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Pest Management Science

Georgios Michaelides, Spyros Sfenthourakis, Maria Pitsillou, Nicos Seraphides
BACKROUND: Interactions among invertebrate predators could affect a pest suppression. The hemipteran species Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are natural enemies of several pests in agroecosystems and coexist in tomato crops in Mediterranean countries. By using the multiplicative risk model (MRM) and the substitutive model, the multiple predator effects (MPEs) on prey suppression was calculated when two individuals of the predators foraged at the same densities of the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), eggs...
August 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jos J T I Boesten
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the risk to aquatic organisms is an important aspect of pesticide registration. This assessment has to be based on well-defined exposure assessment goals (EAGs). However, these goals have not yet been defined for the EU authorisation procedure. RESULTS: The definition of an aquatic EAG consists of seven elements including the type of water body, the spatial dimension of this body, the spatial population of water bodies, the multi-year temporal population of concentrations for a single water body, and the space-time percentile combination to be selected from the spatio-temporal population of concentrations...
August 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
Steven Van Timmeren, David Mota-Sanchez, John C Wise, Rufus Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The invasive drosophilid pest, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is affecting berry production in most fruit-producing regions of the world. Chemical control is the dominant management approach, creating concern for insecticide resistance in this pest. We compared the insecticide susceptibility of D. suzukii populations collected from conventional, organic, or insecticide-free blueberry sites. RESULTS: The sensitivity of D. suzukii to malathion and spinetoram declined slightly across the three years of monitoring, whereas it was more consistent for methomyl and zeta-cypermethrin...
August 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
Garima Kakkar, Nan-Yao Su
BACKGROUND: The lethal time of a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) baited colony of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki largely depends on the time for workers to molt after consuming a lethal dose. Given that termite molting biology can regulate the time for elimination of a baited termite colony, the objective of this study was to determine how the fasting period (an important element of worker's molting cycle) and the acquisition of lethal dose can impact the total elimination period for a colony...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Wang Delong, Xie Na, Shandong Yi, Chuanyuan Liu, Hui Jiang, Ma Zhiqing, Feng Juntao, He Yan, Zhang Xing
BACKGROUND: Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) is one of the most invasive pests to cotton. Many botanical phytochemicals have a long history as a source of insecticides, and templates for new insecticides. This study was undertaken to isolate aphicidal compounds from the seeds of Erythrina crista-galli L. following the bioassay-guided isolation method. RESULTS: Three novel and eleven known Erythrina alkaloids were isolated. Compounds erysodine (9), erysovine (10), erysotrine (8) and erythraline (11) showed moderate to excellent aphicidal activity with LD50 of 7...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Franck E Dayan, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis) was confirmed resistant to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in a seed corn/soybean rotation in Nebraska. Further investigation confirmed a non-target-site resistance mechanism in this population. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors for restoring the efficacy of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides on the HPPD-inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus population from Nebraska, USA (HPPD-R)...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Arthur W Schaafsma, Victor Limay-Rios, Luis G Forero
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid contaminated dust escaping pneumatic seeders exposes non-target organisms such as pollinators. Two sources of dust are reported: abrasion by talc which is added as seed lubricant during planting, and seed to seed abrasion occurring during seed handling, distribution and planting. We report a third important source that warrants remediation. Here soil dust stirred up by planters enters the vacuum air intake near seed metering devices. RESULTS: The mean dust collected from the exhaust of a commercial pneumatic planter over a number of field sites and situations was 46 g/ha ranging from 5...
August 8, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jitka Stará, František Kocourek
BACKGROUND: An increase and the spread of pyrethroid resistance in the pollen beetle have been documented in many European countries. Pyrethroid resistance in the pollen beetle in the Czech Republic has been detected using a topical application bioassay. Resistance monitoring has been carried out during the implementation of insect resistance management. RESULTS: The susceptibilities of 9 pollen beetle populations to four pyrethroids in 2009 - 2015 in the Czech Republic are presented in this paper...
