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Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

Dirk Woitalla, Antoine Dunac, Ali Safavi, Maria-Gabriella Ceravolo, Juan Carlos Gomez Esteban, Nicola Pavese, Mahnaz Asgharnejad, Lars Joeres, Jan-Christof Schuller, K Ray Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: PD0013 was a 6-month noninterventional study in clinical practice comparing effectiveness/tolerability of rotigotine+levodopa in younger (<70 years) vs. older (≥70 years) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS: Patients previously received levodopa for ≥6 months as monotherapy/in combination with another dopamine-agonist (DA). Primary variable: Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part-II change from baseline to end-of-observation-period (EOP)...
June 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Shun Yamamoto, Shunsuke Kondo
Many clinical trials have been conducted with chemotherapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few agents have shown efficacy. It is thought that the efficacy of some agents might have resulted from the heterogeneity of tumors, insufficient dosages due to liver cirrhosis, and post-therapy effects. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced HCC. Areas covered: The authors provide an overview of chemotherapies used for the treatment of HCC, including ongoing trials...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Adriano Lazzarin
Darunavir (DRV) was the last approved protease inhibitor (PI) and has been extensively used for the treatment of HIV in both naïve and experienced subjects due to its high genetic barrier and efficacy. The introduction in clinical practice of integrase strand transfer inhibitors limited its role in the management of naïve subjects and in antiretroviral treatment simplification strategies. However, recent data from trials that have investigated the new DRV/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) combination showed an excellent efficacy and tolerability of this coformulation both in naïve patients and in those with viral suppression, making D/C/F/TAF a new option for the treatment of HIV infection...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Thomas Müller, Jan-Dominique Möhr
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease. Its symptoms and course are heterogeneous. After several years of investigative drug studies, levodopa remains the most efficacious drug despite its long-term limitations. Consequently, research into new drug delivery modes is ongoing. Areas covered: This review summarizes past and current advances of levodopa therapy with a focus on long-term patient management. Current research aims to increase drug bioavailability and to deliver it to the brain continuously...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
José C Nicolau, Luciano M Baracioli, Robert P Giugliano
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of CVD presentation, but the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is increasing. Patients with polyvascular disease comprise a very high-risk population that has been infrequently studied. Areas covered: The authors review the current evidence of the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and stable patients post-MI with and without PAD and summarize its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and regulatory issues...
June 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Yukio Hosomi, Chiharu Tanai, Kiyotaka Yoh, Yasushi Goto, Hiroshi Sakai, Terufumi Kato, Takayuki Kaburagi, Makoto Nishio, Young Hak Kim, Akira Inoue, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Hiroshi Isobe, Yoshio Tomizawa, Yoshiaki Mori, Koichi Minato, Kazuhiko Yamada, Yasuo Ohashi, Hideo Kunitoh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of patients suffering from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (EGFRm+) receiving gefitinib who remained clinically stable following confirmation of progressive disease (PD) using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) (R-PD) and identify those who benefited from tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy beyond PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical courses of patients with EGFRm+ advanced NSCLC who received first-line gefitinib were investigated...
June 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massari, Francesco Piva, Francesco Carrozza, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Alessia Cimadamore, Angelo Martignetti, Rodolfo Montironi, Nicola Battelli
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a heterogeneous group of cancers with distinct histological features, molecular alterations, prognosis, and response to therapy. Target agents directed against vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have completely changed the landscape of RCC. However, the rate of complete response is still low, thus supporting the research of novel therapeutic agents. Area covered: The authors describe the chemical features of tivozanib, its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and the results obtained in human phase I-III clinical trials...
May 31, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Konstadinos G Boboridis, Anastasios G P Konstas
Ocular surface disease (OSD) is a highly prevalent symptomatic condition caused by dry eye disease (DED), intrinsic, environmental, or iatrogenic causes. It affects patient's visual function and quality of life. Its pathophysiology is centered on tear hyperosmolarity, inflammation, and epithelial damage. Current management is suboptimal and includes artificial tear supplementation and short-term use of topical steroids in severe cases. The recent approval of cyclosporine 0.1% has transformed management strategies of severe DED and moderate-to-severe OSD...
