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Pest Management Science

Pablo Bielza, Inmaculada Moreno, Ana Belando, Carolina Grávalos, Josep Izquierdo, Ralf Nauen
BACKGROUND: Spiromesifen and spirotetramat are novel insecticides belonging to the chemical class of tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives. Both compounds have proven very effective against field populations of Bemisia tabaci around the world. However, several growers have recently reported control failures in Spain. Therefore, we studied the resistance level to these insecticides in field populations reporting control failures. In addition, we further selected a spiromesifen-resistant strain to study the mechanisms involved and the cross-resistance pattern...
July 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Paul Neve
There is a pressing need for novel control techniques in agricultural weed management. Direct genetic control of agricultural pests encompasses a range of techniques to introduce and spread novel, fitness-reducing genetic modifications through pest populations. Recently, the development of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has brought these approaches into sharper focus. Proof of concept for CRISPR-Cas9 based gene drives has been demonstrated for control of disease-vectoring insects. This article considers whether and how gene drives may be applied in agricultural weed management, focusing on CRISPR-Cas9 based systems...
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Joanna T Witton, Matthew D Pickering, Tania Alvarez, Melissa Reed, Gabriel Weyman, Mark E Hodson, Roman Ashauer
BACKGROUND: Pesticides used in commercial crop systems can adversely affect non-target arthropod populations. The spatial distribution of pesticide residues is rarely studied at scales relevant to these populations. Here we combine two methods for assessing pesticide spray deposits at spatial scales relevant to non-target arthropods found in apple orchards. Pesticide residues were determined on individual apple leaves through conventional residue analysis; water sensitive paper was used to investigate spatial distributions in deposits at the micro scale...
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Juliana G Galvão, Patrícia Cerpe, Darlisson A Santos, Joyce K M C Gonsalves, Adriana J Santos, Rafaela K V Nunes, Ana Amélia M Lira, Péricles B Alves, Roseli La Corte, Arie F Blank, Gabriel F Silva, Sócrates C H Cavalcanti, Rogéria S Nunes
BACKGROUND: One of the most efficient ways to prevent arboviruses, such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika, is by controlling their vector, the Aedes aegypti. Since this vector is becoming resistant to most larvicides used, the development of new larvicides should be considered. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes have been investigated as an interesting approach for enabling the use of essential oils in water as larvicides. Thus, this study consists in the development of Lippia gracilis essential oil (LGEO) and β-CD inclusion complexes for Ae...
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
BACKGROUND: Methyl jasmonate -MeJA activates host defense mechanisms against insect pests of agricultural importance while it regulates defense responses against living and non-living stresses in various plant species. Rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenèe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) feeding activity and mortality was evaluated after MeJA treatments of rice plants ASD-16. RESULTS: Rice plant resistance was activated through topical application of MeJA to rice leaves...
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
P Silacci, C Biolley, C Jud, J D Charrière, B Dainat
The scavenger and invasive species Aethina tumida threatening the honey bee has been recently introduced in Europe. We present a new, reliable and rapid multiplex real-time PCR for its efficient diagnostic enabling surveillance program. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Baoliang Tian, Zhenzhen Yu, Yingchun Pei, Zhen Zhang, Evan Siemann, Shiqiang Wan, Jianqing Ding
BACKGROUND: Climate warming is known to affect species' phenology, abundance, and their interactions with other species. Understanding how cultivated plants, their associated community members (including pest insects, natural enemies, soil microbes), and their interactions respond to warming to influence crop yields is critical to current and future food security. We conducted a two-year field study on the effects of elevated temperature on winter wheat growth and grain quality, insect pests, natural enemies, ground arthropods, weeds, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
July 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Luma A Pedroso, Vicente P Campos, Marcio P Pedroso, Aline F Barros, Eduardo S Freire, Franciely Mp Resende
BACKGROUND: This study showed, for the first time, the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by castor bean cake added to soil on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Identification of nematotoxic volatiles increases the chance of identifying molecules for use in commercial nematicides. RESULTS: Volatile organic compounds produced after the incorporation of castor bean cake in the soil resulted in immobility (> 97.3%) and death (> 96...
July 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Alistair J D Wright, Matthew A Back, Mark Stevens, Debbie L Sparkes
BACKGROUND: The beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii Schmidt, is a plant parasitic nematode which causes severe losses to yields of sugar beet. Resistant brassicas (radish and mustard) have been bred to be planted after the harvest of a main crop, such as a cereal, and encourage hatch of BCN juveniles. The resistant plants stimulate hatch of the juveniles but are not suitable hosts. Juveniles are unable to complete their lifecycle and thus populations are lowered. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a range of these brassicas in terms of BCN control when grown in infested fields in Eastern England...
July 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Coen Frederiks, Justus H H Wesseler
BACKGROUND: Microbial bio control agents (MBCA) are biopesticides based on living microbes. They provide a huge potential for the control of pests and diseases, but have trouble reaching the EU market. According to several authors, this is caused by the regulatory regime, which is less supportive compared to that of the US. The main objective of this paper is to present regulatory differences between the US and the EU and the resulting effects and developments of registration in both regions...
