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Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Xavier Thomas, Caroline Le Jeune
Advances in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) therapy has led to long-term survival rates in children. However, only 30%-40% of adults achieve long-term disease-free survival. After relapse, the outcome of salvage chemotherapy is very disappointing with less than 10% of long survival. Novel agents are therefore desperately required to improve response rates and survival, but also the quality of life of patients. Areas covered. The following review is a comprehensive summary of various novel options reported over the past few years in the therapeutic area of adult ALL...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sara A Buckman, Tamara Krekel, Anouk E Muller, John E Mazuski
The treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) is increasingly challenging due to increased resistance of Gram-negative organisms. These multidrug resistant organisms lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality. This has led to renewed interest in use of older β-lactam antibiotics in combination with newer β-lactamase inhibitors. Ceftazidime-avibactam is one of the newest such combination antibiotics, which has been released for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in combination with metronidazole...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Vlasios Brakoulias, Emmanouil Tsalamanios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Johan Zelano, Elinor Ben-Menachem
Epileptic emergencies are frequently encountered and include ictal events as status epilepticus or seizure clusters, and non-ictal situations like postictal psychosis or acute drug side effects. The aim of this review was to describe recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of epileptic emergencies. Areas covered: Based on clinically relevant questions, a literature search was performed. The search showed that most pharmacological advances have been made in management of status epilepticus, where substantial literature has accumulated on several AEDs with potentially less side-effects than the traditional choices...
October 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Daniel Ayanga, Daryl Shorter, Thomas R Kosten
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) is a significant public health concern, negatively impacting the medical, psychological, and social domains of an individual's life as well as creating substantial burdens for society. Effective treatment interventions are necessary for reduction of OUD and its consequences. Pharmacotherapy represents a central component of management. Areas Covered: This review focuses on pharmacologic strategies for OUD treatment, discussing both primary as well as adjunctive therapy modalities. We will discuss both medications used during detoxification to treat withdrawal, as well as those used as maintenance therapy...
October 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Benilde Cosmi
Anticoagulants such as heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are effective for thrombosis prevention and treatment, but are associated with the risk of bleeding and other limitations, spurring the search for improved drugs. Areas covered: to evaluate the newer anticoagulants, focusing on those tested in phase III clinical trials such as direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) and warfarin analogues. DOACs such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are licensed for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban for postoperative thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty and rivaroxaban for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndromes...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Letizia Vannucci, Maria Luisa Brandi
Fracture healing is a complex physiological process. As impaired fracture healing is more frequent in osteoporotic subjects, anti-osteoporotic drugs could have some impact on this process. Areas covered: We reviewed the current literature to evaluate the effects of these drugs on fracture healing and their potential role in supporting this process, especially when impaired. A PubMed/Medline search was undertaken combining the terms 'fracture healing', 'anti-resorptive drugs', 'anabolic agents', 'anti-osteoporotic drugs'...
October 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
P Panagopoulos, N Papanas, E Maltezos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Piotr Adamski, Urszula Adamska, Małgorzata Ostrowska, Marek Koziński, Jacek Kubica
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Several landmark trials, followed by a widespread introduction of new agents, have significantly improved ACS outcomes in recent years. However, despite the use of contemporary therapy, a substantial number of ACS patients continue to suffer from cardiovascular events. Areas covered: The aim of this review was to summarize available data on innovative drugs and pharmacological strategies that have potential to amend the current ACS therapy...
