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Current Atherosclerosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830569/a-review-on-atherosclerotic-biology-wall-stiffness-physics-of-elasticity-and-its-ultrasound-based-measurement
#1
REVIEW
Anoop K Patel, Harman S Suri, Jaskaran Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Shoaib Shafique, Andrew Nicolaides, Sanjay K Jain, Luca Saba, Ajay Gupta, John R Laird, Argiris Giannopoulos, Jasjit S Suri
Functional and structural changes in the common carotid artery are biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. Current methods for measuring functional changes include pulse wave velocity, compliance, distensibility, strain, stress, stiffness, and elasticity derived from arterial waveforms. The review is focused on the ultrasound-based carotid artery elasticity and stiffness measurements covering the physics of elasticity and linking it to biological evolution of arterial stiffness. The paper also presents evolution of plaque with a focus on the pathophysiologic cascade leading to arterial hardening...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822682/the-different-facets-of-dyslipidemia-and-hypertension-in-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Jessica Hurtubise, Krystie McLellan, Kevin Durr, Oluwadara Onasanya, Daniel Nwabuko, Joseph Fomusi Ndisang
Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of arteries due to the accumulation of macrophages overloaded with lipids resulting in foam cell formation, and these events occur preferentially at the branching points of arteries which are particularly susceptible to hyperlipidemic stress-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The different stages of atherogenesis rely on oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, and hypertension or dyslipidemia can independently trigger these stages. Dyslipidemia and hypertension are pathological conditions that damage the endothelium, triggering cell proliferation, vascular remodeling, apoptosis, and increased cellular permeability with increased adhesion molecules that bind monocytes and T lymphocytes to create a vicious cocktail of pathophysiological factors...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822681/chronic-toxic-metal-exposure-and-cardiovascular-disease-mechanisms-of-risk-and-emerging-role-of-chelation-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Ehimen C Aneni, Esteban Escolar, Gervasio A Lamas
Over the last few decades, there has been a growing body of epidemiologic evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The recent and unexpectedly positive findings from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of metal chelation for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)) have focused the discussion on the role of chronic exposure to toxic metals in the development and propagation of cardiovascular disease and the role of toxic metal chelation therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822680/heterogeneity-of-coronary-plaque-morphology-and-natural-history-current-understanding-and-clinical-significance
#4
REVIEW
Marina Zaromytidou, Antonios P Antoniadis, Gerasimos Siasos, Ahmet Umit Coskun, Ioannis Andreou, Michail I Papafaklis, Michelle Lucier, Charles L Feldman, Peter H Stone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the important progress in identifying high-risk atherosclerotic plaques, many key elements are elusive. Advanced imaging modalities provide valuable information about the anatomic and functional plaque characteristics and underscore the presence of multiple plaque morphologies. However, how the heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaque can alter our current understanding of coronary artery disease is not fully understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Along the length of an individual plaque, the morphology patterns display marked heterogeneity...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817160/novel-anti-glycemic-drugs-and-reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-diabetes-expectations-realized-promises-unmet
#5
REVIEW
James H Flory, Jenny K Ukena, James S Floyd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of new treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. RECENT FINDINGS: In response to guidance issued by the Food and Drug Administration, thousands of patients have been enrolled in large randomized trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the three newest diabetes drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815829/genetics-current-and-future-role-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-coronary-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Robert Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to review genetic risk variants for coronary artery disease (CAD) and how they will change the management and prevention of CAD currently and in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Through the efforts of international consortia, 58 genetic risk variants for CAD of genome-wide significance have been replicated in appropriate independent populations. Only one third of these variants mediate their risk through known conventional risk factors for CAD...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815828/transcriptomic-signature-of-atherosclerosis-in-the-peripheral-blood-fact-or-fiction
#7
REVIEW
Hsiao-Huei Chen, Alexandre F R Stewart
The notion that gene expression signatures in blood can serve as biomarkers of disease states is not new. In the case of atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease in particular, whether changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells reflects disease processes occurring in the vessel wall remains controversial. When comparing 15 studies that identified 706 differentially expressed genes, only 23 genes were replicated in 2 to 3 studies, at most. This low level of replication may reflect sample sizes too small to overcome heterogeneity in the response to disease...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815827/surgical-versus-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair-evidence-to-guide-the-optimal-approach-for-the-individual-patient
#8
REVIEW
Theodore Hart, Ross Milner
The choice between an open surgical and an endovascular approach for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair remains an individualized clinical decision. As the technology and applications of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) continue to evolve, so does the literature investigating its outcomes. Multiple high-quality, randomized controlled trials comparing EVAR to open surgical repair (OSR) have now been published with long-term follow-up. Experience with ruptured aneurysms and the use of complex endografts is growing as well...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807734/lipid-lowering-with-soluble-dietary-fiber
#9
REVIEW
Prasanth Surampudi, Byambaa Enkhmaa, Erdembileg Anuurad, Lars Berglund
Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807733/aspirin-use-in-women-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Amy Sarma, Nandita S Scott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the recent literature on the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women, use of LDA for pre-eclampsia prevention in pregnancy, and the underutilization of aspirin therapy in women as compared to men. RECENT FINDINGS: While men and women should not differ with respect to aspirin use for secondary prevention, its role in primary prevention remains unclear for both sexes, with particular uncertainty in women...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807732/acute-coronary-syndromes-differences-in-men-and-women
#11
REVIEW
Kris R Kawamoto, Melinda B Davis, Claire S Duvernoy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease in women has prompted studies to investigate gender-related disparities in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). In this review, we discuss findings from current literature on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of ACS in women as compared to men. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data show that cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death in women and the annual mortality rate from CVD remains higher in women compared to men...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796821/protective-effects-of-statins-in-cancer-should-they-be-prescribed-for-high-risk-patients
#12
REVIEW
Ange Wang, Heather A Wakelee, Aaron K Aragaki, Jean Y Tang, Allison W Kurian, JoAnn E Manson, Marcia L Stefanick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins are one of the most widely prescribed drug classes in the USA. This review aims to summarize recent research on the relationship between statin use and cancer outcomes, in the context of clinical guidelines for statin use in patients with cancer or who are at high risk for cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of research has investigated the relationship between statins and cancer with mixed results. Cancer incidence has been more extensively studied than cancer survival, though results are inconsistent as some large meta-analyses have not found an association, while other studies have reported improved cancer outcomes with the use of statins...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785680/hdl-as-a-causal-factor-in-atherosclerosis-insights-from-human-genetics
#13
REVIEW
Liam R Brunham
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely related to risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the simplistic assumption that HDL-C levels directly and causally impact atherogenesis has been challenged in recent years. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding genetically determined HDL-C levels and ASCVD risk and determine what insight these studies provide into the causal relationship between HDL and atherosclerosis.
