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Familial Cancer

Marc Monachese, Gautam Mankaney, Rocio Lopez, Margaret O'Malley, Lisa Laguardia, Matthew F Kalady, James Church, Joyce Shin, Carol A Burke
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated with a substantial lifetime risk for colorectal cancer. The leading extra-colonic causes of cancer in FAP include duodenal and thyroid cancer (TC). Recent guidelines recommend annual thyroid ultrasound (TUS) screening beginning in the teenage years but the evidence to support the interval particularly in FAP patients with a normal baseline ultrasound is lacking. TUS results from FAP patients enrolled in a thyroid screening program from 2006 to 2016 and who had at least 2 TUS were reviewed...
July 12, 2018: Familial Cancer
Marieke Hylebos, Ken Op de Beeck, Jenneke van den Ende, Patrick Pauwels, Martin Lammens, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Guy Van Camp
Familial clustering of malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been linked to the presence of germline mutations in BAP1. However, families with multiple MM patients, without segregating BAP1 mutation were described, suggesting the existence of other predisposing genetic factors. In this study, we report a previously undescribed Belgian family, in which BAP1 was found to be absent in the epithelial malignant mesothelial cells of the index patient. Whole exome analysis did not reveal a germline or somatic BAP1 variant...
June 30, 2018: Familial Cancer
Maria De Bonis, Angelo Minucci, Giovanni Luca Scaglione, Elisa De Paolis, Gianfranco Zannoni, Giovanni Scambia, Ettore Capoluongo
Despite some populations show a wide spectrum of different BRCA pathogenic variants (PVs), particular ethnic groups carry at high frequency a single or a few recurrent PVs, usually due to a founder effect. The identification of these founder PVs, with simple molecular methods, improves BRCA1/2 testing and cancer risk assessment. In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable PCR method, coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE) for genotyping the Italian founder BRCA1 c.4964_4982del19 (rs80359876) variant...
June 22, 2018: Familial Cancer
G I Butel-Simoes, A D Spigelman, R J Scott, R E Vilain
We report the case of a female found to have mosaicism for mutation in the STK11 gene, with the mutant allele expressed in her gametes, evident by her affected offspring, and in her gastrointestinal tract demonstrated on an excised polyp analysed for diagnosis. Mosaicism for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) has been reported in a small number of cases previously but a clinical presentation such as this has not previously been described. This finding of mosaicism was several years after initial investigations failed to identify the same STK11 mutation in this woman whose son was diagnosed with PJS at a young age...
June 14, 2018: Familial Cancer
Natalia Teixeira, Marian J Mourits, Jan C Oosterwijk, Ingrid E Fakkert, Anthony R Absalom, Stephan J L Bakker, Peter van der Meer, Geertruida H de Bock
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the effect of premenopausal risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on the cholesterol profile of women at increased ovarian cancer risk and to assess possible effects of age at and time since RRSO. We included 207 women who underwent RRSO before menopausal age (52 years) attending the family cancer clinic of an academic hospital and 828 age-matched women from a general population cohort (PREVEND). Participants filled out a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history, had anthropometric measurements and provided blood samples for assessment of serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol...
June 7, 2018: Familial Cancer
Fred H Menko, Jacqueline A Ter Stege, Lizet E van der Kolk, Kiki N Jeanson, Winnie Schats, Daoud Ait Moha, Eveline M A Bleiker
Following the identification in a proband of a germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation in hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) or a DNA mismatch repair gene mutation in Lynch syndrome (LS) he or she will be asked to inform at-risk family members about the option for presymptomatic DNA testing. However, in clinical practice multiple factors may complicate the process of information sharing. We critically evaluated studies on the uptake of presymptomatic genetic testing in both syndromes. A search of relevant MeSH terms and key words in PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO yielded 795 articles published between 2001 and 2017...
May 30, 2018: Familial Cancer
Kelly Reumkens, Marly H E Tummers, Joyce J G Gietel-Habets, Sander M J van Kuijk, Cora M Aalfs, Christi J van Asperen, Margreet G E M Ausems, Margriet Collée, Charlotte J Dommering, C Marleen Kets, Lizet E van der Kolk, Jan C Oosterwijk, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen, Trudy van der Weijden, Christine E M de Die-Smulders, Liesbeth A D M van Osch
An online decision aid to support persons having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners during reproductive decision-making was developed. A two-phase usability test was conducted among 12 couples (N = 22; 2 persons participated without their partner) at risk for hereditary cancer and 15 health care providers. Couples and health care providers expressed similar suggestions for improvements, and evaluated the modified decision aid as acceptable, easy to use, and comprehensible. The final decision aid was pilot tested (N = 16) with paired sample t tests comparing main outcomes (decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations regarding the reproductive options and decision self-efficacy) before (T0), immediately (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) use of the decision aid...
