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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295905/alpha-lipoic-acid-ala-as-a-supplementation-for-weight-loss-results-from-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
S Kucukgoncu, E Zhou, K B Lucas, C Tek
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Even modest weight loss may be associated with health benefits. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant. Studies have suggested anti-obesity properties of ALA; however, results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effect of ALA on weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A comprehensive, systematic literature search identified 10 articles on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving ALA...
March 13, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296057/associations-of-maternal-stress-with-children-s-weight-related-behaviours-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
S G O'Connor, J P Maher, B R Belcher, A M Leventhal, G Margolin, E T Shonkoff, G F Dunton
Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviours (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) among US children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children's obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behaviour (i...
March 9, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273694/patient-experiences-of-outcomes-of-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-synthesis
#4
REVIEW
Karen D Coulman, Fiona MacKichan, Jane M Blazeby, Amanda Owen-Smith
Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe and complex obesity, less is known about its psychosocial impact. This systematic review synthesizes qualitative studies investigating the patient perspective of living with the outcomes of surgery. A total of 2,604 records were screened, and 33 studies were included. Data extraction and thematic synthesis yielded three overarching themes: control, normality and ambivalence. These were evident across eight organizing sub-themes describing areas of life impacted by surgery: weight, activities of daily living, physical health, psychological health, social relations, sexual life, body image and eating behaviour and relationship with food...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273691/differences-in-bone-mineral-density-between-normal-weight-children-and-children-with-overweight-and-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
J van Leeuwen, B W Koes, W D Paulis, M van Middelkoop
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273690/weight-gain-adequacy-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-gestational-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
C Viecceli, L R Remonti, V N Hirakata, L S Mastella, V Gnielka, M L R Oppermann, S P Silveiro, A J Reichelt
The Institute of Medicine updated guidelines for gestational weight gain in 2009, with no special recommendations for gestational diabetes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of weight gain adequacy and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE and SCOPUS. We calculated the pooled prevalence of gain adequacy and relative risks for pregnancy outcomes within Institute of Medicine categories. Thirty-three studies/abstracts (88,599 women) were included...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273687/long-term-hypovitaminosis-d-and-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-outcomes-of-the-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
N J Switzer, G Marcil, S Prasad, E Debru, N Church, P Mitchell, E O Billington, R S Gill
INTRODUCTION: Pre-operative Vitamin D deficiency is markedly prevalent in prospective bariatric surgery patients. While bariatric surgery leads to significant weight loss, it can exacerbate or prolong Vitamin D deficiency. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess whether secondary hyperparathyroidism is maintained in the medium to long term in patients following the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Dare, Cochrane library and HTA database...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273680/the-effectiveness-and-promising-strategies-of-obesity-prevention-and-treatment-programmes-among-adolescents-from-disadvantaged-backgrounds-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
D A Kornet-van der Aa, T M Altenburg, C H van Randeraad-van der Zee, M J M Chinapaw
This review aimed to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment programmes for adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. A secondary aim was to identify potential successful intervention strategies for this target group. PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 up to February 2016. Intervention studies targeting adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds were included, with body mass index as outcome. Secondary outcomes were other adiposity measures, physical activity, diet, sedentary behaviour and screen time...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187240/factors-involved-in-white-to-brown-adipose-tissue-conversion-and-in-thermogenesis-a-review
#9
REVIEW
T Montanari, N Pošćić, M Colitti
Obesity is the result of energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. Classical treatments against obesity do not provide a satisfactory long-term outcome for the majority of patients. After the demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults, great effort is being devoted to develop therapies based on the adipose tissue itself, through the conversion of fat-accumulating white adipose tissue into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue. Anti-obesity treatments that exploit endogenous, pharmacological and nutritional factors to drive such conversion are especially in demand...
February 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117939/diagnosis-of-childhood-obesity-using-bmi-potential-ethicolegal-implications-and-downstream-effects-a-response
#10
LETTER
M Simmonds, A Llewellyn, C G Owen, N Woolacott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112481/the-effects-of-body-weight-status-on-orthostatic-intolerance-and-predisposition-to-noncardiac-syncope
#11
REVIEW
G A Christou, D N Kiortsis
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is frequently the mechanism underlying the occurrence of noncardiac syncope (NCS) and is associated with substantial risk for injury. Body weight status appears to be a modifier of orthostatic responses and possibly influences the propensity to NCS. The majority of cross-sectional studies have found that the lower the body mass index (BMI) the greater the predisposition to OI is, accompanied with both down-regulation of sympathetic nervous system activity and up-regulation of parasympathetic nervous system activity...
