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Pest Management Science

Jing Zhao, Yang Sun, Liubin Xiao, Yongan Tan, Yiping Jiang, Lixin Bai
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. RESULTS: In this study, the key parameters of S. exigua grown on distinct hosts were investigated; host plants could be ranked as lettuce >shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
Lena Ulber, Dagmar Rissel
BACKGROUND: A herbicide resistance survey was conducted in Germany to determine farmers' awareness of herbicide resistance and experience with resistant weeds, the used information sources on herbicide resistance and methods employed to confirm resistance. In addition, the application pattern and perception of resistance management strategies by farmers were assessed. RESULTS: The majority of farmers (88%) was aware of the presence of herbicide resistance cases in Germany and 64% and 50% of farmers reported that resistant weeds were detected in their county or on their farm, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
Wenbing Ding, Rui Huang, Zhongshi Zhou, Hualiang He, Youzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive weed in Europe and Asia, is highly toxic to the golden apple snail (GAS; Pomacea canaliculata) in laboratory test. However, little is known about the chemical components of A. artemisiifolia associated with the molluscicidal activity or about its potential application for GAS control in rice fields. This study evaluated the molluscicidal activities of powders, methanol extracts, and individual compounds from A. artemisiifolia against GAS in rice fields and under laboratory conditions...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
Dolors Bosch, Marcela A Rodríguez, Jesús Avilla
BACKGROUND: A widespread resistance of Cydia pomonella to organophosphates was demonstrated in populations from the Spanish Ebro Valley area that showed high levels of enzymatic detoxification. To determine the efficacy of new insecticides, neonate larvae bioassays were carried out on twenty field codling moth populations collected from three different Spanish apple production areas. Synergist bioassays were performed to detect the enzymatic mechanisms involved. RESULTS: The least active ingredients were methoxyfenozide, with 100% of the populations showing significantly lower mortality than the susceptible strain, and lambda-cyhalothrin, with very high resistant ratios (872...
November 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jinyi Chen, Qin Yu, Mechelle Owen, Heping Han, Stephen Powles
BACKGROUND: The pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (such as trifluralin and pendimethalin) are vital to Australian no-till farming systems. A Lolium rigidum population collected from the Western Australian grain belt with a 12-year trifluralin use history was characterised for resistance to dinitroaniline, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Target-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. RESULTS: This L...
November 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
Following the obligatory implementation of Integrated Pest Management in the European Union, the plant protection means suitable for application in organic agriculture attracted the attention of quite a wide group of potential users. In spite of the common rules of organic production, as well as the uniform principles of placing plant protection products on the market, the availability of products that can be legally used in organic crop protection differs significantly among the Member States. There is a uniform list of 10 basic substances that can be used in the protection of organic crops throughout the entire EU...
November 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
Khawar Jabran, Mehmed Nedim Doğan
BACKGROUND: Global climate changes may impact the growth and management of weed species. This work was aimed at evaluating the impact of recent climate changes on growth of weeds and herbicide efficacy. The effects of temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and herbicide on growth and control of Bromus tectorum L., Hordeum murinum L., and Lactuca serriola L. were studied. Treatments included: 1) Control or ambient environment (CO2 =400-450 ppm; temperature 20/10 °C day/night); 2) Elevated temperature (CO2 =400-450 ppm; temperature 25/15 °C day/night); 3) High CO2 and elevated temperature (CO2 =800-900 ppm; temperature 25/15 °C day/night); 4) High CO2 (CO2 =800-900 ppm; temperature 20/10 °C day/night)...
November 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Gilad Golden, Elazar Quinn, Eli Shaaya, Moshe Kostyukovsky, Elena Poverenov
BACKGROUND: One of the most significant contributors to the global food crisis is grain loss during storage mainly caused by pest insects. Currently, there are two main methods used for insect pest control: fumigation and grain protection by contact insecticides. Since some chemical insecticides can harm humans and environment, there is a global tendency to reduce their use by finding alternative eco-friendly approaches. RESULTS: In this paper, a natural pest-managing agent pulegone was encapsulated into coarse and nano emulsions...
November 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Anita Küpper, Falco Peter, Peter Zöllner, Lothar Lorentz, Patrick J Tranel, Roland Beffa, Todd A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Resistance to the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide tembotrione in an Amaranthus palmeri population from Nebraska (NER) has previously been confirmed to be due to enhanced metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the metabolites formed in susceptible (NES) and NER biotypes. RESULTS: NER and NES formed the same metabolites. Tembotrione metabolism in NER differed from NES in that resistant plants showed faster 4-hydroxylation followed by glycosylation...
