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Familial Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819720/immunohistochemical-null-phenotype-for-mismatch-repair-proteins-in-colonic-carcinoma-associated-with-concurrent-mlh1-hypermethylation-and-msh2-somatic-mutations
#1
Tao Wang, Zsofia K Stadler, Liying Zhang, Martin R Weiser, Olca Basturk, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Efsevia Vakiani, Lenard B Saltz, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Microsatellite instability, a well-established driver pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, can develop in both sporadic and hereditary conditions via different molecular alterations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently widely used for the detection of MMR deficiency in solid tumors. The IHC test, however, can show varied staining patterns, posing challenges in the interpretation of the staining results in some cases. Here we report a case of an 80-year-old female with a colonic adenocarcinoma that exhibited an unusual "null" IHC staining pattern with complete loss of all four MMR proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2)...
August 17, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819700/sporadic-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-with-mmr-deficiency-due-to-biallelic-msh2-somatic-mutations
#2
Bruno Buecher, Antoine De Pauw, Louis Bazire, Claude Houdayer, Alice Fievet, Virginie Moncoutier, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Samia Melaabi, Dominique Stoppa Lyonnet, Lisa Golmard
The invalidation of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) system is responsible for a so-called "deficient MMR" phenotype (dMMR) characterized by microsatellite instability and abnormal pattern of expression of MMR proteins in tumor tissue. This phenotype occurs in at least 20% of sporadic endometrial adenocarcinomas by epigenetic silencing of MLH1 gene. It is also observed in virtually all tumors occurring in patients with Lynch syndrome by monoallelic germline mutation in one of the MMR genes. The determination of this phenotype (dMMR vs...
August 17, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803391/mutational-analysis-of-the-rb1-gene-and-the-inheritance-patterns-of-retinoblastoma-in-jordan
#3
Yacoub A Yousef, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Ibrahim AlNawaiseh, Ala Saab, Amal Afifi, Maysa Naji, Mona Mohammad, Rasha Deebajah, Imad Jaradat, Iyad Sultan, Mustafa Mehyar
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood cancer developing in the retina due to RB1 pathologic variant. Herein we are evaluating the oncogenic mutations in the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of RB in the Jordanian patients. In this prospective study, the peripheral blood of 50 retinoblastoma patients was collected, genomic DNA was extracted, mutations were identified using Quantitative multiplex PCR (QM-PCR), Allele-specific PCR, Next Generation Sequencing analysis, and Sanger sequencing. In this cohort of 50 patients, 20(40%) patients had unilateral RB and 30(60%) were males...
August 12, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785832/a-germline-missense-mutation-in-exon-3-of-the-msh2-gene-in-a-lynch-syndrome-family-correlation-with-phenotype-and-localization-assay
#4
Francesca Bianchi, Elena Maccaroni, Laura Belvederesi, Cristiana Brugiati, Riccardo Giampieri, Federica Bini, Raffaella Bracci, Silvia Pagliaretta, Michela Del Prete, Francesco Piva, Alessandra Mandolesi, Marina Scarpelli, Rossana Berardi
Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in any of the MisMatch Repair (MMR) genes. About 37% of MSH2 variants are missense variants causing single amino-acid substitutions. Whether missense variants affect the normal function of MMR proteins is crucial both to provide affected families a more accurate risk assessment and to offer predictive testing to family members. Here we report one family, fulfilling both Amsterdam I and II criteria and Bethesda guidelines, referred to our center for genetic counselling...
