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Current Atherosclerosis Reports

Amy Cheney, Kathleen E Kearney, William Lombardi
ᅟ: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are an important and increasingly recognized subgroup of coronary lesions, documented in at least 30%, but up to 52% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of these lesions is increasingly pursued, with excellent success rates. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is known that gender differences exist in the presentation of CAD, as well as in clinical outcomes after routine PCI; however, it is not well described how these differences pertain to management of CTOs...
November 7, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Maki Tsujita, Anna Wolska, Daniel A P Gutmann, Alan T Remaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the initial discovery of discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human plasma and review more recent innovations that span the use of reconstituted nanodisc HDL for membrane protein characterization to its use as a drug carrier and a novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Using a wide variety of biophysical techniques, the structure and composition of endogenous discoidal HDL have now largely been solved...
November 5, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Sahar Naderi
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that, by definition, is not iatrogenic or due to trauma. It is a condition that predominantly affects pre- or perimenopausal women without the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this condition, with an emphasis on the ongoing research needed to better understand how to care for patients with SCAD...
October 29, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Carson Keck, Marian Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be an increasing cause of mortality among women, particularly postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a topic that has been investigated over the past decade for its known impact on the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the evidence and current opinion on the associations between HRT and CVD, evidence both supporting and against HRT use as a prevention to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
October 22, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Carlo W Cereda, Jean-Marc Olivot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) have a higher risk for stroke and vascular events. Specialized and organized management, if rapidly initiated in the emergency department (ED), reduces the vascular burden of TIA. This review summarizes the rationale for optimal triage of patients suspected with TIA in the ED, focusing on early diagnosis confirmation, individual risk stratification, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: New evidence is emerging on the yield of integrating clinical scales with advanced neuroimaging of the vessels and brain for improved diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with TIA...
September 25, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Gary Tse, George Bazoukis, Leonardo Roever, Tong Liu, William K K Wu, Martin C S Wong, Adrian Baranchuk, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Dimitrios Asvestas, Konstantinos P Letsas
Tpeak-Tend interval, the time difference between the peak and the end of the T-wave, reflects the degree of dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation has been associated with higher risks of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in different pro-arrhythmic conditions such as Brugada and long QT syndromes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how Tpeak-Tend is altered in different atherosclerotic conditions such as hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary obstruction, and coronary slow flow as well as inflammatory diseases affecting the arterial tree...
September 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Anaisa Silva Roever Borges, Nilson Penha Silva, Elmiro Santos Resende, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Leonardo Roever, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: As a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied...
September 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Razi Khan, Eric Rheaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to examine the role of IL-1β in the inflammatory process central to the development of atherosclerosis and to discuss current clinical evidence for treatments targeting IL-1β in coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-1β has been shown to modulate atherosclerotic plaque progression by upregulating the synthesis of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, as well increasing activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells...
September 15, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Sharda S Anroedh, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Milos Brankovic, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Patrick W Serruys, Joost Daemen, Nicolas M van Mieghem, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of 26 inflammatory biomarkers (acute phase proteins, cytokines, chemokines) and renal markers with coronary lipid core burden index (LCBI) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging, as well as the association of these biomarkers with long-term cardiovascular outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: NIRS-derived LCBI has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
September 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rhian E Davies, Jeremy D Rier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to review the disparities that exist for women who present for treatment of ischemic heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: It is well known that women are more likely to present with ischemic heart disease at an advanced age with more comorbidities when compared to male counterparts. Despite correction of risk factors, women experience worse outcomes, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. A review of the literature highlights the importance of a thoughtful approach to medical therapy and revascularization...
September 4, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Laura Divoky, Anbukarasi Maran, Bhavadharini Ramu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among women globally, majority of which are due to ischemic heart disease. Despite the recent advances in the overall management of CVD, there are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of women as well as poorer outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with ischemic cardiomyopathy experience significant morbidity and mortality. Differences in underlying pathology, delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the under-representation of women in clinical trials contribute to these poor outcomes...
September 3, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Silke Walter, Iris Q Grunwald, Stefan A Helwig, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Michael Kettner, Mathias Fousse, Martin Lesmeister, Klaus Fassbender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke is a treatable disease. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients obtain guideline-adjusted therapy. One major reason is the small time window in which therapies have to be administered in order to reverse or mitigate brain injury and prevent disability. The Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU) concept, available for a decade now, is spreading worldwide, comprising ambulances, fully equipped with computed tomography, laboratory unit and telemedicine connection to the stroke centre and staffed with a specialised stroke team...
August 29, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
A M Coates, A M Hill, S Y Tan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the consumption of tree nuts and peanuts and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality as well as CVD risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: A greater consumption of tree nuts and peanuts is associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, as well as lower CVD events. Furthermore, risk factors associated with the development of CVD such as dyslipidemia, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are improved with regular tree nut and peanut consumption through a range of mechanism associated with their nutrient-rich profiles...
August 9, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Shoa L Clarke, Themistocles L Assimes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the primary tool for unbiased assessment of the genetic basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) for more than a decade. We summarize successes as well as shortcomings of recent studies in this context. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of CAD-associated loci has more than doubled in the past year to 161. This rapid progress has been in large part due to the release of genome-wide genotyping data for the largely European participants of the UK Biobank study which has been combined with existing GWAS from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium...
July 18, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rajneesh Chaudhary, Ken R Walder, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Jagat R Kanwar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review specifically summarises and reports terrestrial mammals of the gerbil subfamily, known as Israeli sand rats or Psammomys obesus (P. obesus) as a diet-controlled, unique, polygenic rodent model for research in the areas of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The animal model closely mimics phenotypic and pathophysiological resemblance with human populations. RECENT FINDINGS: The physiological status and biochemical composition in P...
July 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Markos Klonizakis, Ahmad Alkhatib, Geoff Middleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ahmadreza Karimianpour, Anbukarasi Maran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery no-reflow phenomenon is an incidental outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Despite advances in pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, coronary no-reflow phenomenon occurs more commonly than desired. It often results in poor clinical outcomes and remains as a relevant consideration in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In this systematic review, we have sought to discuss the topic in detail, and to relay the most recent discoveries and data on management of this condition...
July 5, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Vineeta Singh, Mandip S Dhamoon, Suvarna Alladi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: South Asians (SA) are at a higher risk for stroke and vascular dementia due to the disproportionate burden of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the rationale for screening, early detection, and aggressive control of metabolic factors, and critically examines the published literature on primary and secondary stroke prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: South Asians have a higher prevalence of diabetes than non-SA. SA with diabetes are at a higher risk of recurrent ischemic stroke and have a higher incidence of stroke-related dementia compared to non-South Asians...
July 5, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anum Saeed, Kaustubh Dabhadkar, Salim S Virani, Peter H Jones, Christie M Ballantyne, Vijay Nambi
The original version of this article contains errors in Table 3. "At least 1 project/publication in the year" and "> 1 publication per year" have been switched under the titles of "Clinical Track" and "Physician-Scientist track".
June 19, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yohan Chacko, Rushi V Parikh, Jennifer A Tremmel
Women undergoing cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and other structural heart interventions have a significantly higher risk of vascular complications and bleeding than men, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the importance of recognizing female sex as a specific and independent risk factor, and focuses on mechanisms of increased risk and strategies to minimize that risk. Smaller caliber peripheral vessels, low body weight, variations in platelet reactivity, and inappropriate dosing of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents are the currently identified mechanisms for elevated bleeding and vascular complication risk in women...
June 8, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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