November 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
Bruno C Vieira, Spencer L Samuelson, Guilherme S Alves, Todd A Gaines, Rodrigo Werle, Greg R Kruger
BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus var. rudis), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) are major weeds occurring in fields throughout Nebraska with recurrent grower complaints regarding control with glyphosate. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, common waterhemp, and redroot pigweed populations in Nebraska. The study also aimed to investigate how agronomic practices influence the occurrence of glyphosate resistance in the three Amaranthus species...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Damián A Grimi, Betiana Parody, María Laura Ramos, Marcos Machado, Federico Ocampo, Alan Willse, Samuel Martinelli, Graham Head
BACKGROUND: Maize technologies expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins are widely used in Argentina to control sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius). Unexpected D. saccharalis damage was observed to Bt maize events TC1507 (expressing Cry1F) and MON 89034 × MON 88017 (expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2) in an isolated area of San Luis Province. D. saccharalis larvae were sampled from MON 89034 × MON 88017 fields in the area to generate a resistant strain (RR), which was subsequently characterized in plant and diet bioassays...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Helen Metcalfe, Alice E Milne, Richard Hull, Alistair J Murdoch, Jonathan Storkey
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides within fields is spatially variable due to soil heterogeneity. We quantified the effect of soil organic matter on the efficacy of two pre-emergence herbicides; flufenacet and pendimethalin, against A. myosuroides and investigated the implications of variation in organic matter for weed management using a crop-weed competition model. RESULTS: Soil organic matter played a critical role in determining the level of control achieved...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Rostislav Halouzka, Petr Tarkowski, Binne Zwanenburg, Sanja Ćavar Zeljković
BACKGROUND: Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that play various roles in plant development. The chemical stability of SLs depends on the solvent, pH, and the presence of nucleophiles. Hydrolysis leads to detachment of the butenolide ring, and plays a crucial role in the initial stages of the signal-transduction process occurring between the receptor and the SL signaling molecule. RESULTS: To date, two different mechanisms have been proposed for SL hydrolysis...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Lírio Cosme, Marcelo M Haro, Nelsa Maria P Guedes, Terezinha Maria C Della Lucia, Raul Narciso C Guedes
BACKGROUND: The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly their direct damage. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance were not yet investigated. Here we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Chad Brabham, Jozsef Stork, Michael Barrett, Seth DeBolt
BACKGROUND: Cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBIs) are pre-emergence herbicides that inhibit anisotropic cell expansion resulting in a severely swollen and stunted growth phenotype. Resistance to group 21 CBIs, such as isoxaben, is conferred by missense mutations in CELLOSE SYNTHASE A (CesA) genes required for primary cell wall synthesis, concluding that this is their in vivo target. RESULTS: Herein, we show that grasses exhibit tolerance to group 21 CBIs and explore the mechanism of tolerance to isoxaben in the grass Brachypodium distachyon (L...
October 31, 2017: Pest Management Science
Devi Shankar Suman, Yi Wang, Ary Faraji, Gregory M Williams, Eric Williges, Randy Gaugler
BACKGROUND: The control of the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is difficult with conventional methods due to its selection of cryptic peridomestic habitats. We evaluated whether autodissemination stations are able to deliver sufficient pyriproxyfen to sentinel containers to produce significant pupal mortality in different habitats such as competing oviposition sites, peridomestic habitats, junk yards and tire piles. We also tested how far the pesticide could be transferred over a 200 m range...
October 31, 2017: Pest Management Science
Dean J Pettinga, Junjun Ou, Eric L Patterson, Mithila Jugulam, Philip Westra, Todd A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Resistance to the synthetic auxin herbicide dicamba is increasingly problematic in Kochia scoparia. The resistance mechanism in an inbred dicamba-resistant K. scoparia line (9425R) was investigated using physiological and transcriptomics (RNA-Seq) approaches. RESULTS: No differences were found in dicamba absorption or metabolism between 9425R and a dicamba-susceptible line, but 9425R was found to have significantly reduced dicamba translocation. Known auxin-responsive genes ACC synthase (ACS) and indole-3-acetic acid amino synthetase (GH3) were transcriptionally induced following dicamba treatment in dicamba-susceptible K...
October 30, 2017: Pest Management Science
Ofir Lidor, Orit Dror, Dor Hamershlak, Nofar Shoshana, Eduard Belausov, Tirtza Zahavi, Netta Mozes-Daube, Vered Naor, Einat Zchori-Fein, Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Ofir Bahar
BACKGROUND: Phytoplasma, the causative agent of bois-noir disease of grapevines, are vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from H. obsoletus inhibits the growth of Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable relative of phytoplasma. Additional evidence suggests that DLB can reduce the symptoms of yellows disease in grapevine plantlets. The present aim was to test whether DLB could colonize a range of Phytoplasma- and Liberibacter-sensitive crop plants, and thus assess its potential agricultural use...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
Desmi I Chandrasena, Ana M Signorini, Gustavo Abratti, Nicholas P Storer, Magdalena L Olaciregui, Analiza P Alves, Clinton D Pilcher
BACKGROUND: Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) event TC1507 (Herculex® I insect protection), expressing Cry1F δ-endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, was commercialized in 2003 in the Americas. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) susceptibility to Cry1F was monitored annually across several regions in Argentina using diagnostic concentration bioassays. Reduced performance of TC1507 maize against S. frugiperda was reported in 2013. A resistant population was established in the laboratory and the dominance of Cry1F resistance was characterized...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
Parsa Tehranchian, Vijay Nandula, Mithila Jugulam, Karthik Putta, Marie Jasieniuk
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate, paraquat and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides are widely used in California annual and perennial cropping systems. Recently, glyphosate, paraquat, and ACCase- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance was confirmed in several Italian ryegrass populations from the Central Valley of California. This research characterized the possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Multiple-resistant populations (MR1, MR2) are resistant to several herbicides from at least three modes of action...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
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