May 30, 2018: Familial Cancer
Danielle B McKenna, Jeroen Van Den Akker, Alicia Y Zhou, Lauren Ryan, Annette Leon, Robert O'Connor, Payal D Shah, Anil K Rustgi, Bryson W Katona
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is a hereditary syndrome that is characterized by multiple colon polyps of mixed pathologic subtypes and an increased risk for colorectal cancer. A 40 kb duplication in the 5' regulatory region of the GREM1 gene was recently found to be the causal mutation in a subset of Ashkenazi Jewish families with HMPS. Given this discovery, the GREM1 5' regulatory region is now analyzed on many different multi-gene cancer panels, however the data on duplications distinct from the 40 kb duplication remains minimal...
May 26, 2018: Familial Cancer
Lisa Bush, Melyssa Aronson, Uri Tabori, Brittany B Campbell, Raymond B Bedgood, Kory Jasperson
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary cancer condition, characterized by an exceptionally high risk of cancer, a propensity for childhood malignancies, and cutaneous features reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We report on two sisters originally suspected of having CMMRD syndrome due to their history of colonic polyps and NF1 associated skin findings, both were subsequently found to have biallelic MSH6 mutations. After years of CMMRD syndrome follow-up, the proband was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 29, while her sister was diagnosed with a glioblastoma at age 27...
May 21, 2018: Familial Cancer
C Linder, M J Smith, M Bulman, A Wallace, A J Freemont, D C Mangham, D G R Evans
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is associated with the development of several types of benign nervous system tumours, while malignancies are rare. We report a 22-year-old man who presented with retroperitoneal and spinal high-grade sarcomas with epithelial features. Samples showed a mixed epithelioid and spindled cell content with little associated matrix and inconclusive immunochemistry. Genetic analysis of a schwannoma and matched blood samples demonstrated a constitutional de novo substitution at the splice donor site of intron 8 of the NF2 gene and aa acquired large deletion of the entire NF2 gene as a second hit, with some loss of SMARCB1...
May 14, 2018: Familial Cancer
Natasha J Brown, Kanika Bhatia, Julie Teague, Susan M White, Patrick Lo, Jackie Challis, Victoria Beshay, Michael Sullivan, David Malkin, Jordan R Hansford
The TP53 gene is fundamental to genomic integrity, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis; it is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer. Heterozygous germline mutations cause the autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome. Homozygous germline TP53 mutations in humans are rare. We report an infant from a consanguineous family who presented with synchronous malignancies. Remarkably, he carries a homozygous germline TP53 mutation (NM_000546.4:c.52delA), predicted to cause protein truncation...
May 8, 2018: Familial Cancer
Sarah K Macklin, Jessica L Jackson, Paldeep S Atwal, Stephanie L Hines
A growing number of physicians will interact with genetic test results as testing becomes more commonplace. While variants of uncertain significance can complicate results, it is equally important that physicians understand how to incorporate these results into clinical care. An online survey was created to assess physician self-reported comfort level with genetics and variants of uncertain significance. Physicians were asked to respond to three case examples involving genetic test results. The survey was sent to 488 physicians at Mayo Clinic FL on 8/16/2017...
May 2, 2018: Familial Cancer
Colette A Whitney, Caroline S Dorfman, Rebecca A Shelby, Francis J Keefe, Vicky Gandhi, Tamara J Somers
First-degree relatives of women with breast cancer may experience increased worry or perceived risk when faced with reminders of their own cancer risk. Worry and risk reminders may include physical symptoms (e.g., persistent breast pain) and caregiving experiences. Women who engage in pain catastrophizing may be particularly likely to experience increased distress when risk reminders are present. We examined the degree to which persistent breast pain and experience as a cancer caregiver were related to cancer worry and perceived risk in first-degree relatives of women with breast cancer (N = 85) and how catastrophic thoughts about breast pain could impact these relationships...
