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Pest Management Science

Zhengqun Zhang, Chunmei Xu, Jinfeng Ding, Yunhe Zhao, Jin Lin, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
BACKGROUND: The black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon is the most destructive early season insect pest of corn. In this study, the control efficiency of cyantraniliprole seed treatment against A. ipsilon was evaluated, and the residual concentrations of cyantraniliprole and its metabolite J9Z38 in the stalks of corn seedlings and soil were investigated. RESULTS: Plant pot experiments showed that A. ipsilon larval mortality was greater than 92% and that the percentage of corn seedlings damaged by A...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Stephen Moss
Implementation of integrated weed management (IWM) has been poor, with little evidence of concomitant reductions in herbicide use. Non-chemical methods are often adopted as a means of compensating for reduced herbicide efficacy, due to increasing resistance, rather than as alternatives to herbicides. Reluctance to adopt non-chemical methods is not due to a lack of research or technology but to a lack of farmer motivation and action. Justifiably, herbicides are often seen as the easier option - their convenience outweighs the increased complexity, costs and management time associated with non-chemical alternatives...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
François-Xavier Boulanger, Sarah Jandricic, Karel Bolckmans, Felix L Wäckers, Apostolos Pekas
Aphidoletes aphidimyza is one of the most important predators used in the augmentative biological control of aphids, key pests of many crops worldwide. Adult females are very efficient in locating aphid infestations over a relatively long range, up to 45 m, and deposit eggs near or within aphid colonies. The predatory larvae are aphid generalists preying on several agriculturally important aphid species. The successful use of this biocontrol agent in agricultural systems depends on several biotic and abiotic factors...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Charles C Coslor, Christine Vandervoort, John C Wise
BACKGROUND: Trunk injection is an established method for delivering pesticides in ornamental and shade trees, but further research is needed to determine efficacy and pollinator safety in tree fruit crops. Apple trees were injected in 2013 and 2014 with the insecticides emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, or abamectin. Additional emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid injections were performed in the spring and fall of 2015. Nectar and pollen were sampled in the following spring to compare effects of application timings on insecticide loading into flowers...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Qiumei Zhou, Ying Shao, Anhui Chen, Wanzhen Li, Jiuxiang Wang, Yulong Wang
BACKGROUND: Insect pests have evolved various defense mechanisms to combat fungal infection, fungi have developed multiple strategies to overcome the immune defense responses of insect. However, transcriptomic analysis of fungal strategies for infecting different pests has not been reported. RESULTS: Transcriptomic profiling of Beauveria bassiana was performed at 12, 24 and 48 h after infecting Galleria mellonella and Plutella xylostella, and 540, 847 and 932 differential expressed genes were detected, respectively...
November 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Joel P Siegel, Mathew M Strmiska, Franz J A Niederholzer, D Ken Giles, Spenser S Walse
BACKGROUND: Insecticide application is essential to control navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) in California almond and pistachios. Coverage is difficult because of tree height and applicator practices. Studies were conducted to characterize insecticide deposition by both ground and air, and to develop alternatives to the use of water sensitive cards to assess spray coverage. RESULTS: We used almond challenge bioassays to demonstrate that insecticide application failed first in the upper canopy (5...
November 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Pierre Mounkoro, Thomas Michel, Rafik Benhachemi, Georgiana Surpateanu, Bogdan I Iorga, Nicholas Fisher, Brigitte Meunier
BACKGROUND: Complex III inhibitors targeting the Qi -site have been known for decades; some are used or are being developed as anti-microbial compounds. Target site resistance mutations have been reported in laboratory-selected mutants and in field isolates. Here we present a brief over-view of mutations found in laboratory selected resistant mutants. We also provide a study of mutations observed in field isolates of Plasmopara viticola, in particular the ametoctradin resistance substitution, S34L that we analyzed in the yeast model...
November 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jialin Yu, Caroline J Land, Gary E Vallad, Nathan S Boyd
BACKGROUND: The phaseout of methyl bromide (MeBr) continues to stimulate research into the use of other soil fumigants for controlling soilborne diseases and weeds. This research evaluated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) tolerance, weed emergence and the recovery of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) inoculum following fumigation with various combination ratios of dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS + Pic). RESULTS: DMDS on its own did not effectively control purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jean-Marie Delpuech
BACKGROUND: Endosulfan is a semi-permanent pollutant that can be transported long distances through the atmosphere. Although phased out in many countries, it is still used in some populated areas and thus largely contributes to environmental pollution. It can impact non-target species such as Leptopilina boulardi, a hymenopteran parasitoid that is a beneficial insect because it controls the populations of its host. Only one L. boulardi egg can successfully develop in its host, a Drosophila larva...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Simona Abbà, Luciana Galetto, Matteo Ripamonti, Marika Rossi, Cristina Marzachì
BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) techniques have emerged as powerful tools to develop novel management strategies for the control of insect pests. The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma and a laboratory vector of flavescence dorée phytoplasma. Phytoplasmas are insect-borne bacterial plant pathogens that cause economically relevant crop losses worldwide. RESULTS: In the present study, we demonstrated that microinjection of muscle actin and ATP synthase β dsRNAs in adult insects caused an exponential reduction in the expression of both genes, which began within 72 hours from the dsRNA administration and lasted for 14 days, leading to almost complete silencing of the target genes...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Paola Emilia Cuartas, Laura F Villamizar, Gloria Patricia Barrera, Jenny Carolina Ruiz, Juan Carlos Campos, Guillermo León-Martínez, Juliana Gómez-Valderrama
BACKGROUND: The hornworn Erinnyis ello is the major pest of natural rubber crops in Colombia, mainly controlled using toxic chemical insecticides. The use of E. ello Betabaculovirus is an environmentally sustainable alternative for its control. The aim of the present work was to characterize a prototype biopesticide formulation and evaluate its efficacy under different conditions. RESULTS: Quality control evaluations of formulated biopesticide revealed that all the parameters evaluated were under permissible level...
