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Pest Management Science

Sainath S Kasar, Kiran R Marathe, Amey J Bhide, Abhijeet P Herwade, Ashok P Giri, Vijay L Maheshwari, Pankaj K Pawar
BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. RESULTS: A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with molecular weight 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II type α-AI from Wrightia religiosa...
October 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ann M Buysse, Maurice C H Yap, Ricky Hunter, Jonathan Babcock, Xinpei Huang, Marshall H Parker
BACKGROUND: Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. RESULTS: Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii (Glover)...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
Junjun Ou, Phillip W Stahlman, Mithila Jugulam
BACKGROUND: Plant growth temperature is one of the important factors that can influence postemergent herbicide efficacy and impact weed control. Control of kochia (Kochia scoparia), a major broadleaf weed throughout the North American Great Plains, often is unsatisfactory when either glyphosate or dicamba are applied on hot summer days. We tested effects of plant growth temperature on glyphosate and dicamba phytotoxicity on two Kansas kochia populations (P1 and P2) grown under the following three day/night (d/n) temperature regimes: T1, 17...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. RESULTS: LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Thomas C Sparks, Beth A Lorsbach
Agrochemicals have been critical to the production of food and fiber, as well as the control of vectors of disease. The need for the discovery and development of new agrochemicals continues unabated due to the loss of existing products through the development of resistance, the desire for products with more favorable environmental and toxicological profiles, shifting pest spectrums, and changing agricultural needs and practices. As presented in the associated analysis of the agrochemical industry, the rising costs and complexities of agrochemical discovery has, in part, led to increasing consolidation, especially in the US and Europe...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ren-Yu Qu, Jing-Fang Yang, Yu-Chao Liu, Qiong Chen, Ge-Fei Hao, Cong-Wei Niu, Zhen Xi, Guang-Fu Yang
BACKGOUND: Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the branched-chain amino acids in plants and a wide range of microorganisms. With the long-term and wide application of AHAS inhibitors, weed resistance is becoming a global problem, which leads to an urgent demand for novel inhibitors to antagonize both wild-type and resistant AHAS. RESULTS: Pyrimidinyl-Salicylic acid derivatives, as one of the main classes of commercial AHAS herbicides, show potential anti-resistant bioactivity to wild-type and P197L mutant...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Xue-Qin Wang, Guang-Hua Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu, Qi-Yi Tang, Yang Hu, Fei Qiao, Kong Luen Heong, Jia-An Cheng
BACKGROUND: Spiders are effective biological control agents in rice ecosystems, but the comparative study of predations among main spider species under field conditions have not been fully explored since lack of practical methodology. In this study, more than 6000 spiders of dominant species were collected from subtropical rice ecosystems to compare their predations on Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) using DNA based gut content analysis. RESULTS: The positive rates for all spider taxa were closely related to prey densities, as well as their behaviors and niches...
October 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Thomas C Sparks, Donald R Hahn, Negar V Garizi
Natural products (NPs) have a long history as a source of, and inspiration for, novel agrochemcials. Many of the existing herbicides, fungicides and insecticides have their origins in a wide range of NPs from a variety of sources. Due to the changing needs of agriculture, shifts in pest spectrum, development of resistance and evolving regulatory requirements, the need for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. As such, NPs continue to be an important source of models and templates for the development of new agrochemicals, demonstrated by the fact that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means...
October 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Russell Slater, Pierre Stratonovitch, Jan Elias, Mikhail A Semenov, Ian Denholm
BACKGROUND: Tools with the potential to predict risks of insecticide resistance and aid the evaluation and design of resistance management tactics are of value to all sectors of the pest management community. Here we describe use of a versatile individual-based model of resistance evolution to simulate how strategies employing single and multiple insecticides influence resistance development in the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus. RESULTS: Under repeated exposure to a single insecticide, resistance evolved faster to a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) than to a pyridine azomethane (pymetrozine), due to difference in initial efficacy...
