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Pest Management Science

Emanuele Del Fava, Claudio Ioriatti, Alessia Melegaro
BACKGROUND: We assessed the economic impact of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) on the soft fruit industry (strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries) in Trentino, Northern Italy, using cost-benefit analysis. A conventional integrated pest management (IPM) based on insecticide, mass trapping and cultural measures is compared to an upgraded IPM strategy based on exclusion netting. Costs and benefits associated with the change between the two are estimated in order to evaluate the most profitable strategy from the societal point of view...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
Xue-Fang Yang, Chui-Hua Kong, Xia Yang, Yong-Feng Li
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing knowledge of allelopathic rice interference with barnyardgrass, relatively little is known about its action on herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass. The incidence of herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass is escalating in paddy fields. It is warranted to understand interference of allelopathic rice with herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass and potential mechanisms. RESULTS: Penoxsulam-resistant and -susceptible barnyardgrass biotypes were identified and segregated from a putative penoxsulam-resistant population occurring in China paddy fields...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
Valerio Mazzoni, Shira D Gordon, Rachele Nieri, Rodrigo Krugner
BACKGROUND: The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important pest of grapevines due to its ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease. GWSS mating communication is based on vibrational signals; therefore, vibrational mating disruption could be an alternative to insecticides for suppression of GWSS population. Our objectives were to identify spectral features of female signal that elicit male signaling, design disruptive signals able to alter male perception and acceptance of a female, and determine the signal intensity required for future field applications...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jia-Wei Tay, Mark S Hoddle, Ashok Mulchandani, Dong-Hwan Choe
BACKGROUND: Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. RESULTS: Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads...
May 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, Curtis R Thompson, Dallas E Peterson, Mithila Jugulam
BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is an economically troublesome, aggressive and damaging weed that has evolved resistance to six herbicide modes of action (MOA) including photosystem II (PS II)-inhibitors, such as atrazine. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism and inheritance of atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth. RESULTS: A population of Palmer amaranth from Kansas (KSR) had a high level (160-198 fold more; SE ± 21-26) of resistance to atrazine compared to the two known susceptible populations MSS and KSS, from Mississippi and KS, respectively...
May 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Abdul Hanan, Xiong Z He, Qiao Wang
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms behind the success and failure of whitefly biological control using parasitoids are largely unknown. Here we use the Eretmocerus warrae-greenhouse whitefly system to investigate how fluctuating density of the parasitoid and its host affects three key parasitoid fitness parameters: host searching, host feeding and parasitization, providing critical knowledge for evaluation and development of whitefly biological control programs. This is the first such study in a parasitoid-whitefly system...
May 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Tingbang Yang, Jie Liu, Longyu Yuan, Yang Zhang, Yu Peng, Daiqin Li, Jian Chen
BACKGROUND: Predatory natural enemies play key functional roles in integrated pest management (IPM). However, the screening and evaluating of the main predators of insect pests has seldom been reported in the field. Here, we employed comprehensive indexes for evaluating the predation of a common pest (Ectropis obliqua) by nine common spider species in Chinese tea plantations. RESULTS: We established the relative dominance of spider species and their phenological overlap with the pest species, and analyzed DNA from these nine spider species using targeted RQ-PCR to identify residual DNA of E...
