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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911986/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-adipose-tissue-should-be-considered-in-obesity-research
#1
Y-M Lee, K-S Kim, D R Jacobs, D-H Lee
Although low doses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, have been linked to various endocrine, immune, nervous and reproductive system diseases, few obesity studies have considered adipose tissue as an important POPs exposure source. Because the toxicodynamics of POPs relate directly to the dynamics of adiposity, POPs might explain puzzling findings in obesity research. In two people exposed to the same amounts of environmental POPs, the one having more adipose tissue may be advantaged because POPs storage in adipose tissue can reduce burden on other critical organs...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911984/home-visitation-programs-an-untapped-opportunity-for-the-delivery-of-early-childhood-obesity-prevention
#2
S-J Salvy, K de la Haye, T Galama, M I Goran
BACKGROUND: Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899023/ghrelin-function-in-human-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-concise-review
#3
REVIEW
R Churm, J S Davies, J W Stephens, S L Prior
The 28 amino acid hormone, ghrelin, has been found to have various effects on metabolism. This review will focus on the pathways integrated into ghrelin's effect within the hypothalamus, pancreas and adipocytes. The identification of molecules and pathways that regulate ghrelin-mediated lipid retention could establish new mechanisms underlying cellular energy homeostasis. The impact of acyl-ghrelin on glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis may allow for novel preventative or early intervention therapeutic strategies to treat obesity related type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899022/alterations-of-specific-lipid-groups-in-serum-of-obese-humans-a-review
#4
REVIEW
A Mika, T Sledzinski
Obesity is a major contributor to the dysfunction of liver, cardiac, pulmonary, endocrine and reproductive system, as well as a component of metabolic syndrome. Although development of obesity-related disorders is associated with lipid abnormalities, most previous studies dealing with the problem in question were limited to routinely determined parameters, such as serum concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Many authors postulated to extend the scope of analysed lipid compounds and to study obesity-related alterations in other, previously non-examined groups of lipids...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899007/the-impact-of-interventions-to-promote-healthier-ready-to-eat-meals-to-eat-in-to-take-away-or-to-be-delivered-sold-by-specific-food-outlets-open-to-the-general-public-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
F C Hillier-Brown, C D Summerbell, H J Moore, A Routen, A A Lake, J Adams, M White, V Araujo-Soares, C Abraham, A J Adamson, T J Brown
INTRODUCTION: Ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. METHODS: Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer-level or food-outlet-level before-and-after data were included. RESULTS: Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre-packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1)...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888564/communicating-with-children-and-families-about-obesity-and-weight-related-topics-a-scoping-review-of-best-practices
#6
REVIEW
A C McPherson, J Hamilton, S Kingsnorth, T J Knibbe, M Peters, J A Swift, K Krog, L Chen, A Steinberg, G D C Ball
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals have called for direction on how best to communicate about weight-related topics with children and families. Established scoping review methodology was used to answer the question: 'How can healthcare professionals best communicate with children and their families about obesity and weight-related topics?' METHODS: We searched four scientific databases, two grey literature repositories and 14 key journals (2005-2016). Inclusion criteria were (i) children up to and including 18 years of age and/or their parents; (ii) communication about healthy weight, overweight, obesity or healthy/active living; and (iii) healthcare setting...
November 26, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888563/qualities-of-robust-systematic-reviews-and-theoretical-frameworks-a-response-to-backholer-and-peeters
#7
LETTER
D L Olstad, M Teychenne, L M Minaker, D R Taber, K D Raine, C I J Nykiforuk, K Ball
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860169/environmental-interventions-for-altering-eating-behaviours-of-employees-in-the-workplace-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
J Allan, D Querstret, K Banas, M de Bruin
Environmental, or 'choice-architecture', interventions aim to change behaviour by changing properties/contents of the environment and are commonly used in the workplace to promote healthy behaviours in employees. The present review aimed to evaluate and synthesize the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of environmental interventions targeting eating behaviour in the workplace. A systematic search identified 8157 articles, of which 22 were included in the current review. All included studies were coded according to risk of bias and reporting quality and were classified according to the emergent typology of choice-architecture interventions...
November 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862826/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-adults-who-are-overweight-or-obese-a-meta-analysis-of-physical-and-psychological-health-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Rogers, Madeleine Ferrari, Kylie Mosely, Cathryne P Lang, Leah Brennan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on psychological and physical health outcomes in adults who are overweight or obese. METHODS: We searched 14 electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies that met eligibility criteria. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was used to compute the effect size estimate Hedge's g. RESULTS: Fifteen studies measuring post-treatment outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions in 560 individuals were identified...