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771852/threshold-and-target-for-blood-pressure-lowering-in-the-elderly
#14
Guido Grassi, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Anna Casati, Raffaella Dell'Oro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of elevated blood pressure values in elderly patients represents a common clinical condition associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This has been shown to be the case in both systodiastolic and isolated systolic hypertension as well. However, despite the evidence of the benefits of the blood pressure lowering intervention in terms of reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, at least two issues related to antihypertensive drug treatment in aged individuals are still undefined: (1) the blood pressure threshold at which antihypertensive drug should be initiated and (2) the blood pressure goals of the therapeutic intervention...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761705/emerging-therapeutic-options-for-lowering-of-lipoprotein-a-implications-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Michael B Boffa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are an independent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. This review summarizes the rationale for Lp(a) lowering and surveys relevant clinical trial data using a variety of agents capable of lowering Lp(a). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary guidelines and recommendations outline populations of patients who should be screened for elevated Lp(a) and who might benefit from Lp(a) lowering...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739004/does-dietary-cholesterol-matter
#16
Scott M Grundy
An ongoing dispute in the nutrition field is whether dietary cholesterol contributes significantly to elevated serum cholesterol and to atherosclerotic disease. Carefully controlled metabolic studies have shown that high-cholesterol intakes cause moderate increases in serum cholesterol levels. It is been difficult to verify this in population studies because of confounding factors. Nonetheless, meta-analysis of controlled studies documents a cholesterol-raising action of dietary cholesterol. Most of this effect occurs in low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), but the cholesterol content of other lipoproteins can be increased as well...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726072/genetic-research-and-women-s-heart-disease-a-primer
#17
Maryam Kavousi, Lawrence F Bielak, Patricia A Peyser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief synopsis of sexual dimorphism in atherosclerosis with an emphasis on genetic studies aimed to better understand the atherosclerotic process and clinical outcomes in women. Such studies are warranted because development of atherosclerosis, impact of several traditional risk factors, and burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) differ between women and men. RECENT FINDINGS: While most candidate gene studies pool women and men and adjust for sex, some sex-specific studies provide evidence of association between candidate genes and prevalent and incident CHD in women...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714642/role-of-new-antiplatelet-drugs-on-cardiovascular-disease-update-on-cangrelor
#18
Ana Lucrecia Marcano, José Luis Ferreiro
Dual therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist in addition to aspirin is the antiplatelet treatment of choice in patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, available oral P2Y12 antagonists have several limitations, mostly due to their pharmacological profile, which can affect outcomes in certain clinical settings. Cangrelor is an intravenous, direct-acting, potent P2Y12 inhibitor with rapid onset and offset of action, which has been recently approved for clinical use in patients undergoing PCI...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696319/coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-for-screening-in-patients-with-diabetes-can-enhanced-detection-of-subclinical-coronary-atherosclerosis-improve-outcome
#19
Joseph Brent Muhlestein, Fidela Ll Moreno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well known that there is a very high risk of cardiovascular complications among diabetic patients. In spite of all efforts at aggressive control of diabetes and its complications, the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains high, including in patients with no prior symptoms, underscoring a possible advantage for appropriate screening of asymptomatic patients for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). In this article, we sought primarily to review the results of studies designed to evaluate a possible role of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients for possible obstructive CAD...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696318/statin-adherence-does-gender-matter
#20
Karen M Goldstein, Leah L Zullig, Lori A Bastian, Hayden B Bosworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death for men and women in the USA. Statins have contributed significantly to noted declines in cardiovascular-related mortality in the last decade; however, the benefit of statins is inequitable across genders. Women continue to be less likely to take statins and to meet target LDL goals than men. As a possible contributing factor to this disparity, we explore the evidence for gender-based differences in provision of, and adherence to statins...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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