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Current Atherosclerosis Reports

Razi Khan, Eric Rheaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to examine the role of IL-1β in the inflammatory process central to the development of atherosclerosis and to discuss current clinical evidence for treatments targeting IL-1β in coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-1β has been shown to modulate atherosclerotic plaque progression by upregulating the synthesis of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, as well increasing activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells...
September 15, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Sharda S Anroedh, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Milos Brankovic, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Patrick W Serruys, Joost Daemen, Nicolas M van Mieghem, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of 26 inflammatory biomarkers (acute phase proteins, cytokines, chemokines) and renal markers with coronary lipid core burden index (LCBI) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging, as well as the association of these biomarkers with long-term cardiovascular outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: NIRS-derived LCBI has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
September 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rhian E Davies, Jeremy D Rier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to review the disparities that exist for women who present for treatment of ischemic heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: It is well known that women are more likely to present with ischemic heart disease at an advanced age with more comorbidities when compared to male counterparts. Despite correction of risk factors, women experience worse outcomes, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. A review of the literature highlights the importance of a thoughtful approach to medical therapy and revascularization...
September 4, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Laura Divoky, Anbukarasi Maran, Bhavadharini Ramu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among women globally, majority of which are due to ischemic heart disease. Despite the recent advances in the overall management of CVD, there are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of women as well as poorer outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with ischemic cardiomyopathy experience significant morbidity and mortality. Differences in underlying pathology, delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the under-representation of women in clinical trials contribute to these poor outcomes...
September 3, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Silke Walter, Iris Q Grunwald, Stefan A Helwig, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Michael Kettner, Mathias Fousse, Martin Lesmeister, Klaus Fassbender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke is a treatable disease. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients obtain guideline-adjusted therapy. One major reason is the small time window in which therapies have to be administered in order to reverse or mitigate brain injury and prevent disability. The Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU) concept, available for a decade now, is spreading worldwide, comprising ambulances, fully equipped with computed tomography, laboratory unit and telemedicine connection to the stroke centre and staffed with a specialised stroke team...
August 29, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
A M Coates, A M Hill, S Y Tan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the consumption of tree nuts and peanuts and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality as well as CVD risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: A greater consumption of tree nuts and peanuts is associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, as well as lower CVD events. Furthermore, risk factors associated with the development of CVD such as dyslipidemia, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are improved with regular tree nut and peanut consumption through a range of mechanism associated with their nutrient-rich profiles...
August 9, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Shoa L Clarke, Themistocles L Assimes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the primary tool for unbiased assessment of the genetic basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) for more than a decade. We summarize successes as well as shortcomings of recent studies in this context. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of CAD-associated loci has more than doubled in the past year to 161. This rapid progress has been in large part due to the release of genome-wide genotyping data for the largely European participants of the UK Biobank study which has been combined with existing GWAS from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium...
July 18, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rajneesh Chaudhary, Ken R Walder, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Jagat R Kanwar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review specifically summarises and reports terrestrial mammals of the gerbil subfamily, known as Israeli sand rats or Psammomys obesus (P. obesus) as a diet-controlled, unique, polygenic rodent model for research in the areas of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The animal model closely mimics phenotypic and pathophysiological resemblance with human populations. RECENT FINDINGS: The physiological status and biochemical composition in P...
July 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Markos Klonizakis, Ahmad Alkhatib, Geoff Middleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ahmadreza Karimianpour, Anbukarasi Maran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery no-reflow phenomenon is an incidental outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Despite advances in pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, coronary no-reflow phenomenon occurs more commonly than desired. It often results in poor clinical outcomes and remains as a relevant consideration in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In this systematic review, we have sought to discuss the topic in detail, and to relay the most recent discoveries and data on management of this condition...
July 5, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Vineeta Singh, Mandip S Dhamoon, Suvarna Alladi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: South Asians (SA) are at a higher risk for stroke and vascular dementia due to the disproportionate burden of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the rationale for screening, early detection, and aggressive control of metabolic factors, and critically examines the published literature on primary and secondary stroke prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: South Asians have a higher prevalence of diabetes than non-SA. SA with diabetes are at a higher risk of recurrent ischemic stroke and have a higher incidence of stroke-related dementia compared to non-South Asians...
