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Current Atherosclerosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781063/anticoagulation-resumption-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
REVIEW
Yan-Guang Li, Gregory Y H Lip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Decision-making on resuming oral anticoagulant (OAC) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evokes significant debate among clinicians. Such patients have been excluded from randomized clinical trials. This review article provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence on anticoagulation resumption after ICH. RECENT FINDINGS: OAC resumption does not increase the risk of recurrent ICH and can also reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. OAC cessation exposes patients to a significantly higher risk of thromboembolism, which could be reduced by resumption...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781062/antioxidants-in-the-fight-against-atherosclerosis-is-this-a-dead-end
#2
REVIEW
Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Jaime Mas-Oliva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to focus on the outcome of recent antioxidant interventions using synthetic and naturally occurring molecules established as adjuvant strategies to lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory therapies designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, accumulated evidence regarding oxidation as a pro-atherogenic factor indicates that redox biochemical events involved in atherogenesis are indeed a very attractive target for the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinic...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781057/cardiovascular-disease-prevention-training-opportunities-the-challenges-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Anum Saeed, Kaustubh Dabhadkar, Salim S Virani, Peter H Jones, Christie M Ballantyne, Vijay Nambi
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, necessitating major efforts in prevention. This review summarizes the currently available training opportunities in CVD prevention for fellows-in-training (FITs) and residents. We also highlight the challenges and future directions for CVD prevention as a field and propose a structure for an inclusive CVD prevention training program. RECENT FINDINGS: At present, there is a lack of centralized training resources for FITs and residents interested in pursuing a career in CVD prevention...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781051/prehospital-prediction-of-large-vessel-occlusion-in-suspected-stroke-patients
#4
REVIEW
Kevin J Keenan, Charles Kircher, Jason T McMullan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in endovascular thrombectomy have made acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel occlusion more treatable than ever. Rapid access to treatment remains paramount and multiple large vessel occlusion prediction scales have been created to enhance prehospital identification and triage of these patients. This review summarizes the current state of large vessel occlusion prediction scales, proposes a set of ideal scale features, and discusses the future of these scales and prehospital neurological emergency response systems...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781047/a-survey-on-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-tissue-characterization-in-intravascular-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
REVIEW
Alberto Boi, Ankush D Jamthikar, Luca Saba, Deep Gupta, Aditya Sharma, Bruno Loi, John R Laird, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerotic plaque deposition within the coronary vessel wall leads to arterial stenosis and severe catastrophic events over time. Identification of these atherosclerotic plaque components is essential to pre-estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stratify them as a high or low risk. The characterization and quantification of coronary plaque components are not only vital but also a challenging task which can be possible using high-resolution imaging techniques...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779130/the-present-and-the-future-of-genetic-testing-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-opportunities-and-caveats
#6
REVIEW
Amanda J Hooper, John R Burnett, Damon A Bell, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize recent advances in the understanding of genetic testing in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the use of expanded FH next-generation sequencing panels, and directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: The uptake of massively parallel sequencing in research and diagnostic laboratories has enabled expanded testing for FH and its phenocopies, with the added advantage that copy number variants can be detected. However, increasing the number of genes tested increases the number of variants detected, which may or may not be pathogenic...
May 19, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777448/triad-of-the-ischemic-cardiovascular-disease-in-people-living-with-hiv-association-between-risk-factors-hiv-infection-and-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Maria Odila Gomes Douglas, Leandro Teixeira Paranhos Lopes, Leonardo Roever, Alexandre Gonçalves, Elmiro Santos Resende
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected people. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased the life expectancy of HIV-infected people. Thus, this population has experienced non-HIV-related diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases. Thus, in our review, we intend to understand the cardiovascular risk factors that trigger this situation. We have demonstrated that both ART and traditional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected people...
May 18, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766349/recent-developments-in-the-role-of-coenzyme-q10-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jessica Ayers, Jamie Cook, Rachel A Koenig, Evan M Sisson, Dave L Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent randomized clinical trials evaluating the role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the management of coronary heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: CoQ10 is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in the USA. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 has been studied extensively for possible use in managing coronary heart disease. One of the most common applications of CoQ10 is to mitigate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) based on the theory that SAMS are caused by statin depletion of CoQ10 in the muscle...
May 16, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728772/implementing-a-mediterranean-style-diet-outside-the-mediterranean-region
#9
REVIEW
Karen J Murphy, Natalie Parletta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. RECENT FINDINGS: In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity...
May 4, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696447/preserving-cardiovascular-health-in-young-children-beginning-healthier-by-starting-earlier
#10
REVIEW
Linda Van Horn, Eileen Vincent, Amanda M Perak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goals of this paper are to review current literature regarding maternal-fetal-pediatric diet and nutritional factors related to preserving cardiovascular health in the very young child and the emerging data implicating nutritional influences on neurodevelopmental factors. Questions related to maternal diet and influences of human milk on child's growth, neurodevelopment, and risk of developing obesity were addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of US women in their reproductive years have overweight or obese status thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in their children...