January 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086262/parenting-styles-and-body-mass-index-a-systematic-review-of-prospective-studies-among-children
#12
REVIEW
R L Sokol, B Qin, J M Poti
BACKGROUND: Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995 and 2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes...
January 13, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085992/bariatric-surgery-and-diabetic-retinopathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-clinical-studies
#13
REVIEW
C Merlotti, V Ceriani, A Morabito, A E Pontiroli
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled studies have indicated appearance or progression of diabetic retinopathy in obese diabetic patients after bariatric surgery. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the rate of appearance, as well as progression or regression of diabetic retinopathy in studies comparing medical and surgical treatment of obese type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Intervention effect (new cases of retinopathy, and cases with any change of diabetic retinopathy score) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); change of diabetic retinopathy score was expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD), with 95% CIs...
January 13, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260230/family-based-interventions-to-increase-physical-activity-in-children-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-realist-synthesis
#14
H E Brown, A J Atkin, J Panter, G Wong, M J M Chinapaw, E M F van Sluijs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187246/a-meta-analysis-of-overall-effects-of-weight-loss-interventions-delivered-via-mobile-phones-and-effect-size-differences-according-to-delivery-mode-personal-contact-and-intervention-intensity-and-duration
#15
REVIEW
M Schippers, P C G Adam, D J Smolenski, H T H Wong, J B F de Wit
Weight loss interventions are delivered through various mediums including, increasingly, mobile phones. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses whether interventions delivered via mobile phones reduce body weight and which intervention characteristics are associated with efficacy. The study included randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of weight loss interventions delivered via mobile phones. A meta-analysis to test intervention efficacy was performed, and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether interventions' delivery mode(s), inclusion of personal contact, duration and interaction frequency improve efficacy...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187241/methodological-considerations-and-impact-of-school-based-interventions-on-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
R Borde, J J Smith, R Sutherland, N Nathan, D R Lubans
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are (i) to determine the impact of school-based interventions on objectively measured physical activity among adolescents and (ii) to examine accelerometer methods and decision rule reporting in previous interventions. METHODS: A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials targeting adolescents (age: ≥10 years), conducted in the school setting, and reporting objectively measured physical activity...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177566/what-characteristics-of-nutrition-and-physical-activity-interventions-are-key-to-effectively-reducing-weight-gain-in-obese-or-overweight-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
SeonAe Yeo, Jennifer S Walker, Melissa C Caughey, Amanda M Ferraro, Josephine K Asafu-Adjei
Lifestyle interventions targeting gestational weight gain (GWG) report varying degrees of success. To better understand factors influencing efficacy, we reviewed randomized trials specifically among obese and overweight pregnant women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 32 studies with a pooled population of 5,869 overweight or obese pregnant women. Random effects models were fit to compute the weighted mean difference (WMD) in GWG between groups across studies...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165656/applications-of-geographic-information-systems-gis-data-and-methods-in-obesity-related-research
#18
REVIEW
P Jia, X Cheng, H Xue, Y Wang
Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165655/are-loss-of-control-while-eating-and-overeating-valid-constructs-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Andrea B Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND: Binge eating is a marker of weight gain and obesity, and a hallmark feature of eating disorders. Yet its component constructs - overeating and loss of control (LOC) while eating - are poorly understood and difficult to measure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the human literature concerning the validity of LOC and overeating across the age and weight spectrum. DATA SOURCES: English-language articles addressing the face, convergent, discriminant and predictive validity of LOC and overeating were included...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117952/does-intentional-weight-loss-improve-daytime-sleepiness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
W L Ng, C E Stevenson, E Wong, S Tanamas, T Boelsen-Robinson, J E Shaw, M T Naughton, J Dixon, A Peeters
Obesity is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, but its causality remains unclear. We aimed to assess the extent to which intentional weight loss affects daytime sleepiness. Electronic databases were searched through 24 October 2016. Studies involving overweight or obese adults, a weight loss intervention and repeated valid measures of daytime sleepiness were included in the review. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, main outcome (change in daytime sleepiness score standardized by standard deviation of baseline sleepiness scores), potential mediators (e...
April 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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