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Pest Management Science

M Amin Jalali, M Reza Mehrnejad, Peter C Ellsworth, Fateme Ranjbar, Mahdi Ziaaddini
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the nutritional ecology of predatory coccinellids is important to selection of efficient biocontrol agents. We examined five species common to pistachio orchards and nutritional indices when fed on the key psylla pest of the system, Agonoscena pistaciae, in contrast to an alternative prey common on herbaceous plants in orchards, Aphis gossypii. RESULTS: Feeding studies revealed that Oenopia conglobata contaminata and Adalia bipunctata may be more efficient as biocontrol agents for A...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Alejandra L Lutz, Isabel Bertolaccini, Roberto R Scotta, María C Curis, María A Favaro, Laura N Fernandez, Daniel E Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) population has increased in Bt soybean crops in Argentina. As there are no registered products for its control, the recommended insecticides for S. frugiperda are used. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the lethal concentration (LC) and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the biological and reproductive functions of S. cosmioides, an emerging soybean pest in Argentina. RESULTS: An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorantraniliprole was active against larvae of the second instar, and after 48 h exposure LC50 was 0...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Robert D Clark
Pesticides must be effective to be commercially viable but they must also be reasonably safe for those who manufacture them, apply them, or consume the food they are used to produce. Animal testing is key to ensuring safety, but it comes late in the agrochemical development process, is expensive, and requires relatively large amounts of material. Surrogate assays used as in vitro models require less material and shift identification of potential mammalian toxicity back to earlier stages in development. Modern in silico methods are cost-effective complements to such in vitro models that make it possible to predict mammalian metabolism, toxicity and exposure for a pesticide, crop residue or other metabolite before it has been synthesized...
May 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sherif B Abdel Ghani, Suloiman Al-Rehiayani, Moustafa El Agamy, Luigi Lucini
BACKGROUND: The application of biochar to soil is supposed to alter its adsorption/desorption potential toward pesticides, thereby affecting their bioavailability and efficacy. These aspects are even more relevant in the case of nematicides because these pesticides are directly applied to soil. RESULTS: Biochar was produced from date palm (PB) and eucalyptus (EB) waste at 450 °C and added at a 1% rate to a sandy soil. The half-life (t½) of fenamiphos was increased from 2...
May 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Ginette Y Azandémè Hounmalon, Nguya K Maniania, Saliou Niassy, Simon Fellous, Serge Kreiter, Emilie Delétré, Komi K Fiaboe, Thibaud Martin
BACKGROUND: Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. RESULTS: The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment...
May 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jinzhi Niu, Guangmao Shen, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe, Lin He, Jinjun Wang
Mites comprise a group of key agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. They cause harm through feeding on the plant and transferring dangerous pathogens, and the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in mites highlights the need for novel control methods. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) shows a great potential for insect pest control. Here, we review the literature associated with RNAi in mite pests. We discuss different target genes and RNAi efficiency in various mite species, a promising Varroa control program through RNAi, the synergy of RNAi with plant defense mechanisms and microorganisms, and the current understandings of systemic movement of dsRNA...
May 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Mijuan Luo, Hehe Zhang, Yinggang Du, Atif Idrees, Longyan He, Jiahua Chen, Qing E Ji
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that some bacteria can attract their hosts. Our research aimed to identify cultivable bacterial isolates in the guts of sexually mature adult female and male Bactrocera tau and to evaluate their utility in trapping of B. tau. RESULTS: Forty-one strains of bacteria were isolated and identified from B. tau with morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis. The dominant bacterial genera shared by both females and males were Enterobacter, Providencia and Serratia...
May 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Silvia L Toffolatti, Giuseppe Russo, Paola Campia, Piero A Bianco, Paolo Borsa, Mauro Coatti, Stefano Ff Torriani, Helge Sierotzki
BACKGROUND: Despite anti-resistance strategies are recommended to reduce the selection pressure towards insensitive strains, no information is available on the fungal population dynamics following their criteria in real field conditions. In this study the effect on Plasmopara viticola population of two identical spray programs, differing only for including or not the Carboxylic Acid Amide (CAA) mandipropamid in mixture and alternation with an anti-resistance partner, was compared in terms of downy mildew control efficacy and mandipropamid sensitivity in two commercial vineyards for four seasons...
