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Pest Management Science

David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Santosh Shrestha, Henrik Bak Topbjerg, Nanna Karkov Ytting, Henrik Skovgård, Birte Boelt
BACKGROUND: Multispectral (MS) imaging system is a non-destructive method that has potential in reducing labour and time required for quality control in the production of beneficial arthropods like the parasitoid Bathyplectus curculionis. In Denmark, a project is focusing on possible use of B. curculionis in augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests in white clover seed production where cocoons of the parasitoid remain as a by-product of seed processing. Only a fraction of the by-product contains live parasitoid larvae and requires an effective method for sorting the live cocoons for later augmentative control of the pest...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Damon A D'Ambrosio, Anders S Huseth, George G Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Reports of neonicotinoid seed treatment (NST) failure against Frankliniella fusca in the Mid-South and Southeastern United States led to the discovery of widespread resistance in these insect populations. Previous studies of NSTs in other crops have shown the concentration of the insecticide to change over time, which could reduce its efficacy. To understand this relationship in cotton with F. fusca, our study examined how plant age alters the effects of NSTs (imidacloprid, imidacloprid+thiodicarb, thiamethoxam) by examining larval establishment at multiple seedling ages during the period of cotton seedling susceptibility to this insect...
March 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Thomas R Butts, Chase A Samples, Lucas X Franca, Darrin M Dodds, Daniel B Reynolds, Jason W Adams, Richard K Zollinger, Kirk A Howatt, Bradley K Fritz, W Clint Hoffmann, Greg R Kruger
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applications using a specific droplet size and carrier volume could maximize herbicide efficacy while mitigating particle drift in a precise and efficient manner. The objectives were to investigate the influence of spray droplet size and carrier volume on dicamba and glufosinate efficacy, and to determine the plausibility of droplet size based site-specific weed management strategies. RESULTS: Generally, across herbicides and carrier volumes, as droplet size increased, weed control decreased...
March 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Nick T Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G Young
BACKGROUND: The giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) rapid response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigates the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examines cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS: Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jordano Salamanca, Brígida Souza, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona
BACKGROUND: Whether tactics to manipulate natural enemies in agro-ecosystems enhance their ecosystem function and services remains debatable. We conducted field experiments in 2015-2016 to test the hypothesis that attraction of natural enemies to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), alone or in combination with companion plants, increases crop productivity. Our treatments consisted of bean plants either alone or baited with methyl salicylate (MeSA; an HIPV), or combined with coriander (a companion plant), or with both MeSA and coriander...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Hai-Yun Xu, Nian-Wan Yang, Hsin Chi, Guo-Dong Ren, Fang-Hao Wan
BACKGROUND: The autoparasitoid Encarsia sophia and the primary parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati are two important parasitoids against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with different reproductive strategies. To incorporate these two parasitoids into a sustainable whitefly control program, it is necessary to evaluate and compare the fitness and biocontrol effectiveness of them under identical experimental conditions. The demographic characteristics, parasitism rate and host feeding rate of En...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
József Vuts, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Stephen J Powers, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
BACKGROUND: The response of virgin females of the legume pest Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to headspace extracts of volatiles collected from flowers of a nectar plant, Daucus carota, was investigated using behaviour (four-arm olfactometry) and coupled gas chromatography-electrophysiology (GC-EAG). RESULTS: Odours from inflorescences were significantly more attractive to virgin female beetles than clean air. Similarly, a sample of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by air entrainment (dynamic headspace collection) was more attractive to beetles than a solvent control...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Maurizio Francesco Brivio, Andrea Toscano, Simone Maria De Pasquale, Andrea De Lerma Barbaro, Stefano Giovannardi, Giovanna Finzi, Maristella Mastore
BACKGROUND: Steinernema carpocapsae is a nematocomplex widely used as alternative to chemicals for the biological control of insect pests; this nematode is symbiotically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and both contribute to the host death. Architecture and functions of structures and molecular components of the surface of nematodes and their symbionts bacteria are integral to the early interactions with their hosts; thus, we assessed the role of protein pools isolated from the surface of S...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Justin M Renkema, Lindsy E Iglesias, Phanie Bonneau, Oscar E Liburd
BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a major fruit pest in temperate regions worldwide, but in sub-tropical Florida, winter-grown strawberries have not been severely affected. Zaprionus indianus Gupta is another invasive drosophilid species and a pest of some tropical fruits. To improve monitoring, trapping systems for D. suzukii and Z. indianus were tested. Morphology, ovarian status and suitability and availability of non-crop hosts as possible D. suzukii population-limiting factors were assessed...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Maribel Rivero-Borja, Ariel W Guzmán-Franco, Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva, Candelario Santillán-Ortega, Alejandro Pérez-Panduro
BACKGROUND: The high natural resistance of the fall armyworm (FAW) to entomopathogenic fungi and the speed it which it develops resistance to chemical insecticides make it difficult to control in several crops where it is a key pest. The study aimed to improve mortality by combining LC50 of chlorpyrifos ethyl and spinosad with two entomopathogenic fungi. RESULTS: Three main results were obtained. i) Both insecticides improved fungus performance when applied simultaneously and when insecticides preceded fungi...