August 7, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756477/p53-signaling-pathway-polymorphisms-cancer-risk-and-tumor-phenotype-in-tp53-r337h-mutation-carriers
#5
Gabriel S Macedo, Igor Araujo Vieira, Fernanda Salles Luiz Vianna, Barbara Alemar, Juliana Giacomazzi, Ana Paula Carneiro Brandalize, Maira Caleffi, Sahlua Miguel Volc, Henrique de Campos Reis Galvão, Edenir Inez Palmero, Maria Isabel Achatz, Patricia Ashton-Prolla
Li-Fraumeni and Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFS/LFL) are clinically heterogeneous cancer predisposition syndromes characterized by diagnosis of early-onset and often multiple cancers with variable tumor patterns and incomplete penetrance. To date, the genetic modifiers described in LFS/LFL have been shown to map to either TP53 or its main negative regulator, MDM2. Additionally, all studies were focused on families with different TP53 germline mutations. Hence, in this study we explored the effect of the most studied polymorphisms of p53 pathway genes on clinical manifestations of individuals carrying the founder TP53 mutation R337H (n = 136) and controls (n = 186)...
July 29, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755079/pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-with-a-germline-pten-p-arg234gln-mutation
#6
Sunao Uemura, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Yoshimi Kiyozumi, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Yusuke Yamamoto, Keiko Sasaki, Masato Abe, Kenichi Urakami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Ken Yamaguchi
A minor fraction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) develops in association with germline mutations of the genes responsible for inherited cancer syndromes. However, the PDAC that has a germline PTEN mutation has not received much attention. Genome-wide whole exome sequencing was performed on germline and somatic DNA from an 82-year-old woman who had developed a solid pancreatic cancer but did not show characteristic findings of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS). Histology of the resected pancreatic tumor showed unique PDAC findings of primarily dendriform structures and dense fibrous tissue, accompanied by multiple pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias in the vicinity...
July 28, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752268/erratum-to-a-new-hereditary-colorectal-cancer-network-in-the-middle-east-and-eastern-mediterranean-countries-to-improve-care-for-high-risk-families
#7
Zeinab Ghorbanoghli, Carol Jabari, Walid Sweidan, Wail Hammoudeh, George Cortas, Ala I Sharara, Amal Abedrabbo, Ijad Hourani, Bahareh Mahjoubi, Keivan Majidzadeh, Nurdan Tözün, Hadia Ziada-Bouchaar, Waseem Hamoudi, Osama Diab, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Henry Lynch, Hans Vasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710566/remarkable-effects-of-imatinib-in-a-family-with-young-onset-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-and-cutaneous-hyperpigmentation-associated-with-a-germline-kit-trp557arg-mutation-case-report-and-literature-overview
#8
S Farag, L E van der Kolk, H H van Boven, A C J van Akkooi, G L Beets, J W Wilmink, N Steeghs
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occur mostly sporadically. GISTs associated with a familial syndrome are very rare and are mostly wild type for KIT and platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA). To date 35 kindreds and 8 individuals have been described with GISTs associated with germline KIT mutations. This is the third family described with a germline p.Trp557Arg mutation in exon 11 of the KIT gene. The effect of imatinib in patients harboring a germline KIT mutation has been rarely described. Moreover, in some studies imatinib treatment was withheld considering the lack of evidence for efficacy of this treatment in GIST patients harboring a germline KIT mutation...
July 14, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695303/a-comparison-of-cosegregation-analysis-methods-for-the-clinical-setting
#9
John Michael O Rañola, Quanhui Liu, Elisabeth A Rosenthal, Brian H Shirts
Quantitative cosegregation analysis can help evaluate the pathogenicity of genetic variants. However, genetics professionals without statistical training often use simple methods, reporting only qualitative findings. We evaluate the potential utility of quantitative cosegregation in the clinical setting by comparing three methods. One thousand pedigrees each were simulated for benign and pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and MLH1 using United States historical demographic data to produce pedigrees similar to those seen in the clinic...
July 10, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687971/the-spectrum-of-genetic-variants-in-hereditary-pancreatic-cancer-includes-fanconi-anemia-genes
#10
Thomas P Slavin, Susan L Neuhausen, Bita Nehoray, Mariana Niell-Swiller, Ilana Solomon, Christina Rybak, Kathleen Blazer, Aaron Adamson, Kai Yang, Sharon Sand, Nancy Guerrero-Llamas, Danielle Castillo, Josef Herzog, Xiwei Wu, Shu Tao, Shivali Raja, Vincent Chung, Gagandeep Singh, Sue Nadesan, Sandra Brown, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Gloria M Petersen, Jeffrey Weitzel
Approximately 5-10% of all pancreatic cancer patients carry a predisposing mutation in a known susceptibility gene. Since >90% of patients present with late stage disease, it is crucial to identify high risk individuals who may be amenable to early detection or other prevention. To explore the spectrum of hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we evaluated germline DNA from pancreatic cancer participants (n = 53) from a large hereditary cancer registry. For those without a known predisposition mutation gene (n = 49), germline next generation sequencing was completed using targeted capture for 706 candidate genes...
