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Pest Management Science

Gema P Farinós, Pedro Hernández-Crespo, Félix Ortego, Pedro Castañera
BACKGROUND: MON 810 maize, which expresses the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab, is a highly effective method to control Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre), a key maize pest in Mediterranean countries. Monitoring programs to assess the potential development of resistance of target pests to Bt maize are mandatory in the European Union (EU). Here we report the results of the S. nonagrioides resistance monitoring plan implemented for MON 810 maize in the EU between 2004-2015 and reassess the different components of this long-term harmonized plan...
September 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
Brian Lovett, Raymond John St Leger
Microbial insect pathogens offer an alternative means of pest control with potential to wean our heavy reliance on chemical pesticides. Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests. Most commercial products employ Ascomycetes in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria. However, their utilization has been limited by inconsistent field results due to sensitivity to abiotic stresses and naturally low virulence. Other naturally occurring biocontrol agents also face these hurdles to successful application, but the availability of complete genomes and recombinant DNA technologies have facilitated design of multiple fungal pathogens with enhanced virulence and stress resistance...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
BACKGROUND: Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Olga S Kostromytska, Michael E Scharf, Eileen A Buss
BACKGROUND: Mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus spp.) consume turfgrasses and pasture grasses and uproot plants by their tunneling, which decreases turf aesthetics and decreases forage quantity and quality. Insecticides are frequently used to prevent damage. In typical field trials, damage symptoms, not percent of mortality or achieved level of control, are used to assess treatment efficacy. Here however, we evaluated the direct effect of key insecticides on Neoscapteriscus mole cricket behavior...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Can Zhao, Wenrong Xu, Song Xiaoling, Weimin Dai, Lei Dai, Zheng Zhang, Qiang Sheng
BACKGROUND: Early maturity is an important trait that is essential to the survival of weedy rice. To explore the mechanism of early maturity in weedy rice, the reproductive development of a large sample of weedy rice accessions and cultivars was compared in a common garden study. A selected sample of both weedy and cultivated rices was sown at different dates in two years to study in more detail their flowering and grain filling patterns. RESULTS: The weedy rice from three major cropping regions matured 7-8 d earlier than their associated cultivars...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Yanjie Li, Yifan Li, Xiang Pan, Qing X Li, Ronghua Chen, Xuesheng Li, Canping Pan, Jianli Song
BACKGROUND: Plant protection products (PPPs) are applied in China and many other developing countries with knapsack sprayers at high volumes with coarse spray quality resulting in high percentage of pesticide losses. In this study, a new air-assisted electric knapsack sprayer and two conventional knapsack sprayers were evaluated by pesticide deposition, residues and loss into the soil. Artificial targets fixed on the upper side and underside of leaves surface in six zones (two depths and three heights) were used to collect the deposition, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry...
September 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
Masaya Matsumura, Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura, Akira Otuka, Shoji Sonoda, Dinh Van Thanh, Ho Van Chien, Phan Van Tuong, Phung Minh Loc, Ze-Wen Liu, Zeng-Rong Zhu, Jian-Hong Li, Gang Wu, Shou-Horng Huang
BACKGROUND: The two rice planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, have different life cycles in the regions of East Asia, the Red River Delta, and the Mekong Delta. The susceptibilities of these species to a range of insecticides have not previously been compared among the three regions over multiple years. Here we describe the differences and similarities in insecticide susceptibilities of the two species among the three regions from 2006-2011. RESULTS: In all three regions during 2006 to 2011, N...
September 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
Fan Zhang, Xiao X Sun, Xian C Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Jie Lu, Yong M Xia, Yan H Huang, Xue J Wang
BACKGROUND: Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana mainly infect insects through the cuticle; gut infection occasionally occurs. Microorganisms existing in the gut may play a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of host defenses to fungal pathogens. To evaluate whether the gut bacteria participate in antifungal activity, and to determine their role in host protection, the interactions between gut bacteria and M. anisopliae and the diversity of gut microbiota in cockroaches were studied...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Catarine Markus, Ales Pecinka, Ratna Karan, Jacob N Barney, Aldo Merotto
Continuous use of herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to all major herbicide modes of action worldwide. Besides the well-documented cases of newly acquired resistance by genetic changes, epigenetic regulation may also contribute to herbicide resistance in weeds. Epigenetics involves processes that modify the expression of specific genetic elements without changes in the DNA sequence, and present an important role for re-programming gene expression. Epigenetic modifications can be induced spontaneously, genetically or environmentally...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jonathan J Blake, Paul Gosling, Bart A Fraaije, Fiona J Burnett, Stuart M Knight, Steven Kildea, Neil D Paveley
BACKGROUND: Insensitivity of Z. tritici to de-methylation inhibitor (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides has been widely reported from laboratory studies, but the relationships between laboratory sensitivity phenotype or target site genotype and field efficacy remain uncertain. This article reports field experiments quantifying dose response curves, and investigates the relationships between field performance and in vitro EC50 values for DMIs, and frequency of the G143A substitution conferring QoI resistance...
