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Pest Management Science

Deborah Kaiser, Sven Bacher, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Giselher Grabenweger
BACKGROUND: Solar radiation is assumed to be a major factor limiting the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi used as biocontrol agents in open field applications. We evaluated 12 natural UV-protective co-formulants for their effect on the survival of UV exposed Beauveria bassiana spores on agar plates, colza leaf discs, and in the field. RESULTS: CFU counts of unformulated conidia on agar plates and leaf discs dropped to a level of ≤ 50% after exposure to UV-radiation...
September 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Shi-Jiang Yu, Qi Pan, Ren Luo, Cui-Lun Wang, Lu-Yan Cheng, Juan-Sheng Yang, Hao-Nan Zhou, Dong-Yuan Hou, Hao-Qiang Liu, Chun Ran
BACKGROUND: Dialeurodes citri is an important pest in citrus-producing areas of the world. Lecanicillium attenuatum parasitizes D. citri and kills it, suggesting a potential approach for the biological control of pests. However, the low virulence of the fungus and its slow rate of killing have limited its commercial competitiveness. The objective reason for these disadvantages is immunological rejection by the host. Our strategy was to use fungi to express the dsRNA of the host immune genes...
September 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Chengyu Chen, Tisheng Shan, Ying Liu, Xueyan Shi, Xiwu Gao
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases played important roles in detoxification metabolism of insecticides in insect pests. However, little is known about the roles of specific P450 gene and its responses to insecticide exposure in Bradysia odoriphaga, a major pest in Chinese chive production. RESULTS: In the present study, a novel P450 gene, CYP3356A1, was cloned from B. odoriphaga. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP3356A1 is 2153 bp and its open reading frame (ORF) encodes 508 amino acids...
September 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Justus Wesseler
Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product...
September 14, 2018: Pest Management Science
Xianchun Wang, Xiaochao Tang, Dehong Xu, Dianmei Yu
Latrodectus species are among the most venomous spiders, with abundant toxic proteinaceous components in their venomous glands and other tissues as well as eggs. To date several proteinaceous toxins with insecticidal potential, including α-insectotoxin and δ-insectotoxin, two most potent known insecticidal toxins, have been purified and characterized by comprehensively utilizing conventional biochemical techniques. These greatly enhanced our knowledge about the molecular basis and mechanism of their toxicity...
September 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Lulu Dai, Haiming Gao, Jiaqi Ye, Danyang Fu, Yaya Sun, Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Bark beetles rely on their detoxifying enzymes to resist the defensive terpenoids of host trees. Carboxylesterases (CarEs) have been researched focus on their multiple functions in the metabolic detoxification of pesticides and plant allelochemicals, drug resistance, and juvenile hormone and pheromone degradation. RESULT: We identified eight new CarE genes in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) and carried out a bioinformatics analysis on the deduced full-length amino acid sequences...
September 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Carlos H de O Lima, Renato A Sarmento, Poliana S Pereira, Arthur V Ribeiro, Danival J Souza, Marcelo C Picanço
BACKGROUND: Decision-making systems are essential parts of integrated pest management programs. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many crops, including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), the second most consumed fruit worldwide. However, there are still no studies on decision-making systems for B. tabaci on this crop. Thus, we aim to determine a decision-making system to control B. tabaci biotype B on watermelon crops. RESULTS: The highest densities of B...
September 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
M M Kungu, E Deletre, S Subramanian, K K M Fiaboe, L Gitonga, Z O Lagat, T Martin
BACKGROUND: Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae spider mites are known major pests of Solanaceae. Smallholder farmers in Africa rely heavily on pesticide treatments. But farmers claim pesticides are generally ineffective despite high frequency sprays. New management solutions are thus urgently needed. This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of using acaricide-treated nets combined with the predatory mite release for controlling spider mites. RESULTS: The results showed the acaricide-treated net alone reduced more effectively densities of T...
September 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Atsushi Honma, Norikuni Kumano, Suzuki Noriyuki
The sterile insect technique is an environmentally friendly method to control and even eradicate agricultural and veterinary insect pests without use chemical pesticides in excess. However, the continuous production and release of sterile insects is economically costly and eradication programs using sterile insects have not always been successful owing to the incomplete mating ability of the sterile insects. Here we focus on the theory and empirical findings of interspecific negative mating interaction, known as reproductive interference, to develop a more cost-effective and value-added pest management program...
September 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Anna Carbó, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Anna Marín, Amparo Chiralt, Neus Teixidó
BACKGROUND: The biocontrol agent (BCA) Candida sake CPA-1 has previously reduced effectively Botrytis bunch rot (BBR) and it was also suggested as a promising strategy to control sour rot in grapes under field conditions. However, biocontrol efficacy of solid formulations of CPA-1 has never been tested in field trials. The present study aims to confirm the efficacy against BBR and sour rot in grapes under field conditions of two novel formulations recently developed by the addition of biodegradable coatings using a fluidised-bed spray-drying system...
