frieder Schaumburg, Christian Fegeler, Alexander W Friedrich, Robin Köck
OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. METHODS: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989665/the-cell-wall-precursor-lipid-ii-acts-as-a-molecular-signal-for-the-ser-thr-kinase-pknb-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Patrick Hardt, Ina Engels, Marvin Rausch, Mike Gajdiss, Hannah Ulm, Peter Sass, Knut Ohlsen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gabriele Bierbaum, Tanja Schneider, Fabian Grein
The assembly of the bacterial cell wall requires synchronization of a multitude of biosynthetic machineries and regulatory networks. The eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase PknB has been implicated in coordinating cross-wall formation, autolysis and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the signal molecule sensed by this kinase remained elusive so far. Here, we provide compelling biochemical evidence that PknB interacts with the ultimate cell wall precursor lipid II, triggering kinase activity...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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