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Pest Management Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195683/evaluation-of-smartstax-and-smartstax%C3%A2-pro-maize-against-western-corn-rootworm-and-northern-corn-rootworm-efficacy-and-resistance-management
#1
Graham P Head, Matthew Carroll, Sean Evans, Dwain M Rule, Alan Willse, Thomas Clark, Nicholas Storer, Ronald Flannagan, Luke Samuel, Lance J Meinke
BACKGROUND: Cases of western corn rootworm (WCR) field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 and other corn rootworm (CRW) control traits have been reported. Pyramid products expressing multiple CRW traits can delay resistance compared to single trait products. We used field studies to assess the pyramid CRW corn products, SmartStax (expressing Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax PRO (expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and DvSnf7), at locations with high WCR densities and possible Cry3Bb1 resistance, and to assess the reduction in adult emergence attributable to DvSnf7 and other traits...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195678/biochemical-evaluation-of-interactions-between-synergistic-molecules-and-phase-i-enzymes-involved-in-insecticide-resistance-in-b-and-q-type-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#2
Michela Panini, Francesco Tozzi, Christoph T Zimmer, Chris Bass, Linda Field, Valerio Borzatta, Emanuele Mazzoni, Graham Moores
BACKGROUND: Metabolic resistance is an important consideration in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, where an esterase-based mechanism has been attributed to pyrethroid resistance and over expression of the cytochrome P450, CYP6CM1, has been correlated to resistance to imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids. RESULTS: In vitro interactions between putative synergists and CYP6CM1, B and Q-type esterases were investigated, and structure-activity relationship analyses allowed the identification of chemical structures capable of acting as inhibitors of esterase and oxidase activities...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195429/double-stranded-rna-delivery-through-soaking-mediates-silencing-of-the-muscle-protein-20-and-increases-mortality-to-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#3
Xiudao Yu, Gowda Siddarame, Nabil Killiny
BACKGROUND: Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the most important economic pest of citrus because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB). Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach for controlling D. citri. RNAi-based insect management strategies depend on the selection of suitable target genes. RESULTS: The muscle protein 20 gene DcMP20 was characterized from D. citri in an effort to impair proper muscle development through RNAi...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195419/migratory-flight-behaviour-of-the-pollen-beetle-meligethes-aeneus
#4
Alice L Mauchline, Sam M Cook, Wilf Powell, Jason W Chapman, Juliet L Osborne
BACKGROUND: The field ecology of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus and its damaging effects on oilseed rape crops are well understood. However, the flight behaviour of M. aeneus, in particular the drivers for migratory movements across the landscape, is not well studied. We combined three established methodologies; suction traps, vertical-looking radar and high-altitude aerial netting to demonstrate that M. aeneus fly at a range of altitudes at different points during its active season...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195395/heterologous-expression-of-helicoverpa-armigera-cytochrome-p450-cyp6b7-in-pichia-pastoris-and-interactions-of-cyp6b7-with-insecticides
#5
Chunqing Zhao, Genmiao Song, Hongxia Duan, Tao Tang, Chen Wang, Lihong Qiu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that constitutive overexpression of cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 was involved in fenvalerate resistance in Helicoverpa armigera. In this study, the CYP6B7 gene from H. armigera (namely HaCYP6B7), was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. A vector pPICZA-HaCYP6B7 was constructed and transformed into P. pastoris GS115, the transformant of pPICZA-HaCYP6B7-GS115 was then cultured and induced by 1% (v/v) methanol and the heterologous expression of HaCYP6B7 protein in P...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195394/methods-for-evaluating-leaf-surface-free-energy-and-polarity-having-accounted-for-surface-roughness
#6
Justin J Nairn, W Alison Forster
BACKGROUND: Leaf surfaces can have similar wettability, while their roughness and polarity may be very different. This may affect agrochemical bioefficacy, hence there is a need to characterise leaf surface polarity and roughness separately. This paper reviews established surface evaluation techniques and then uses a comprehensive dataset of static contact angles (12 chemical solutions on 15 different species) to compare and contrast them for their ability to characterise leaf surface polarity in isolation from roughness...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195388/survey-of-conspecific-herbivore-induced-volatiles-from-apple-as-possible-attractants-for-pandemis-pyrusana-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#7
V Giacomuzzi, J Mattheis, E Basoalto, S Angeli, A L Knight
BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple foliage untreated or sprayed with a yeast and from untreated and sprayed foliage with actively-feeding larvae of Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott. Field studies then evaluated various combinations of these volatiles when paired with acetic acid as possible adult attractants. RESULTS: The most abundant volatiles released following herbivore-feeding were four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and acetic acid...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168846/performance-of-honey-bee-colonies-under-a-long-lasting-dietary-exposure-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiacloprid
#8
Reinhold Siede, Lena Faust, Marina D Meixner, Christian Maus, Bernd Grünewald, Ralph Büchler
BACKGROUND: Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three-year replicated colony feeding study...