November 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Fajun Tian, Chaofeng Li, Zhengbing Wang, Jiali Liu, Xinnian Zeng
BACKGROUND: The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is one of the major pests in citrus-growing areas around the world. The application of insecticides is the most effective method to reduce the population of D. citri. However, D. citri has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial to the management of D. citri. In this study, molecular assays were performed to characterize imidacloprid resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: Based on the D...
November 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
George B Frisvold
Recent research has suggested that a high proportion of farms can dramatically reduce pesticide applications without reducing crop yields or farm profits. Yet this research has made estimation choices that may systematically bias downwards estimates of the productivity and profitability of pesticides. Fifty years of agricultural economics research provides lessons about how to avoid pitfalls in estimating pesticide productivity. Carefully done econometric studies have found evidence of overuse, underuse, and near-optimal use of pesticides in different cropping systems...
November 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Aline F Catae, Anally R da Silva Menegasso, Marcel Pratavieira, Mario S Palma, Osmar Malaspina, Thaisa C Roat
BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies evaluating the possible harmful effects of pesticides on bees are important and allow the emergence of protection and pollinator conservation strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to a sublethal concentration of imidacloprid (LC50/100 : 0.014651 ng imidacloprid µL-1 diet) on the distribution of certain proteins identified in the brain of Apis mellifera worker bees using a MALDI-imaging approach. This technique enables proteomic analysis of tissues in situ by monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of the biochemical processes occurring at a specific time in specific brain neuropils...
November 5, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jiaqin Xie, Shangji Li, Wei Zhang, Yuxian Xia
BACKGROUND: The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. The nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) protein plays a crucial role in mediating mRNAs transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. This study was to evaluate whether NXF1 could be a potential target for RNAi-mediated pest control of L. migratoria. RESULTS: We cloned and characterized the nuclear export factor, lm-nxf1 of L. migratoria. Lm-nxf1 was expressed in all tissues examined, including head, fat body, hemolymph, trunk, leg and midgut, with high expression observed in the hemolymph and fat body...
November 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Kang He, Kejian Lin, Simin Ding, Guirong Wang, Fei Li
BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, is one of the most destructive pests on rice. This pest transmits rice stripe virus (RSV) both horizontally and vertically, leading to major yield and economic losses in rice production. However, the way that RSV particles enter oocytes of SBPH remains largely unknown. Thus, identification of key factors involved in the interaction between SBPH and RSV in the ovary is crucial. RESULTS: Transcriptome of non-viruliferous (NV) or high viruliferous (HV) SBPH ovaries at 24 h and 48 h of emergence was sequenced...
October 31, 2018: Pest Management Science
Beatriz Ribeiro da Cunha, Christian Andreasen, Jesper Rasmussen, Jon Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Jens Carl Streibig
BACKGROUND: In field experiments, assessment of herbicide selectivity and efficacy is rarely taking advantage of dose-response regressions. The objective is to demonstrate that logarithmic sprayers, which automatically make a logarithmic dilution of a herbicide rate, can extract biologically relevant parameters describing the efficacy of herbicides in crops, compare localities, and time of assessment. RESULTS: In a conventional and an organic field, canola, white mustard, and no crop plots were sprayed with diflufenican and beflubutamid...
October 31, 2018: Pest Management Science
Rogério Machado Pereira, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Ricardo Siqueira da Silva, Thadeu Carlos de Souza, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço
BACKGROUND: Ceratocystis fimbriata recognized as among the species that induces Mango Sudden Decline (MSD) causes plant death within a short time period. Hypocryphalus mangiferae and Xyleborus affinis (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are the vectors of MSD. Thorough understanding of the spatial distribution of the pest is crucial while designing the control techniques, and drawing up sampling plans. Thus, this study aimed at the identification of the beetles and their dispersal pattern in the mango trees in MSD-infected commercial orchards and its relation to the severity of the C...
October 29, 2018: Pest Management Science
Hyun H Noh, Hyo K Park, Jung W Lee, Seung H Jo, Jun B Lim, Hyun G Shin, Jae Y Lee, Jeong-Han Kim, Hyeyoung Kwon, Kee S Kyung
BACKGROUND: We determined characteristics, and evaluated associated risks, of sprayed pesticide exposure among workers cultivating Korean cabbage. The test pesticide, a mixture of 3% chlorantraniliprole and 4% indoxacarb wettable granules (WG) diluted 2,000 times, was sprayed on Korean cabbage within a 3,000 m2 area in Goesan, Korea. Dermal exposures were measured using a whole-body dosimetry (WBD) method. RESULTS: Exposure to chlorantraniliprole was observed among 10 individuals, ranging from 140...
October 29, 2018: Pest Management Science
Fen Mao, Lei Guo, Miao Jin, Xiao-Mu Qiao, Gong-Yin Ye, Jia Huang
BACKGROUD: The insect transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) is a subfamily of TRP ion channels, including two genes, nanchung and inactive. It is recently found that two commercial insecticides, pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazon, target the heteromeric TRPV ion channel complex which is specifically expressed in the chordotonal organ neurons in Drosophila. However, information of the TRPV genes in agricultural insects is still limited. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned and characterized two TRPV genes (named NlNan, NlIav, NcNan and NcIav) from Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix cincticeps, two serious rice pests throughout Asia...
October 29, 2018: Pest Management Science
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