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Pest Management Science

Olanrewaju Raji, Juliet D Tang, Telmah Telmadarrehei, Dragica Jeremic
BACKGROUND: Chitosan is a derivative form of chitin, which is the major component of exoskeletons of arthropods and cell walls of fungi. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against lepidopterans, aphids, fungi and bacteria has been extensively investigated, but only one report on the termiticidal effect of chitosan on termites has been published. In this study, we examine the termiticidal activity of chitosan by exposing single colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes virginicus Banks to wood treated with 6 different concentrations of chitosan solutions...
January 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Guoqi Chen, Hongle Xu, Teng Zhang, Congqiang Bai, Liyao Dong
BACKGROUND: Alopecurus japonicus has evolved serious resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides. Although target-site resistance (TSR) to ACCase inhibitors in A. japonicus has been reported, but non-target site resistance (NTSR) has not. This study investigated both TSR and NTSR in a fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant A. japonicus population (AHFD-3), which was collected in Feidong County, Anhui Province, China. RESULTS: We found that AHFD-3 exhibited high resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and low resistance to flucarbazone-sodium...
January 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jianghong Wang, Xiang Zhou, Kai Guo, Xinqi Zhang, Haipin Lin, Cristian Montalva
BACKGROUND: Conidiobolus obscurus is a wide spread fungal entomopathogen holding aphid biocontrol potential. This study focuses on a de novo transcriptomic analysis of C. obscurus. RESULTS: A number of pathogenicity-associated factors were annotated for the first time from the assembled 17,231 fungal unigenes, including those encoding subtilisin-like proteolytic enzymes (Pr1s), trypsin-like proteases, metalloproteases, carboxypeptidases and endochitinases. Many of these genes were transcriptionally up-regulated by at least twofold in mycotized cadavers compared to the in vitro fungal cultures...
January 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jaime C Piñero, Austen P Dudenhoeffer
BACKGROUND: In some regions of North America, damage caused by the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, has been increasing as beetle populations continue to become established and expand. This poses a pest management challenge for crop farmers, in particular organic producers. From 2014 to 2016 we evaluated the ability of novel mass trapping systems to capture P. japonica in elderberry and blueberry orchards in Missouri, U.S.A. RESULTS: Across a three-year period in two locations, the mass trapping systems collected 10...
January 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zhuo Li, Gui-Jun Wan, Long Wang, Megha N Parajulee, Zi-Hua Zhao, Fa-Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed-mixture ratios of insect-resistant dominance (100%-R100, 95%-S05R95, 90%-S10R90, 80%-S20R80, 60%-S40R60, and 0%-S100) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. RESULTS: The occurrence of target pests, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, decreased with the increased ratio of resistant rice, and the mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with lowest occurrences of non-target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, in S100 and S10R90 seed-mixture ratios...
January 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Hue Thi Dang, Jenna Moira Malone, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: An oriental mustard population (P3) collected near Quambatook, Victoria was identified resistant to diflufenican by screening with the field rate (200 g a.i. ha-1 ) of the herbicide. The mechanism (s) of diflufenican resistance and its inheritance in this population was therefore investigated. RESULTS: Dose-response experiment confirmed population P3 was 140-fold more resistant to diflufenican as determined by the comparison of LD50 values with the susceptible populations...
January 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Kathryn M Knight, Jonathan D Sellars, Patrick G Steel, Robert Edwards
BACKGROUND: Herbicide safening in cereals is linked to a rapid xenobiotic response (XR), involving the induction of glutathione transferases (GSTs). The XR is also invoked by oxidized fatty acids (oxylipins) released during plant stress, suggesting a link between these signaling agents and safening. To examine this relationship, a series of compounds modelled on the oxylipins 12-oxophytodienoic acid and phytoprostane 1, varying in lipophilicity and electrophilicity were synthesized. Compounds were then tested for their ability to invoke the XR in Arabidopsis and protect rice seedlings exposed to the herbicide pretilachlor, as compared with the safener fenclorim...
