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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

Esther von Stebut, Stefan Tenzer
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sand flies leading to parasite inoculation into skin. In the mammalian host, the parasite primarily resides in skin macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). MΦ are silently invaded by the parasite eliciting a stress response, whereas DC become activated, release IL-12, and prime antigen-specific T cells. Here we review the basics of the immune response against this human pathogen and elucidate the role and function DC and MΦ for establishment of protective immunity against leishmaniasis...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lina Herhaus, Ivan Dikic
Salmonella infections cause acute intestinal inflammatory responses through the action of bacterial effector proteins secreted into the host cytosol. These proteins promote Salmonella survival, amongst others, by deregulating the host innate immune system and interfering with host cell ubiquitylation signaling. This review describes the recent findings of dynamic changes of the host ubiquitinome during pathogen infection, how bacterial effector proteins modulate the host ubiquitin system and how the host innate immune system counteracts Salmonella invasion by using these pathogens as signaling platforms to initiate immune responses...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Stefan Czurda, Shivanand Manjunath Hegde, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Despite their small genomes mycoplasmas maintain large multigene families devoted to surface antigenic variation. Although implicated as important factors for mycoplasma pathogenicity and persistence, the role of these antigenic switches in host immune evasion has never been unequivocally proven in these minimalist microbes. Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation due to Xer1-mediated site-specific DNA inversions of vpma genes encoding abundant multiple surface lipoproteins. To evaluate the biological significance of Vpma oscillations the xer1 recombinase gene has been disrupted in earlier studies to abolish Vpma switching and to generate stable phase-locked mutants (PLMs) steadily expressing a single Vpma product...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nadine Radomski, Annica Rebbig, Ralf M Leonhardt, Michael R Knittler
Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic mechanism that targets cytoplasmic material for degradation. Autophagic flux involves the formation of autophagosomes and their degradation by lysosomes. The process plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and responds to various environmental conditions. While autophagy had previously been thought to be a non-selective process, it is now clear that it can also selectively target cellular organelles, such as mitochondria (referred to as mitophagy) and/or invading pathogens (referred to as xenophagy)...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Miriam Hiller, Christina Lang, Wiebke Michel, Antje Flieger
Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen and the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pneumonia. The bacteria infect both mammalian cells and environmental hosts, such as amoeba. Inside host cells, the bacteria withstand the multifaceted defenses of the phagocyte and replicate within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). For establishment and maintenance of the infection, L. pneumophila secretes many proteins including effector proteins by means of different secretion systems and outer membrane vesicles...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic, Jo-Ana Herweg, Thomas Rudel
Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular Chlamydia-like pathogen of the respiratory tract. It infects and multiplies in a wide range of hosts, from unicellular amoeba to a variety of human cells, such as epithelial HeLa and macrophage-like THP1 cells. The Simkania-containing vacuole (SnCV) forms close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and recruits and affects mitochondria of the host cells. Simkania prevent ER stress and require the components of the retrograde transport, as well as several mitochondrial and peroxisomal proteins, for proper development...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Sergio G Bartual, Martín Alcorlo, Siseth Martínez-Caballero, Rafael Molina, Juan A Hermoso
Bacterial lipoproteins (Lpp) compose a large family of surface-exposed proteins that are involved in diverse, but critical, cellular functions spanning from fitness to virulence. All of them present a common signature, a sequence motif, known as LipoBox, containing an invariant Cys residue that allows the protein to be covalently bound to the membrane through a thioether linkage. Despite the abundance and relevance of Lpp, there is a scarcity of structural and functional information for this family of proteins...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jan Naujoks, Juliane Lippmann, Norbert Suttorp, Bastian Opitz
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium which can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease after inhalation of contaminated water droplets and replication in alveolar macrophages. The innate immune system is generally able to sense and -in most cases- control L. pneumophila infection. Comorbidities and genetic risk factors, however, can compromise the immune system and high infection doses might overwhelm its capacity, thereby enabling L. pneumophila to grow and disseminate inside the lung...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Sebastian Banhart, Laura Rose, Lukas Aeberhard, Sophia Koch-Edelmann, Dagmar Heuer
Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen. This obligate intracellular bacterium grows inside the eukaryotic cell in a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. Recent global approaches describe the interactions of C. trachomatis with its host cell and indicate the inclusion is an intracellular trafficking hub embedded into the cellular vesicular trafficking pathways recruiting subunits of the retromer protein complex of the host cell. Here we review these recent developments in deciphering Chlamydia-host cell interactions with emphasis on the role of the retromer complex...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Albert Haas, Michael Hensel, Anja Lührmann, Thomas Rudel, Paul Saftig, Ulrich E Schaible
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
J Dorin, M D'Aveni, A Debourgogne, M Cuenin, M Guillaso, A Rivier, P Gallet, G Lecoanet, M Machouart