July 1, 2018: Pest Management Science
Pingyi Tian, Dengyue Liu, Zhengjun Liu, Jing Shi, Wenjing He, Puying Qi, Jixiang Chen, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: Flupyradifurone is a member of a novel class of insecticides that possess excellent insecticidal activities. Halogen-containing phenyl groups are important and indispensable structural components of many pesticides. However, the replacement of the difluoromethyl group of flupyradifurone with halogen-containing phenyl groups has not been reported. Hence, a series of novel butenolide derivatives containing phenyl groups were synthesized and bioassayed to discover novel compounds with excellent insecticidal activities...
June 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zbigniew Borowski, Radomir Bałazy, Mariusz Ciesielski, Krzysztof Korzeniewski
BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding is a widespread but controversial practice in game management. While many studies have been conducted on this issue, there is limited empirical evidence on how feeding affects damage caused by wildlife. In this context, the present study focused on the effect of artificial winter feeding on tree damage in three mountain regions in Poland. RESULTS: The presence of additional winter food did not increase tree damage caused by deer in any region, as expected...
June 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
W John Owen, Kevin G Meyer, Thomas J Slanec, Nick X Wang, Stacy T Meyer, Noormohamed M Niyaz, Richard B Rogers, Karla Bravo-Altamirano, Jessica L Herrick, Chenglin Yao
BACKGROUND: The antifungal antibiotic UK-2A strongly inhibits mitochondrial electron transport at the Qi site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Previous reports have described semi-synthetic modifications of UK-2A to explore the SAR, but efforts to replace the picolinic acid moiety have been limited. RESULTS: Nineteen UK-2A analogs were prepared and evaluated for Qi site (cytochrome c reductase) inhibition and antifungal activity. While the majority are weaker Qi site inhibitors than UK-2A (IC50 , 3...
June 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sharon Warburg, Moshe Inbar, Shira Gal, Mor Salomon, Eric Palevsky, Asaf Sadeh
BACKGROUND: Several phytoseiid species can potentially control the citrus rust mite (CRM). Their effectiveness varies, however, as do their intraguild interactions. Under laboratory conditions, Euseius stipulatus, E. scutalis and Iphiseius degenerans preyed effectively on CRM, whereas Amblyseius swirskii and Typhlodromus athiasae had no effect on CRM. In combination with A. swirskii, Euseius numbers were reduced due to intraguild predation, and consequently CRM suppression was less effective...
June 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, Tomas A Bustamante, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, James D Ellis
BACKGROUND: The effects of chronic exposure to two neonicotinoids (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate) on survival, developmental rate and larval weight of honey bee larvae reared in vitro were determined. Diets containing chemicals were fed to larvae with the range of concentrations for each compound based on published acute toxicity experiments and residues found in pollen and nectar, both components of the larval diet. RESULTS: Four concentrations of each compound and controls were tested: chlorpyrifos: 0...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Anastasia M W Cooper, Kristopher Silver, Zhang Jianzhen, Yoonseong Park, Kun Yan Zhu
RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous, sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism elicited by small RNA molecules. RNAi is a powerful reverse genetic tool, and is currently being utilized for managing insects and viruses. Widespread implementation of RNAi-based pest management strategies is currently hindered by inefficient and highly variable results when different insect species, strains, developmental stages, tissues, and genes are targeted. Mechanistic studies have shown that double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNases), endosomal entrapment, deficient function of the core machinery, and inadequate immune stimulation contribute to limited RNAi efficiency...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Bangxian Zheng, Leiyan Yan, Wenxing Liang, Qianqian Yang
BACKGROUND: As a soilborne fungus, Fusarium oxysporum can cause vascular wilt in numerous economically important crops. Application of antifungal drugs is the primary method for the control of F. oxysporum. Cyp51, a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis is the main target of sterol demethylation inhibitors. RESULTS: The F. oxysporum genome contains three paralogous CYP51 genes (named FoCYP51A, -B and -C) that putatively encode sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes. Each of the three genes was able to partially complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG11 mutant...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
William R Reid, Haina Sun, James J Becnel, Andrew G Clark, Jeffrey G Scott
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids are the largest class of insecticides and are used for control of house fly populations at animal production facilities throughout the world. There have been several reports of neonicotinoid resistance in house fly populations, but identification of the factors involved in resistance has proven challenging. The KS8S3 population of house flies is highly resistant to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid due to two factors: one on chromosome 3 and one on chromosome 4...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Chunxin Wang, Bo Cui, Xiang Zhao, Yan Wang, Zhanghua Zeng, Changjiao Sun, Dongsheng Yang, Guoqiang Liu, Haixin Cui
BACKGROUND: Pesticide is an important agriculture necessity to control plant diseases and pests, ensuring safe production of food. However, the low efficacy, large dosage and high-frequency use of conventional pesticide formulation seriously induced food safety and ecological environment issues. In this research, lambda- cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion (LCSND) was developed by self-dispersing method. RESULT: The mean particle size of the lambda-cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion was 32...
June 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
Xiangbing Yang, Yong-Biao Liu
BACKGROUND: The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and western flower thips, Frankliniella occidentalis, are quarantine pests of lettuce in Asian markets and, therefore, require treatments on lettuce exported from USA to Japan and Taiwan respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant for postharvest pest control and has been demonstrated safe to fresh fruit and vegetables. In this study, small-scale NO fumigations were conducted to determine effective treatments and large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted to determine the efficacy against N...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
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