May 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Henri Darmency, Nathalie Colbach, Valérie Le Corre
It was suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated to herbicide-resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies-like herbicide rotation-that are used to prevent or control herbicide-resistance. Here, we review literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Renan F Nascentes, Caio A Carbonari, Plinio S Simões, Marcela C Brunelli, Edivaldo D Velini, Stephen O Duke
INTRODUCTION: Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage, and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO2 assimilation...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, James D Ellis
BACKGROUND: The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies has been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larvae exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Barbara K Keith, Erin E Burns, Brian Bothner, Charles C Carey, Aurélien J Mazurie, Jonathan K Hilmer, Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Hikmet Budak, William E Dyer
BACKGROUND: Intensive use of herbicides has led to the evolution two multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) Avena fatua (wild oat) populations in Montana that are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families available for A. fatua control in U.S. small grain crops. We used transcriptome and proteome surveys to compare constitutive changes in MHR and herbicide susceptible (HS) plants associated with non-target site resistance (NTSR). RESULTS: Compared to HS plants, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with functions in xenobiotic catabolism, stress response, redox maintenance, and transcriptional regulation that are similar to abiotic-stress tolerant phenotypes...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Brantley Grimball, Lucas Veillon, Tara Calhoun, Frank R Fronczek, Emily Arceneaux, Roger A Laine
BACKGROUND: In experiments with Formosan Subterranean Termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shirakii), myo-inositol-2-monophosphate as the di-cyclohexylammonium salt was tested among other sugar derivatives, and was found to be toxic to C. formosanus when added to a moistened filter paper food source in plastic petri dishes. RESULTS: Curiously, over a 9 day period, the moniliform (beaded) antennae of C. formosanus deteriorated in a stepwise fashion with the most distal pseudosegment (bead) turning brown and falling off, followed by the penultimate pseudosegment, sequentially until 7-9 days when only a stub of the antennae remained...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Leslie C Alvarez-Gonzalez, Arelis Briceño, Gustavo Ponce-Garcia, O Karina Villanueva-Segura, Jesus A Davila-Barboza, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy, Selene M Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Yamili Contreras-Perera, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Adriana E Flores
BACKGROUND: Resistance to insecticides through one or several mechanisms has a cost for the insect in various parameters of its biological cycle. The present study evaluated the effect of deltamethrin on detoxifying enzymes and biological parameters in a population of Aedes aegypti selected for 15 generations. The enzyme activities of alpha- and beta-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases were determined during selection, along with biological parameters. RESULTS: Overexpression of mixed-function oxidases as a mechanism of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin was found...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Derek Hollomon
Azole resistance in human fungal pathogens has increased over the past twenty years, especially in immunocompromised patients. Similarities between medical and agricultural azoles, and extensive azole (DMI) use in crop protection, prompted speculation that resistance in patients with aspergillosis originated in the environment. Aspergillus species, and especially Aspergillus fumigatus are the largest cause of patient deaths from fungi. Azole levels in soils following crop spraying, and differences in sensitivity between medical and agricultural azoles (DMIs), indicate weaker selection in cropping systems than in patients receiving azole therapy...
May 8, 2017: Pest Management Science
W John Owen, Chenglin Yao, Kyung Myung, Greg Kemmitt, Andrew Leader, Kevin G Meyer, Andrew J Bowling, Thomas Slanec, Vincent J Kramer
BACKGROUND: The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq(TM) active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. RESULTS: Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC50 , 0.051 mg litre(-1) ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z...
May 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
Adalbert Balog, Tibor Hartel, Hugh D Loxdale, Kenneth Wilson
BACKGROUND: The five year value in the compound annual growth rate of the biopesticides sector is predicted to be 16% by 2017 and to produce a global market worth $US 10 billion. Despite this, several impediments occur within the EU that negatively influencing biopesticide research and innovation. RESULTS: At present, there are fewer biopesticide-active substances registered in the EU compared to the USA, India, Brazil and China. The relatively low level of biopesticide research in the EU (6,880 ISI papers) versus the USA (18,839), India (9,501) and China (7,875) relates to the greater complexity of EU-based biopesticide regulations compared to these other countries...
May 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
Tamíris A de Araújo, Marcelo C Picanço, Dalton de O Ferreira, Júlia N D Campos, Lucas de P Arcanjo, Gerson A Silva
BACKGROUND: Investigating the impact of pesticides on nontarget organisms is essential for sustainable integrated pest management programs. Thus, we assessed the toxicity of ten insecticides to the brassica caterpillar Ascia monuste and its ant predator Solenopsis saevissima as examined the effect that the insecticide synergists had on the toxicity to the predator. We also assessed the residual period of control and impact of the insecticides during the brassica growing cycle. RESULTS: All insecticides except flubendiamide exhibited mortality above the threshold required by the Brazilian legislation (80%)...
May 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Christian H Krupke, Adam M Alford, Eileen M Cullen, Erin W Hodgson, Janet J Knodel, Brian McCornack, Bruce D Potter, Madeline I Spigler, Kelley Tilmon, Kelton Welch
BACKGROUND: A two year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern US and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments RESULTS: Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels...
April 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Z Drmić, M Toth, D Lemić, D Grubišić, M Pospišil, R Bažok
BACKGROUND: Due to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over four years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. RESULTS: The mass trapping of SBW on the "old" sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0...
April 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
Nuria Alburquerque, Lydia Faize, Lorenzo Burgos
BACKGROUND: In this study two vectors with short-length chimeric transgenes were used to produce Prunus rootstocks resistant to crown gall disease through RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes ipt and iaaM. RESULTS: Transgenic plum and apricot lines were produced with efficiencies of up to 7.7 and 1.1%, respectively. An in vitro evaluation method allowed identifying susceptible lines and reducing the number of lines to be evaluated in the greenhouse...
April 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
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