September 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
Marcelo Fialho de Moura, Mayara Cristina Lopes, Renata Ramos Pereira, Jorgiane Benevenute Parish, Mateus Chediak, Lucas de Paulo Arcanjo, Daiane das Graças do Carmo, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço
BACKGROUND: Empoasca kraemeri is an important pest of the common bean in the tropics and subtropics. However, economic injury levels and sequential sampling plans for this pest have not yet been determined for this crop. Thus, the objectives of this research were to determine E. kraemeri sequential sampling plans and economic injury levels in the common bean at different crop technological levels. RESULTS: Common bean plants tolerate low attack intensities of this pest (up to 1 adult...
September 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
Fatih Tok, Bedia Kocyigit-Kaymakcioglu, Nurhayat Tabanca, Alden S Estep, Aaron D Gross, Werner J Geldenhuys, James J Becnel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
BACKGROUND: 1,3,4-oxadiazole and imidazolidine rings are important heterocyclic compounds exhibiting a variety of biological activities. In this study, novel compounds with oxadiazole and imidazolidine rings were synthesized from 3-(methylsulfonyl)-2-oxoimidazolidine-1-carbonyl chloride and screened for insecticidal activities. The proposed structures of the 17 synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, IR, (1) H-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: None of the compounds showed larvicidal activity at the tested concentrations against 1(st) instar Aedes aegypti larvae...
September 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
Kelly A Morris, Xiao Li, David B Langston, Richard F Davis, Patricia Timper, Timothy L Grey
BACKGROUND: Fluensulfone is a fluoroalkenyl chemistry with activity against multiple genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. The adsorption, desorption, and mobility of fluensulfone were evaluated on multiple soils from the United States in laboratory and column experiments. RESULTS: Adsorption data regressed to the logarithmic Freundlich equation resulted in isotherm values of 1.24 to 3.28. Soil adsorption of fluensulfone positively correlated with organic matter (0...
September 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
F Ferretti, J Coats, D Cowan, S Pietravalle, G Massei
BACKGROUND: Wild boar and feral pig numbers are growing worldwide and have substantial economic and environmental impacts. Bait-delivered pharmaceuticals such as disease vaccines, toxicants and contraceptives are advocated to mitigate these impacts. Effective campaigns based on these pharmaceuticals rely on optimising the target species' bait uptake, that might differ between seasons. We investigated seasonal differences in use of Boar-Operated-Systems (BOS) by wild boar and non-target species in an English woodland...
September 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
Antonios Michaelakis, Papachristos P Dimitrios, Rumbos I Christos, Athanassiou G Christos
BACKGROUND: Attract-and-kill strategies, in which a behavior-modifying stimulus (e.g. a pheromone) is integrated with a pest control agent, are lately gaining interest for mosquito control. Previously, it was demonstrated that the polyurea microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MSP) was sufficiently attractive to gravid females of Culex pipiens L. biotype molestus Førskal (Diptera: Culicidae) for a period of 40 days. Furthermore, it was shown that MSP could be effectively combined with the organophosphate temephos to achieve efficient mosquito control...
August 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Charlotte Rowley, Andrew J Cherrill, Simon R Leather, David R Hall, Tom W Pope
BACKGROUND: Saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of cereal crops in Europe. Outbreaks are difficult to predict and effective monitoring tools are required to ensure the effectiveness of pest management options. The female sex pheromone, (R)-2-nonyl butyrate, provides the basis of a highly effective lure for this insect. Here, we demonstrate how the success of this lure can be influenced by parameters such as trap location, lure age, and interference between traps fitted with these lures...
August 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Neil C Sims, Paul De Barro, Glenn J Newnham, Andrew Kalyebi, Sarina Macfadyen, Tim J Malthus
BACKGROUND: This study examines whether leaf spectra can be used to measure damage to cassava plants from whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), and the potential to translate measurements from leaf to landscape scale in eastern Africa. Symptoms of the cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) viruses, and sooty mould (SM) blackening of lower leaves from whiteflies feeding on the upper leaves, were measured at the leaf scale with a high resolution spectroradiometer and a SPAD meter, which retrieves relative chlorophyll concentration...
August 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Tae Yoon Kim, Ja Yeong Jang, Nan Hee Yu, Won Jae Chi, Chang-Hwan Bae, Joo Hong Yeo, Ae-Ran Park, Jae-Seon Hur, Hae Woong Park, Ji-Yeon Park, Jong-Hwan Park, Sung Ki Lee, Jin-Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: The endolichenic fungus Xylaria grammica KCTC 13121BP showed strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. This study aims to identify the nematicidal metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of the strain as a biocontrol agent under pot and field conditions. RESULTS: Bioassay-guided fractionation and instrumental analyses led to grammicin being identified as the nematicidal metabolite. Because patulin is a mycotoxic isomer of grammicin and is known to have strong antibacterial and cytotoxic activities, several biological activities of the two compounds were compared...
August 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Laura Vilanova, Neus Teixidó, Josep Usall, Marta Balsells-Llauradó, Amparo Gotor-Vila, Rosario Torres
BACKGROUND: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CPA-8 has been described as an effective biocontrol agent to control brown rot in stone fruit for both preharvest and postharvest applications. However, no information about the environmental fate and behaviour of this strain under field conditions is available. RESULTS: The dispersion of the CPA-8 application was evaluated using water-sensitive papers, and complete coverage was observed on the leaves of treated trees, while less than 1 % of non-treated tree leaves had CPA-8...
August 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
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