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International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health

Laura Kurth, Mohammed Abbas Virji, Eileen Storey, Susan Framberg, Christa Kallio, Jordan Fink, Anthony Scott Laney
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers are at increased risk for respiratory disorders. The purpose of our respiratory health survey was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and asthma-like symptoms and their association with workplace exposures and tasks among healthcare workers at a Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on respiratory health and work characteristics, including tasks performed, products used, and exposures, were collected by questionnaire from a convenience sample of workers employed at the VA Medical Center during 2012-2014...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
X Lizana, A López, S Benito, G Agustí, M Ríos, N Piqué, A M Marqués, F Codony
BACKGROUND: Viability quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (v-qPCR) is a recent analytical approach for only detecting live microorganisms by DNA amplification-based methods This approach is based on the use of a reagent that irreversibly fixes dead cells DNA. In this study, we evaluate the utility of v-qPCR versus culture method for Legionellosis risk management. METHODS: The present study was performed using 116 real samples. Water samples were simultaneously analysed by culture, v-qPCR and qPCR methods...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Maria J Gunnarsdottir, Kenneth M Persson, Hrund O Andradottir, Sigurdur M Gardarsson
Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Wilco van der Lugt, Sjoerd M Euser, Jacob P Bruin, Jeroen W Den Boer, Jimmy T Walker, Sebastian Crespi
Legionella continues to be a problem in water systems. This study investigated the influence of different shower mixer faucets, and the influence of the presence of cast iron rust from a drinking water system on the growth of Legionella. The research is conducted using a model of a household containing four drinking water systems. All four systems, which contained standard plumbing components including copper pipes and a water heater, were filled with unchlorinated drinking water. Furthermore, all systems had three different shower faucets: (A) a stainless-steel faucet, (B) a brass-ceramic faucet, and (C) a brass thermostatic faucet...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Mireia Gascon, Wilma Zijlema, Cristina Vert, Mathew P White, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Carmen Messerlian, Vicente Mustieles, Blair J Wylie, Jennifer B Ford, Myra Keller, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Paige L Williams, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Systemic absorption of phthalates and parabens has been demonstrated after dermal application of body lotion, and medical devices such as intravenous bags and tubing have been identified as a source of exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). However, use of products during medical procedures such as aqueous gel applied during obstetrical ultrasound in pregnancy has not been investigated as a potential source of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure. Human studies have associated EDCs with various adverse pregnancy outcomes...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Lorika S Beukes, Tracy L B King, Stefan Schmidt
Due to the frequent use of antibiotics and recurring illnesses related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in South Africa, we determined if MDR Escherichia coli were present in pit latrine fecal sludge samples obtained from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The abundance of E. coli in pit latrine samples was established using a most probable number (MPN) method with species confirmation done using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-four randomly selected E. coli pit latrine isolates were further characterized, using the European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion method to establish antibiotic resistance profiles for these E...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Rosa Pérez, Eva Domenech, Clara Coscollà, Vicent Yusà
Human Biomonitoring (HBM) studies are highly useful for evaluating population exposure to environmental contaminants and are being carried out in increasing numbers all over the world. The use of HBM in the field of food safety, in a risk assessment context, presents a growing interest as more health-based guidance values (HBGV) in biological matrices are derived, and can be used in a complementary way to the external exposure approaches such as total diet studies or surveillance programmes. The aims of the present work are: i) to describe the methodological framework of the BIOVAL study, a cross-sectional HBM program carried out by the Health Department of the Regional Government of Valencia (Spain), that is linked to the food safety official control, and is focused on children from 6 to 11 years of age ii) to explain and discuss the pre-analytical results iii) to report and discuss on lessons learned from its design and implementation...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Michelle Moffa, Wilson Guo, Trudy Li, Ryan Cronk, Lydia S Abebe, Jamie Bartram
BACKGROUND: Water is an important, overlooked, and controllable source of nosocomial infection. Hospitalized neonates and their mothers are particularly vulnerable to nosocomial waterborne infections. Our objectives through this systematic review were to: investigate water sources, reservoirs, and transmission routes that lead to nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers; establish patient risk factors; compile measures for controlling outbreaks and recommended strategies for prevention; and identify information gaps to improve guidelines for reporting future outbreaks...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Iman Al-Saleh, Reem Al-Rouqi, Rola Elkhatib, Mai Abduljabbar, Tahreer Al-Rajudi