April 20, 2018: Familial Cancer
Henry T Lynch, Stephen Lanspa, Trudy Shaw, Murray Joseph Casey, Marc Rendell, Mark Stacey, Theresa Townley, Carrie Snyder, Megan Hitchins, Joan Bailey-Wilson
Lynch syndrome is the hereditary disorder that most frequently predisposes to colorectal cancer as well as predisposing to a number of extracolonic cancers, most prominently endometrial cancer. It is caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes. Both its phenotype and genotype show marked heterogeneity. This review gives a historical overview of the syndrome, its heterogeneity, its genomic landscape, and its implications for complex diagnosis, genetic counseling and putative implications for immunotherapy...
July 2018: Familial Cancer
Jirat Chenbhanich, Amporn Atsawarungruangkit, Sira Korpaisarn, Tanit Phupitakphol, Soravis Osataphan, Prasit Phowthongkum
Thyroid cancer (TC) is a known extra-intestinal manifestation and contributes to the mortality and morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Its exact prevalence is not well established and recent studies have shown an increasing number of TC in this patient population. The prevalence of benign thyroid masses and endocrinologic thyroid disorders are also poorly described. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by using a random-effects model to characterize TC and estimated the prevalence of thyroid diseases in FAP patients...
April 16, 2018: Familial Cancer
Helle Vendel Petersen, Birgitte Lidegaard Frederiksen, Charlotte Kvist Lautrup, Lars Joachim Lindberg, Steen Ladelund, Mef Nilbert
Dissemination of information on a genetically increased risk should according to guidelines primarily be family-mediated. Incomplete and incorrect information spread has, however, been documented and implies missed possibilities for prevention. In Denmark, the national HNPCC register has been granted an exception to send unsolicited letters with information on hereditary colorectal cancer and an invitation to genetic counseling to members of families with familial and hereditary colorectal cancer. To evaluate this approach, we investigated reactions and attitudes to unsolicited letters in 708 members of families with genetic predisposition and in 1600 individuals from the general population...
April 12, 2018: Familial Cancer
Eryn Dow, Ingrid M Winship
Hemangioblastomas are rare vascularized central nervous system tumors, which can occur sporadically or be associated with von Hippel Lindau Syndrome. The pathogenesis of hemangioblastomas in von Hippel Lindau Syndrome is proposed to involve a pseudohypoxic intracellular state induced by dysregulation of hypoxia inducible factor alpha due to the absence of von Hippel Lindau protein complex mediated destruction. Dysregulation of fumarate hydratase, a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, occurs in Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer Syndrome due to germline fumarate hydratase gene mutations, and also results in oncogenesis via hypoxia inducible factor alpha dysregulation...
April 4, 2018: Familial Cancer
Jasmina Bojadzieva, Behrang Amini, Suzanne F Day, Tiffiny L Jackson, Parijatham S Thomas, Brandy J Willis, Whitney R Throckmorton, Najat C Daw, Therese B Bevers, Louise C Strong
Individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) have a significantly increased lifetime cancer risk affecting multiple organ sites. Therefore, novel comprehensive screening approaches are necessary to improve cancer detection and survival in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) and dedicated brain MRI screening as part of a comprehensive screening clinic called Li-Fraumeni Education and Early Detection (LEAD) at MD Anderson Cancer Center...
April 2018: Familial Cancer
Parisa Mortaji, Katherine T Morris, Von Samedi, Steven Eberhardt, Shawnia Ryan
The majority of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are sporadic while 10-15% are attributable to one of several familial cancer syndromes. Hereditary forms are more commonly associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I and von Hippel Lindau Syndrome. However, patients with Tuberous sclerosis complex also have an increased incidence of PNETs. More often this has been reported in patients with TSC2 variants. In this case report, we summarize the literature regarding PNETs associated with Tuberous sclerosis complex, as well as present a case of a patient with a TSC1 variant and a PNET...
April 2018: Familial Cancer
Seth Septer, Brenda Bohaty, Robin Onikul, Vandana Kumar, Karen B Williams, Thomas M Attard, Craig A Friesen, Lynn Roosa Friesen
Familial adenomatous polyposis patients often present with non-malignant extra-intestinal manifestations which include dental anomalies that may be evident prior to the appearance of the colonic adenomas. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies and the relationships between gene mutations and dental anomalies in these patients. Twenty-two pediatric familial adenomatous polyposis patients and 46 controls, who were age and gender matched participated. Familial adenomatous polyposis patient's had a dental examination with panoramic radiograph and medical record review for age at diagnosis, the presence of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation, and determination of other extra-intestinal manifestations on the body...
April 2018: Familial Cancer
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