Actinomucor elegans is a fungus belonging to mucormycetes and is still probably underdiagnosed due to misidentification. Based on a recent first case of Actinomucor elegans sinusitis in Europe, in an immunocompromised patient under voriconazole treatment, this paper aims to summarize knowledge about A. elegans mucormycoses. Even if the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made using traditional mycology techniques, precise identification of the fungus could only be achieved using molecular tools. In this observation, the galactomannan dosage was positive until the introduction of treatment and surgical debridement...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Krisztina Laub, Katalin Kristóf, Tamás Tirczka, Adrienn Tóthpál, Szilvia Kardos, Eszter Kovács, Judit Sahin-Tóth, Andrea Horváth, Orsolya Dobay
We have screened 2568 healthy individuals (mostly children) for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae nasal carriage between 2010 and 2012. Out of the isolated 751 S. aureus strains, we found one methicillin-sensitive catalase-negative S. aureus (CNSA). Our CNSA isolate possessed a novel nonsense point mutation in the katA gene leading to early truncation of the protein product. The strain was resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, but sensitive to all other tested antibiotics and carried the enterotoxin A gene...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jyotsna Sharma, Stefan Baumeister, Jude M Przyborski, Klaus Lingelbach
Human red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum show an increased permeability to a number of solutes. We have previously demonstrated that such infected cells take up glutamate via a member of the excitatory amino acid transporter protein family (EAAT), namely EAAT3. Babesia divergens is a parasite that also infects human erythrocytes, and also induces increased solute permeability, including for glutamate. Here we have investigated whether glutamate uptake in B. divergens infected human red blood cells is also dependent on EAAT3 activity...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Tobias Dallenga, Lara Linnemann, Bhesh Paudyal, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Ulrich E Schaible
M. tuberculosis is one of the prime killers from infectious diseases worldwide. Infections with multidrug-resistant variants counting for almost half a million new cases per year are steadily on the rise. Tuberculosis caused by extensively drug-resistant variants that are even resistant against newly developed or last resort antibiotics have to be considered untreaTable Susceptible tuberculosis already requires a six-months combinational therapy which requires further prolongation to treat drug-resistant infections...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
A Pourbaix, F Guérin, V de Lastours, F Chau, M Auzou, E Boulley, V Cattoir, B Fantin
Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance in E. coli clinical isolates from UTIs remains very low. Our hypothesis was that fosfomycin resistance may be associated with a biological cost. Three groups of strains of E. coli belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group were used: clinical wild-type (WT) isolates, clinical multidrug-resistant isolates and in vitro fosfomycin-resistant derivatives from the uropathogen clinical strain E. coli CFT073. In each group fosfomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates were compared...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Susana Patrícia Lopes, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Maria Olívia Pereira
Cystic fibrosis (CF) infections are invariably biofilm-mediated and polymicrobial, being safe to assume that a myriad of factors affects the sociomicrobiology within the CF infection site and modulate the CF community dynamics, by shaping their social activities, overall functions, virulence, ultimately affecting disease outcome. This work aimed to assess changes in the dynamics (particularly on the microbial composition) of dual-/three-species biofilms involving CF-classical (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and unusual species (Inquilinus limosus and Dolosigranulum pigrum), according to variable oxygen conditions and antibiotic exposure...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ansgar Flammersfeld, Christina Lang, Antje Flieger, Gabriele Pradel
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, display a well-regulated lipid metabolism required to ensure their survival in the human host as well as in the mosquito vector. The fine-tuning of lipid metabolic pathways is particularly important for the parasites during the rapid erythrocytic infection cycles, and thus enzymes involved in lipid metabolic processes represent prime targets for malaria chemotherapeutics. While plasmodial enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and acquisition have been studied in the past, to date not much is known about the roles of phospholipases for proliferation and transmission of the malaria parasite...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jinrong Feng, Yinong Duan, Yongwei Qin, Wei Sun, Zhong Zhuang, Dandan Zhu, Linghuo Jiang
Protein phosphatase PP4 is composed of one catalytic subunit and one or two regulatory subunits and conserved in eukaryotic cells. The catalytic subunit CaPph3 forms a complex with the regulatory subunit CaPsy2, which dephosphorylates activated CaRad53 during adaptation to and recovery from MMS-mediated DNA damage. We show here that the N-terminal Y33A mutation of CaPsy2 blocks the interaction between CaPph3 and CaRad53, the deactivation of CaRad53 and the morphologic switch in recovery from genotoxic stress...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Daniel M Mrochen, Daniel Schulz, Stefan Fischer, Kathrin Jeske, Heba El Gohary, Daniela Reil, Christian Imholt, Patricia Trübe, Josef Suchomel, Emilie Tricaud, Jens Jacob, Marta Heroldová, Barbara M Bröker, Birgit Strommenger, Birgit Walther, Rainer G Ulrich, Silva Holtfreter
Laboratory mice are the most commonly used animal model for Staphylococcus aureus infection studies. We have previously shown that laboratory mice from global vendors are frequently colonized with S. aureus. Laboratory mice originate from wild house mice. Hence, we investigated whether wild rodents, including house mice, as well as shrews are naturally colonized with S. aureus and whether S. aureus adapts to the wild animal host. 295 animals of ten different species were caught in different locations over four years (2012-2015) in Germany, France and the Czech Republic...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Mamta Rani, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
Studies on biofilm related infections are gaining prominence owing to their involvement in majority of clinical infections. Biofilm, considered as a generic mechanism for survival used by pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic microorganisms, involves surface attachment and growth of heterogeneous cells encapsulated within a matrix. The matrix provides ecological niche where partnership of cells endows a community like behaviour that not only enables the cohort to survive local microenvironment stress but also channelizes them to evolve, disseminate and cause resurgence of infections...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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