Exposure to heavy metals can cause renal injury, which has been well documented in occupational exposure. Studies of low exposure in the general population, however, are still scarce, particularly for vulnerable populations such as mothers and young children. This study evaluated exposure to heavy metals, and biomarkers of renal function and oxidative stress in 944 lactating mothers and their infants and investigated the role of the interaction between heavy metals and oxidative stress in altering renal function...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Christopher Wolfe, Brenda Buck, Aubrey Miller, James Lockey, Christopher Weis, David Weissman, Alexander Jonesi, Patrick Ryan
BACKGROUND: The use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) is a popular source of outdoor recreation in the United States. While personal injury has been the focus of most epidemiologic investigations regarding ORV use to date, other health effects associated with ORV use have not been adequately examined. ORVs have been designed to operate in rugged, unpaved terrain, and ORVs can produce copious amounts of fugitive dust. ORV use in geographic regions with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) and erionite (NOE) may result in the liberation of these minerals from underlying rocks and soil, which may put ORV participants at risk to potentially hazardous inhalation exposures...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Mariam S Girguis, Matthew J Strickland, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Howard H Chang, Candice Belanoff, Scott M Bartell, Verónica M Vieira
Chronic particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure can leave infants more susceptible to illness. Our objective is to estimate associations of the chronic PM2.5 exposure with infant bronchiolitis and otitis media (OM) clinical encounters. We obtained all first time bronchiolitis (n=18,029) and OM (n=40,042) clinical encounters among children less than 12 and 36 months of age, respectively, diagnosed from 2001 to 2009 and two controls per case matched on birthdate and gestational age from the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal data linkage system in Massachusetts...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
G D Sclar, J V Garn, G Penakalapati, K T Alexander, J Krauss, M C Freeman, S Boisson, K O Medlicott, T Clasen
OBJECTIVE: We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. METHODS: We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Alison Connolly, Kate Jones, Karen S Galea, Ioannis Basinas, Laura Kenny, Padraic McGowan, Marie Coggins
BACKGROUND: Pesticides and their potential adverse health effects are of great concern and there is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to pesticides among amenity horticulturalists. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to measure occupational exposures to amenity horticuturalists using pesticides containing the active ingredients, glyphosate and fluroxypyr by urinary biomonitoring. METHODS: A total of 40 work tasks involving glyphosate and fluroxypyr were surveyed over the period of June - October 2015...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jin Heon Lee, Chae Kwan Lee, Chunhui Suh, Hee-Sook Kang, Choon-Pyo Hong, Suk-Nam Choi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
P Martínez-Santos, M Martín-Loeches, N García-Castro, D Solera, S Díaz-Alcaide, E Montero, J García-Rincón
On-site sanitation is generally advocated as a means to eradicate the health hazards associated with open defecation. While this has provided a welcome upgrade to the livelihoods of millions of people in low-income countries, improved sanitation facilities are increasingly becoming a threat to domestic groundwater-based supplies. Within this context, a survey of pit latrines, domestic wells and improved water sources was carried out in a large rural village of southern Mali. All households were surveyed for water, sanitation and hygiene habits...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Iman Al-Saleh, Mai Abduljabbar
The levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury and arsenic) were determined in 37 brands of imported rice commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia after soaking and rinsing with water, and their potential health risks to residents were estimated by three indices: hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The mean levels of lead, cadmium, methylmercury and total arsenic in soaked (rinsed) rice grains were 0.034 (0.057), 0.015 (0.027), 0.004 (0.007) and 0.202 (0.183) μg/g dry weight, respectively...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudi, Jerry E Ongerth, Panagiotis Karanis
This review discusses findings of Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis research in Asia and highlights the current situation of Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity and distribution, and transmission throughout Asia taking into account all the available papers published for Cryptosporidium research in Asian countries since 2000. This effort will facilitate future research approaches and further developments in the understanding of Cryptosporidium epidemiology in Asia. The intent is to contribute to improvement in protection measures for mitigating the burden associated with this illness in the future...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jean Golding, Joseph R Hibbeln, Steven M Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Alan Emond, Caroline M Taylor
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence concerning possible harm from mercury (Hg) in regard to offspring cognition if the woman eats fish has prompted this study to examine evidence from a British pre-birth cohort to investigate the relationship between the two. METHODS: Pregnant women (median prenatal blood mercury 1.86μg/L) resident in the study area with delivery between April 1991 and December 1992 were followed up and verbal, performance and total intelligence quotient (IQ) of 2062 offspring were measured at age 8...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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