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Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721697/interventions-to-reduce-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-or-increase-water-intake-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
E J Vargas-Garcia, C E L Evans, A Prestwich, B J Sykes-Muskett, J Hooson, J E Cade
A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of interventions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or increase water intakes and to examine the impact of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in consumption patterns. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials published after January 1990 and until December 2016 reporting daily changes in intakes of SSB or water in volumetric measurements (mL d(-1) ) were included. References were retrieved through searches of electronic databases and quality appraisal followed Cochrane principles...
July 18, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707455/human-brown-adipose-tissue-as-a-target-for-obesity-management-beyond-cold-induced-thermogenesis
#2
REVIEW
R K C Loh, B A Kingwell, A L Carey
Elevating energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential strategy to reverse obesity. Much early enthusiasm for this approach, based on rodent studies, was tempered by the belief that BAT was relatively inconsequential in healthy adult humans. Interest was reinvigorated a decade ago when a series of studies re-identified BAT, primarily in upper thoracic regions, in adults. Despite the ensuing explosion of pre-clinical investigations and identification of an extensive list of potential target molecules for BAT recruitment, our understanding of human BAT physiology remains limited, particularly regarding interventions which might hold therapeutic promise...
July 14, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707426/influence-of-neighbourhood-safety-on-childhood-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#3
REVIEW
R An, Y Yang, A Hoschke, H Xue, Y Wang
Unsafe residential neighbourhoods are thought to be a risk factor for childhood obesity by discouraging physical activity while encouraging sedentary behaviours, but findings from cross-sectional studies are susceptible to selection bias (e.g. children who are obese disproportionately reside in unsafe neighbourhoods). A literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar for articles published until January 2017 that used baseline neighbourhood safety levels to predict future weight-related behaviours and body-weight status among children aged 17 years and younger...
July 14, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677302/the-association-between-childcare-arrangements-and-risk-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
L Black, K Matvienko-Sikar, P M Kearney
Over 80% of preschool-aged children experience non-parental childcare. Childcare type has the potential to influence weight outcomes, but its impact on childhood overweight/obesity is not well established. This review aims to (i) systematically evaluate the effects of childcare type on childhood overweight/obesity risk and (ii) investigate the impact of childcare intensity and age at commencement. Five electronic databases were searched for observational studies quantifying an association between childcare type ≤5 years and weight outcomes <18 years...
July 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660671/do-e-cigarettes-induce-weight-changes-and-increase-cardiometabolic-risk-a-signal-for-the-future
#5
REVIEW
A Verhaegen, L Van Gaal
The prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco use in electronic cigarettes, also called vaping, is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and young adults, due to attractive marketing techniques promoting them as healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Although smoking is associated with weight loss, it increases insulin resistance and attributes to other features of the metabolic syndrome, increasing the cardiometabolic risk profile. Whether vaping has the same deleterious effects on metabolic parameters as regular cigarette smoke has not yet been studied thoroughly in humans...
June 29, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660651/a-vicious-circle-in-chronic-lymphoedema-pathophysiology-an-adipocentric-view
#6
REVIEW
F Cucchi, L Rossmeislova, L Simonsen, M R Jensen, J Bülow
Chronic lymphoedema is a disease caused by a congenital or acquired damage to the lymphatic system and characterized by complex chains of pathophysiologic events such as lymphatic fluid stasis, chronic inflammation, lymphatic vessels impairment, adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis. These events seem to maintain and reinforce themselves through a positive feedback loop: regardless of the initial cause of lymphatic stasis, the dysfunctional adipose tissue and its secretion products can worsen lymphatic vessels' function, aggravating lymph leakage and stagnation, which can promote further adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis, similar to what may happen in obesity...
June 29, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635182/the-effect-of-flaxseed-supplementation-on-body-weight-and-body-composition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-45-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
M Mohammadi-Sartang, Z Mazloom, H Raeisi-Dehkordi, R Barati-Boldaji, N Bellissimo, J O Totosy de Zepetnek
Flaxseed consumption may be inversely associated with obesity; however, findings of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The present study aimed to systematically review and analyse RCTs assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on body weight and body composition. PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Mean changes in body composition indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were extracted...
June 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589678/barriers-and-facilitators-to-young-children-s-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-qualitative-literature
#8
REVIEW
K R Hesketh, R Lakshman, E M F van Sluijs
Positive activity behaviours (i.e. higher physical activity [PA]/lower sedentary behaviour [SB]) are beneficial from infancy, yet evidence suggests that young children (0- to 6-year-olds) are relatively inactive. To better understand the perceived influences on these behaviours and to aid intervention development, this paper systematically synthesizes the extensive qualitative literature regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to PA and SB in young children (0-6 years old). A search of eight electronic databases (July 2016) identified 43 papers for inclusion...
