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Pest Management Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646525/preliminary-characterization-of-putative-structural-cuticular-proteins-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis
#1
Dan Zhou, Baiyun Duan, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Changliang Zhu, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: The insect cuticle protects against environmental stresses such as insecticides, physical injury, dehydration and pathogenic microorganisms. Structural cuticular proteins (CPs) are the primary components, and are of interest for physiology-based pest management methods. Anopheles sinensis CPs are poorly characterised at present, therefore we performed whole genome sequence analysis and re-analysed available transcriptome data to identify potential insecticide resistance-associated CPs...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643897/a-novel-amino-acid-substitution-trp574arg-in-als-confers-broad-resistance-to-als-inhibiting-herbicides-in-crabgrass-digitaria-sanguinalis
#2
Jian Li, Mei Li, Xingxiang Gao, Feng Fang
BACKGROUND: Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) is an annual monocotyledonous weed. In recent years, field applications of nicosulfuron have been ineffective in controlling crabgrass populations in Shandong Province, China. To investigate the resistance mechanisms to nicosulfuron in crabgrass populations, the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene fragment covering known resistance-confering mutation sites was amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: Dose-response experiments suggested that the resistant population SD13 (R) was highly resistant to nicosulfuron (resistance index R/S = 43...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643882/the-history-and-current-status-of-glyphosate
#3
Stephen O Duke
Glyphosate is the only herbicide to target the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is a high use rate, non-selective herbicide that translocates primarily to metabolic sinks, killing meristematic tissues away from the application site. Its phloem-mobile properties and slow action in killing weeds allows the herbicide to move throughout the plant to kill all meristems, making it effective for perennial weed control. Since commercialization in 1974, its use has grown to dominate the herbicide market...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643881/virucides-in-apiculture-persistence-of-surrogate-enterovirus-under-simulated-field-conditions
#4
Jana Prodělalová, Hana Malenovská, Romana Moutelíková, Dalibor Titěra
BACKGROUND: Honeybee viruses were recognized among the most important factors leading to colony losses worldwide. Colony food and faeces were regarded as possible source of infectious viruses able to contaminate environment and equipment of apiaries. Thus, methods for elimination of viruses are required. No cell culture assay for testing the effect of disinfectants on honeybee viruses is available yet. Therefore, surrogate virus was employed for testing of iodophor- and peracetic acid-based disinfectants efficacy in combination with six organic contaminants at +6 °C and +22 °C...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643859/gibberellic-and-kaurenoic-hybrid-strigolactone-mimics-for-seed-germination-of-parasitic-weeds
#5
Rondinelle G Pereira, Antonio Cala, Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, José M G Molinillo, Maria A D Boaventura, Francisco A Macías
BACKGROUND: Parasitic weeds are widespread and they cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with potential to apply the suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. RESULTS: Attachment of the D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, has been carried out to gibberellin (GA3 ) and kaurenoic as the scaffold...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628274/new-technology-of-using-meteorological-information-in-forest-insect-pest-forecast-and-warning-systems
#6
Jiang-Lin Qin, Xiu-Hao Yang, Zhong-Wu Yang, Ji-Tong Luo, Xiu-Feng Lei
BACKGROUND: Near surface air temperature and rainfall are major weather factors affecting forest insect dynamics. The recent development in remote sensing retrieval and GIS spatial analysis techniques enable the utilization of weather factors to significantly enhance forest pest forecasting and warning systems. The current study focused on building forest pest digital data structures as a platform of correlation analysis between weather conditions and forest pest dynamics for better pest forecasting and warning systems using the new technologies...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628265/improving-preventive-locust-management-insights-from-a-multi-agent-model
#7
Pierre-Emmanuel Gay, Michel Lecoq, Cyril Piou
BACKGROUND: Preventive management of locust plagues works in some cases but still fails frequently. The role of funding institution awareness was suggested as a potential facilitating factor for cyclic locust plagues. We designed a multi-agent system to represent the events of locust plague development and a management system with three levels: funding institution, national control unit and field teams. A sensitivity analysis identified the limits and improvements of the management system...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627124/cross-resistance-to-purified-bt-proteins-bt-corn-and-bt-cotton-in-a-cry2ab2-corn-resistant-strain-of-spodoptera-frugiperda
#8
Fei Yang, David L Kerns, Graham P Head, Paula Price, Fangneng Huang
BACKGROUND: Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bt proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626945/european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-hbn-lepidoptera-crambidae-comparing-the-performance-of-a-new-bisexual-lure-with-that-of-synthetic-sex-pheromone-in-five-countries
#9
Miklós Tóth, István Szarukán, Antal Nagy, Lorenzo Furlan, Isadora Benvegnu, Magda Rak Cizej, Tamás Ábri, Tamás Kéki, Szilvia Körösi, Attila Pogonyi, Teodora Toshova, Dimitar Velchev, Daniela Atanasova, Alican Kurtulus, Bora Kaydan
BACKGROUND: Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant among others also for the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. The addition of 4-methoxyphenethyl alcohol has recently been reported to increase O. nubilalis catches 4 to 5 times, yielding a bisexual lure for the species. RESULTS: The bisexual lure significantly outperformed synthetic pheromone lures of O. nubilalis at 11 out of 13 experiments conducted in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626931/insecticide-resistance-and-intracellular-proteases
#10
REVIEW
Richard M Wilkins
Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity when compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618212/quantum-chemistry-in-environmental-pesticide-risk-assessment
#11
Juan J Villaverde, Carmen López-Goti, Manuel Alcamí, Al Mokhtar Lamsabhi, José L Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
BACKGROUND: The scientific community and regulatory bodies worldwide, currently promote the development of non-experimental tests that produce reliable data for pesticide risk assessment. The use of standard quantum chemistry methods could allow the development of tools to perform a first screening of compounds to be considered for the experimental studies, improving the risk assessment. This fact results in a better distribution of resources and in better planning, allowing a more exhaustive study of the pesticides and their metabolic products...
