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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024924/recognition-of-propionibacterium-acnes-by-human-tlr2-heterodimers
#1
Qi Su, Maria Grabowski, Günther Weindl
Propionibacterium acnes has been considered as a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The interaction between P. acnes and the host is mainly mediated by Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 recognition. TLR2 homodimers recognize P. acnes in mice, but here we describe the prerequisite of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers in human cells for P. acnes recognition. P. acnes-induced NF-κB and AP-1activation observed in HEK hTLR2-transfected but not control cells confirmed the specificity of TLR2 recognition...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989665/the-cell-wall-precursor-lipid-ii-acts-as-a-molecular-signal-for-the-ser-thr-kinase-pknb-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Patrick Hardt, Ina Engels, Marvin Rausch, Mike Gajdiss, Hannah Ulm, Peter Sass, Knut Ohlsen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gabriele Bierbaum, Tanja Schneider, Fabian Grein
The assembly of the bacterial cell wall requires synchronization of a multitude of biosynthetic machineries and regulatory networks. The eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase PknB has been implicated in coordinating cross-wall formation, autolysis and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the signal molecule sensed by this kinase remained elusive so far. Here, we provide compelling biochemical evidence that PknB interacts with the ultimate cell wall precursor lipid II, triggering kinase activity...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965080/influence-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-the-immune-response-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-stimulated-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Kristin Czakai, Marcus Dittrich, Martin Kaltdorf, Tobias Müller, Sven Krappmann, Anette Schedler, Michael Bonin, Sybille Dühring, Stefan Schuster, Cornelia Speth, Günter Rambach, Hermann Einsele, Thomas Dandekar, Jürgen Löffler
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ) are critical for protection against pathogenic fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. To analyze the role of platelets in the innate immune response, human DCs and MΦs were challenged with A. fumigatus in presence or absence of human platelet rich plasma (PRP). Gene expression analyses and functional investigations were performed. A systems biological approach was used for initial modelling of the DC - A. fumigatus interaction. DCs in a quiescent state together with different corresponding activation states were validated using gene expression data from DCs and MΦ stimulated with A...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017539/staphylococcus-aureus-from-the-german-general-population-is-highly-diverse
#4
Karsten Becker, Frieder Schaumburg, Christian Fegeler, Alexander W Friedrich, Robin Köck
OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. METHODS: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955998/high-level-methicillin-resistance-correlates-with-reduced-staphylococcus-aureus-endothelial-cell-damage
#5
Kati Seidl, Michèle Leemann, Miguel Palheiros Marques, Carole Rachmühl, Nadja Leimer, Federica Andreoni, Yvonne Achermann, Annelies S Zinkernagel
There has been controversy about the intrinsic virulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). To address this discrepancy, the intrinsic virulence of 42 MRSA and 40 MSSA clinical isolates was assessed by testing endothelial cell (EC) damage, a surrogate marker for virulence in blood stream infections. Since these clinical isolates represent a heterogeneous group, well characterized S. aureus laboratory strains with SCCmec loss- and gain-of-function mutations were used in addition...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931949/differentiation-of-staphylococcus-argenteus-formerly-staphylococcus-aureus-clonal-complex-75-by-mass-spectrometry-from-s-aureus-using-the-first-strain-isolated-from-a-wild-african-great-ape
#6
Dominik Schuster, Jasmin Rickmeyer, Mike Gajdiss, Thorsten Thye, Stephan Lorenzen, Marion Reif, Michaele Josten, Christiane Szekat, Luís D R Melo, Ricarda M Schmithausen, Florian Liégeois, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Michael Nagel, Gabriele Bierbaum
The species Staphylococcus argenteus was separated recently from Staphylococcus aureus (Tong S.Y., F. Schaumburg, M.J. Ellington, J. Corander, B. Pichon, F. Leendertz, S.D. Bentley, J. Parkhill, D.C. Holt, G. Peters, and P.M. Giffard, 2015). The objective of this work was to characterise the genome of a non-human S. argenteus strain, which had been isolated from the faeces of a wild-living western lowland gorilla in Gabon, and analyse the spectrum of this species in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939177/the-er-mitochondria-encounter-structure-contributes-to-hyphal-growth-mitochondrial-morphology-and-virulence-of-the-pathogenic-mold-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
