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Current Atherosclerosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464356/weighing-the-anti-ischemic-benefits-and-bleeding-risks-from-aspirin-therapy-a-rational-approach
#1
REVIEW
Sagar Dugani, Jeffrey M Ames, JoAnn E Manson, Samia Mora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention...
February 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455255/fasting-or-non-fasting-lipids-for-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Faisal Rahman, Roger S Blumenthal, Steven R Jones, Seth S Martin, Tyler J Gluckman, Seamus P Whelton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a major modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); however, lipid testing for risk assessment and treatment surveillance has been underutilized. Several factors likely account for this, including the common practice of measuring lipid levels in the fasting state, which often necessitates that patients return for an additional visit. In this review, we evaluate potential advantages and cautions associated with measuring lipids in the non-fasting state...
February 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445908/gender-differences-in-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Paolo Di Giosia, Paolo Giorgini, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Marco Petrarca, Claudio Ferri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. RECENT FINDINGS: Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445885/the-interplay-of-lipids-lipoproteins-and-immunity-in-atherosclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Fabrizia Bonacina, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Alberico Luigi Catapano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the arterial wall, in which several players contribute to the onset and progression of the disease. Besides the well-established role of lipids, specifically cholesterol, and immune cell activation, new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the atherogenic process have emerged. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-inflammation, a condition of low-grade immune response caused by metabolic dysregulation, immunological memory of innate immune cells (referred to as "trained immunity"), cholesterol homeostasis in dendritic cells, and immunometabolism, i...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441421/diagnostic-error-in-stroke-reasons-and-proposed-solutions
#5
REVIEW
Ekaterina Bakradze, Ava L Liberman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the frequency of stroke misdiagnosis and identify subgroups of stroke at high risk for specific diagnostic errors. In addition, we review common reasons for misdiagnosis and propose solutions to decrease error. RECENT FINDINGS: According to a recent report by the National Academy of Medicine, most people in the USA are likely to experience a diagnostic error during their lifetimes. Nearly half of such errors result in serious disability and death...
February 13, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423787/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-statin-a-clinical-update
#6
REVIEW
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Leonardo Roever, Alexandre Gonçalves, Elmiro Santos Resende
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This clinical update is intended to focus in relationship between HIV infection and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and statin. RECENT FINDINGS: Though ART significantly changed the course of HIV infection, it is related to numerous side effects principally to the lipid profile. In this way, statins became one of the most used lipid-lowering therapies in this population. In our clinical update, we evaluated studies that demonstrate the relationship and molecular mechanisms that HIV infection and ART use trigger dyslipidemia and also the use of statin to reduce this condition...
February 8, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423705/chemotherapeutic-agents-and-the-risk-of-ischemia-and-arterial-thrombosis
#7
REVIEW
Saamir A Hassan, Nicolas Palaskas, Peter Kim, Cezar Iliescu, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Elie Mouhayar, Rohit Mougdil, Kara Thompson, Jose Banchs, Syed Wamique Yusuf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with the development of ischemia and arterial thrombosis. As newer therapies have been developed to treat cancer, some of these chemotherapy drugs have been implicated in the development of vascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the most common chemotherapeutic drug classes that may play a role in the development of ischemic heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiogenesis inhibitors, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antimicrotubules, and proteasome inhibitors have a number of cardiovascular toxicities...
February 8, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383530/microvascular-coronary-dysfunction-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Sahar Naderi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will review the available data on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD). RECENT FINDINGS: The study of MCD was pioneered by the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) cohort. New techniques in the diagnosis of this condition, using invasive and noninvasive means, are helping to increase awareness of this condition as well as ways in which to treat it. Microvascular coronary disease without epicardial involvement has become an increasingly recognized cause of cardiac chest pain, particularly in women...
January 30, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383458/nutrition-and-cardiovascular-disease-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Kate J Bowen, Valerie K Sullivan, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Kristina S Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent developments in nutrition and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary dietary guidance recommends healthy dietary patterns with emphasis on food-based recommendations because the totality of the diet (i.e., the combinations and quantities of foods and nutrients consumed) is an important determinant of health. In many guidelines, recommendations are still made for saturated fat, added sugar, sodium, and dietary cholesterol because these are over-consumed by many people and are related to chronic disease development...
January 30, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374801/premature-coronary-heart-disease-in-south-asians-burden-and-determinants
#10
REVIEW
Sarah T Ahmed, Hasan Rehman, Julia M Akeroyd, Mahboob Alam, Tina Shah, Ankur Kalra, Salim S Virani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the decline globally, it is on the rise among South Asians. South Asians are also believed to present early with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with other ethnicities. RECENT FINDINGS: South Asians have demonstrated a higher burden of premature CAD (PCAD) compared with other ethnicities. These findings are not limited to non-immigrant South Asians but have also been found in immigrant South Asians settled around the world...