June 15, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618166/abundance-genetic-diversity-and-sensitivity-to-demethylation-inhibitor-fungicides-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-from-organic-substrates-with-special-emphasis-on-compost
#12
Karin Santoro, Slavica Matić, Ulrich Gisi, Davide Spadaro, Massimo Pugliese, Maria L Gullino
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical but also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides...
June 15, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618159/are-herbicides-a-once-in-a-century-method-of-weed-control
#13
REVIEW
Adam S Davis, George Frisvold
The efficacy of any pesticide is an exhaustible resource that can be depleted over time. For decades, the dominant paradigm - that weed mobility is low relative to insect pests and pathogens, that there is an ample stream of new weed control technologies in the commercial pipeline, and that technology suppliers have sufficient economic incentives and market power to delay resistance - supported a laissez faire approach to herbicide resistance management. Earlier market data bolstered the belief that private incentives and voluntary actions were sufficient to manage resistance...
June 15, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608474/association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-the-vine-mealybug-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-in-table-grape-vineyards-in-eastern-spain
#14
Aleixandre Beltrà, Cristina Navarro-Campos, Altea Calabuig, Luis Estopà, Felix L Wäckers, Apostolos Pekas, Antonia Soto
BACKGROUND: The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing artificial sugars...
June 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600808/lethal-effects-of-selected-novel-pesticides-on-immature-stages-of-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#15
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, John R Ruberson
BACKGROUND: Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, 3 fungicides and 3 herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 d later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs...
June 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598538/expression-of-the-double-stranded-rna-of-the-soybean-pod-borer-leguminivora-glycinivorella-lepidoptera-tortricidae-ribosomal-protein-p0-gene-enhances-the-resistance-of-transgenic-soybean-plants
#16
Fanli Meng, Yang Li, Zhenyuan Zang, Na Li, Ranrui Xue, Yingxue Cao, Tianyu Li, Quan Zhou, Wenbin Li
BACKGROUND: The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. RESULTS: We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB...
June 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585376/reduce-pests-enhance-production-benefits-of-intercropping-at-high-densities-for-okra-farmers-in-cameroon
#17
Akanksha Singh, Wolfgang W Weisser, Rachid Hanna, Raissa Houmgny, Sharon E Zytynska
BACKGROUND: Intercropping can help reduce insect pest populations. However, the results of intercropping can be pest- and crop-species specific, with varying effects on crop yield, and pest suppression success. In Cameroon, okra vegetable is often grown in intercropped fields and sown with large distances between planting rows (~2 m). Dominant okra pests include cotton aphids, leaf beetles and whiteflies. In a field experiment we intercropped okra with maize and bean in different combinations (okra monoculture, okra-bean, okra-maize and okra-bean-maize) and altered plant densities (high and low) to test for the effects of diversity, crop identity and planting distances on okra pests, their predators and yield...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581254/tree-spacing-impacts-the-individual-incidence-of-moniliophthora-roreri-disease-in-cacao-agroforests
#18
Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Laudine Alem, Chloé Curtet, Philippe Tixier
BACKGROUND: Using conventional pesticides in crop protection has raised serious environmental concerns and there is therefore a need for integrated pest management (IPM) methods. In this paper, we found that the spacing of trees can impact disease, which could result in a reduction in pesticide applications and may act as a potential IPM method. We studied Frosty Pod Rot (FPR) in 20 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica (Upala region). RESULTS: Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the impact of the neighborhood composition and distance from a studied cacao individual on its individual FPR incidence...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580756/high-tunnels-protection-for-rather-than-from-insect-pests
#19
Laura L Ingwell, Sarah L Thompson, Ian Kaplan, Ricky E Foster
BACKGROUND: High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the U.S. and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years on three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. RESULTS: Greenhouse pests (e...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580723/pollen-contamination-in-seed-mixture-increases-the-dominance-of-resistance-to-bt-maize-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#20
Fei Yang, David L Kerns, Sebe Brown, Graham P Head, Fangneng Huang
BACKGROUND: Seed mixture, also called "RIB", has been used to provide refuge populations for delaying insect resistance. Pollen contamination in RIB could result in refuge kernels of non-Bt maize expressing variable Bt proteins. Data are lacking regarding the impact of pollen contamination on evolution of resistance for ear-feeding insects. Here, we used Spodoptera frugiperda and Cry1F-maize as a model to examine if pollen contamination in RIB increases the dominance of insect resistance...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
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