October 10, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
M Caccese, R Ferrara, S Pilotto, L Carbognin, G Grizzi, A Caliò, M Brunelli, F Cuppone, S Petraglia, A Scarpa, G Tortora, E Bria
The treatment of patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer was completely revolutionized by the introduction of Crizotinib, a small molecule inhibiting ALK, MET and ROS1. Given that resistance occurs within approximately 12 months, in order to develop more potent inhibitors and to increase drug penetration to CNS, innovative ALK-inhibitors were developed. Second-generation ALK inhibitors Ceritinib (LDK378), Alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802) and Brigatinib (AP26113) have shown significant clinical activity, and were rapidly approved by regulatory agencies...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Igor Voznesensky, Kenneth J DeLay, Wayne J G Hellstrom
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are two disease processes that affect millions of men. CVD and ED are increasingly recognized as sharing a common pathophysiologic origin. As the nature of this relationship continues to be elucidated, there is growing interest in developing a therapy to effectively target both processes. While researchers have largely focused on phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), the established first-line therapy for ED, newer ED drugs, designed based on better understanding of the physiology of erection, may also show promise...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Suhaj Abdulsalim, Munawar Peringadi Vayalil, Sonal Sekhar Miraj
Diabetes type II is a complex disease with unclear pathophysiology. Lack of adherence and high cost of medicines invariably make the management of diabetes type II highly challenging. Newer fixed drug combinations (FDC) are cost effective and can improve the medication adherence thereby prevent the complications of diabetes. Safety and efficacy of newer FDCs are not well established in all populations. Moreover, extrapolating the efficacy and safety data globally may not be pragmatic. Our review will discuss newer chemical combinations available for the treatment of diabetes type II...
October 4, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Katherine H Saunders, Leon I Igel, Louis J Aronne
As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase, the need for effective long-term treatment strategies for the overweight and the obese is critical. Pharmacology fills a large treatment gap between behavioral therapy, which is insufficient for the majority of patients, and devices and surgery, which are available to only a subset of patients. Naltrexone HCl and bupropion HCl Extended-Release (naltrexone XR/bupropion XR) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chronic weight management in 2014...
October 4, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Annemie Prové, Luc Dirix
Neratinib is an orally available, pan-HER inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with HER2-amplified and HER2-mutated breast cancer. Areas Covered. A summary of publically available and relevant clinical data on neratinib. Expert Opinion. Neratinib (N) is clearly distinct from lapatinib (L), a difference based on its broad anti-HER effect, its covalent target binding and its toxicity profile. The main toxicity of neratinib is gastro-intestinal and is essentially limited to diarrhea. Although not directly compared with single agent lapatinib, skin toxicity is much less pronounced with N...
October 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Giovanni Amodeo, Chiara Candiracci, Ilaria Capecci, Sergio De Filippis, Sonia Giuliani, Giorgio Guerani, Carmine Tomasetti, Vincenzo Villari, Andrea Fagiolini
INTRODUCTION: Aripiprazole long acting once-monthly (AOM) is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Despite recent evidence of AOM efficacy in the acute treatment of schizophrenia, it is recommended that AOM should be started once the acute symptoms are controlled and patients are stabilized. However, there currently are no definitive guidelines exactly describing when a patient is to be considered stabilized enough to start AOM and which the patients are for whom an early AOM start is to be preferred...
October 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Shingo Nakayamada, Satoshi Kubo, Shigeru Iwata, Yoshiya Tanaka
Considerable advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been made following the advent of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). However, biological DMARDs require intravenous or subcutaneous injection and some patients fail to respond to these drugs or lose their primary response. Currently, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been developed as a new class of DMARD that inhibits the non-receptor tyrosine kinase family JAK involved in intracellular signaling of various cytokines and growth factors...
October 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Benedetto Vitiello, Anna E Ordóñez
Despite an increasing number of studies, there is debate whether antidepressants have a favorable benefit/risk balance in depressed youth. Areas covered: A systematic search identified 23 systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2010-2016. More than 30 controlled clinical trials were conducted in adolescents, but only a few in pre-pubertal patients. About one-third of the trials were severely statistically underpowered. Most studies failed to detect differences from placebo, but a few found fluoxetine effective...
October 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Maria Gavriatopoulou, Evangelos Terpos, Efstathios Kastritis, Meletios A Dimopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Renal impairment (RI) is one of the most common complication of multiple myeloma (MM). RI is present in almost 20% of MM patients at diagnosis and in 40%-50% of patients during the course of their disease. AREAS COVERED: Biology along with tools for diagnosis and management of RI are reported in this paper. Papers published in PubMed and reported abstracts up to May 2016 were used. EXPERT OPINION: Moderate and severe RI increases the risk of early death; thus rapid intervention and initiation of anti-myeloma treatment is essential and improves renal outcomes in RI patients...
September 27, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Jaffer A Ajani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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