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Pest Management Science

Caleb W Holyoke, Daniel Cordova, Wenming Zhang, James D Barry, Robert M Leighty, Robert F Dietrich, James J Rauh, Thomas F Pahutski, George P Lahm, My-Hanh Thi Tong, Eric A Benner, John L Andreassi, Rejane M Smith, Daniel R Vincent, Laurie A Christianson, Luis A Teixeira, Vineet Singh, Kenneth A Hughes
BACKGROUND: As the world population grows toward 9 billion by 2050 it is projected that food production will need to increase by 60%. A critical part of this growth includes the safe and effective use of insecticides to reduce the estimated 20-49% loss of global crop yields due to pests. Development of new insecticides will help sustain this protection and overcome insecticide resistance. RESULTS: A novel class of mesoionic compounds has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of Hemiptera and Lepidoptera...
November 29, 2016: Pest Management Science
Siobhan C de Little, Owain Edwards, Anthony R van Rooyen, Andrew Weeks, Paul A Umina
BACKGROUND: Myzus persicae is a serious pest that attacks a broad range of agricultural crops. This species has developed chemical resistance to many insecticides globally and within Australia resistance to multiple chemical groups has been identified. Resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides has been discovered in several countries, but has not previously been confirmed in Australia. We use biomolecular assays and bioassays on field-collected populations to investigate neonicotinoid resistance in M...
November 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
Maryam Sultan, Rose Buitenhuis, Graeme Murphy, Cynthia D Scott-Dupree
BACKGROUND: American serpentine leafminer (ASL), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), are a significant pest of greenhouse ornamental crops and females damage leaf tissue with their ovipositor during feeding and oviposition. The sterile insect technique has been advocated as a non-chemical alternative to currently available control methods. In area-wide sterile insect release programs, males act as true vectors of sterility. Females should be eliminated from a cohort of pupae prior to irradiation to maximize production economics and sterility spread...
November 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
M Rehman, J L Hansen, C A Mallory-Smith, R S Zemetra
BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide resistant-wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D-genome and less likely if the gene is located on A or B genome of wheat...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
Tengchao Li, Jie Chen, Xiaobin Fan, Weiwen Chen, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Two RNA silencing pathways in insects are known to exist that are mediated by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been hypothesized to be promising methods for insect pest control. However, a comparison between miRNA and siRNA in pest control is still unavailable, particularly in targeting chitin synthase gene A (CHSA). RESULTS: The dsRNA for Nilaparvata lugens CHSA (dsNlCHSA) and microR-2703 (miR-2703) mimic targeting NlCHSA delivered via feeding affected the development of nymphs, reduced their chitin content and led to lethal phenotypes...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Esteban Sánchez-Maíllo, Horacio J Peláez, Manuel González-Núñez, David R Hall, Pedro A Casquero
BACKGROUND: The beetle Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest of vineyards in the Iberian Peninsula. In previous work, the male beetles, but not females, were shown to produce (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, and female beetles were attracted to this compound in a laboratory bioassay. In this study, release rates of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone from different dispensers were measured in the laboratory and the attractiveness of these to X. arvicola adults determined in trapping tests in three traditional wine-growing regions in Spain...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
Jiang-Ning Wang, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin-Wen Hou, Li-Bing Zhou, Chao-Dong Zhu, Li-Qiang Ji
BACKGROUND: Many species of Tephritidae are damaging to fruit that might negatively impact international fruit trade. Automatic or semi-automatic identification of fruit flies are highly needed for diagnosing causes of damage and quarantine protocols for economically relevant insects. RESULTS: A fruit fly image identification system named AFIS1.0 has been developed using 74 species belonging to 6 genera, which include majority pests in Tephritidae. The system combines automated image identification and manual verification, balancing operability and accuracy...
November 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Xian-Hai Lv, Zi-Li Ren, Peng-Liu, Bing-Xin Li, Qing-Shan Li, Ming-Jie Chu, Hai-Qun Cao
BACKGROUND: Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in the Krebs cycle, which is considered as an attractive target for development of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) based on antifungal agents. Thus, in order to discover novel molecules with high antifungal activities, SDH as target a series of novel nicotinamide derivatives bearing substituted pyrazole moiety were designed and synthesized firstly via a one-pot reaction. RESULTS: The biological assay data showed that compound 3l displayed the most potent antifungal activity with EC50 values of 33...
