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Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

Jose Barboza
Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of death worldwide, with over 7 million deaths per year. Smoking during pregnancy causes harm to the mother, fetus, and can result in problems for the infant from childhood into adulthood. Practitioners should ask all expectant mothers about tobacco use. For expectant mothers who smoke or recently quit, practitioners should advice to quit and provide psychosocial interventions. Rates of smoking during pregnancy differ between geographical locations, with estimates of 10...
October 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Anastasios-Georgios Konstas, Andreas Katsanos, Georgios P Athanasopoulos, Irini C Voudouragkaki, Evangelia S Panagiotou, Eirini Pagkalidou, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Dimitrios A Giannoulis, Eleni Spathi, Theodoros Giannopoulos, L Jay Katz
BACKGROUND: Ideal dosing for the preservative-free (PF) tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TTFC) remains to be elucidated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, observer-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover, comparison in 42 consecutive open-angle glaucoma patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP) was insufficiently controlled with preserved latanoprost monotherapy (mean 24-h IOP >20 mmHg). Patients were randomized to either morning (08:00) or evening (20:00) PF TTFC for 3 months and then crossed over...
October 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jennifer L Olson, Richard J Bold
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 9th most common cancer in the United States and the 4th most common cause of cancer-related death given its poor prognosis. Areas covered: The authors have performed a literature search for pertinent published clinical trials, ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials, and current treatment guidelines using PubMed,, and NCCN, ASCO, ESMO, and JPS websites. The review itself discusses landmark studies and ongoing research into the chemotherapy regimens recommended by each oncologic society...
October 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti
Only 40-60% of obsessive-compulsive patients respond to first line treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Several second-line treatments have been investigated in the last two decades, and most of them seem to work, at least in a subset of patients. However, since there is still a lack of treatment predictors, the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still empirical and non-evidence based. Areas covered: In this paper, we review current and up-and-coming pharmacotherapy for OCD in adults, focusing on two emerging fields of research, inflammation and glutamate systems, since they have attracted the greatest attention in recent years in OCD pharmacological research...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Giulia Baciarello, Marco Gizzi, Karim Fizazi
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide and is the most frequently detected cancer in the European Union in men over 50 years of age. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment for recurrent or metastatic disease. Unfortunately, nearly all patients will develop resistance to androgen blockade leading to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Over the last 10 years, new treatments have dramatically improved overall survival of men with mCRPC. Current therapies are based on AR-axis inhibitors and taxane-based chemotherapies, as well as radiopharmaceuticals and Sipuleucel T...
October 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Andrea S Melani
Inhaled bronchodilators are the key-stone of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. Olodaterol 5 µg, a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) is one such bronchodilator indicated as a once-daily maintenance therapy. Areas covered: This article reviews the several trials that have assessed olodaterol as a COPD therapy. It covers safety and tolerability data and provides the reader with an expert opinion on its use as a treatment for COPD. Expert opinion: Olodaterol improves lung function for 24 h and reduces rescue medication use...
October 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
K E Joyce, S J E Lucas, C H E Imray, G M Balanos, A D Wright
The physiological responses on exposure to high altitude are relatively well known, but new discoveries are still being made, and novel prevention and treatment strategies may arise. Basic information has changed little since our previous review in this journal 10 years ago, but considerable more detail on standard therapies, and promising new approaches are now available. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the role of pharmacological agents in preventing and treating high-altitude illnesses. The authors have drawn on their own experience and that of international experts in this field...
October 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Riccardo Bientinesi, Emilio Sacco
The pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) has been, for a longer time, based on antimuscarinic agents. In recent years, two other pharmacological principles have been introduced for the treatment of OAB and urgency urinary incontinence: the β3-adrenergic agent mirabegron and botulinum neurotoxin. Meanwhile, there is lack of effective drugs for the treatment of stress incontinence. Areas covered: This literature review presents synthetic compounds aimed to treat female urinary incontinence that are in phase II-III clinical development...
October 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Emanuel Raschi, Arianna Mazzotti, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Fabrizio De Ponti, Giulio Marchesini
Pharmacotherapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is facing a paradigm shift in clinical practice with recent cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials having a substantial impact on drug prescription with treatment having a more tailored approach. In patients with T2DM, the issue of chronic liver disease is multifaceted. However, a clinical evidence is emerging on the beneficial effect of antidiabetic medications on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Areas covered: The authors provide a synopsis on the current and upcoming pharmacotherapy for NAFLD, including the challenges with their development, focusing on drugs for T2DM...