April 25, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696385/effects-of-different-weight-loss-approaches-on-cvd-risk
#11
REVIEW
Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we aimed to answer the question as to whether deliberate weight loss can reduce cardiovascular events or improve cardiovascular risk factors and whether different methods of weight loss can have a differential effect on risk factor improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: It would appear that deliberate weight loss reduces total mortality by 16% in obese people with risk factors including type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes who lose at least 10% of their initial body weight reduce CVD end points by 21% with dietary weight loss while the effect is greater with the greater weight loss induced by bariatric surgery with a 32% reduction in events...
April 25, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654423/adoption-and-design-of-emerging-dietary-policies-to-improve-cardiometabolic-health-in-the-us
#12
REVIEW
Yue Huang, Jennifer Pomeranz, Parke Wilde, Simon Capewell, Tom Gaziano, Martin O'Flaherty, Rogan Kersh, Laurie Whitsel, Dariush Mozaffarian, Renata Micha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suboptimal diet is a leading cause of cardiometabolic disease and economic burdens. Evidence-based dietary policies within 5 domains-food prices, reformulation, marketing, labeling, and government food assistance programs-appear promising at improving cardiometabolic health. Yet, the extent of new dietary policy adoption in the US and key elements crucial to define in designing such policies are not well established. We created an inventory of recent US dietary policy cases aiming to improve cardiometabolic health and assessed the extent of their proposal and adoption at federal, state, local, and tribal levels; and categorized and characterized the key elements in their policy design...
April 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564646/dairy-products-dairy-fatty-acids-and-the-prevention-of-cardiometabolic-disease-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Edward Yu, Frank B Hu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent literature on dairy products, dairy fatty acids, and cardiometabolic disease. Primary questions of interest include what unique challenges researchers face when investigating dairy products/biomarkers, whether one should consume dairy to reduce disease risk, whether dairy fatty acids may be beneficial for health, and whether one should prefer low- or high-fat dairy products. RECENT FINDINGS: Dairy composes about 10% of the calories in a typical American diet, about half of that coming from fluid milk, half coming from cheese, and small amounts from yogurt...
March 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556802/assessing-cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-responses-to-preventive-therapies-in-clinical-practice
#14
REVIEW
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of this review are to provide perspective on evaluation of relative and absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reductions for assessing the efficacy of preventive therapies and to summarize methods for evaluation of CVD risk in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Major CVD risk factors can be used to stratify patients into risk categories. Results from recent trials reinforce the view that benefits of preventive therapies will be greatest in those with the highest absolute risk and in those with the most severe disturbance in the risk factor targeted...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556735/blood-fatty-acid-profiles-new-biomarkers-for-cardiometabolic-disease-risk
#15
REVIEW
Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550903/functional-nitric-oxide-nutrition-to-combat-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525934/pleiotropic-anti-atherosclerotic-effects-of-pcsk9-inhibitorsfrom-molecular-biology-to-clinical-translation
#17
REVIEW
Angelos D Karagiannis, Martin Liu, Peter P Toth, Shijia Zhao, Devendra K Agrawal, Peter Libby, Yiannis S Chatzizisis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials with PCSK9 inhibitors have shown a robust decrease in plasma LDL levels and a significant reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular atherosclerotic events. However, the role of PCSK9 in atherosclerosis is not well investigated and it remains unclear whether PCSK9 inhibition has direct, LDL-independent, anti-atherosclerotic effects. This review outlines the molecular pathways and targets of PCSK9 in atherosclerosis and summarizes the experimental and clinical data supporting the anti-atherosclerotic (pleiotropic) actions of PCSK9 inhibitors...
March 10, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516190/a-clinical-guide-to-combination-lipid-lowering-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Cori Russell, Samip Sheth, Douglas Jacoby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of our current understanding of combination lipid-lowering therapies intended for dyslipidemia treatment and cardiovascular disease prevention. First, we analyze recent statin and non-statin combination therapy guidelines and clinical studies since the publication of 2013 American College of Cardiology Cholesterol Guidelines. Second, we examine the clinical utility of non-statin agents alone and in combination in terms of LDL-C lowering and ASCVD risk reduction...
March 7, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511882/cardiometabolic-effects-of-anti-obesity-pharmacotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Andrew R Crawford, Naji Alamuddin, Anastassia Amaro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent studies discussing the impact of pharmacologic agents for weight loss on clinical cardiovascular events, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacotherapy with current FDA-approved medications for weight loss can significantly improve known risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammatory biomarkers, and the quantity of visceral fat, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 6, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511875/evolocumab-considerations-for-the-management-of-hyperlipidemia
#20
REVIEW
Barbara S Wiggins, Jeffrey Senfield, Helina Kassahun, Armando Lira, Ransi Somaratne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the efficacy, safety, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 inhibitors are a class of lipid-lowering agents that significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and hyperlipidemia. Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits PCSK9 and has been evaluated in phase II and III studies as monotherapy, in combination with statins and other lipid-lowering therapies, in patients who are statin intolerant, and in patients with heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia...
March 6, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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