October 12, 2016: Pest Management Science
Marine El Adouzi, Olivier Bonato, Lise Roy
BACKGROUND: While resistance against insecticides is widely known in pest arthropods, it remains poorly known in non-target arthropods of the same agrosystems. This may be of crucial importance in the context of organic pest management or IPM: first, stopping of pesticide pressure during farm conversion may lead to important rearrangements of non-target communities due to fitness cost of resistance in populations of some species. Second, resistant biological agents may be useful to farms with low synthetic pesticide use...
October 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
Sufen Cui, Lei Wang, Jiangping Qiu, Zhicheng Liu, Xueqing Geng
BACKGOUND: The tolerance to low oxygen (hypoxia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) is criticalfor insect control. On the basis of bioassay, metabolism profiles were built to dissect adaptive mechanism in bean weevil under hypoxia, hypoxia/hypercapnia, and normoxia usinggas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). RESULT: The growth and development of bean weevils were suppressed significantly by two hypoxia situations, and hypercapnia enhanced the mortality, but after 24-d exposure, the surviving insects emerged adults earlier than those under hypoxia only...
October 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
Di Peng, Kun Luo, Huidan Jiang, Yanan Deng, Lianyang Bai, Xiaomao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum poses a serious threat to tomato production. However, no effective control measures are available. In this study, we combined the bactericide Saisentong with an effective biological control agent Bacillus subtilis B-001 to control tomato bacterial wilt under greenhouse and field conditions. RESULTS: Growth of B-001 in vitro was unaffected by Saisentong. In greenhouse experiments, the combined application of B-001and Saisentong via root irrigation or spray resulted in better disease control compared with either agent alone...
October 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
Raul Narciso C Guedes
Insecticide resistance is a broadly recognized ecological backlash resulting from insecticide use and is widely reported among arthropod pest species with well-recognized underlying mechanisms and consequences. Nonetheless, insecticide resistance is the subject of evolving conceptual views that introduces a different concept useful if recognized in its own right-the risk or likelihood of control failure. Here we suggest an experimental approach to assess the likelihood of control failure of an insecticide allowing for consistent decision-making regarding management of insecticide resistance...
October 7, 2016: Pest Management Science
Frank J Byrne, Matthew P Daugherty, Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell, James A Bethke, Joseph G Morse
BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of 3 systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using ELISA. Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP...
October 7, 2016: Pest Management Science
Pierre Hellin, Jonathan Scauflaire, Viviane Van Hese, Françoise Munaut, Anne Legrève
BACKGROUND: Fusarium culmorum is a fungal pathogen occurring worldwide on various weeds and important crops. Triazoles have been shown to be the most effective fungicide for managing Fusarium spp. but little is known about their specific activity on F. culmorum. RESULTS: The sensitivity of 107 F. culmorum strains to triazoles was assessed using microtiter plate assays. The EC50 values ranged from 0.14 to 1.53 mg L (-1) for tebuconazole and from 0.25 to 2.47 mg L (-1) for epoxiconazole...
October 3, 2016: Pest Management Science
Fabio Sgolastra, Piotr Medrzycki, Laura Bortolotti, Maria Teresa Renzi, Simone Tosi, Gherardo Bogo, Dariusz Teper, Claudio Porrini, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Jordi Bosch
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid insecticides have been identified as an important factor contributing to bee diversity declines. Nonetheless, uncertainties remain about their impact under field conditions. Most studies have been conducted on Apis mellifera and tested single compounds. However, in agricultural environments, bees are often exposed to multiple pesticides. We explore synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid (clothianidin) and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibitor fungicide (propiconazole) in three bee species (A...
September 29, 2016: Pest Management Science
Andika Gunadi, Raman Bansal, John J Finer, Andy Michel
BACKGROUND: Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. RESULTS: Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings, germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials...
September 28, 2016: Pest Management Science
William K Heve, Fahiem E El-Borai, Daniel Carrillo, Larry W Duncan
BACKGROUND: Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) is a serious economic insect pest because of development of larvae that hatch from eggs oviposited into fruits by female adults. This study assessed virulence of at least 10 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to Caribfly in laboratory bioassays as a starting point toward evaluation of management strategies for the fruit-to-soil-dwelling stages of A. suspensa in fields infested by Caribfly. RESULTS: Inoculation of A. suspensa with 1 ml of ca...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
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