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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919098/temporal-regulation-of-%C3%AF-b-by-partner-switching-mechanism-at-a-distinct-growth-stage-in-bacillus-cereus
#1
Jung-Chi Chen, Chuan-Fu Chang, Duen-Wei Hsu, Jwu-Ching Shu, Hong-Yi Chen, Chien-Yen Chen, Chi-Yu Lu, Chien-Cheng Chen
The alternative transcription factor σ(B) in Bacillus cereus governs the transcription of a number of genes that confer protection against general stress. This transcription factor is regulated by protein-protein interactions among RsbV, RsbW, σ(B), RsbY, RsbM and RsbK, all encoded in the sigB cluster. Among these regulatory proteins, RsbV, RsbW and σ(B) comprise a partner-switching mechanism. Under normal conditions, σ(B) remains inactive by associating with anti-sigma factor RsbW, which prevents σ(B) from binding to the core RNA polymerase...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867522/do-amyloid-structures-formed-by-staphylococcus-aureus-phenol-soluble-modulins-have-a-biological-function
#2
Yue Zheng, Hwang-Soo Joo, Vinod Nair, Katherine Y Le, Michael Otto
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are alpha-helical, amphipathic peptides that have multiple functions in staphylococcal physiology and virulence. Recent research has suggested that PSMs form amyloid fibrils and amyloids are involved in PSM-mediated phenotypes such as cytolysis and biofilm stability. While we observed PSM amyloid formation using electron microscopy and dye assays, there were no apparent differences in the production of extracellular fibrous material between a PSM-deficient strain and the isogenic wild-type strain...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867521/vacuolar-atpase-in-phago-lyso-some-biology
#3
REVIEW
Sandra Kissing, Paul Saftig, Albert Haas
Many eukaryotic cells ingest extracellular particles in a process termed phagocytosis which entails the generation of a new intracellular compartment, the phagosome. Phagosomes change their composition over time and this maturation process culminates in their fusion with acidic, hydrolase-rich lysosomes. During the maturation process, degradation and, when applicable, killing of the cargo may ensue. Many of the events that are pathologically relevant depend on strong acidification of phagosomes by the 'vacuolar' ATPase (V-ATPase)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864236/crossing-the-border-solute-entry-into-the-chlamydial-inclusion
#4
REVIEW
Ilka Haferkamp
Chlamydiales comprise important human and animal pathogens as well as endosymbionts of amoebae. Generally, these obligate intracellular living bacteria are characterized by a biphasic developmental cycle, a reduced genome and a restricted metabolic capacity. Because of their metabolic impairment, Chlamydiales essentially rely on the uptake of diverse metabolites from their hosts. Chlamydiales thrive in a special compartment, the inclusion, and hence are surrounded by an additional membrane. Solutes might enter the inclusion through pores and open channels or by redirection of host vesicles, which fuse with the inclusion membrane and release their internal cargo...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865995/formation-of-the-legionella-containing-vacuole-phosphoinositide-conversion-gtpase-modulation-and-er-dynamics
#5
REVIEW
Bernhard Steiner, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila replicates in free-living amoeba as well as in alveolar macrophages upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols. Resistance of the opportunistic pathogen to macrophages is a prerequisite to cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila grows intracellularly in a unique, ER-associated compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system represents an essential virulence factor, which translocates approximately 300 "effector proteins" into protozoan or mammalian host cells...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830739/molecular-bases-for-multidrug-resistance-in-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#6
Nicolas Cabanel, Marc Galimand, Christiane Bouchier, Margarita Chesnokova, Valery Klimov, Elisabeth Carniel
The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes gastrointestinal infections in humans. Although this species is usually susceptible to antibiotics active against Gram-negative bacteria, we identified three multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis that were isolated from the environment in Russia and from a patient in France. The resistance traits of the two Russian isolates were transferable at high frequencies (≈2×10(-1)/donor CFU) to Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast no transfer of the antibiotic resistances carried by the French strain was observed...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826573/limitations-in-the-use-of-psm%C3%AE-agr-rnaiii-and-biofilm-formation-as-biomarkers-to-define-invasive-staphylococcus-epidermidis-from-chronic-biomedical-device-associated-infections
#7
Llinos G Harris, Ed Dudley, Holger Rohde, Lars Frommelt, Nicolaus Siemssen, Thomas S Wilkinson, Dietrich Mack
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of biomedical device-associated infections. Agr is the major quorum sensing system in staphylococci and regulates virulence factors. Four agr-specificity groups exist in S. epidermidis, and chronic S. epidermidis infections are hypothesised to select for agr-negative phenotypes. Therefore, we investigated S. epidermidis strains from prosthetic joint- and catheter-associated infections to establish i) whether an infection selects for an agr-negative phenotype; ii) the importance of PSMγ and iii) if the agr-specificity group is infection dependent...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843671/expanding-francisella-models-pairing-up-the-soil-amoeba-dictyostelium-with-aquatic-francisella
