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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#1
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144030/the-role-of-glucagon-in-weight-loss-mediated-metabolic-improvement-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
M P Silvestre, J P Goode, P Vlaskovsky, C McMahon, A Tay, S D Poppitt
Aims This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of glucagon suppression in regulating glucose homeostasis following diet or bariatric surgery. Methods A comprehensive search of intervention and observational studies was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and Embase. Random effects model meta-analysis was performed. Primary outcomes were (i) body weight change, (ii) fasting glucagon, (iii) fasting glucose and (iv) fasting insulin concentrations. Results Twenty articles reporting data from 29 interventions were eligible for analysis...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130623/body-fatness-at-a-young-age-body-fatness-gain-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#3
REVIEW
K Hidayat, C-M Yang, B-M Shi
Higher body fatness in adulthood has been consistently associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as a tendency towards a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. However, the association between body fatness at a young age (≤30 years), body fatness gain and the risk of breast cancer is less defined. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant publications. Risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals from each study were transformed into a continuous variable for each 5 kg m(-2) increase in body mass index (BMI) and were pooled under a random-effects model...
November 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#4
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119725/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-non-invasive-detection-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-related-fibrosis-in-the-obese
#5
REVIEW
G J Ooi, S Mgaieth, G D Eslick, P R Burton, W W Kemp, S K Roberts, W A Brown
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant disease burden in obesity. Liver fibrosis is an important prognostic factor in NAFLD, and detection is vital. The pathophysiological changes of obesity can alter the accuracy of non-invasive NAFLD tests. We aimed to review current evidence for common non-invasive tests for NAFLD-related fibrosis in obesity. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of 11 biomarker panels and elastography techniques for NAFLD-related fibrosis in obesity...
November 9, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119689/decreased-5-ht2cr-and-ghsr1a-interaction-in-antipsychotic-drug-induced-obesity
#6
REVIEW
X-F Huang, K Weston-Green, Y Yu
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), notably atypical antipsychotics including olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone, can cause weight gain and obesity side effects. Antagonism of serotonin 2c receptors (5-HT2cR) and activation of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHSR1a) signalling have been identified as a main cause of SGA induced obesity. Here we review the pivotal regulatory role of the 5-HT2cR in ghrelin-mediated appetite signalling. The 5-HT2cR dimerizes with GHSR1a to inhibit orexigenic signalling, while 5-HT2cR antagonism reduces dimerization and increases GHSR1a-induced food intake...
November 9, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076610/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-weight-loss-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
K Carrière, B Khoury, M M Günak, B Knäuper
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies are investigating the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for weight loss and obesity-related eating behaviours. However, the results of past reviews are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To clarify these inconsistencies, we conducted a comprehensive effect-size analysis to evaluate the efficacy of MBIs on weight loss and eating behaviours. DATA SOURCE: Data sources were identified through a systematic review of studies published in journals or as dissertations in PsychINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Scopus, ProQuest or OATD from the first available date to March 10, 2017...
October 27, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052309/rapid-weight-gain-during-infancy-and-subsequent-adiposity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-evidence
#8
REVIEW
M Zheng, K E Lamb, C Grimes, R Laws, K Bolton, K K Ong, K Campbell
The contribution of rapid weight gain (RWG) during infancy to later adiposity has received considerable investigation. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to update the literature on association between RWG and subsequent adiposity outcomes. Electronic searches were undertaken in EMBASE, MEDLINE, psycINFO, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Studies that examined the associations between RWG (a change in weight z-scores > 0.67) during infancy (from birth to age 2 years) and subsequent adiposity outcomes were included...
October 20, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047207/effects-of-probiotics-on-body-weight-body-mass-index-fat-mass-and-fat-percentage-in-subjects-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
H Borgeraas, L K Johnson, J Skattebu, J K Hertel, J Hjelmesaeth
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to examine the effects of probiotic supplementation on body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat percentage in subjects with overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg m(-2) ) or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg m(-2) ). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies published between 1946 and September 2016. A meta-analysis, using a random effects model, was performed to calculate the weighted mean difference between the intervention and control groups...
October 18, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024549/weight-gain-during-incarceration-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among prisoners in different settings is high. Evaluating weight change during incarceration would allow for the investigation of whether the prison environment indeed contributes to unfavourable weight changes. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to do a systematic review and a meta-analysis of existing evidence regarding weight change during incarceration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic literature search by using five different online databases and included grey literature...
