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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434185/can-targeted-policies-reduce-obesity-and-improve-obesity-related-behaviours-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-populations-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
D L Olstad, R Ancilotto, M Teychenne, L M Minaker, D R Taber, K D Raine, C I J Nykiforuk, K Ball
This review synthesized evidence from controlled studies pertaining to the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adults. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines were followed. Eligible studies were published from 2004 to August 2015 and examined the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#3
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429468/decision-making-in-obesity-without-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-iowa-gambling-task-performances
#4
REVIEW
J-Y Rotge, C Poitou, P Fossati, J Aron-Wisnewsky, J-M Oppert
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that obesity is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as deficits in decision-making, planning or problem solving, which might interfere with weight loss in obese individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of decision-making abilities, as measured with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in obesity without eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies comparing IGT performances between groups of obese patients without eating disorders and groups of healthy control groups...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401646/exploring-the-association-between-childhood-and-adolescent-obesity-and-depression-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Ying-Hui Quek, Wilson W S Tam, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between childhood and adolescent obesity and depression. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Science Direct for studies that compared prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in normal weight and obese children and adolescents. Observational studies were included if they reported body mass index and assessed depression by validated instruments or diagnostic interviews. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401630/causation-or-selection-examining-the-relation-between-education-and-overweight-obesity-in-prospective-observational-studies-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
T J Kim, N M Roesler, O von dem Knesebeck
Numerous studies have investigated the association between education and overweight/obesity. Yet less is known about the relative importance of causation (i.e. the influence of education on risks of overweight/obesity) and selection (i.e. the influence of overweight/obesity on the likelihood to attain education) hypotheses. A systematic review was performed to assess the linkage between education and overweight/obesity in prospective studies in general populations. Studies were searched within five databases, and study quality was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401687/effectiveness-of-interventions-to-promote-physical-activity-and-or-decrease-sedentary-behaviour-among-rural-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
V Cleland, K Squibb, L Stephens, J Dalby, A Timperio, T Winzenberg, K Ball, J Dollman
Physical inactivity and overweight and obesity are more prevalent among rural than urban populations. This study aimed to review published evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) and/or decrease sedentary behaviour (SB) among rural adults and to identify factors associated with effectiveness. Seven electronic databases were searched for controlled trials of a PA or SB intervention. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models and meta-regression. Thirteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis (n = 4,848 participants) and 12 in the meta-analysis (n = 4,820)...
April 11, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401638/the-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-vs-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-body-composition-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
M Wewege, R van den Berg, R E Ward, A Keech
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvements in body composition in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: Trials comparing HIIT and MICT in overweight or obese participants aged 18-45 years were included. Direct measures (e.g. whole-body fat mass) and indirect measures (e.g. waist circumference) were examined. RESULTS: From 1,334 articles initially screened, 13 were included...
April 11, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391659/metabolic-control-of-myofibers-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Yehui Duan, Fengna Li, Bie Tan, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of two major fibre types (I and II) that differ in terms of size, metabolism and contractile properties. In general, slow-twitch type I fibres are rich in mitochondria and have a greater insulin sensitivity than fast-twitch type II skeletal muscles. Although not widely appreciated, a forced induction of the slow skeletal muscle phenotype may inhibit the progress of obesity and diabetes. This potentially forms the basis for targeting slow/oxidative myofibers in the treatment of obesity...
April 9, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371180/sex-gender-differences-in-neural-correlates-of-food-stimuli-a-systematic-review-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#10
REVIEW
Ariana M Chao, James Loughead, Zayna M Bakizada, Christina M Hopkins, Allan Geliebter, Ruben C Gur, Thomas A Wadden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371083/animal-models-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-exposure-and-effects-on-metabolism-in-offspring-a-meta-regression-analysis
#11
REVIEW
G A Ribaroff, E Wastnedge, A J Drake, R M Sharpe, T J G Chambers
Animal models of maternal high fat diet (HFD) demonstrate perturbed offspring metabolism although the effects differ markedly between models. We assessed studies investigating metabolic parameters in the offspring of HFD fed mothers to identify factors explaining these inter-study differences. A total of 171 papers were identified, which provided data from 6047 offspring. Data were extracted regarding body weight, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and lipidaemia. Information regarding the macronutrient content of diet, species, time point of exposure and gestational weight gain were collected and utilized in meta-regression models to explore predictive factors...
March 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346723/a-systematic-review-of-genetic-syndromes-with-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Y Kaur, R J de Souza, W T Gibson, D Meyre
Syndromic monogenic obesity typically follows Mendelian patterns of inheritance and involves the co-presentation of other characteristics, such as mental retardation, dysmorphic features and organ-specific abnormalities. Previous reviews on obesity have reported 20 to 30 syndromes but no systematic review has yet been conducted on syndromic obesity. We searched seven databases using terms such as 'obesity', 'syndrome' and 'gene' to conduct a systematic review of literature on syndromic obesity. Our literature search identified 13,719 references...
March 27, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372008/john-falstaff
#14
EDITORIAL
S Rössner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296057/associations-of-maternal-stress-with-children-s-weight-related-behaviours-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
S G O'Connor, J P Maher, B R Belcher, A M Leventhal, G Margolin, E T Shonkoff, G F Dunton
Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviours (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) among US children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children's obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behaviour (i...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295905/alpha-lipoic-acid-ala-as-a-supplementation-for-weight-loss-results-from-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
S Kucukgoncu, E Zhou, K B Lucas, C Tek
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Even modest weight loss may be associated with health benefits. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant. Studies have suggested anti-obesity properties of ALA; however, results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effect of ALA on weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A comprehensive, systematic literature search identified 10 articles on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving ALA...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273694/patient-experiences-of-outcomes-of-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Karen D Coulman, Fiona MacKichan, Jane M Blazeby, Amanda Owen-Smith
Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe and complex obesity, less is known about its psychosocial impact. This systematic review synthesizes qualitative studies investigating the patient perspective of living with the outcomes of surgery. A total of 2,604 records were screened, and 33 studies were included. Data extraction and thematic synthesis yielded three overarching themes: control, normality and ambivalence. These were evident across eight organizing sub-themes describing areas of life impacted by surgery: weight, activities of daily living, physical health, psychological health, social relations, sexual life, body image and eating behaviour and relationship with food...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273691/differences-in-bone-mineral-density-between-normal-weight-children-and-children-with-overweight-and-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
J van Leeuwen, B W Koes, W D Paulis, M van Middelkoop
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273690/weight-gain-adequacy-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-gestational-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
C Viecceli, L R Remonti, V N Hirakata, L S Mastella, V Gnielka, M L R Oppermann, S P Silveiro, A J Reichelt
The Institute of Medicine updated guidelines for gestational weight gain in 2009, with no special recommendations for gestational diabetes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of weight gain adequacy and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE and SCOPUS. We calculated the pooled prevalence of gain adequacy and relative risks for pregnancy outcomes within Institute of Medicine categories. Thirty-three studies/abstracts (88,599 women) were included...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273687/long-term-hypovitaminosis-d-and-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-outcomes-of-the-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
N J Switzer, G Marcil, S Prasad, E Debru, N Church, P Mitchell, E O Billington, R S Gill
INTRODUCTION: Pre-operative Vitamin D deficiency is markedly prevalent in prospective bariatric surgery patients. While bariatric surgery leads to significant weight loss, it can exacerbate or prolong Vitamin D deficiency. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess whether secondary hyperparathyroidism is maintained in the medium to long term in patients following the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Dare, Cochrane library and HTA database...
May 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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