June 6, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569010/interpersonal-discrimination-and-markers-of-adiposity-in-longitudinal-studies-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
C de O Bernardo, J L Bastos, D A González-Chica, M A Peres, Y C Paradies
While the impact of interpersonal discrimination on mental health is well established, its effects on physical health outcomes have not been fully elucidated. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the prospective association between interpersonal discrimination and markers of adiposity. Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar, Capes/Brazil and ProQuest databases were used to retrieve relevant information in November 2016. The results from the 10 studies that met the inclusion criteria support an association between interpersonal self-reported discrimination and the outcomes...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560820/children-s-and-parents-opinions-on-the-sport-related-food-environment-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
M Smith, L Signal, R Edwards, J Hoek
Sport is a key setting for interventions to address child obesity given its obesogenic nature. Understanding children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment is critical in developing effective programmes and policies to improve children's health. This systematic review synthesizes quantitative and qualitative research examining children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment. During July 2016, a range of electronic databases of academic and grey literature were searched...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560794/a-novel-marketing-mix-and-choice-architecture-framework-to-nudge-restaurant-customers-toward-healthy-food-environments-to-reduce-obesity-in-the-united-states
#11
REVIEW
V I Kraak, T Englund, S Misyak, E L Serrano
This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557246/extended-calorie-restriction-suppresses-overall-and-specific-food-cravings-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
C N Kahathuduwa, M Binks, C K Martin, J A Dawson
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have concluded that calorie restriction for at least 12 weeks is associated with reduced food cravings, while others have shown that calorie restriction may increase food cravings. We addressed this ambiguity in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for studies conducted on subjects with obesity, implemented calorie restriction for at least 12 weeks and measured food cravings pre-intervention and post-intervention...
May 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557192/the-quebec-experience-in-promoting-healthy-lifestyles-and-preventing-obesity-how-can-we-do-better
#13
REVIEW
Y Le Bodo, C Blouin, N Dumas, P De Wals, J Laguë
Over the last years, many actions have been implemented in the Canadian province of Quebec to prevent health issues related to diet, physical activity and obesity. As a new public health programme is being launched, the 'How can we do better?' project aimed to identify priority areas for further action. An exhaustive search led to identify 166 interventions rolled out in Quebec between 2006 and 2014. We compared it with evidence-based recommendations. Findings were challenged during a 2-d deliberative forum gathering 25 key stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#14
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545166/childhood-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
O Ajala, F Mold, C Boughton, D Cooke, M Whyte
Childhood obesity predicts the risk of adult adiposity, which is associated with the earlier onset of cardiovascular disease [adult atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ACVD: hypertension, increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and dysglycaemia. Because it is not known whether childhood obesity contributes to these diseases, we conducted a systematic review of studies that examine the ability of measures of obesity in childhood to predict dysglycaemia and ACVD...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#16
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544764/the-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
K-W Wang, R Chau, A Fleming, L Banfield, S K Singh, D L Johnston, S M Zelcer, S R Rassekh, S Burrow, M Valencia, R J de Souza, L Thabane, M C Samaan
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood brain tumours (SCBT) are at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is a major driver of cardiometabolic diseases in the general population, and interventions that tackle obesity may lower the risk of these chronic diseases. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize current evidence for the presence of interventions to manage obesity, including hypothalamic obesity, in SCBT. METHODS: The primary outcome of this review was the body mass index z-score change from baseline to the end of the intervention and/or follow-up...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544551/electronic-based-lifestyle-interventions-in-overweight-or-obese-perinatal-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Y Lau, P Klainin-Yobas, T P Htun, S N Wong, K L Tan, S T Ho-Lim, C Chi, C Tsai, K W Ong, S Shorey, W S W Tam
Electronic-based (e-based) lifestyle interventions provide potential and cost-effective delivery of remote interventions for overweight and obese perinatal women. To date, no meta-analysis has reported the efficacy of maternal and neonatal outcomes. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception up to July 13, 2016, including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus. Among the 1,145 studies retrieved, 14 randomized controlled trials were selected among 17 publications...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544197/body-mass-index-and-healthcare-costs-a-systematic-literature-review-of-individual-participant-data-studies
#19
REVIEW
Seamus Kent, Francesco Fusco, Alastair Gray, Susan A Jebb, Benjamin J Cairns, Borislava Mihaylova
Excess weight is associated with increased total healthcare costs, but it is less well known how the associations between excess weight and costs vary across different types of healthcare service. We reviewed studies using individual participant data to estimate associations between body mass index and healthcare costs, and summarized how annual healthcare costs for overweight (body mass index 25 to <30 kg/m(2) ) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2) ) individuals compared with those for healthy weight individuals (18...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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