July 8, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687970/association-of-genetic-variations-in-rtn4-3-utr-with-risk-for-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Yan Pu, Peng Chen, Bin Zhou, Peng Zhang, Yanyun Wang, Yaping Song, Lin Zhang
Nogo proteins play an important role in the apoptosis of cells, especially in tumor cells. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the TATC (rs71682980) and CAA (rs34917480) insertion/deletion polymorphisms of RTN4 3'-UTR are associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). These two polymorphisms were genotyped in 308 ccRCC patients and 466 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PCR-PAGE). Significantly reduced ccRCC risk was observed to be associated with the TATCins/ins genotype carriers (Versus TATCdel/del: adjusted OR 0...
July 7, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685475/a-new-hereditary-colorectal-cancer-network-in-the-middle-east-and-eastern-mediterranean-countries-to-improve-care-for-high-risk-families
#12
Zeinab Ghorbanoghli, Carol Jabari, Walid Sweidan, Wail Hammoudeh, George Cortas, Ala I Sharara, Amal Abedrabbo, Ijad Hourani, Bahareh Mahjoubi, Keivan Maijdzadeh, Nurdan Tözün, Hadia Ziada-Bouchaar, Waseem Hamoudi, Osama Diab, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Henry Lynch, Hans Vasen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a very high incidence in the western world. Data from registries in the Middle East showed that the incidence of CRC is relatively low in these countries. However, these data also showed that CRC incidence has increased substantially over the past three decades and that a high proportion of cases are diagnosed at an early age (<50 years). In view of these findings, more attention should be paid to prevention. Because of the often limited financial resources, focused screening of individuals with hereditary CRC, in particular those with Lynch syndrome, appears to be the most cost-effective strategy...
July 6, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685474/novel-brca1-splice-site-mutation-in-ovarian-cancer-patients-of-slavic-origin
#13
Ana Krivokuca, Vita Setrajcic Dragos, Ljiljana Stamatovic, Ana Blatnik, Ivana Boljevic, Vida Stegel, Jelena Rakobradovic, Petra Skerl, Stevo Jovandic, Mateja Krajc, Mirjana Brankovic Magic, Srdjan Novakovic
Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) lead to defects in a number of cellular pathways including DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, resulting in the elevated genome instability and predisposing to breast and ovarian cancers. We report a novel mutation LRG_292t1:c.4356delA,p.(Ala1453Glnfs*3) in the 12th exon of BRCA1, in the splice site region near the donor site of intron 12. It is a frameshift mutation with the termination codon generated on the third amino acid position from the site of deletion...
July 6, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681140/increased-access-to-tp53-analysis-through-breast-cancer-multi-gene-panels-clinical-considerations
#14
LETTER
Jacopo Azzollini, Milena Mariani, Bernard Peissel, Siranoush Manoukian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674754/issues-related-to-family-history-of-cancer-at-the-end-of-life-a-palliative-care-providers-survey
#15
Catherine Gonthier, Sylvie Pelletier, Pierre Gagnon, Ana Marin, Jocelyne Chiquette, Bruno Gagnon, Louis Roy, Jude Emmanuel Cléophat, Yann Joly, Michel Dorval
Addressing the concerns of end-of-life patients or their relatives about their family history of cancer could benefit patients and family members. Little is known about how palliative care providers respond to these concerns. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess palliative care providers' knowledge about familial and hereditary cancers and explore their exposure to patients' and relatives' concerns about their family history of cancer, and their self-perceived ability to deal with such concerns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Quebec City (Canada) catchment area among palliative care professionals...