November 11, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862824/gut-microbial-metabolism-defines-host-metabolism-an-emerging-perspective-in-obesity-and-allergic-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
M Kumari, A L Kozyrskyj
The presence of >100 trillion microorganisms (collectively called gut microbiota) in our large intestine is essential for the maintenance of health. The gut microbiota starts to develop before birth and matures within first three years of life. The Western diet and lifestyle have been implicated in causing an imbalance of gut microbial communities and their metabolites that consequence in disease states, such as obesity and asthma. With more than 13% of the world population currently living with obesity and one out of 10 children diagnosed with asthma, we explore here the recent developments in the biosynthesis and mode of action of the key metabolites in relation to these two chronic inflammatory conditions...
November 11, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862851/barriers-and-facilitators-to-initial-and-continued-attendance-at-community-based-lifestyle-programmes-among-families-of-overweight-and-obese-children-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
E Kelleher, M P Davoren, J M Harrington, F Shiely, I J Perry, S M McHugh
The success of childhood weight management programmes relies on family engagement. While attendance offers many benefits including the support to make positive lifestyle changes, the majority of families referred to treatment decline. Moreover, for those who do attend, benefits are often compromised by high programme attrition. This systematic review investigated factors influencing attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight or obese children. A narrative synthesis approach was used to allow for the inclusion of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method study designs...
November 10, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776381/molecular-targets-of-developmental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-in-diabesity-a-focus-on-endoderm-derived-organs
#12
I Porreca, L Ulloa-Severino, P Almeida, D Cuomo, A Nardone, G Falco, M Mallardo, C Ambrosino
Several studies associate foetal human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) to metabolic/endocrine diseases, mainly diabesity. They describe the role of BPA in the disruption of pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte and hepatocyte functions. Indeed, the complexity of the diabesity phenotype is due to the involvement of different endoderm-derived organs, all targets of BPA. Here, we analyse this point delineating a picture of different mechanisms of BPA toxicity in endoderm-derived organs leading to diabesity. Moving from epidemiological data, we summarize the in vivo experimental data of the BPA effects on endoderm-derived organs (thyroid, pancreas, liver, gut, prostate and lung) after prenatal exposure...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776203/obesogens-and-male-fertility
#13
A M Cardoso, M G Alves, P P Mathur, P F Oliveira, J E Cavaco, L Rato
In the last decades, several studies evidenced a decrease in male fertility in developed countries. Although the aetiology of this trend in male reproductive health remains a matter of debate, environmental compounds that predispose to weight gain, namely obesogens, are appointed as contributors because of their action as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens favour adipogenesis by an imbalance of metabolic processes and can be found virtually everywhere. These compounds easily accumulate in tissues with high lipid content...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764897/the-barriers-and-enablers-of-healthy-eating-among-young-adults-a-missing-piece-of-the-obesity-puzzle-a-scoping-review
#14
A E Munt, S R Partridge, M Allman-Farinelli
Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed...
October 20, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749997/dumping-syndrome-after-esophageal-gastric-or-bariatric-surgery-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management
#15
A P van Beek, M Emous, M Laville, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749993/the-utility-of-the-agency-structure-framework-to-estimate-the-health-equity-impact-of-universal-obesity-prevention-policies
#16
K Backholer, A Peeters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653242/prevalence-of-personal-weight-control-attempts-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
I Santos, F F Sniehotta, M M Marques, E V Carraça, P J Teixeira
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of personal weight control attempts (weight loss and/or maintenance) worldwide and to identify correlates, personal strategies used and the underlying motives. We included epidemiological/observational studies of adults (≥18 years) reporting prevalence of weight control attempts in the past-year. Seventy-two studies (n = 1,184,942) met eligibility criteria. Results from high quality studies showed that 42% of adults from general populations and 44% of adults from ethnic-minority populations reported trying to lose weight, and 23% of adults from general populations reported trying to maintain weight annually...
September 21, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636208/harnessing-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-overweight-and-obesity
#18
R Burcelin, P Gourdy
Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic rise in global obesity prevalence, resulting in significant economic and social consequences. Attempts to develop pharmacological agents to treat obesity have met with many obstacles including the lack of long-term effectiveness and the potential for adverse effects. Historically, there have been limited treatment options for overweight and obesity; however, since 2012, a number of new drugs have become available. A number of peptides produced in the gut act as key mediators of the gut-brain axis, which is involved in appetite regulation...
September 16, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749998/reply-to-comment-on-waist-to-height-ratio-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-for-screening-pediatric-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-a-meta-analysis
#19
LETTER
K Lo, W Tam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749995/comment-on-waist-to-height-ratio-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-for-screening-paediatric-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-a-meta-analysis
#20
LETTER
S Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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