Bernadette Geißel, Mirjam Penka, Michael Neubauer, Johannes Wagener
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the primary causative species of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease associated with high mortality rates. Treatment of invasive fungal infection relies on a very limited number of antifungal drug classes. In order to extend the spectrum of antifungal drugs novel target structures have to be identified. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), a recently discovered tether that links mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, is a potential drug target based on its absence in Metazoa...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#8
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923724/strain-specific-impact-of-the-high-pathogenicity-island-on-virulence-in-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Mounira Smati, Giuseppe Magistro, Sandrine Adiba, Andreas Wieser, Bertrand Picard, Sören Schubert, Erick Denamur
In order to clarify the role of the high-pathogenicity island (HPI) in the experimental virulence of Escherichia coli, we constructed different deletion mutants of the entire HPI and of three individual genes (irp2, fyuA and ybtA), encoding for three main functions within the HPI. Those mutants were constructed for three phylogroup B2 strains (536-STc127, CFT073-STc73, and NU14-STc95), representative of the main B2 subgroups causing extra-intestinal infections. Transcriptional profiles obtained for the selected HPI genes irp2, fyuA and ybtA revealed similar patterns for all strains, both under selective iron-deplete conditions and in intracellular bacterial communities in vitro, with a high expression of irp2...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876297/host-transcriptomic-responses-to-pneumonic-plague-reveal-that-yersinia-pestis-inhibits-both-the-initial-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-in-mice
#10
Huiying Yang, Tong Wang, Guang Tian, Qingwen Zhang, Xiaohong Wu, Youqian Xin, Yanfeng Yan, Yafang Tan, Shiyang Cao, Wanbing Liu, Yujun Cui, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Pneumonic plague is the most deadly form of infection caused by Yersinia pestis and can progress extremely fast. However, our understanding on the host transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague is insufficient. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze transcriptomic responses in mice infected with fully virulent strain 201 or EV76, a live attenuated vaccine strain lacking the pigmentation locus. Approximately 600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in lungs from both 201- and EV76-infected mice at 12h post-infection (hpi)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876296/pathogenic-features-of-clinically-significant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-hospital-and-community-infections-in-benin
#11
Chimène Nanoukon, Xavier Argemi, Frédéric Sogbo, Jeanne Orekan, Daniel Keller, Dissou Affolabi, Frédéric Schramm, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
In West Africa, very little consideration has been given to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Herein, we describe the features contributing to the pathogenicity of 99 clinically-significant independent CNS isolates associated with infections encountered at the National Teaching Hospital Center of Cotonou (Benin). The pathogenic potentials of nosocomial strains were compared with community strains. S. haemolyticus (44%), S. epidermidis (22%) and S. hominis (7%) were the most frequently isolated while bacteremia (66...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865623/key-role-of-an-adp-ribose-dependent-transcriptional-regulator-of-nad-metabolism-for-fitness-and-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Elza Okon, Sarah Dethlefsen, Anna Pelnikevich, Andrea van Barneveld, Antje Munder, Burkhard Tümmler
NAD is an essential co-factor of redox reactions and metabolic conversions of NAD-dependent enzymes. NAD biosynthesis in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has yet not been experimentally explored. The in silico search for orthologs in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome identified the operon pncA - pncB1-nadE (PA4918-PA4920) to encode the nicotinamidase, nicotinate phosporibosyltransferase and Nad synthase of salvage pathway I. The functional role of the preceding genes PA4917 and PA4916 was resolved by the characterization of recombinant protein...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825516/adaptation-of-escherichia-coli-traversing-from-the-faecal-environment-to-the-urinary-tract
#13