July 5, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anum Saeed, Kaustubh Dabhadkar, Salim S Virani, Peter H Jones, Christie M Ballantyne, Vijay Nambi
The original version of this article contains errors in Table 3. "At least 1 project/publication in the year" and "> 1 publication per year" have been switched under the titles of "Clinical Track" and "Physician-Scientist track".
June 19, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yohan Chacko, Rushi V Parikh, Jennifer A Tremmel
Women undergoing cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and other structural heart interventions have a significantly higher risk of vascular complications and bleeding than men, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the importance of recognizing female sex as a specific and independent risk factor, and focuses on mechanisms of increased risk and strategies to minimize that risk. Smaller caliber peripheral vessels, low body weight, variations in platelet reactivity, and inappropriate dosing of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents are the currently identified mechanisms for elevated bleeding and vascular complication risk in women...
June 8, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Qurat-Ul-Ain Jelani, Mikhail Petrov, Sara C Martinez, Lene Holmvang, Khaled Al-Shaibi, Mirvat Alasnag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third most common manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), following coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. PAD remains underdiagnosed and under-treated in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with PAD experience more atypical symptoms and poorer overall health status. The prevalence of PAD in women increases with age, such that more women than men have PAD after the age of 40 years. There is under-representation of PAD patients in clinical trials in general and women in particular...
June 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo, Farzaneh Sorond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow constant despite fluctuations in systemic arterial blood pressure. This review will focus on recent studies that measured CA non-invasively in acute cerebrovascular events, a feature unique to the transcranial Doppler ultrasound. We will summarize the rationale for CA assessment in acute cerebrovascular disorders and specifically evaluate the existing data on the value of CA measures in relation to clinical severity, guiding management decisions, and prognostication...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
L I Igel, K H Saunders, J J Fins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine one of the ironies of American health care-that we pay more for disease management than disease prevention. Instead of preventing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by treating its precursor, obesity, we fail to provide sufficient insurance coverage for weight management only to fund the more costly burden of overt T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a vital need for expanded insurance coverage to help foster a weight-centric approach to T2DM management...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Daniel Gero, Bors Hulesch, Marco Bueter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cumulating evidence is available to demonstrate the efficacy of bariatric surgery (BS) in achieving weight loss and optimizing comorbidities. However, currently, only a minority of eligible patients approaches bariatric centers. The underuse of BS can no longer be explained by the lack of evidence supporting its beneficial outcomes along with its favorable safety-profile, rather, by the supporting infrastructure, insurance coverage, and mindset of society, including potential patients and allied healthcare professionals...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yan-Guang Li, Gregory Y H Lip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Decision-making on resuming oral anticoagulant (OAC) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evokes significant debate among clinicians. Such patients have been excluded from randomized clinical trials. This review article provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence on anticoagulation resumption after ICH. RECENT FINDINGS: OAC resumption does not increase the risk of recurrent ICH and can also reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. OAC cessation exposes patients to a significantly higher risk of thromboembolism, which could be reduced by resumption...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Jaime Mas-Oliva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to focus on the outcome of recent antioxidant interventions using synthetic and naturally occurring molecules established as adjuvant strategies to lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory therapies designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, accumulated evidence regarding oxidation as a pro-atherogenic factor indicates that redox biochemical events involved in atherogenesis are indeed a very attractive target for the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinic...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anum Saeed, Kaustubh Dabhadkar, Salim S Virani, Peter H Jones, Christie M Ballantyne, Vijay Nambi
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, necessitating major efforts in prevention. This review summarizes the currently available training opportunities in CVD prevention for fellows-in-training (FITs) and residents. We also highlight the challenges and future directions for CVD prevention as a field and propose a structure for an inclusive CVD prevention training program. RECENT FINDINGS: At present, there is a lack of centralized training resources for FITs and residents interested in pursuing a career in CVD prevention...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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