October 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024559/comparative-efficacy-of-five-long-term-weight-loss-drugs-quantitative-information-for-medication-guidelines
#11
REVIEW
Z Dong, L Xu, H Liu, Y Lv, Q Zheng, L Li
Quantitative information is scarce in current obesity medication guidelines, and they do not clearly reflect the differences in the efficacy characteristics among various drugs. This study quantitatively assessed the efficacy characteristics of five FDA-approved long-term weight loss drugs. Potentially eligible studies were obtained from public databases. Using the differences in the weight change from baseline between the drug group and the corresponding placebo group as the major indicator of efficacy, a time-effect model was established, and crucial pharmacodynamic parameters, such as the maximal efficacy, drug onset time and rate of body weight regain after the maximal efficacy point, were used to reflect the differences in efficacy among the five drugs...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024387/ethnic-and-population-differences-in-the-genetic-predisposition-to-human-obesity
#12
REVIEW
C Stryjecki, A Alyass, D Meyre
Obesity rates have escalated to the point of a global pandemic with varying prevalence across ethnic groups. These differences are partially explained by lifestyle factors in addition to genetic predisposition to obesity. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the ethnic differences in the genetic architecture of obesity. Using examples from evolution, heritability, admixture, monogenic and polygenic studies of obesity, we provide explanations for ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024367/commissioning-guidance-for-weight-assessment-and-management-in-adults-and-children-with-severe-complex-obesity
#13
REVIEW
R Welbourn, J Hopkins, J B Dixon, N Finer, C Hughes, R Viner, J Wass
The challenge of managing the epidemic of patients with severe and complex obesity disease in secondary care is largely unmet. In England, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the National Health Service England have published guidance on the provision of specialist (non-surgical) weight management services. We have undertaken a systematic review of 'what evidence exists for what should happen in/commissioning of: primary or secondary care weight assessment and management clinics in patients needing specialist care for severe and complex obesity?' using an accredited methodology to produce a model for organization of multidisciplinary team clinics that could be developed in every healthcare system, as an update to a previous review...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024361/emotional-processing-in-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-exploratory-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
J Fernandes, F Ferreira-Santos, K Miller, S Torres
The role of emotional functioning in the development and maintenance of obesity has been investigated, but the literature is poorly integrated. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore emotional processing impairments in obesity. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases were searched in March 2016, yielding 31 studies comparing emotional processing competencies in individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), and control groups. Meta-analyses demonstrated that individuals with obesity had higher scores of alexithymia (d = 0...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024348/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease-weighing-the-evidence
#15
REVIEW
S Alford, D Patel, N Perakakis, C S Mantzoros
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA today; therefore, it is imperative that public health initiatives and clinical strategies are developed to prevent and effectively treat AD. Despite the enormous impact that AD has on individuals, families, society, and the health care system, there are no biomarkers to clearly identify those at risk for AD, public health prevention strategies in place, or treatments to address the underlying pathology or stop the progression of AD. There is ample scientific as well as empirical evidence that obesity and its metabolic and vascular comorbidities are related to AD and likely in the causative pathway...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977817/global-warming-and-obesity-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
R An, M Ji, S Zhang
Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3)...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975765/the-longitudinal-association-between-weight-change-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adults-and-children-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
M Hayes, H Baxter, J Müller-Nordhorn, J K Hohls, R Muckelbauer
This systematic review examined longitudinal associations between weight change (weight gain and loss) and both physical and mental aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with stable weight in adults and children of the general population. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched. Longitudinal observational studies measuring HRQOL with six predefined instruments were synthesized according to type of association: weight change and change in HRQOL (change-on-change association) and weight change and HRQOL at follow-up (predictive association)...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975722/short-term-intermittent-energy-restriction-interventions-for-weight-management-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
L Harris, A McGarty, L Hutchison, L Ells, C Hankey
This systematic review synthesized the available evidence on the effect of short-term periods of intermittent energy restriction (weekly intermittent energy restriction; ≥7-d energy restriction) in comparison with usual care (daily continuous energy restriction), in the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016. Only randomized controlled trials of interventions (≥12 weeks) in adults with overweight and obesity were included. Five studies were included in this review...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975706/meta-analysis-on-shift-work-and-risks-of-specific-obesity-types
#19
REVIEW
M Sun, W Feng, F Wang, P Li, Z Li, M Li, G Tse, J Vlaanderen, R Vermeulen, L A Tse
AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the associations between shift work patterns and risks of specific types of obesity. METHODS: PubMed was searched until March 2017 for observational studies that examined the relationships between shift work patterns and obesity. Odds ratio for obesity was extracted using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses were carried out for study design, specific obesity types and characteristics of shift work pattern...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967183/a-systematic-review-of-methods-to-measure-family-co-participation-in-physical-activity
#20
REVIEW
L Uijtdewilligen, H E Brown, F Müller-Riemenschneider, Y W Lim, S Brage, E M van Sluijs
The family environment is key in influencing children's health behaviours. Encouraging family co-participation in physical activity may therefore be an effective approach to increasing children's physical activity levels. Yet, little is known about how to best assess family co-participation in physical activity. This review summarizes methods to measure family co-participation in physical activity, which was defined as joint physical activities including at least one healthy child (0-18 years) and one other family member...
October 2, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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