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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#1
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545166/childhood-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
O Ajala, F Mold, C Boughton, D Cooke, M Whyte
Childhood obesity predicts the risk of adult adiposity, which is associated with the earlier onset of cardiovascular disease [adult atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ACVD: hypertension, increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and dysglycaemia. Because it is not known whether childhood obesity contributes to these diseases, we conducted a systematic review of studies that examine the ability of measures of obesity in childhood to predict dysglycaemia and ACVD...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#3
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544764/the-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
K-W Wang, R Chau, A Fleming, L Banfield, S K Singh, D L Johnston, S M Zelcer, S R Rassekh, S Burrow, M Valencia, R J de Souza, L Thabane, M C Samaan
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood brain tumours (SCBT) are at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is a major driver of cardiometabolic diseases in the general population, and interventions that tackle obesity may lower the risk of these chronic diseases. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize current evidence for the presence of interventions to manage obesity, including hypothalamic obesity, in SCBT. METHODS: The primary outcome of this review was the body mass index z-score change from baseline to the end of the intervention and/or follow-up...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544551/electronic-based-lifestyle-interventions-in-overweight-or-obese-perinatal-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Y Lau, P Klainin-Yobas, T P Htun, S N Wong, K L Tan, S T Ho-Lim, C Chi, C Tsai, K W Ong, S Shorey, W S W Tam
Electronic-based (e-based) lifestyle interventions provide potential and cost-effective delivery of remote interventions for overweight and obese perinatal women. To date, no meta-analysis has reported the efficacy of maternal and neonatal outcomes. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception up to July 13, 2016, including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus. Among the 1,145 studies retrieved, 14 randomized controlled trials were selected among 17 publications...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544197/body-mass-index-and-healthcare-costs-a-systematic-literature-review-of-individual-participant-data-studies
#6
REVIEW
Seamus Kent, Francesco Fusco, Alastair Gray, Susan A Jebb, Benjamin J Cairns, Borislava Mihaylova
Excess weight is associated with increased total healthcare costs, but it is less well known how the associations between excess weight and costs vary across different types of healthcare service. We reviewed studies using individual participant data to estimate associations between body mass index and healthcare costs, and summarized how annual healthcare costs for overweight (body mass index 25 to <30 kg/m(2) ) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2) ) individuals compared with those for healthy weight individuals (18...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524643/racial-and-ethnic-minority-enrollment-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-behavioural-weight-loss-utilizing-technology-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
D L Rosenbaum, A D Piers, L M Schumacher, C A Kase, M L Butryn
Many racial and ethnic minority groups (minorities) are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity; however, minorities are often under-represented in clinical trials of behavioural weight loss (BWL) treatment, potentially limiting the generalizability of these trials' conclusions. Interventions involving technology may be particularly well suited to overcoming the barriers to minority enrollment in BWL trials, such as demanding or unpredictable work schedules, caregiving responsibilities and travel burdens...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524615/correlates-of-sedentary-behaviour-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
S A Prince, J L Reed, C McFetridge, M S Tremblay, R D Reid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence to identify intrapersonal, social environmental, physical environmental and policy correlates of sedentary behaviour (SB) among adults. METHODS: Six databases were searched to identify studies that reported on intrapersonal, social, physical environmental and/or policy correlates of SB across domains (i.e. occupational, leisure and transportation) in adults (mean ≥ 18 years old). Subgroup differences (sex, age, disease status, publication status and date, weekdays vs...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524399/reallocating-sedentary-time-to-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-but-not-to-light-intensity-physical-activity-is-effective-to-reduce-adiposity-among-youths-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
A García-Hermoso, J M Saavedra, R Ramírez-Vélez, U Ekelund, B Del Pozo-Cruz
The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence of the effects of reallocating time spent in sedentary behaviours in different activity intensities on youth's adiposity. Five databases were searched. Studies that reported the effects of replacing sedentary behaviour with light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) and/or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on at least one adiposity parameter. The estimated regression coefficients (β) and 95% CIs were combined and meta-analysed. Data from 7,351 youths and five studies were analysed...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513103/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-interval-training-versus-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-body-adiposity
#11
REVIEW
S E Keating, N A Johnson, G I Mielke, J S Coombes
Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg)...
May 17, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512991/is-parity-a-risk-factor-for-excessive-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-weight-retention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
B Hill, H Bergmeier, S McPhie, M Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, H Teede, D Forster, B E Spiliotis, A P Hills, H Skouteris
The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyse the associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) and, when included, postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Papers reporting associations between parity and BMI and/or GWG in adult women were eligible: 2,195 papers were identified, and 41 longitudinal studies were included in the narrative synthesis; 17 studies were included in a meta-analysis. Findings indicated that parity was associated positively with pre-pregnancy BMI...
May 17, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489340/comment-obesity-as-a-disease-some-implications-for-the-world-obesity-federation-s-advocacy-and-public-health-activities
#13
LETTER
T Lobstein, H Brinsden, T Gill, S Kumanyika, B Swinburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489290/obesity-a-chronic-relapsing-progressive-disease-process-a-position-statement-of-the-world-obesity-federation
#14
EDITORIAL
G A Bray, K K Kim, J P H Wilding
This paper considers the argument for obesity as a chronic relapsing disease process. Obesity is viewed from an epidemiological model, with an agent affecting the host and producing disease. Food is the primary agent, particularly foods that are high in energy density such as fat, or in sugar-sweetened beverages. An abundance of food, low physical activity and several other environmental factors interact with the genetic susceptibility of the host to produce positive energy balance. The majority of this excess energy is stored as fat in enlarged, and often more numerous fat cells, but some lipid may infiltrate other organs such as the liver (ectopic fat)...
May 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474421/the-emerging-role-of-skeletal-muscle-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-in-obesity-and-exercise
#15
REVIEW
S Martinez-Huenchullan, S V McLennan, A Verhoeven, S M Twigg, C S Tam
Skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodelling has been proposed as a new feature associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Exercise training improves muscle function in obesity, which may be mediated by regulatory effects on the muscle extracellular matrix. This review examined available literature on skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodelling during obesity and the effects of exercise. A non-systematic literature review was performed on PubMed of publications from 1970 to 2015. A total of 37 studies from humans and animals were retained...
May 5, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434185/can-targeted-policies-reduce-obesity-and-improve-obesity-related-behaviours-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-populations-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
D L Olstad, R Ancilotto, M Teychenne, L M Minaker, D R Taber, K D Raine, C I J Nykiforuk, K Ball
This review synthesized evidence from controlled studies pertaining to the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adults. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines were followed. Eligible studies were published from 2004 to August 2015 and examined the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#18
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429468/decision-making-in-obesity-without-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-iowa-gambling-task-performances
#19
REVIEW
J-Y Rotge, C Poitou, P Fossati, J Aron-Wisnewsky, J-M Oppert
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that obesity is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as deficits in decision-making, planning or problem solving, which might interfere with weight loss in obese individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of decision-making abilities, as measured with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in obesity without eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies comparing IGT performances between groups of obese patients without eating disorders and groups of healthy control groups...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401646/exploring-the-association-between-childhood-and-adolescent-obesity-and-depression-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Ying-Hui Quek, Wilson W S Tam, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between childhood and adolescent obesity and depression. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Science Direct for studies that compared prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in normal weight and obese children and adolescents. Observational studies were included if they reported body mass index and assessed depression by validated instruments or diagnostic interviews. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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