March 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Marcelo P Miranda, Odimar Z Zanardi, Arthur F Tomaseto, Haroldo Xl Volpe, Rafael B Garcial, Ernesto Prado
BACKGROUND: Alternative methods that have potential to reduce the entry of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the major citrus pest worldwide, into commercial groves could be a viable approach for Huanglongbing management. Kaolin is an aluminum silicate that when sprayed on plants forms a white particle film that interferes in the host recognition by the insects. D. citri orients towards the host plants by visual and olfactory cues. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of processed kaolin on D...
March 5, 2018: Pest Management Science
Kristian Brevik, Sean D Schoville, David Mota-Sanchez, Yolanda H Chen
BACKGROUND: Arthropod pests are widely perceived to evolve resistance to insecticides at different rates. Although widespread "successful" species are assumed to evolve quickly and minor pests slowly, few studies have utilized published data on resistance events to test for differences among species. Using 532 records from the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database covering 20 species, we applied a survival analysis to model the number of generations from insecticide introduction to the first report of arthropod resistance, providing one of the most comprehensive analyses of this question to date...
March 1, 2018: Pest Management Science
Varnika Bhatia, Ramcharan Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), is a devastating sap-sucking insect-pest that damages many host-plants worldwide and causes billions of dollars of crop losses. Inducing RNA interference through oral feeding of siRNA, has been demonstrated in aphids. Therefore, host-mediated delivery of dsRNA specific to vital structural gene of aphids has been envisaged for developing resistance against this aphid species. RESULTS: Cuticular protein senses seasonal photoperiodism and drive a shift from clonal to sexual generation in aphids...
March 1, 2018: Pest Management Science
Idan Shapira, Tamar Keasar, Ally R Harari, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Miriam Kishinevsky, Hadass Steinitz, Carmit Sofer-Arad, Maor Tomer, Almog Avraham, Rakefet Sharon
BACKGROUND: Mating disruption (MD) employs high doses of a pest's synthetic sex pheromone in agricultural plots, to interfere with its reproduction. MD is assumed to have few behavioral effects on non-target arthropods, because sex pheromones are highly species-specific and non-toxic. Nevertheless, some natural enemies use their host's sex pheromones as foraging cues, and thus may be attracted to MD plots. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared parasitoid and spider assemblages in paired plots in five Israeli vineyards during 2015...
February 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
Xuegui Wang, Yiqu Chen, Changwei Gong, Xinge Yao, Chunxian Jiang, Qunfang Yang
BACKGOUND: The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is an omnivorous insect that damages a variety of crops worldwide. Chlorantraniliprole is a new diamide insecticide that acts on the ryanodine receptors in insects. The aim of this study was to explore the key genes that related to the development of resistant of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were compared between beet armyworms from a susceptible laboratory strain (Sus-Lab) and Sus-Lab screened with LC25 sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole for six generations (SE-Sel)...
February 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
Ignacio Amaro-Blanco, Pablo Tomás Fernández-Moreno, María Dolores Osuna-Ruiz, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
BACKGROUND: In perennial crops, the most common method of weed control is to spray herbicides, and glyphosate has long been the first choice of farmers. Three species of the genus Conyza are among the most problematic weeds for farmers, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate. The objectives of this work were to evaluate resistance levels and mechanisms, and to test chemical control alternatives in putative resistant (R) populations of Conyza bonariensis, Conyza canadensis and Conyza sumatrensis...
February 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
Artur Campos Dália Maia, Geanne Karla Novais Santos, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Luis Alberto Nuñez
BACKGROUND: 2-Alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are naturally occuring aromatic compounds involved in insect chemical communication as both pheromones and allelochemicals. Although rarely characterized in floral scents, they have been identified as major constituents in headspace samples from palm inflorescences and evidence pointed towards their function as attractive cues for scent-oriented pollinators, as well as florivores. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of MPs in economically exploitable palms belonging to Acrocomia and Attalea through headspace floral scent analysis and assessed their role in the selective attraction of flower-feeding cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini) in field bioassays conducted in Brazil and Colombia...
February 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
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