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International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779861/hopq-impacts-the-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-independent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-helicobacter-pylori-in-ceacam-expressing-cells
#1
Michael Hartmut Feige, Olga Sokolova, Anna Pickenhahn, Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
Helicobacter pylori infection persists in more than half of the world's population and represents a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Virulent strains of H. pylori carry a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with the capability to inject the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into eukaryotic cells. Colonisation of the gastric epithelium by H. pylori provokes direct activation of the proinflammatory and survival factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773467/human-microbiome-restoration-and-safety
#2
REVIEW
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Charles Nkufi Tango, Byong H Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh
The human gut microbiome consists of many bacteria which are in symbiotic relationship with human beings. The gut microbial metabolism, as well as the microbial-host co-metabolism, has been found to greatly influence health and disease. Factors such as diet, antibiotic use and lifestyle have been associated with alterations in the gut microbial community and may result in several pathological conditions. For this reason, several strategies including fecal microbiota transplant and probiotic administration have been applied and proven to be feasible and effective in restoring the gut microbiota in humans...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764754/detection-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-harboring-the-class-a-mec-complex-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#3
Dominik Schuster, Michaele Josten, Kathrin Janssen, Isabel Bodenstein, Cathrin Albert, Anna Schallenberg, Mike Gajdiss, Esther Sib, Christiane Szekat, Katja Kehl, Marijo Parčina, Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Gabriele Bierbaum
The aim of this study was to test the identification of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci by routine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). SCCmec cassettes of type II, III and VIII encode a small peptide called PSM-mec in the vicinity of mecA. It is visible at m/z 2415 during MALDI-TOF MS of whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the fact that psm-mec has been identified in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, we evaluated a collection of clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci, that contained 77...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#4
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735381/escherichia-coli-isolates-from-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-expec-virulence-and-colicin-determinants-are-more-frequent-compared-to-healthy-controls
#5
Lenka Micenková, Lucia Frankovičová, Iva Jaborníková, Juraj Bosák, Petr Dítě, Jan Šmarda, Martin Vrba, Alena Ševčíková, Marta Kmeťová, David Šmajs
A set of 178 Escherichia coli isolates taken from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was analyzed for bacteriocin production and tested for the prevalence of 30 bacteriocin and 22 virulence factor determinants. Additionally, E. coli phylogenetic groups were also determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for exclusion of clonal character of isolates. Results were compared to data from a previously published analysis of 1283 fecal commensal E. coli isolates. The frequency of bacteriocinogenic isolates (66...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724542/the-quest-for-bacterial-allergens
#6
REVIEW
Maria Nordengrün, Stephan Michalik, Uwe Völker, Barbara M Bröker, Lidia Gómez-Gascón
Allergies are complex diseases featuring local tissue inflammation, which is characterized by an exaggerated type 2 immune response to environmental compounds known as allergens. Pollens, environmental fungi, and house dust mites are examples of common allergens. Bacteria have a dual role in allergy. Usually, they are associated with protection, however, certain bacterial species promote the development and exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Notably, IgE antibodies specific for bacterial antigens are found in the sera of allergic individuals...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739668/whole-genome-comparison-of-high-and-low-virulent-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-inducing-implant-associated-bone-infections
#7
Gopala Krishna Mannala, Julian Koettnitz, Walid Mohamed, Ursula Sommer, Katrin Susanne Lips, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Torsten Hain, Christian Heiss, Eugen Domann, Volker Alt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause wide range of infections from simple soft skin infections to severe endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis and implant associated bone infections (IABI). The focus of the present investigation was to study virulence properties of S. aureus isolates from acute and chronic IABI by means of their in vivo lethality, in vitro osteoblasts invasion, biofilm formation and subsequently whole genome comparison between high and low virulent strains. Application of insect infection model Galleria mellonella revealed high, intermediate and low virulence phenotypes of these clinical isolates, which showed good correlation with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation assays...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691140/interaction-between-the-staphylococcus-aureus-extracellular-adherence-protein-eap-and-its-subdomains-with-platelets
#8
Raghavendra Palankar, Ulrike Binsker, Bianca Haracska, Jan Wesche, Andreas Greinacher, Sven Hammerschmidt