November 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Yu-Chen Pu, Tian-Ling Ma, You-Ming Hou, Ming Sun
BACKGROUND: The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is an invasive wood-boring insect that damages palms and sugarcane. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is an entomopathogenic bacterium which has been modified into various strains, and widely used in pest management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of RPW to the HA strain of Bt. RESULTS: Five concentrations of Bt bioassays were used on RPW eggs, 2(nd) and 4(th) instars. Average egg hatching rates exceeded 85% using Bt suspensions or distilled water...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Danilo As Pereira, Bruce A McDonald, Patrick C Brunner
BACKGROUND: Sterol demethylation inhibitors or DMIs have been widely used to manage agronomically important fungal diseases in wheat, but reports of DMI-resistant pathogens continue to mount. Parastagonospora nodorum shows a wide range of sensitivity to DMIs, but until now no molecular mechanisms were identified to explain these differences. The aim of this study was to correlate the DMI sensitivity of a global collection of P. nodorum isolates with mutations in the CYP51 gene that encodes the target of DMI fungicides...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Cesar A Marchioro, Flavia S Krechemer, Luis A Foerster
BACKGROUND: Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is native to South America and recently invaded European, African and Asian countries, where it is causing severe damage to tomato crops leading to an increase in the number of insecticide applications. This situation has prompted a demand for alternative pest management strategies aiming to control T. absoluta and concomitantly reduce insecticide applications. The development period for immature stages of T. absoluta at constant temperatures was modelled to select appropriate mathematical functions for simulating its development...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Rachid Chawech, Fatma Njeh, Nejia Hamed, Mohamed Damak, Ali Ayadi, Hayet Hammami, Raoudha Mezghani-Jarraya
BACKGROUND: The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of the medicinal plant Citrullus colocynthis leaf extracts and its main cucurbitacins were tested against the mollusc gastropod, Galba truncatula, the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. RESULTS: Our findings proved for the first time that the molluscicidal activity was correlated with the presence of terpenoids. A significant molluscicidal value was found in the ethyl acetate extract (LC50 = 12.6 mg/L)...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ziling Mao, Daowan Lai, Xunda Liu, Xiaoxiang Fu, Jiajia Meng, Ali Wang, Xiaohan Wang, Weibo Sun, Zhi Long Liu, Ligang Zhou, Yang Liu
BACKGROUND: In our course to find new agrochemicals from endophytic fungi, the crude extract of the endophytic Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. was found to possess larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. RESULTS: Fractionation of the extract has led to the isolation of eleven dibenzo-α-pyrones (1-11) including three new congeners, hyalodendriols A-C (1-3). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method for the assignment of the absolute configuration...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
S J Castle, John Palumbo, Paul Merten, Charles Cowden, Nilima Prabhaker
BACKGROUND: Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a cosmopolitan viral disease transmitted by Bemisia tabaci that infects cucurbit crops. Cantaloupe production in the southwestern U.S. has been confronted by epidemics of CYSDV since 2006 when it was first identified in Arizona and California. As a phloem-limited virus that is vectored in a semi-persistent manner by B. tabaci, CYSDV has transmission characteristics that may be suppressed by select insecticide applications...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
Justin Clements, Sean Schoville, Nathan Clements, Scott Chapman, Russell L Groves
BACKGROUND: The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of commercial potatoes. Pest managers use a combination of control tactics to limit populations, including multiple insecticides. Finding a window of insecticide susceptibility and understanding genetic responses to insecticide exposure during a growing season may provide novel management recommendations for L. decemlineata. RESULTS: We examined temporal changes (during one growing season) in phenotypic response between a susceptible population and an imidacloprid-resistant population...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
Shan Jiang, Hao Wu, Haoju Liu, Jie Zheng, Yongjun Lin, Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker, SSB) is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. RESULTS: Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
Byung-Ho Lee, Jeong-O Yang, Stephen Beckett, Yonglin Ren
BACKGROUND: The nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its insect vectors from the Monochamus genus are major global quarantine pests of timber products. Due to the phaseout of methyl bromide for plant quarantine and pre-shipment treatments, an alternative fumigant is essential. Based on preliminary laboratory studies on the efficacy of ethanedinitrile (C2 N2 ) to B. xylophilus and Monochamus alternatus, three quarantine trials were conducted at three dosages and three temperatures. Potential for inhalation exposure was assessed by monitoring atmospheric C2 N2 in relation to the threshold limit value...
November 9, 2016: Pest Management Science
Poliana S Pereira, Renato A Sarmento, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Carlos H O Lima, Fábio A Dos Santos, Joedna Silva, Gil R Dos Santos, Marcelo C Picanço
BACKGROUND: The thrips Frankliniella schultzei is an important watermelon pest. Nevertheless, economic injury levels and sampling plans for this pest have not yet been determined for this crop. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the economic injury levels and develop sequential sampling plans for F. schultzei in conditions of low, medium, and high fruit prices. RESULTS: The attack of F. schultzei on watermelon plants during the vegetative stage reduced the crop's productivity, which did not happen in the flowering and fruiting stage...
November 9, 2016: Pest Management Science
Imola Molnár, Enikő Besenyei, Ramona Thieme, Thomas Thieme, Adriana Aurori, Andreea Baricz, Horia Leonard Banciu, Elena Rakosy-Tican
BACKGROUND: Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has become the biggest enemy of cultivated potato worldwide. One of the most effective sources of resistance to CPB is Solanum chacoense, an accession with a high leptine glycoalkaloid content. The aim of our study was to assay the repellence and toxicity of S. chacoense, its somatic hybrids (SHs) and their backcross progenies (BC1 ) with potato for CPB adults and larvae. Transgenic S. chacoense, deficient in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) was also used to produce SHs, in order to increase homeologous recombination and hence introgression of wild species DNA into the potato genepool...
November 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
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