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Pest Management Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094904/hormetic-effects-of-glyphosate-on-plants
#1
REVIEW
Ivana Pfs Brito, Leandro Tropaldi, Caio A Carbonari, Edivaldo D Velini
As all herbicides act on pathways or processes crucial to plants, in an inhibitory or stimulatory way, low rates of any herbicide might be used to modulate plant growth, development, or plant composition. Glyphosate is the most used pesticide in the world, and very low rates of this herbicide can stimulate plant growth, an effect called hormesis. Several studies have shown that glyphosate applications at low rates can increase plant growth, induce shikimic acid accumulation, increase photosynthesis and stomatal opening, increase seed production, and shorten the plant life cycle...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094903/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-insecticidal-coatings-based-on-teflutrin-and-chlorpyrifos-against-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus
#2
Massimo Pugliese, Alberto Rettori Andrea, Roberto Martinis, Khalid Al-Rohily, Velate Suresh, Moideen Mohamed Ashraf, Ali Al-Maashi
BACKGROUND: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, recently threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. RESULTS: Two products, a glue (polyvinyl acetate) and an oil (raw linseed oil), have been used as coatings and applied together with a repellent and two insecticides (teflutrin and chlorpyrifos) at different dosages on 2 species of palm (Phoenix dactylifera and Phoenix canariensis)...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094902/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-2-density-porosity-and-chemical-content
#3
Dieter Foque, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Apart from particle size, drift of abraded seed particles during sowing is mainly affected by two other physical properties viz. particle shape and envelope density. The impact of these abraded seed particles on the environment is highly dependable on their active ingredient content. In this study, the envelope density and chemical content of dust abraded from seeds was determined as a function of particle size for six seed species. RESULTS: Envelope density and active ingredient content both change as a of function of particle size...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094901/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-1-size-distribution-using-different-measuring-techniques
#4
Dieter Foque, Ingrid Zwertvaegher, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Particle size is one of the most important properties affecting the driftability and behavior of dust particles abraded from pesticide dressed seeds during sowing. Three particle sizing techniques were used determine the particle size distribution of dust abraded from seeds from six different species. RESULTS: Important differences in dust particle size distribution between species were observed with the finest dust for rapeseed and the coarsest dust for barley...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094899/identification-of-glyphosate-resistance-in-salsola-tragus-in-northeastern-oregon
#5
Judit Barroso, Jennifer A Gourlie, Larry K Lutcher, Mingyang Liu, Carol A Mallory-Smith
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094896/characterisation-of-glufosinate-resistance-mechanisms-in-eleusine-indica
#6
Adam Jalaludin, Qin Yu, Peter Zoellner, Roland Beffa, Stephen B Powles
BACKGROUND: An Eleusine indica population has evolved resistance to glufosinate, a major post-emergence herbicide of global agriculture. This population was analysed for target-site (glutamine synthetase) and non-target-site (glufosinate uptake, translocation and metabolism) resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity extracted from susceptible (S) and resistant (R*) plants was equally sensitive to glufosinate inhibition, with IC50 values of 0...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067028/numerical-simulation-of-ozone-concentration-profile-and-flow-characteristics-in-paddy-bulks
#7
R Pandiselvam, V Chandrasekar, V Thirupathi
BACKGROUND: Ozone has shown the potential to control the stored product insect pests. The high reactivity of ozone makes special problems when it passes though an organic medium such as stored grains. Thus, there is a need for simulation study to understand the concentration profile and flow characteristics of ozone in stored paddy bulks as a function of time. RESULTS: Simulation of ozone concentration through the paddy grain bulks was explained by applying the principle of law of conservation along with continuity equation...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067016/how-glyphosate-affects-plant-disease-development-it-s-more-than-enhanced-susceptibility
#8
REVIEW
R Hammerschmidt
Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066976/delivering-beauveria-bassiana-with-electrostatic-powder-for-the-control-of-stored-product-beetles
#9
Athanassiou G Christos, Rumbos I Christos, Sakka Maria, Storm Clare, Dillon Aoife, Potin Olivier
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of a Beauveria bassiana-based formulation (Bb38) with Entostat, an electrostatically charged powder, was investigated as surface treatment against Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Sitophilus granarius adults. In lab bioassays, the efficacy of Bb38 against the aforementioned species was examined on concrete, plywood, steel and ceramic, whereas its residual efficacy against the same species was assessed on concrete and steel in the presence or absence of illumination...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066973/discovery-and-characterisation-of-field-resistance-to-organophosphorus-chemicals-in-a-major-mite-pest-halotydeus-destructor
#10
Paul A Umina, Alan Lord, Svetlana Micic, Owain Edwards
BACKGROUND: The redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) is an agricultural pest in Australia that attacks a wide variety of crops and pasture species. Chemicals remain an important part of control strategies for H. destructor, despite the existence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species. Recent chemical control failures involving a second insecticide class, organophosphates, were investigated using pesticide bioassays. RESULTS: We confirmed, for the first time, resistance to organophosphates in H...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066972/efficacy-of-a-long-lasting-bifenthrin-treated-net-against-horticultural-pests-and-its-compatibility-with-the-predatory-mite-amblyseius-swirskii-and-the-parasitic-wasp-eretmocerus-mundus
#11
Mª Del Mar Fernández, Ignacio Colomer, Pilar Medina, Alberto Fereres, Pedro Del Estal, Elisa Viñuela
BACKGROUND: The insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are being investigated lately for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options to be used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouses...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058804/pesticide-exposure-assessment-for-surface-waters-in-the-eu-part-2-determination-of-statistically-based-runoff-and-drainage-scenarios-for-germany
#12
Martin Bach, Mirjam Diesner, Dietlinde Großmann, Djamal Guerniche, Udo Hommen, Michael Klein, Roland Kubiak, Alexandra Müller, Thomas G Preuss, Jan Priegnitz, Stefan Reichenberger, Kai Thomas, Matthias Trapp
BACKGROUND: In order to assess surface water exposure to active substances of plant protection products (PPP) in the EU, the FOCUS (FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) surface water workgroup introduced four runoff and six drainage scenarios for Step 3 of the tiered FOCUSsw approach. These scenarios may not necessarily represent realistic worst-case situations for the different Member States of the EU. Hence, the suitability of the scenarios for risk assessment in the national authorisation procedures is not known...