August 8, 2017: Pest Management Science
Nathan P Snow, Justin A Foster, Eric H VanNatta, Katherine E Horak, Simon T Humphrys, Linton D Staples, David G Hewitt, Kurt C VerCauteren
BACKGROUND: An acute and orally-delivered toxic bait containing micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite (MESN), is under development to provide a novel and humane technology to help curtail damage caused by invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated potential secondary risks for non-target species by: 1) testing whether four different types of micro-encapsulation coatings could reduce vomiting by invasive wild pigs, 2) testing the levels of residual sodium nitrite (SN) in tissues of invasive wild pigs, 3) testing the environmental persistence of SN in vomitus, and 4) conducting a risk assessment for scavengers...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jonathan Gressel, Guy Polturak
Liver-affecting, carcinogenic aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. are a major problem, especially in the humid developing world where storage conditions are often optimal for the fungi. Peanuts and maize have been transformed with RNAi constructs targeting Aspergillus flavus polyketide-synthase, an early key enzyme in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Aflatoxin biosynthesis was suppressed in developing immature grain, less so in late maturing grain, and it is doubtful that the technology will be effective in near dry mature grain...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
Yong Xie, Wei Peng, Fei Ding, Shu-Jie Liu, Hong-Juan Ma, Chang-Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Agrochemicals have been crucial to the production of food, and the need for the development of novel agrochemicals continues unceasing owing to the loss of existing produces via the growth of resistance and the desire for products with more propitious environmental and toxicological patterns. RESULTS: The results of both CoMFA and CoMSIA models indicated that the biological activity can effectively be improved through the structural optimization and molecular design of these synthetic compounds from the aspects of steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor fields...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
Martin Laforest, Brahim Soufiane, Marie-Josée Simard, Kristen Obeid, Eric Page, Robert E Nurse
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of herbicide resistant weed biotypes is increasing and this report of an Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor resistant Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop. from Southwestern Ontario is another example. The identified weed escaped control in an onion and carrot rotation where graminicides where used for several consecutive years. Our goal was to characterise the level and mechanism of resistance of the biotype. RESULTS: The biotype was resistant to all five ACCase inhibitor herbicides tested...
July 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Patrick Tranel
During the past decade, one of the most novel findings emerging from herbicide-resistance research was gene amplification as a resistance mechanism. Although amplification of genes-including genes encoding detoxifying enzymes as well as genes encoding the target site itself-has been known to confer insecticide resistance for some time (reviewed by Bass and Field(1) ), such a mechanism was not reported for herbicide resistance until 2010.(2).
July 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
Catherine Mermans, Wannes Dermauw, Sven Geibel, Thomas Van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The macrocyclic lactones abamectin and milbemectin are frequently used to control phytophagous mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Consequently, resistance has developed and was genetically linked with substitutions in the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) subunits TuGluCl1 and TuGluCl3. Here, we functionally validated a G326E substitution in TuGluCl3 by functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: Homomeric wild-type and mutated GluCl3 were successfully expressed...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
Chemseddine M Oulhaci, Béatrice Denis, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Laure Kaiser, Dominique Joly, Nadia Aribi
BACKGROUND: Azadirachtin is a prominent natural pesticide and represents an alternative to conventional insecticides. It has been successfully used against insect pests. However, its effects on reproduction require further analysis. Here we investigated lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin, on treated adults in a model insect, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). Dose-mortality relationships as well as several parameters of reproduction (mating, spermatogenesis, oogenesis and fertility) were examined...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
S Elfekih, W T Tay, K Gordon, L Court, P De Barro
BACKGROUND: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex harbours over 40 cryptic species that have been placed in 11 phylogenetically distinct clades based on the molecular characterisation of partial mitochondrial DNA COI (mtCOI) gene region. Four cryptic species are currently within the invasive clade i.e. 'MED', 'MEAM1', 'MEAM2' and IO'. Correct identification of these species is a critical step towards implementing reliable measures for plant biosecurity and border protection, however no standardised B...
July 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Despoina Evr Kapantaidaki, Eldem Sadikoglou, Dimitra Tsakireli, Vasileios Kampanis, Marianna Stavrakaki, Corinna Schorn, Aris Ilias, Maria Riga, George Tsiamis, Ralf Nauen, George Skavdis, John Vontas, Anastasia Tsagkarakou
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and ketoenols, are currently used for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In this study, insecticide resistance status and mechanisms were investigated by classical bioassays and molecular techniques. RESULTS: Dose response bioassays were performed on 19 Greek populations, among the 35 different whitefly populations used for the whole analysis. Resistance factors scaled up to 207-, 4657- and 59- fold, for imidacloprid, bifenthrin and spiromesifen, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
Yong-Lak Park, Srikanth Gururajan, Harold Thistle, Rakesh Chandran, Richard Reardon
BACKGROUND: Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major biological control agent against the invasive plant, Persicaria perfoliata. Release of R. latipes is challenging with the current visit-and-hand release approach because P. perfoliata shows a high degree of patchiness in the landscape, possesses recurved barbs on its stems, and often spreads into hard-to-access areas. This 3-year study developed and evaluated unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for precise aerial release and survivorship of R...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
Josemar Foresti, Cristina S Bastos, Flávio L Fernandes, Paulo R da Silva
BACKGROUND: Although Leptoglossus zonatus is considered a secondary pest of maize grown for grain, when grown for seed, this pest can cause significant economic damage. There are no records of management recommendations for this pest. The objectives of this work were to quantify losses caused by L. zonatus to different genotypes used for seed maize production and to estimate the acute toxicity of select insecticides to L. zonatus using different application technologies. The ultimate goal was to calculate economic injury levels (EILs) and develop economic thresholds (ETs) for L...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
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