October 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Rebecca Russ Soares, M Reza Razeghinejad
The only evidence-based mechanism for prevention and treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is decreasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Prescribing multiple ocular hypotensive agents, such as the combination of carteolol and latanoprost, may synergistically improve IOP; however, doing so may increase the complexity of a medication regimen, in turn, impairing patient adherence. Fixed-combination glaucoma medications offer convenience and effectiveness. New to this class of glaucoma medication is fixed combination carteolol-latanoprost (FCCL)...
October 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Beata Franczyk, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Łukasz Jurkiewicz, Peter Penson, Maciej Banach, Jacek Rysz
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. CVD morbidity and mortality are associated with significant financial costs related to hospitalization, medication, and lost productivity. The concept of the 'polypill' for the reduction of cardiovascular risk was proposed in 2000. A polypill is a fixed combination of drugs in a single tablet or capsule. The initial polypill consisted of three different classes of antihypertensive drugs (each at half dose), in addition to aspirin, a statin, and folic acid...
October 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Brioni R Moore, Timothy M E Davis
Malaria in pregnancy continues to be a significant public health burden globally, with over 100 million women at risk each year. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the only antimalarial recommended for intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) but increasing parasite resistance threatens its viability. There are few other available antimalarial therapies that currently have sufficient evidence of tolerability, safety, and efficacy to replace SP. Areas covered: Novel antimalarial combinations are under investigation for potential use as chemoprophylaxis and in IPTp regimens...
October 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Andrés E Ortiz-Flores, Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are very prevalent metabolic complications in women with PCOS, especially in those presenting with weight excess. Therapeutic strategies targeting insulin resistance in PCOS are of interest because of their overall safety and their beneficial effects on metabolic and reproductive features. Areas covered: The authors review systematically all of the available therapeutic interventions targeting insulin resistance and/or disturbances of glucose metabolism in women with PCOS...
October 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ilza Monteiro, Cristina Falbo Guazzelli, Luis Bahamondes
Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are good contraceptive options because they do not require skilled providers, are self-administered, and show a higher stability of drug diffusion. Area covered: This article provides a review of the developments made with CVRs over the past number of years, while giving focus to the latest CVRs that have gone through clinical development. The author of the article also provides an expert perspective on the future of these useful therapeutic options. Expert opinion: Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that segesterone, an absorbable progestin that is used alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE) or E2, is the CVR of choice at this present time...
October 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Niki Katsiki, Claudio Borghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Makio Takahashi, Masaki Fujita, Naoko Asai, Mayumi Saki, Akihisa Mori
BACKGROUND: Istradefylline is a first-in-class, non-dopaminergic, selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients experiencing the wearing-off phenomenon with levodopa (L-DOPA). The authors present an interim report from a post-marketing surveillance (PMS) evaluating the safety and effectiveness of long-term istradefylline in a real-world setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Istradefylline safety was assessed by the incidence of adverse events (AE) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
October 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Premashis Kar, Anando Sengupta
Hepatitis B infection in pregnancy mandates careful monitoring and specialized management according to the phase of hepatitis B infection. Perinatal transmission may be prevented by antiviral therapy in mothers with high viral load and timely immunoprophylaxis of the infant. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current first-line therapies for treating hepatitis B in pregnancy, timing of therapy, and prevention of perinatal transmission. Strategies to manage disease at the various phases and potential emerging therapies in phase III of development are also covered...
October 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Kai Hübel
The overall prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is poor. Only a minority of patients are able to receive autologous stem cell transplantation. Patients not transplant-eligible or patients relapsing after transplantation have an urgent need for effective treatment options. Pixantrone is the only compound approved in Europe for this situation. Areas covered: This review describes the clinical development of pixantrone, starting with phase I trials up to phase III trials in order to define the role of pixantrone in treatment algorithms...
October 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Georgios Chatzopoulos, Konstantinos Tziomalos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Michelle L Palumbo, Christopher J McDougle
Comorbid psychiatric disorders are common in Down syndrome (DS). Evidence for pharmacotherapy of psychiatric co-morbidity in DS is limited. Areas covered: This article reviews the literature on the pharmacotherapy of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with DS, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), psychosis, and catatonia. A section on the phenomenon of regression is included...
September 26, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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