May 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Angelina F Gomez, Abigail L Barthel, Stefan G Hofmann
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common form of anxiety disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and benzodiazepines (BZs) are the most commonly prescribed medications for GAD, but little is known about the relative efficacy of these pharmacological treatments. Areas covered: This study provides a meta-analytic review of the efficacy of these medications in the treatment of adults with GAD. A comprehensive literature search yielded 54 articles reporting 56 unique studies with 12,655 participants treated with either pill placebo (6,191 participants), SSRIs (16 trials, 2,712 participants), SNRIs (17 trials, 2,603 participants), or BZs (23 trials, 1,149 participants)...
May 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Nobuya Inagaki, Shin-Ichi Harashima, Hiroaki Iijima
Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, improves various cardiometabolic parameters. Although canagliflozin was originally discovered in Japan, no comprehensive summary of its effects in Japanese patients has been reported. As differences exist in the pathologic features of diabetes between Japanese and non-Japanese populations, it is important to consolidate Japanese data for canagliflozin. Areas covered: The authors summarize Japanese clinical trial and post-marketing surveillance data for canagliflozin, and make comparisons with non-Japanese data...
May 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jacek Wolf, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
Highly prevalent sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Although these two entities often coexist, there is a shortage of sufficiently-powered studies testing the interplay between the course of sleep apnea and CVD pharmacotherapy. The mutual relationship between treated/untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with ongoing cardiovascular pharmacotherapies is an evident gap in clinical expertise. Areas covered: In this article, the authors review the available evidence and outline future research directions concerning the reciprocal relationship between the pharmacological treatment of CVD and SDB...
May 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Kashif M Munir, Stephen N Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Eugènia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet
HIV eradication is not feasible and lifelong treatment is warranted to manage HIV infection. In this scenario, the advent of single-tablet, once-daily, fixed-dose co-formulations is important for reducing pill burden and maximize long-term drug adherence. Cobicistat-boosted darunavir along with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide co-formulation (DRV/c/FTC/TAF or the trade name Symtuza®) is the first marketed protease inhibitor-based fixed-dose combination regimen for the treatment of HIV infection. It was approved in late 2017 by the European Medical Agency both for naïve patients and treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression...
May 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Lingaku Lee, Tetsuhide Ito, Robert T Jensen
Since the initial approval of everolimus in 2011, there have been a number of important changes in therapeutic/diagnostic modalities as well as classification/staging systems of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which can significantly impact the use of everolimus in patients with advanced NETs. Areas covered: The efficacy of everolimus monotherapy and combination therapy demonstrated in clinical studies involving patients with advanced NETs are reviewed. Several factors affecting everolimus' use are described including: the development and routine use of NET classification/staging systems; widespread use of molecular imaging modalities; side-effects; drug resistance; and the availability of other treatment options...
May 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Madia Lozupone, Maddalena La Montagna, Francesca D'Urso, Carla Piccininni, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Gianluigi Giannelli, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Nicola Quaranta, Davide Seripa, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of depressive disorders in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) represents a clinical challenge. pharmacological options are often attempted after a period of watchful waiting (8-12 weeks). monoaminergic antidepressant drugs have shown only modest or null clinical benefits, maybe because the etiology of depressive symptoms in ad patients is fundamentally different from that of nondemented subjects. Areas covered: The following article looks at the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline, which is one of the most frequently studied antidepressant medications in randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
May 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Bin-Chi Liao, Chia-Chi Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang
Brain metastases (BMs) develop in up to 40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In many recent practice-changing clinical trials, patients with BM were included; however, only few trials reported intracranial efficacies in either post hoc or pre-planned analysis. Clinically meaningful intracranial efficacy data of novel agents have not been completely disclosed. Areas covered: The authors performed a systemic review of recent pharmaceutical clinical trials, mainly pivotal or practice-changing trials...
May 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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