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Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023170/ampa-receptors-and-perampanel-behind-selected-epilepsies-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#1
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Angelo Labate, Marta Maschio, Stefano Meletti, Emilio Russo
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the major mediators of glutamate-mediated excitatory neurotransmission, and are critical for synchronization and spread of epileptic activity. Areas covered: AMPA receptor antagonists have been also developed as antiepileptic drugs and perampanel (PER) is the first highly selective, non-competitive AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist that is available on the market. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in patients aged ≥ 12 years...
October 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034722/the-efficacy-of-apaziquone-in-the-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#2
Francesco Caramés Masana, Theo M de Reijke
Bladder cancer is nowadays a common tumor. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has still chances of recurrence and progression in spite of surgery and adjuvant treatments. New therapies are being developed to reduce these percentages with less adverse effects - Apaziquone (EO9) is an example. Areas covered: A literature search has been performed using Pubmed, UpToDate and Google verified information (mainly from Food and Drug Administration and Spectrum Pharmaceutics websites). We have included data from the most representative clinical trials and reviews published...
October 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025327/post-herpetic-neuralgia-a-review-of-current-management-and-future-directions
#3
John Schutzer-Weissmann, Paul Farquhar-Smith
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is common and treatment is often suboptimal with less than half of patients achieving adequate 50% pain relief. As an area of unmet clinical need and as an archetype of neuropathic pain, it deserves the attention of clinicians and researchers. Areas covered: This review summarises the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical features of varicella infection. It describes the current and possible future management strategies for preventing varicella infection and reactivation and for treating PHN...
October 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019427/management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-related-anaemia-and-iron-deficiency-with-specific-reference-to-the-role-of-intravenous-iron-in-current-practice
#4
Jürgen Stein, Ayşegül Aksan, Karima Farrag, Axel Dignass, Heinfried H Radeke
Anaemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, impacting disease prognosis, morbidity, hospitalisation rates and time lost from work. While iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic inflammation predominate, combinations of haematimetric and biochemical markers facilitate the diagnosis and targeted therapy of other aetiologies according to their underlying pathophysiological causes. Intravenous iron replacement is currently recommended in IBD patients with moderate to severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron...
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019422/pharmacotherapy-of-mood-disorders-and-psychosis-in-pre-and-post-natal-women
#5
Beth Smith, Steven L Dubovsky
Untreated mood and psychotic disorders can have substantial adverse impacts on the patient, the fetus and the family, while treatment can ameliorate such problems. To address concerns by clinicians about the risks of psychotropic medications, this review addresses the risk/benefit analysis of somatic therapies for psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Areas covered: All available research was reviewed on the impact on pregnancy and breastfeeding of mood and psychotic disorders, and of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic drugs, and electroconvulsive therapy...
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017371/cytarabine-and-daunorubicin-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#6
Tracy Murphy, Karen Wl Yee
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute forms of leukemia in adults. It has a poor long-term survival with a high relapse rate and at relapse, is commonly resistant to available therapies. The current combination of daunorubicin (DNR) for three days and cytarabine (Ara-C) as a continuous infusion for seven days, more commonly known as '3+7' has remained essentially unaltered over the last forty-four years and remains the standard induction regimen internationally. Areas covered: This paper will briefly review clinically important trials related to '3+7'...
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901796/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-in-combination-with-insulin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-16-week-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-with-a-36-week-open-label-extension
#7
Takashi Kadowaki, Satsuki Muto, Yoshiumi Ouchi, Ryutaro Shimazaki, Yutaka Seino
BACKGROUND: We examined the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin as an add-on to insulin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 240 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy to 5-mg saxagliptin or placebo as add-on therapy for a 16-week, double-blind period. All patients received 5-mg saxagliptin and insulin for an additional 36 weeks (open-label extension). Change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at Week 16 was the main endpoint...
September 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891343/current-and-future-contraceptive-options-for-women-living-with-hiv
#8
Rena C Patel, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten
Among women living with HIV, half of the pregnancies are unintended. Effective contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal mortality and perinatal transmission of HIV. While contraceptive options available for all women also apply to women living with HIV, specific considerations exist to the use of contraception by women living with HIV. Areas covered: First, general principles guiding the use of contraception among women living with HIV are discussed, such as choice, method mix, relative effectiveness, and drug-drug interactions...