September 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Diane C Robin, Patrice A Marchand
BACKGROUND: The use of biocontrol agents is growing strongly with a market of 1.9 billion euros worldwide and 542 million euros in Europe and an estimated annual growth of between 15 and 20%. Biocontrol substances are solutions which use natural mechanisms as part of integrated pest management. With the exception of macro-organisms, substances or products comprising micro-organisms, semiochemicals and natural substances depend on plant protection EC Commission Regulation No 1107/2009...
September 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Heather H Disque, Kelly A Hamby, Aditi Dubey, Christopher Taylor, Galen P Dively
BACKGROUND: Nearly all corn seed in the U.S is coated with neonicotinoid insecticides to protect against soil and foliar arthropod pests. Exposure in the soil and the systemic activity in the plant can pose non-target risks. We assessed the community-level effects of clothianidin-treated seed on the diversity and abundance of arthropod communities in a no-till corn agroecosystem over a single growing season. RESULTS: Epigeal and foliage-dwelling communities were disturbed by the clothianidin seed treatment, with significant negative and positive changes in taxa abundances...
September 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Tavvs M Alves, Roger D Moon, Ian V MacRae, Robert L Koch
BACKGROUND: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a significant insect pest of soybean in North America. Accurate estimation of A. glycines densities requires costly, time-intensive weekly counts of adults and nymphs on plants. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to assess the potential for spectral-based remote sensing to more efficiently quantify cumulative aphid-days (CADs) using soybean canopy reflectance. RESULTS: Narrow-band wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range were associated with CAD, but those in the visible spectral range were not associated with CAD...
September 6, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gabriela Breccia, Laura Gianotto, Emiliano Altieri, Mariano Bulos, Graciela Nestares
BACKGROUND: Acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit 1 (Ahasl1) is a multiallelic locus involved in herbicide resistance in sunflower. Ahasl1-1 and Ahasl1-4 alleles harbor different point mutations that lead to different amino acid substitutions (Ala205Val and Trp574Leu, respectively). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of these alleles at the enzymatic and whole-plant levels, and to determine the dominance relationships for imazapyr and metsulfuron-methyl herbicides...
September 6, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yingjie Wen, Xunyuan Jiang, Chen Yang, Huayue Meng, Binfeng Wang, Hanxiang Wu, Zhixiang Zhang, Hanhong Xu
BACKGROUND: Endogenous plant β-glucosidases can be utilized to hydrolyze pro-pesticides and release the bioactive pesticide. Two related glucose-fipronil conjugates with different linkers structure, N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl) sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-1-(2-triazolethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GOTF) and N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-2-aminoethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (GOF), were deglucolysated by β-glucosidase both in vitro and in vivo at different rates...
September 5, 2018: Pest Management Science
Amira Nebbak, Alexandra C Willcox, Sekou Koumare, Jean-Michel Berenger, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Albin Fontaine, Sébastien Briolant, Lionel Almeras
BACKGROUND: To prevent the risk of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, larval source management remains the most sustainable and effective mosquito control strategy. The present study aimed to determine the influence of environmental characteristics of mosquito larval habitats in an urban area of Marseille, France. Fourteen sites containing water were monitored every two weeks from May to October 2015 for mosquito species occurrence and larval density, and environmental parameters were measured at each visit...
September 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Mª Del Mar Fernández, Ivan Meeus, Annelies Billiet, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, Peter Vandamme, Elisa Viñuela, Guy Smagghe
BACKGROUND: The parasitic wasps Eretmocerus mundus, Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa are important natural enemies of whiteflies. A broad understanding of their biology, ecology and behavior has been achieved, but the composition and role of their microbiota is not fully determined. The knowledge of the bacteria present in insects might be useful to manage species of human concern such as natural enemies or pests. Here, we performed a residual contact test to study a possible change in the susceptibility of E...
September 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yong-Seong Lee, Ji Hee Han, Beom Ryong Kang, Young Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: An entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria javanica pf185, causes mortality in nymphs of the green peach aphid and inhibits the growth of fungal plant pathogens. However, the metabolites of pf185 involved in these antifungal and aphicidal activities are unknown. This study was performed to identify the metabolites with these activities. RESULTS: An antifungal metabolite was purified by repetitive column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography...
September 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Javier Fernandez-de-Simon, Michael Coeurdassier, Geoffroy Couval, Isabelle Fourel, Patrick Giraudoux
BACKGROUND: The use of pesticides can affect non-target species by causing population declines through indirect intoxication. Small mustelids (SMs; weasels, Mustela nivalis L.; stoats, Mustela erminea L.) consume water voles (WVs, Arvicola scherman S.) and can be exposed to bromadiolone, an anticoagulant rodenticide used in some countries to reduce WV damage to grasslands. Here, we investigated whether bromadiolone affected SM abundance. RESULTS: We monitored SM abundance using footprint tracking tunnels in spring and autumn at 10 sites...
September 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy
BACKGROUND: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a serious threat to vegetable production worldwide. The efficacy of Phoma sp. GS8-2 was evaluated against CMV in Arabidopsis and cucumber plants. RESULTS: Arabidopsis and cucumber plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI) or cell-free filtrate (CF) of GS8-2 demonstrated decreased CMV severity and titre using ELISA relative to the control. Cucumber growth and yield parameters were significantly increased due to colonization with GS8-2 under field conditions...
August 31, 2018: Pest Management Science
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