S. aureus associated bacteremia can lead to severe infections with high risk of mortality (e.g. sepsis, infective endocarditis). Many virulence factors and adhesins of S. aureus are known to directly interact with platelets. Extracellular adherence protein, Eap, one of the most important virulence factors in S. aureus mediated infections is a multi-tandem domain protein and has been shown to interact with almost all cell types in the human circulatory system. By using amine reactive fluorescent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS)-ester dyes and by direct detection with primary fluorescently conjugated anti-histidine (His-tag) antibodies against detect N-terminal His6, we show Eap subdomain Eap D3 D4 specifically interacts and rapidly activates human platelets...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661650/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-can-persist-in-the-throat
#9
Aida Hamdan-Partida, Samuel González-García, Estela de la Rosa García, Jaime Bustos-Martínez
Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is an important factor in infections caused by this microorganism. Among the colonization niches of staphylococci are the nose, skin, intestinal tract, and, recently, the throat has been given relevance. Infections caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) can be fatal. Persistence of S. aureus is an important process in the pathogenesis of this microorganism and must be studied. The aim of this study was to determine the persistence of S...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605532/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-neisseria-lactamica-carried-in-11-19-years-old-students-in-salvador-brazil
#10
Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Cécilia Batmalle Kretz, Ítalo Eustáquio Ferreira, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, Ivano de Filippis, José Cássio de Moraes, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Alan John Alexander McBride, Xin Wang, Leila Carvalho Campos
Neisseria lactamica is a nonpathogenic commensal bacterium that is potentially associated with the development of natural immunity against N. meningitidis. However, the genetic variation present in natural populations of N. lactamica has not been fully investigated. To better understand its epidemiology and genetic variation, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1200 students aged 11-19 years old in Salvador, Brazil. The carriage prevalence was 4.5% (54/1200), with no statistical difference among sex and age, although we observed a trend towards higher carriage prevalence among 11-year-old individuals...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606600/growth-advantage-of-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-strains-on-5-n-acetyl-9-o-acetyl-neuraminic-acid-as-a-carbon-source-is-dependent-on-heterogeneous-phage-borne-nans-p-esterases
#11
Nadja Saile, Lisa Schwarz, Kristina Eißenberger, Jochen Klumpp, Florian W Fricke, Herbert Schmidt
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are serious bacterial pathogens which are able to cause a hemorrhagic colitis or the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. EHEC strains can carry different numbers of phage-borne nanS-p alleles that are responsible for acetic acid release from mucin from bovine submaxillary gland and 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2 ), a carbohydrate present in mucin. Thus, Neu5,9Ac2 can be transformed to 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid, an energy source used by E...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605531/high-prevalence-of-ceftriaxone-resistance-among-invasive-salmonella-enterica-serotype-choleraesuis-isolates-in-thailand-the-emergence-and-increase-of-ctx-m-55-in-ciprofloxacin-resistant-s-choleraesuis-isolates
#12
Sirirat Luk-In, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Chaiwat Pulsrikarn, Aroon Bangtrakulnonth, Ubolrat Rirerm, Wanla Kulwichit
S. Choleraesuis is a highly invasive zoonotic pathogen that causes a serious systemic infection in humans. The emergence and increase of resistance to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin among S. Choleraesuis has become a serious therapeutic problem. The present study demonstrated high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Choleraesuis among 414 nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from bacteremic patients in Thailand. High rates of ceftriaxone (58.3%) and ciprofloxacin (19.6%) resistances were observed in S...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574061/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-superantigens-among-staphylococcus-aureus-complex
#13
Dao-Feng Zhang, Xin-Yi Yang, Jing Zhang, Xiaojie Qin, Xiaozhen Huang, Yan Cui, Min Zhou, Chunlei Shi, Nigel P French, Xianming Shi
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), also known as superantigens, play a very important role in infections and food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, S. argenteus and S. schweitzeri were recognized as novel species closely related to S. aureus. In this study of these three species, it was found that two putative SE genes were located upstream of some vSaβ pathogenicity islands and the deduced amino acid sequences showed < 65.3% identity with those of known SEs. The related proteins, designated staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin 26 (SEl26) and 27 (SEl27), were identified and characterized among the three species...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572102/biochemical-characterization-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-cag-type-4-secretion-system-protein-cagn-and-its-interaction-partner-cagm
#14
Simon H Bats, Célia Bergé, Nina Coombs, Laurent Terradot, Christine Josenhans
Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori strains contain the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). It codes for about 30 proteins forming a type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocates the pro-inflammatory protein CagA into epithelial host cells. While CagA and various other Cag proteins have been extensively studied, several cagPAI proteins are poorly characterized or of unknown function. CagN (HP0538) is of unknown function but highly conserved in the cagPAI suggesting an important role. cagM (HP0537) is the first gene of the cagMN operon and its product is part of the CagT4SS core complex...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555180/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-multispecies-biofilms-in-cystic-fibrosis-development-of-an-in-vitro-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dual-species-biofilm-model