January 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yue Geng, Linjie Jiang, Yanwei Zhang, Zeying He, Lu Wang, Yi Peng, Yuehua Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Yaping Xu
BACKGROUND: The dissipation behavior, pre-harvest interval estimation, and dietary risk assessment of carbosulfan, dimethoate, and their relevant metabolites were investigated in greenhouse cucumber in Tianjin, northern China, to ensure raw consumption safety. RESULTS: Carbosulfan was metabolized to carbofuran, dibutylamine, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran as well as dimethoate was degraded to omethoate in cucumber fruits and leaves. The dissipation of carbosulfan, carbofuran, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, and dimethoate fitted first-order kinetics well with R2 ranged from 0...
January 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Suélen K Sartori, Elson S Alvarenga, Cristiane A Franco, Danielle S Ramos, Denilson F Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Considering the demand for more efficient herbicides, the present work aimed at synthesizing anilides via simple methods, and evaluate their herbicidal activities through seed germination assays. In silico studies were carried out to identify the enzymatic target sitein the plants for the most active anilides. RESULTS: A total of eighteen anilides were prepared via one-pot reaction in yields which varied from 36 to 98% through reactions of anilines with sorbic chloride and hexanoic anhydride...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
XiuYun Zhang, Yu Zhou, ZhiPing Wei, Jing Shen, LongKun Wang, ZhiQing Ma, Xing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Actinidia chinensis Planch, distributed only in China, has been used to treat hepatitis and cancer. The objective of the present work was to illustrate the antiviral active ingredient of A. chinensis root bark (ACRB). RESULTS: Bioassay-guided isolation of the most active fraction, EtOAc extract, led to seven compounds, (+)-catechins-7-phytol (1), 5-methoxy-coumarin-7-β-D-glycosidase (2), (+)-catechins (3), fupenzic acid (4), spathodic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3-oxo-9 (11),12 -diene-30-oic acid (6), and 3-β-(2-carboxy benzoyloxy) oleanolic acid (7)...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yuyong Liang, Fang Liu, Junsheng Li, Zhengxin Cheng, Hongfan Chen, Xuming Wang, Nengwen Xiao, Yongbo Liu
BACKGROUND: As genetically modified (GM) crops have been cultivated worldwide, concerns emerge over ecological consequences because of the coexistence of transgenic and non-transgenic crops in fields. We first conducted field experiments using insect-resistant Bt-transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis and its counterpart conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) with or without insecticide spraying in 2013 and 2014. In 2015 and 2016, Bt-transgenic and conventional rice were employed in the pure and mixed cages, with an infestation of target insect (Chilo suppressalis) and insecticide spraying as the control treatment to prevent target insects...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Thomas W R Harrop, Shane Denecke, Ying Ting Yang, Janice Chan, Phillip J Daborn, Trent Perry, Philip Batterham
BACKGROUND: Nitenpyram is a member of the economically important neonicotinoid class of insecticides. The in vivo metabolism of nitenpyram is not well characterised, but cytochrome P450 activity is the major mechanism of resistance to neonicotinoids identified in insect pests, and P450s metabolise other neonicotinoids including imidacloprid. RESULTS: Here, we used the GAL4/UAS system to direct RNAi against the cytochrome P450 redox partners to interrupt P450 functions in specific tissues in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Vaneska Barbosa Monteiro, Vanessa Farias Silva, Debora Barbosa Lima, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the causes and consequences of dispersal is vital for managing populations. Environmental contaminants, such as pesticides, provide potential environmental context-dependent stimuli for dispersal of targeted and non-targeted species, which may occur not only for active but also for passive dispersal, although such a possibility is frequently neglected. Here, we assessed the potential of food deprivation and acaricides to interfere with the take-off for passive (wind) dispersal of the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki...