February 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168830/degradation-of-dimethyl-disulfide-in-soil-with-or-without-biochar-amendment
#9
Dawei Han, Dongdong Yan, Aocheng Cao, Wensheng Fang, Pengfei Liu, Yuan Li, Canbin Ouyang, Qiuxia Wang
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a new and effective alternative to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. The effect of biochar on the fate of DMDS in soil is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the degradation kinetics of DMDS in different soils and evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on DMDS degradation using incubation experiments. RESULTS: The degradation half-life of DMDS was between 1.05 and 6.66 d under non-sterile conditions, and 12...
February 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160393/behaviour-of-bentazon-as-influenced-by-water-and-tillage-management-in-rice-growing-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Antonio López-Piñeiro, David Peña, Ángel Albarrán, Javier Sánchez-Llerena, José Manuel Rato-Nunes, María Ángeles Rozas
BACKGROUND: Bentazon is a widely used herbicide in rice agroecosystems that has commonly been found in water resources. To assess how tillage and water regimes impact the sorption-desorption, dissipation, and leaching of bentazon in Mediterranean rice growing conditions, field experiments were carried out using tillage and flooding (TF), tillage and sprinkler irrigation (TS), no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS), and long-term no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS7). RESULTS: After three years, the Kd values in TS were 2...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160383/our-top-10-herbicide-resistant-weed-management-practices
#11
Hugh J Beckie, K Neil Harker
Although proactive or reactive herbicide-resistant weed management (HRWM) practices have been recommended to growers in different agroecoregions globally, there is a need to identify and priorize those having the most impact in mitigating or managing herbicide selection pressure in the northern Great Plains of North America. Our perspective on this issue is based on collaborative research, extension activities and dialogue with growers, or farming experience (cereal, oilseed and pulse crop production) during the past 30 years...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160377/novel-gene-sequence-markers-for-isolate-tracking-within-monilinia-fructicola-lesions
#12
M E Dowling, G Schnabel, H G Boatwright, S E Everhart
: Dowling, M.E., Schnabel, G., Boatwright, H.G., and Everhart, S.E. xxxx. Novel gene-sequence markers for isolate tracking within Monilinia fructicola lesions. Pest Management Science xxx:xxx-xxx. BACKGROUND: Monilinia fructicola is a diverse pathogen of pome and stone fruits that causes severe economic losses each year. However, little is known about inoculum flow within or between orchards and pathogen establishment in an orchard, because few methods exist for detecting diversity or tracking isolates over time...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156050/evaluation-of-a-decision-support-strategy-for-the-control-of-powdery-mildew-erysiphe-necator-schw-burr-in-grapevine-in-the-central-region-of-chile
#13
Héctor Valdés-Gómez, Miguel Araya-Alman, Carolina Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Nicolás Verdugo-Vásquez, Mauricio Lolas, César Acevedo-Opazo, Christian Gary, Agnès Calonnec
BACKGROUND: The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel Decision Support Strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and another of Chardonnay (CH)...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150381/interactions-of-glyphosate-use-with-farm-characteristics-and-cropping-patterns-in-central-europe
#14
Armin Wiese, Michael Schulte, Ludwig Theuvsen, Horst-Henning Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Although glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the European Union, little is known about the patterns of its usage in arable farming. Therefore, a nation-wide survey of 2,026 German farmers was analyzed to obtain further knowledge about glyphosate applications in conventional European arable farming. Given its broad range of agri-environmental and farm type conditions, Germany can be regarded as a suitable study region to represent Central European farming. The growing season 2013/14 was set as a reference...