January 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058798/inductions-of-reproduction-and-population-growth-in-the-generalist-predator-cyrtorhinus-lividipennis-hemiptera-miridae-exposed-to-sublethal-concentrations-of-insecticides
#13
Weiwei Lu, Qiujing Xu, Jun Zhu, Chen Liu, Linquan Ge, Guoqing Yang, Fang Liu
BACKGROUND: The miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, is a significant predacious enemy of rice planthoppers. The effects of sublethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on fecundity, egg hatchability, expression levels of genes associated with reproduction, and population growth in C. lividipennis were investigated. RESULTS: The fecundities for three pair combinations (♀c  × ♂t , ♀t  × ♂c and ♀t  × ♂t ) treated with sublethal concentrations of the insecticides triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC10 and LC20 ) showed a significant increase compared to the untreated pairs (♀c  × ♂c )...
January 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058778/synthetic-route-to-quinoxyfen-photometabolite-2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno-2-3-4-de-quinoline
#14
Peter L Johnson, Jeremy Kister, Scott Thornburgh
BACKGROUND: Quinoxyfen is a fungicide developed by Dow AgroSciences for the control of powdery mildew. Re-registration studies required gram quantities of 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline, a photometabolite of quinoxyfen. The only previous method of preparation of this photometabolite was by photolysis of quinoxyfen in less than one percent yield. Therefore, a new method allowing for the preparation of this photometabolite in gram quantities was required. RESULTS: Several different metal catalyzed intramolecular cyclization approaches were investigated for the synthesis of 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline...
January 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019078/target-site-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-glyphosate-in-feathertop-rhodes-grass-chloris-virgata-populations-in-australia
#15
The D Ngo, Mahima Krishnan, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: Chloris virgata is a warm season, C4 , annual grass weed affecting field crops in northern Australia that has become an emerging weed in southern Australia. Four populations with suspected resistance to glyphosate were collected in South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, Australia and compared to one susceptible (S) population to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Based on the rate of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in four populations of C...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019077/the-adverse-impact-of-the-neonicotinoid-seed-treatment-ban-on-crop-protection-in-oilseed-rape-in-the-uk
#16
Alan M Dewar
This paper describes the consequences of the ban on neonicotinoid seed treatments on pest management in oilseed rape. Since the ban was implemented in December 2013, there have been serious crop losses in 2014, 2015 and 2016 due to cabbage stem flea beetles, Psylliodes chrysocephala, and aphids, Myzus persicae, which have developed resistance to the alternative pyrethroid sprays that were employed to control them. This has resulted in increased crop losses, decreased yields, and a substantial decrease in the area grown, leading to fewer flowering crops available in the spring, especially in the eastern region of the UK...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019074/identification-and-detection-of-indoxacarb-resistance-mutations-in-the-para-sodium-channel-of-the-tomato-leafminer-tuta-absoluta
#17
Emmanouil Roditakis, Konstantinos Mavridis, Maria Riga, Emmanouil Vasakis, Evangelia Morou, Jean Luc Rison, John Vontas
BACKGROUND: Indoxacarb is an important active ingredient extensively used for the control of Tuta absoluta, a major tomato pest, holding a particular role in insecticide resistance management schemes. RESULTS: Reduced susceptibility to indoxacarb was identified (1794-fold resistance), through toxicological bioassays in a field population from Greece and evolved rapidly to resistance after short laboratory selection. Combined bioassays with synergists and biochemical analysis suggested only a partial involvement of detoxification enzymes in the resistant phenotype...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019070/why-was-resistance-to-shorter-acting-pre-emergence-herbicides-slower-to-evolve
#18
Gayle J Somerville, Stephen B Powles, Michael J Walsh, Michael Renton
BACKGROUND: Across several agricultural systems the evolution of herbicide resistance has occurred more rapidly to post-emergence than pre-emergence herbicides, however, the reasons for this are not clear. We used a new simulation model to investigate whether interactions between differences in order of application and weed cohorts affected could explain this historically observed difference between the herbicide groups. RESULTS: A ten year delay in resistance evolution was predicted for a shorter-acting residual pre-emergence (c...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019063/interaction-of-transgenic-and-natural-insect-resistance-mechanisms-against-spodoptera-littoralis-in-cotton
#19
Steffen Hagenbucher, Michael Eisenring, Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
BACKGROUND: Insect-resistant transgenic plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are grown on millions of hectares worldwide. While these proteins are efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests, not all pests are affected and the development of resistance in target pests is always a danger. These short-comings could be supplemented by exploiting the natural insect resistance of cotton, especially inducible terpenoids like gossypol. RESULTS: To assess the potential of gossypol in supplementing Cry proteins as a resistance-trait, we conducted a range of feeding assays with Spodoptera littoralis using artificial diet with defined amounts of Cry proteins and gossypol...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991715/impact-of-glyphosate-resistant-sugar-beet
#20
REVIEW
Don W Morishita
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make three to five herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated one to three times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
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