January 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Iván J Montenegro, Soledad Del Corral, Georgina N Diaz Napal, María C Carpinella, Marco Mellado, Alejandro M Madrid, Joan Villena, Sara M Palacios, Mauricio A Cuellar
BACKGROUND: The antifeedant activity of 18 sesquiterpenoids of the drimane family (polygodial, drimenol and derivatives) was investigated. The results of this study against two insect species, Spodoptera frugiperda and Epilachna paenulata showed that polygodial, drimanic and nordrimanic derivatives exert antifeedant effects in these pests of agronomic interest indicating that they have potential as a biopesticide agent. RESULTS: Among the 18 compounds tested, the epoxynordrimane compound (11) and isonordrimenone (4) showed itself the highest activity (EC50 = 23...
January 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Laura M Saavedra, Gustavo P Romanelli, Pablo R Duchowicz
BACKGROUND: We develop a QSAR model for predicting the larvicidal activity of 60 plant-derived molecules against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of several diseases such as, dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika virus. The balanced subsets method (BSM) based on k-means cluster analysis (k-MCA) is employed to split the data set. The replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique coupled with multivariable linear regression (MLR) proves to be successful for exploring 18,326 molecular descriptors and fingerprints calculated with PaDEL, Mold2 and EPI Suite open-source software...
January 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Alexander M Gaffke, Sharlene E Sing, Tom L Dudley, Daniel W Bean, Justin A Russak, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Paul A Grieco, Robert K D Peterson, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Semiochemicals for monitoring, attracting or repelling pest and beneficial organisms are increasingly deployed in agricultural and forest systems for pest management activities. However, the use of aggregation pheromones and host plant attractants for the express purpose of increasing the efficacy of classical biological control agents of weeds has not been widely reported. Therefore, we conducted field-based assays to determine if a specialized wax based matrix impregnated with an aggregation pheromone of the northern tamarisk beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) or host plant volatiles could increase the efficacy of D...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Roman B Vercellino, Claudio E Pandolfo, Gabriela Breccia, Miguel Cantamutto, Alejandro Presotto
BACKGROUND: Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. RESULTS: Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
A Bernal, O Simón, T Williams, D Muñoz, P Caballero
BACKGROUND: A Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus from the Canary Islands (ChchNPV-TF1) has proved to be effective for control of this pest on banana crops. Commercialization of this virus as a bioinsecticide requires an efficient production system. RESULTS: The most suitable larval instar for virus production was the sixth instar (L6 ), which produced 1.80x1011 occlusion bodies (OBs)/larva and showed a lower prevalence of cannibalism (5.4%) than fourth (L4 ) or fifth (L5 ) instars...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Thâmarah A Lima, Leonardo P Dornelles, Ana Patrícia S Oliveira, Caio C S Guedes, Sueden O Souza, Roberto A Sá, Russolina B Zingali, Thiago H Napoleão, Patrícia M G Paiva
BACKGROUND: Lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins, from the bark (MuBL) and leaf (MuLL) of Myracrodruon urundeuva are termiticidal agents against Nasutitermes corniger workers, and have been shown to induce oxidative stress and cell death in the midgut of these insects. In this study, we investigated the binding targets of MuBL and MuLL in the gut of N. corniger workers by determining the effects of these lectins on the activity of digestive enzymes. In addition, we used mass spectrometry to identify peptides from gut proteins that adsorbed to MuBL-Sepharose and MuLL-Sepharose columns...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Tarlochan S Thind, Derek W Hollomon
Amongst contact fungicides, dithiocarbamates have remained successful fungicides and are used worldwide. These organic sulphur fungicides viz. mancozeb, maneb, zineb, ziram, thiram, metiram and propineb have helped growers manage several economically important plant diseases. Their multi-site mode of action and broad-spectrum disease control make them some of the most common mixture partners with a number of single-site fungicides as part of resistance management strategies. Indeed, it was the part played by ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates such as mancozeb in delaying the evolution of phenylamide resistance in several oomycete phytopathogens that laid the groundwork for mixture strategies to become a cornerstone of anti-resistance management in plant disease control...
December 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
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