February 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145087/latest-generation-of-halogen-containing-pesticides
#15
REVIEW
Peter Jeschke
Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. The modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicide) contain halogen atoms...
February 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139095/raspberry-ketone-supplements-promotes-early-sexual-maturation-in-male-queensland-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni-diptera-tephritidae
#16
Humayra Akter, Vivian Mendez, Renata Morelli, Jeanneth Pérez, Phillip W Taylor
BACKGROUND: Raspberry ketone (RK) is highly attractive to sexually mature, but not immature, males of many Bactrocera species, including Queensland fruit fly ('Qfly', Bactrocera tryoni), and acts as a metabolic enhancer in a wide diversity of animals. We considered the possibility that, as a metabolic enhancer, RK in adult diet might accelerate sexual maturation of male Qflies. RESULTS: Recently emerged adult Qfly males (0-24 hrs old) were exposed to RK-treated food for 48 hours and were then provided only sugar and water...
January 31, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139072/host-differentiation-and-variability-of-orobanche-crenata-populations-from-legume-species-in-morocco-as-revealed-by-cross-infestation-and-molecular-analysis
#17
Mounia Ennami, Fatima Zahra Briache, Fatima Gaboun, Rabha Abdelwahd, Lamiae Ghaouti, Loubna Belqadi, James Westwood, Rachid Mentag
BACKGROUND: Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialize in parasitizing specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays...
January 31, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139069/evolution-of-imidacloprid-resistance-in-myzus-persicae-in-greece-and-susceptibility-data-for-spirotetramat
#18
Costas Ch Voudouris, Martin S Williamson, Panagiotis J Skouras, Amalia N Kati, Anastasia J Sahinoglou, John T Margaritopoulos
BACKGROUND: Myzus persicae s.l. is a major crop pest globally and has evolved resistance to a range of insecticide classes making it increasingly difficult to control in some areas. Here we compare bioassay monitoring data for two important compounds, imidacloprid and spirotetramat, on field samples/clones collected in Greece. RESULTS: A total of 122 aphid samples/clones from central and northern Greece were examined in dose-response bioassays with imidacloprid...
January 31, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139047/positive-and-normative-modeling-for-palmer-amaranth-control-and-herbicide-resistance-management
#19
George B Frisvold, Muthukumar V Bagavathiannan, Jason K Norsworthy
BACKGROUND: Dynamic optimization models are normative - they solve for what growers "ought to do" to maximize some objective, such as long-run profits. While valuable for research, such models are difficult to solve computationally, limiting their applicability to grower resistance management education. While discussing properties of normative models in general, this study presents results of a specific positive model of herbicide resistance management, applied to Palmer amaranth control on a representative cotton farm...
January 30, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127901/integrated-pest-management-in-western-flower-thrips-past-present-and-future
#20
REVIEW
Sanae Mouden, Kryss Facun Sarmiento, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss
Western flower thrips (WFT) is one of the most economically important pest insects of many crops worldwide. Recent EU legislation has caused a dramatic shift in pest management strategies, pushing for tactics that are less reliable on chemicals. The development of alternative strategies is therefore, an issue of increasing urgency. This paper reviews the main control tactics in integrated pest management (IPM) of WFT with focus on biological control and host plant resistance as areas of major progress. Knowledge gaps are identified and innovative approaches emphasized, highlighting the advances in -omics technologies...
January 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
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