July 3, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660566/screening-of-bmpr1a-for-pathogenic-mutations-in-familial-colorectal-cancer-type-x-families-from-newfoundland
#16
Daniel R Evans, Jane S Green, Michael O Woods
The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) reports one of the highest incidence rates of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide. The NL population is an invaluable resource for studying genetic disorders because of a unique ancestry, and a willingness to participate in research studies. Familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) describes a cluster of families with strong predisposition for CRC, of unknown etiology. A putative link between FCCTX and BMPR1a mutations has been identified in the Finnish population; however these findings have not been independently replicated...
June 28, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643016/screening-for-lynch-syndrome-in-young-saudi-colorectal-cancer-patients-using-microsatellite-instability-testing-and-next-generation-sequencing
#17
Masood Alqahtani, Caitlin Edwards, Natasha Buzzacott, Karen Carpenter, Khalid Alsaleh, Abdulmalik Alsheikh, Waleed Abozeed, Miral Mashhour, Afnan Almousa, Yousef Housawi, Shareefa Al Hawwaj, Barry Iacopetta
Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) have germline variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes that confer a greatly increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), often at a young age. Identification of these individuals has been shown to increase their survival through improved surveillance. We previously identified 33 high risk cases for LS in the Saudi population by screening for microsatellite instability (MSI) in the tumor DNA of 284 young CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to identify MMR gene variants in this cohort of patients...
June 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643015/the-role-of-screening-mri-in-the-era-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-moderate-risk-genetic-mutations
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Macklin, Jennifer Gass, Ghada Mitri, Paldeep S Atwal, Stephanie Hines
With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the ability to rapidly analyze numerous genes simultaneously has led to the creation of large cancer gene panels. Some of these genes, like BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been heavily researched and have well-established management guidelines. Other more newly established genes, like ATM, CHEK2, and PALB2, have previously had less robust research surrounding them which has limited the ability to create accurate risk estimates. With their inclusion on gene panels, there has been more pressure to produce management guidelines for patients discovered to carry pathogenic variants in these genes...
June 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623477/use-of-the-boadicea-web-application-in-clinical-practice-appraisals-by-clinicians-from-various-countries
#19
Anne Brédart, Jean-Luc Kop, Antonis C Antoniou, Alex P Cunningham, Antoine De Pauw, Marc Tischkowitz, Hans Ehrencrona, Sylvie Dolbeault, Léonore Robieux, Kerstin Rhiem, Douglas F Easton, Peter Devilee, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Rita Schmutlzer
The 'BOADICEA' Web Application (BWA) used to assess breast cancer risk, is currently being further developed, to integrate additional genetic and non-genetic factors. We surveyed clinicians' perceived acceptability of the existing BWA v3. An online survey was conducted through the BOADICEA website, and the British, Dutch, French and Swedish genetics societies. Cross-sectional data from 443 participants who provided at least 50% responses were analysed. Respondents varied in age and, clinical seniority, but mainly comprised women (77%) and genetics professionals (82%)...
June 16, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623476/early-onset-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-an-adolescent-girl-with-germline-flcn-exon-5-deletion
#20
Meike Schneider, Katja Dinkelborg, Xiuli Xiao, Gayun Chan-Smutko, Kathleen Hruska, Dongli Huang, Pallavi Sagar, Mukesh Harisinghani, Othon Iliopoulos
Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) disease is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome characterized by benign skin tumors, renal cancer and spontaneous pneumothorax and is caused by mutations in the Folliculin (FLCN) gene. Benign skin tumors and pneumothorax occur in the majority of patients affected by BHD syndrome, but only 30-45% of them develop renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a median age of diagnosis at 48. The earliest onset of RCC in a BHD patient has been reported at age 20. Here we report a case of a 14 year-old patient with germline FLCN mutation leading to an early-onset bulky RCC that could not be classified strictly according to existing histological types...
June 16, 2017: Familial Cancer
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