#8
REVIEW
Yannick Brenz, Hanne C Winther-Larsen, Monica Hagedorn
The bacterial genus Francisella comprises highly pathogenic species that infect mammals, arthropods, fish and protists. Understanding virulence and host defense mechanisms of Francisella infection relies on multiple animal and cellular model systems. In this review, we want to summarize the most commonly used Francisella host model platforms and highlight novel, alternative model systems using aquatic Francisella species. Established mouse and macrophage models contributed extensively to our understanding of Francisella infection...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802679/impact-of-cell-wall-peptidoglycan-o-acetylation-on-the-pathogenesis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-septic-arthritis
#9
Gaurav Baranwal, Majd Mohammad, Anders Jarneborn, Bommana Raghunath Reddy, Archana Golla, Sumana Chakravarty, Lalitha Biswas, Friedrich Götz, Sahadev Shankarappa, Tao Jin, Raja Biswas
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogen causing septic arthritis. To colonize the joints and establish septic arthritis this bacterium needs to resist the host innate immune responses. Lysozyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages is an important defense protein present in the joint synovial fluids. S. aureus is known to be resistant to lysozyme due to its peptidoglycan modification by O-acetylation of N-acetyl muramic acid. In this study we have investigated the role of O-acetylated peptidoglycan in septic arthritis...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811086/proteomic-profiling-of-the-antifungal-drug-response-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-to-voriconazole
#10
Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Daniela Albrecht-Eckardt, Christoph Sasse, Gerhard H Braus, Zumrut B Ogel, Olaf Kniemeyer
Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem and one of the reasons for treatment failure of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Voriconazole has become a standard therapeutic for the treatment of this often fatal infection. We studied the differentially expressed proteins as a response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole by employing the two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technique. Due to addition of drug, a total of 135 differentially synthesized proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-mass spectrometry...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784332/the-role-of-septins-in-infections-with-vacuole-dwelling-intracellular-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Georg Häcker
Septins are a relatively little understood group of GTPases that form large assemblies in cells from all eukaryotes other than plants. Septins were first identified in cell division but have also been implicated in microbial infections. Septins often associate with cytoskeletal proteins - most often described for filamentous (F-) actin - and are considered cytoskeletal components themselves. Septins have increasingly been found to partake in processes that are linked to intracellular membranes, from mitochondria to phagosomes, and evidence is accumulating that septins specifically bind to membranes...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781060/antibacterial-activity-of-exogenous-glutathione-and-its-synergism-on-antibiotics-sensitize-carbapenem-associated-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#12
Roaa Alharbe, Ayidh Almansour, Dong H Kwon
A major clinical impact of A. baumannii is hospital-acquired infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The treatment of this pathogen is often difficult due to its innate and acquired resistance to almost all commercially available antibiotics. Infections with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii is the most problematic. Glutathione is a tripeptide thiol-antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione was reported in some bacteria. However, clinical relevance and molecular details of the antibacterial activity of glutathione are currently unclear...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784333/identification-of-novel-parasitophorous-vacuole-proteins-in-p-falciparum-parasites-using-bioid
#13
Melissa Khosh-Naucke, Johanna Becker, Paolo Mesén-Ramírez, Parnian Kiani, Jakob Birnbaum, Ulrike Fröhlke, Ernst Jonscher, Hartmut Schlüter, Tobias Spielmann
Malaria blood stage parasites develop within red blood cells where they are contained in a vacuolar compartment known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). This compartment holds a key role in the interaction of the parasite with its host cell. However, the proteome of this compartment has so far not been comprehensively analysed. Here we used BioID in asexual blood stages of the most virulent human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to identify new proteins of the PV. The resulting proteome contained many of the already known PV proteins and validation by GFP-knock-in of 10 previously in P...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789913/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-invasive-infections-over-a-decade-at-kilifi-county-hospital-in-kenya