#15
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Marta García-Coca, David Romera-García, John Jairo Aguilera-Correa, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge
Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the progressive colonization of the respiratory tract by different bacteria, which develop polymicrobial biofilms. In the past decades, there has been an increase in the number of CF patients infected with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Although Mycobacterium abscessus is the main NTM isolated globally, little is known about M. abscessus multispecies biofilm formation. In the present study we developed an in vitro model to study the phenotypic characteristics of biofilms formed by M...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551599/cyclophilin-a-is-the-potential-receptor-of-the-mycoplasma-genitalium-adhesion-protein
#16
Xiangying Deng, Pei Dai, Minjun Yu, Liesong Chen, Cuiming Zhu, Xiaoxing You, Lingling Li, Yanhua Zeng
The Mycoplasma genitalium adhesion protein (MgPa), the most important outer membrane protein of M. genitalium, plays a vital role in the adhesion to and invasion of host cells by M. genitalium. Identification of MgPa receptors will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of M. genitalium. However, the receptor protein of MgPa has not been reported to date. In this study, an MgPa-binding protein with a molecular weight of approximately 17 kDa was screened from SV-HUC-1 cell membrane proteins by a modified virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA)...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550166/multitalented-espb-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-epec-enters-cells-autonomously-and-induces-programmed-cell-death-in-human-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#17
Doreen Baumann, Helen Salia, Lilo Greune, Stephanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Zina M Uckeley, Gad Frankel, Marianne Guenot, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subvert host cell signaling pathways by injecting effector proteins via a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The T3SS-dependent EspB protein is a multi-functional effector protein, which contributes to adherence and translocator pore formation and after injection exhibits several intracellular activities. In addition, EspB is also secreted into the environment. Effects of secreted EspB have not been reported thus far. As a surrogate for secreted EspB we employed recombinant EspB (rEspB) derived from the prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 and investigated the interactions of the purified protein with different human epithelial and immune cells including monocytic THP-1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, U-937, epithelial T84, Caco-2, and HeLa cells...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544880/stress-associated-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-1-serp1-and-atg8-synergistically-regulate-unfolded-protein-response-upr-that-is-independent-on-autophagy-in-candida-albicans
#18
Jianrong Li, Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Chenpeng Xiao, Tianyu Ma, Xiao Yi, Chao Liang, Mingchun Li
Cellular stresses could activate several response processes, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and oxidative stress response to restore cellular homeostasis or render cell death. Herein, we identified the Candida albicans stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1), also known as Ysy6, which was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We found that deletion of both SERP1/YSY6 and ATG8 led to hypersensitivity to tunicamycin (TN), and resulted in severe mitochondrial dysfunction under this stress...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490877/genomic-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-clostridium-difficile-during-long-term-sequential-recurrences-of-infection
#19
F E Sachsenheimer, I Yang, O Zimmermann, C Wrede, L V Müller, K Gunka, U Groß, S Suerbaum
Infection with the emerging pathogen Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile might lead to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and mammals eventually resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which can be mild to possibly life-threatening. Recurrences after antibiotic treatment have been described in 15-30% of the cases and are either caused by the original (relapse) or by new strains (reinfection). In this study, we describe a patient with ongoing recurrent C. difficile infections over 13 months...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478838/molecular-characterization-toxin-detection-and-resistance-testing-of-human-clinical-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-lebanon
#20
Fabian K Berger, Sari S Rasheed, George F Araj, Rami Mahfouz, Hussein H Rimmani, Walid R Karaoui, Ala I Sharara, Ghassan Dbaibo, Sören L Becker, Lutz von Müller, Markus Bischoff, Ghassan M Matar, Barbara Gärtner
Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile is the main cause for nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised nations. Epidemiologic data on the pathogen's occurrence in other world regions are still scarce. In this context we characterized with phenotypic and molecular genetic methods C. difficile isolates stemming from hospitalised patients with diarrhoea in Lebanon. From 129 stool samples of symptomatic patients at a tertiary care University hospital in Lebanon, a total of 107 C. difficile strains were cultivated and underwent ribotyping, toxin gene detection and antibiotic resistance testing...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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