January 27, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368179/recent-approaches-to-improve-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-progress-towards-a-learning-healthcare-system
#11
REVIEW
Andrew E Levy, Carrie Huang, Allen Huang, P Michael Ho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-adherence to medications for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. This review describes recent advances in promoting adherence to therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD). RECENT FINDINGS: Two large randomized controlled trials to "incentivize" adherence were somewhat disappointing; neither financial incentives nor "peer pressure" successfully increased rates of adherence in the post-MI population...
January 24, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349596/concomitant-use-of-antiplatelets-and-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation-what-do-recent-clinical-trials-teach-us
#12
REVIEW
David H Lam, Sean M Bell, Ravi S Hira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary heart disease (CHD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are among the most common cardiovascular diseases. A significant proportion of patients have both CHD and AF and are at increased risk for thrombotic complications. Current therapy for CHD and AF includes antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications, respectively. Patients with concurrent CHD and AF may be prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in addition to anticoagulation, which increases their bleeding risk...
January 19, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344756/the-current-state-of-left-main-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#13
REVIEW
Harshith R Avula, Andrew N Rassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the standard of care, advances in stenting technology and procedural technique are changing the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of severe left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. We review contemporary evidence comparing PCI and CABG for the treatment of severe LMCA disease, discuss optimal techniques during left main PCI, and provide guidance on studied revascularization strategies within specific patient subgroups...
January 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344739/what-we-have-learned-from-the-recent-meta-analyses-on-diagnostic-methods-for-atherosclerotic-plaque-regression
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Simona Mastrangeli, Enrico Romagnoli, Mariangela Peruzzi, Giacomo Frati, Leonardo Roever, Arturo Giordano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis has major morbidity and mortality implications globally. While it has often been considered an irreversible degenerative process, recent evidence provides compelling proof that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Plaque regression is however difficult to appraise and quantify, with competing diagnostic methods available. Given the potential of evidence synthesis to provide clinical guidance, we aimed to review recent meta-analyses on diagnostic methods for atherosclerotic plaque regression...
January 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340805/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Sherif Sakr, Ada Al-Qunaibet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases account for nearly one third of all deaths globally. Improving exercise capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been an important target to reduce cardiovascular events. In addition, the American Heart Association defined decreased physical activity as the fourth risk factor for coronary artery disease. Multiple large cohort studies have evaluated the impact of CRF on outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the role of CRF in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
January 16, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177971/organic-ion-transporters-and-statin-drug-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Kenneth Kellick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statin drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are both troublesome to patients as well as costly to medical resources. The ability to predict and avoid these events could lead to improved outcomes as well as patient satisfaction. This review will explore efforts to better understand and predict these interactions specifically related to one drug transport system, the organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) specifically OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the publication of the discovery of OATPs, there have been various pharmacokinetic models that have been proposed to explain the variation in pharmacokinetic and clinical effects related to the OATPs...
November 25, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147858/community-interventions-to-increase-stroke-preparedness-and-acute-stroke-treatment-rates
#17
REVIEW
Kathleen M Kelly, Kathryn T Holt, Gina M Neshewat, Lesli E Skolarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke treatments reduce the risk of post-stroke disability. These treatments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and intra-arterial treatment, are highly time-dependent; thus, one of the main barriers to treatment is pre-hospital delay. Stroke preparedness is defined as the ability to recognize stroke symptoms and the intent to activate emergency medical services (EMS). This review describes types of acute stroke treatment and preparedness interventions, including recent mass media interventions to increase acute stroke treatment rates, and adult and youth community interventions to increase stroke preparedness...
November 16, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127504/glycocalyx-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-endothelium-function-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#18
REVIEW
Ronodeep Mitra, Gerard Leland O'Neil, Ian Chandler Harding, Ming Jie Cheng, Solomon Arko Mensah, Eno Essien Ebong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in atherosclerosis. We discuss why the GCX is a viable option for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: GCX regulated EC activities such as barrier and filtration function, active cell-to-cell communication, and vascular tone mediation contribute to function of the entire vascular wall...
November 10, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124482/apociii-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-modulation-by-the-novel-lipid-lowering-agent-volanesorsen
#19
REVIEW
Natalia A Rocha, Cara East, Jun Zhang, Peter A McCullough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is now recognized as a key regulator in severe hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicronemia, and conditions of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnant excess due to its inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase, leading to decreased hepatic reuptake of TRLs, as well as enhanced synthesis and secretion of VLDL from the liver. ApoCIII gain-of-function mutations are associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD), and contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 9, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119348/implementing-evidence-based-practices-for-acute-stroke-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
REVIEW
Rasha Khatib, Assef M Jawaada, Yurany A Arevalo, Hiba K Hamed, Sukayna H Mohammed, Mark D Huffman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most strokes occur in low- and middle-income countries where resources to manage patients are limited. We explore the resources required to providing optimal acute stroke care and review barriers to implementing evidence-based stroke care in settings with limited resources using the World Stroke Organization's Global Stroke Services Action Plan framework. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been made during the past few decades in stroke prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation...
November 8, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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