Karen L Nielsen, Marc Stegger, Paul A Godfrey, Michael Feldgarden, Paal S Andersen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient's own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765533/a-novel-comprehensive-set-of-fungal-real-time-pcr-assays-fupcr-for-the-detection-of-fungi-in-immunocompromised-haematological-patients-a-pilot-study
#14
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760693/iron-acquisition-pathways-and-colonization-of-the-inflamed-intestine-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#15
Luciana F Costa, Juliana P S Mol, Ana Patricia C Silva, Auricélio A Macêdo, Teane M A Silva, Geraldo E S Alves, Sebastian Winter, Maria G Winter, Eric M Velazquez, Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler, Renée M Tsolis, Tatiane A Paixão, Renato L Santos
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is able to expand in the lumen of the inflamed intestine through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. Here we utilized streptomycin-pretreated mice and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice to investigate how pathways for S. Typhimurium iron acquisition contribute to pathogen expansion in the inflamed intestine. Competitive infection with an iron uptake-proficient S. Typhimurium strain and mutant strains lacking tonB feoB, feoB, tonB or iroN in streptomycin pretreated mice demonstrated that ferric iron uptake requiring IroN and TonB conferred a fitness advantage during growth in the inflamed intestine...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756533/immunogencity-of-antigens-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-self-assembled-as-particulate-vaccines
#16
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Traditional approaches to vaccine development have failed to identify better vaccines to replace or supplement BCG for the control of tuberculosis (TB). Subunit vaccines offer a safer and more reproducible alternative for the prevention of diseases. In this study, the immunogenicity of bacterially derived polyester beads displaying three different Rv antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. Polyester beads displaying the antigens Rv1626, Rv2032, Rv1789, respectively, were produced in an endotoxin-free Escherichia coli strain...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713027/the-secretome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-atcc-17978-type-ii-secretion-system-reveals-a-novel-plasmid-encoded-phospholipase-that-could-be-implicated-in-lung-colonization
#17
Noha M Elhosseiny, Ossama M El-Tayeb, Aymen S Yassin, Stephen Lory, Ahmed S Attia
Acinetobacter baumannii infections are compounded with a striking lack of treatment options. In many Gram-negative bacteria, secreted proteins play an important early role in avoiding host defences. Typically, these proteins are targeted to the external environment or into host cells using dedicated transport systems. Despite the fact that medically relevant species of Acinetobacter possess a type II secretion system (T2SS), only recently, its significance as an important pathway for delivering virulence factors has gained attention...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713026/agents-that-activate-the-high-osmolarity-glycerol-pathway-as-a-means-to-combat-pathogenic-molds
#18
Annegret Wiedemann, Anja Spadinger, Axel Löwe, Allison Seeger, Frank Ebel
Treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. We found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic Aspergillus, Lichtheimia, Rhizopus and Scedosporium species. Only A. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even though it is sensitive to iprodione and able to adapt to hyperosmotic conditions...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693000/high-prevalence-of-nontoxigenic-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitalized-and-non-hospitalized-individuals-in-rural-ghana
#19
Iryna Janssen, Paul Cooper, Katrin Gunka, Maja Rupnik, Daniela Wetzel, Ortrud Zimmermann, Uwe Groß
Since data about Clostridium difficile infection in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, we determined its epidemiology and risk factors in a cross-sectional study in Eikwe, a rural community in Ghana. We tested stool samples from 176 hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and from 131 asymptomatic non-hospitalized individuals for C. difficile and some other enteric pathogens. The overall prevalence rate of C. difficile was 4.9% with ribotype 084 being predominant. With 75% of the isolates, a high rate of nontoxigenic strains was present in symptomatic patients, most of whom had no other identified enteric pathogens...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670078/role-of-a-sensor-histidine-kinase-chis-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-pathogenesis
#20
Rhishita Chourashi, Moumita Mondal, Ritam Sinha, Anusuya Debnath, Suman Das, Hemanta Koley, Nabendu Sekhar Chatterjee
Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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