May 10, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zhan Hu, Ziwen Wang, Liu Yuxiu, Qingmin Wang
BACKGROUND: Lycoris aurea (L' Herit.) Herb (Amaryllidaceae) is a native pesticide in China. The ethanolic extract of Lycoris aureate bulbs, the total alkaloids of L. aurea bulbs and the main alkaloids of L. aurea bulbs were systematically investigated as part of a novel project to study their antiviral, fungal (phytopathogenic) and insecticidal activities. We also prepared eighteen lycorine derivatives and evaluated their bioactivities. RESULTS: Lycorine had excellent larvacidal activity against Plutella xylostella (LC50 = 10...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Lei Qian, Shuqi He, Xiaowei Liu, Zujin Huang, Fajun Chen, Furong Gui
BACKGROUND: Elevated CO2 can alter the leaf damage caused by insect herbivores. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is highly destructive invasive pest in crop production worldwide. To investigate how elevated CO2 affects F. occidentalis fed with Phaseolus vulgaris and in particularly, the interaction between plant defense and thrips anti-defense, nutrients content and antioxidant enzymes activity of P. vulgaris have been measured, as well as the detoxifying enzymes activity of adult thrips...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Steven C Haring, Michael L Flessner
Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Arturo Cocco, Enrico Muscas, Alessandra Mura, Andrea Iodice, Francesco Savino, Andrea Lentini
BACKGROUND: Although mating disruption is increasingly being used to control the worldwide grapevine pest vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), its mode of action remains unclear. A three-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of mating disruption on the development and reproduction of the vine mealybug. The influence of mating disruption applied over consecutive years on the pest population density was also evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of ovipositing females was significantly reduced in disrupted plots by 18...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Haijing Hu, Cong Wang, Xia Li, Yunyun Tang, Yufang Wang, Shuanglin Chen, Shuzhen Yan
BACKGROUND: The endophytic bacteria Bacillus cereus BCM2 has shown great potential as a defense against the parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Here, we studied the endophytic bacteria-mediated plant defense against M. incognita and searched for defense-related candidate genes using RNA-Seq. RESULTS: The induced systemic resistance of BCM2 against M. incognita was tested using the split-root method. Pre-inoculated BCM2 on the inducer side was associated with a dramatic reduction in galls and egg masses at the responder side, but inoculated BCM2 alone did not produce the same effect...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yanjie Zhao, Xiaoyan Sui, Lanjie Xu, Guoyu Liu, Lihua Lu, Mingshan You, Chaojie Xie, Baoyun Li, Zhongfu Ni, Rongqi Liang
BACKGROUND: Chitin is an important component of the insect exoskeleton and peritrophic membrane. Chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) is the key enzyme in the chitin synthesis pathway, and plays role to the molting and growth of insects. Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has been used as a more target-specific and environmentally safe approach to prevent and control agricultural insects. The aims of this study were to use grain aphid (Sitobion avanae) CHS1 as the target gene and then to produce transgenic wheat lines for aphid control via plant-mediated RNAi...
May 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
S Vajravijayan, S Pletnev, V Z Pletnev, N Nandhagopal, K Gunasekaran
BACKGROUND: Pesticidal property of many Kunitz type inhibitors is reported previously. But, the mechanism of action is not well established. In the present study, activity of alocasin against Aedes aegypti is demonstrated and the structure-activity relationship of this Kunitz type inhibitor is explained through X-ray structure analyses. RESULTS: Alocasin was purified from mature rhizomes of Alocasia as a single polypeptide chain of approximately 20 kDa. The structure at 2...
May 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Fengnian Wu, Jiaquan Huang, Meirong Xu, Eduardo G P Fox, G Andrew C Beattie, Paul Holford, Yijing Cen, Xiaoling Deng
BACKGROUND: Diaphorina citri is a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) associated with citrus Huanglongbing. In this study, the infection and titers of CLas in the psyllid, were monitored for life cycle stage, sex, host-plant CLas titer, host-plant genotype, and ambient temperature. RESULTS: Acquisition efficiency of CLas by D. citri was highest in nymphs reared at 25 °C on a host plant with high CLas titers but was independent of the host genotypes assessed and of vector sex...
May 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sarah Morran, Marcelo L Moretti, Caio A Brunharo, Albert J Fischer, Bradley D Hanson
BACKGROUND: In California specialty cropping systems such as vineyards and orchards, Echinochloa colona is present as a summer annual weed. It is able to germinate throughout the growing season whenever favorable conditions are present, and management relies heavily on glyphosate applications. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) E. colona biotypes are present in the state, but the levels of resistance observed suggest that there may be differences in mechanisms of resistance among populations. RESULTS: E...
May 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Cheng-Wang Sheng, John E Casida, Kathleen A Durkin, Feng Chen, Zhao-Jun Han, Chun-Qing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Phenylpyrazole (fiprole) insecticides, including ethiprole, fipronil and flufiprole with excellent activity on rice planthoppers, are very important in Asia but resistance has developed after decades of use. The molecular mechanism of fipronil- but not ethiprole-resistance has been previously studied in rice planthoppers. In our laboratory, a small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus strain with ethiprole-resistance was cultured and the molecular mechanisms of ethiprole resistance and of cross-resistance among fiprole insecticides were investigated...
May 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Stefanie Schlaeger, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
Whitefly (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) pests are economically important in agriculture, including the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Whiteflies are mainly controlled by synthetic insecticides but resistance to these insecticides is rapidly evolving. A semiochemical-based management strategy could provide an alternative to the use of insecticides, by exploiting natural volatile signalling processes to manipulate insect behaviour. Whitefly behaviour is affected by differences in plant odour blends...
May 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Li Cui, Qinqin Wang, Haoliang Qi, Qiyuan Wang, Huizhu Yuan, Changhui Rui
BACKGROUND: The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a worldwide insect pest with the ability to develop resistance to many insecticides. Indoxacarb, a sodium channel blocker, is an important insecticide that is used to control H. armigera. Cross-resistance, metabolic mechanisms and life history traits were established for an indoxacarb-selected (IND-SEL) population of H. armigera. RESULTS: After 11 generations of selection, the susceptibility to indoxacarb was decreased by 4...
April 29, 2018: Pest Management Science
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