September 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#9
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845727/will-combination-therapy-with-targeted-drugs-be-better-for-achieving-remission-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#10
Tadeusz Robak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764603/luteininzing-hormone-releasing-hormones-analogs-in-combination-with-tamoxifen-for-the-adjuvant-treatment-of-premenopausal-women-with-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#11
Benedetta Conte, Francesca Poggio, Lucia Del Mastro
The role of ovarian function suppression (OFS) through luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) in addition to tamoxifen has been questioned until recently. In 2015, two large clinical trials led to a paradigm shift in the adjuvant endocrine treatment of premenopausal women, introducing the use of LHRHa plus tamoxifen (or aromatase inhibitor, AI) into current clinical practice. Areas covered: The present review aims to provide an in-depth overview of the role of LHRHa+tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer (HR+BC)...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741385/efficacy-and-safety-of-teneligliptin-add-on-to-insulin-monotherapy-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-16-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-an-open-label-period
#12
Takashi Kadowaki, Kazuoki Kondo, Noriyuki Sasaki, Kyoko Miyayama, Shoko Yokota, Ryuji Terata, Maki Gouda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786691/current-and-developing-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-india
#13
M Muniyandi, Rajeswari Ramachandran
India accounts for 25% of the global burden of MDR-TB. In 2016, the India's Revised National TB Control Programme reported a success rate of 46% among 19298 MDR-TB patients treated under the programme. This suboptimal treatment outcome warrants an urgent need for newer drugs and newer regimens in the treatment of MDR-TB. India requires new shorter, cheap, safe and effective anti-TB regimen to treat MDR-TB. Areas covered: We used different search strategies to obtain relevant literature from PubMed, on Indian experiences of developing therapies for the treatment of MDR-TB...
August 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756718/pharmacotherapy-of-glaucoma-new-opportunities-old-challenges
#14
Andreas Katsanos, Anna I Dastiridou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750572/small-molecules-as-therapy-for-uveitis-a-selected-perspective-of-new-and-developing-agents
#15
Uwe Pleyer, Engi Abdel-Hady Algharably, Eugen Feist, Reinhold Kreutz
Intraocular inflammation (uveitis) remains a significant burden of legal blindness. Because of its immune mediated and chronic recurrent nature, common therapy includes corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and more recently biologics as immune modulatory agents. The purpose of this article is to identify the role of new treatment approaches focusing on small molecules as therapeutic option in uveitis. Areas covered: A MEDLINE database search was conducted through February 2017 using the terms 'uveitis' and 'small molecule'...
August 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764578/developments-in-early-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-hiv-infection-in-newborns
#16
Francisco Canals, Mar Masiá, Félix Gutiérrez
Infants who acquire HIV have an exceptionally high risk of morbidity and mortality if they do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on ART in HIV-infected neonates. Data were obtained from literature searches from PubMed, abstracts from International Conferences (2000-2017), and authors' files. Expert opinion: Current evidence favors early diagnosis and prompt ART of HIV infection in newborns. The precise timing of initiation of ART remains undetermined...
August 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730885/ataluren-in-cystic-fibrosis-development-clinical-studies-and-where-are-we-now
#17
Noreen Zainal Abidin, Iram J Haq, Aaron I Gardner, Malcolm Brodlie
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetically-acquired life-limiting conditions worldwide. The underlying defect is dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) which leads to progressive lung disease and other multi-system effects. Around 10% of people with CF have a class I nonsense mutation that leads to production of shortened CFTR due to a premature termination codon (PTC). Areas covered: We discuss the discovery of the small-molecule drug ataluren, which in vitro has been shown to allow read-through of PTCs and facilitate synthesis of full-length protein...
August 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#18
Vincent Soriano, José V Fernandez-Montero, Carmen de Mendoza, Laura Benitez-Gutierrez, José M Peña, Ana Arias, Pablo Barreiro
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
July 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737479/evaluation-of-brivaracetam-a-new-drug-to-treat-epilepsy
#19
Jasmina R Milovanović, Slobodan M Janković, Ana Pejčić, Miloš Milosavljević, Valentina Opančina, Vesela Radonjić, Zoran Protrka, Marina Kostić
High prevalence of therapy-resistant epilepsy demands development of anticonvulsants with new mechanisms of action. Brivaracetam is an analogue of levetiracetam which binds to the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and decreases release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Areas covered: Relevant published studies were searched for by predefined strategy in MEDLINE, EBSCO and SCINDEKS electronic databases. Brivaracetam is effective as adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients 16 years and older with epilepsy...
July 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737050/efficacy-of-elagolix-in-the-treatment-of-endometriosis
#20
Alexandra Perricos, René Wenzl
Much research has gone into developing medications that can be used to alleviate endometriosis-associated symptoms. In addition to already established medications, a new GnRH antagonist, elagolix, is in development. The novelty of this drug compared to other GnRH antagonists, is its nonpeptide structure, allowing it to be administered orally. Areas covered: We analyzed several Phase I, II and III clinical trials that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of this new medication. Expert opinion: Since many medications have been put on the market and have gained popularity for the treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms, the demonstration of equality or superiority of effect, tolerability, as well as patient compliance should be assessed when introducing a new drug...
July 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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