#14
Sonal P Henson, Christine J Boinett, Matthew J Ellington, Ngure Kagia, Salim Mwarumba, Sammy Nyongesa, Neema Mturi, Samuel Kariuki, J Anthony G Scott, Nicholas R Thomson, Susan C Morpeth
Multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recent years have seen an explosion of resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and emergence of carbapenem resistance. Here, we examine 198 invasive K. pneumoniae isolates collected from over a decade in Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) in Kenya. We observe a significant increase in MDR K. pneumoniae isolates, particularly to third generation cephalosporins conferred by ESBLs. Using whole-genome sequences, we describe the population structure and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes within it...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756964/key-features-of-invasive-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-lima-peru-determined-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#15
Paulina Hawkins, Erik Mercado, Sopio Chochua, Maria E Castillo, Isabel Reyes, Eduardo Chaparro, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Benjamin J Metcalf, Bernard Beall, Theresa J Ochoa, Lesley McGee
Before PCV7 introduction, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was responsible for approximately 12,000-18,000 deaths annually among children <5years in Latin America. In Peru, PCV7 was introduced in 2009. We used whole genome sequencing to deduce key features of invasive strains collected in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2011. We sequenced 212 IPD isolates from 16 hospitals in Lima pre (2006-2009; n=133) and post (2010-2011; n=79) PCV7 introduction; 130 (61.3%) isolates were from children≤5years old. CDC's Streptococcus lab bioinformatics pipeline revealed serotypes, sequence types (STs), pilus genes, PBP types and other resistance determinants...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750797/reliability-of-a-multiplex-pcr-system-for-diagnosis-of-early-and-late-prosthetic-joint-infections-before-and-after-broth-enrichment
#16
Francesca Villa, Marco Toscano, Elena De Vecchi, Monica Bortolin, Lorenzo Drago
Early microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is essential for successful antimicrobial treatment; however, culture has limited sensitivity, particularly in patients who had received antibiotic therapy, and the utility of molecular methods for diagnosing PJIs remains debated. We investigated the reliability of a multiplex PCR system for the microbiological diagnosis of early and late PJIs. Samples of periprosthetic tissues, synovial fluid, and prosthetic implants from 47 patients with early (n=13) or late (n=34) PJI were analyzed by conventional culture and with the multiplex-PCR Unyvero ITI(®) (U-ITI) cartridge system...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750796/the-n-terminal-extension-of-the-p-falciparum-gbp130-signal-peptide-is-irrelevant-for-signal-sequence-function
#17
Corinna Meyer, Luis Barniol, Jan A Hiss, Jude M Przyborski
The malaria parasite P. falciparum exports a large number of proteins to its host cell, the mature human erythrocyte. Although the function of the majority of these proteins is not well understood, many exported proteins appear to play a role in modification of the erythrocyte following invasion. Protein export to the erythrocyte is a secretory process that begins with entry to the endoplasmic reticulum. For most exported proteins, this step is mediated by hydrophobic signal peptides found towards the N-terminal end of proteins...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734577/characterization-of-a-pvl-negative-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-of-sequence-type-88-in-china
#18
Lu Sun, Dandan Wu, Yan Chen, Qian Wang, Haiping Wang, Yunsong Yu
Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711315/characterization-of-mobile-genetic-elements-carrying-vim-1-and-kpc-2-carbapenemases-in-citrobacter-freundii-isolates-in-madrid
#19
Jennifer Villa, David M Arana, Esther Viedma, Dafne Perez-Montarelo, Fernando Chaves
Carbapenemase producing Citrobacter freundii (CPCF) infections are still uncommon in European countries. Here we report a molecular study conducted in a tertiary care facility in southern Madrid, Spain, from 2009 to 2014 to investigate the epidemiology of CPCF. The blaIMP-1,blaIMP-2,blaKPC,blaNDM,blaOXA-48,blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-2 genes were screened by PCR. Molecular typing was carried out by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to characterize the resistome and the mobile genetic elements associated with the carbapenems resistance of CPCF...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754426/relevance-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
S Stefani, S Campana, L Cariani, V Carnovale, C Colombo, M M Lleo, V D Iula, L Minicucci, P Morelli, G Pizzamiglio, G Taccetti
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important issue for physicians who take care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we review the latest research on how P. aeruginosa infection causes lung function to decline and how several factors contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa strains and influence the course of the infection course. However, many aspects of the practical management of patients with CF infected with MDR P. aeruginosa are still to be established...
September 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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