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Neurosurgical Focus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859571/exploring-the-brain-through-posterior-hypothalamus-surgery-for-aggressive-behavior
#1
Michele Rizzi, Andrea Trezza, Giuseppe Messina, Alessandro De Benedictis, Angelo Franzini, Carlo Efisio Marras
Neurological surgery offers an opportunity to study brain functions, through either resection or implanted neuromodulation devices. Pathological aggressive behavior in patients with intellectual disability is a frequent condition that is difficult to treat using either supportive care or pharmacological therapy. The bulk of the laboratory studies performed throughout the 19th century enabled the formulation of hypotheses on brain circuits involved in the generation of emotions. Aggressive behavior was also studied extensively...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859570/sanger-brown-and-edward-sch%C3%A3-fer-before-heinrich-kl%C3%A3-ver-and-paul-bucy-their-observations-on-bilateral-temporal-lobe-ablations
#2
Prasad S S V Vannemreddy, James L Stone
Fifty years before a report on the complete bitemporal lobectomy syndrome in primates, known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, was published, 2 talented investigators working at the University College in London, England-neurologist Sanger Brown and physiologist Edward Schäfer-also made this discovery. The title of their work was "An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the monkey's brain," and it involved excisional brain surgery in 12 monkeys. They were particularly interested in the then-disputed primary cortical locations relating to vision and hearing...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859569/introduction-neurosurgery-psychiatry-and-function-the-history-of-altering-behavior-thought-and-function-through-neurosurgery
#3
Mark C Preul, T Forcht Dagi, Charles J Prestigiacomo, Chris A Sloffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859568/a-brief-note-on-the-history-of-psychosurgery-in-japan
#4
Jiro Nudeshima, Takaomi Taira
In Japan, there has been no neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders since the 1970s. Even deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been studied or used for psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders has been thwarted by social taboos for many years, and psychiatrists today seem to simply ignore modern developments and therapies offered by neurosurgery such as DBS. As a result, most patients and their families do not know such "last-resort" options exist. Historically, as in other countries, frontal lobotomies were widely performed in Japan in the 1940s and 1950s, and some Japanese neurosurgeons used stereotactic methods for the treatment of psychiatric disorders until the 1960s...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859567/the-hypothalamus-at-the-crossroads-of-psychopathology-and-neurosurgery
#5
Daniel A N Barbosa, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Felipe Monte Santo, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Faria, Alessandra A Gorgulho, Antonio A F De Salles
The neurosurgical endeavor to treat psychiatric patients may have been part of human history since its beginning. The modern era of psychosurgery can be traced to the heroic attempts of Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz to alleviate mental symptoms through the ablation of restricted areas of the frontal lobes in patients with disabling psychiatric illnesses. Thanks to the adaptation of the stereotactic frame to human patients, the ablation of large volumes of brain tissue has been practically abandoned in favor of controlled interventions with discrete targets...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859566/history-of-psychosurgery-at-sainte-anne-hospital-paris-france-through-translational-interactions-between-psychiatrists-and-neurosurgeons
#6
Marc Zanello, Johan Pallud, Nicolas Baup, Sophie Peeters, Baris Turak, Marie Odile Krebs, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Bertrand Devaux
Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#7
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859564/dr-robert-g-heath-a-controversial-figure-in-the-history-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Christen M O'Neal, Cordell M Baker, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Michael E Sughrue
The history of psychosurgery is filled with tales of researchers pushing the boundaries of science and ethics. These stories often create a dark historical framework for some of the most important medical and surgical advancements. Dr. Robert G. Heath, a board-certified neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, holds a debated position within this framework and is most notably remembered for his research on schizophrenia. Dr. Heath was one of the first physicians to implant electrodes in deep cortical structures as a psychosurgical intervention...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859563/editorial-the-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-syndrome-and-the-golden-age-of-localization
#9
Chris A Sloffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859562/editorial-london-1935-the-frontal-lobe-insanity-and-a-brain-surgery
#10
Mark C Preul, T Forcht Dagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859561/psychosurgery-ethics-and-media-a-history-of-walter-freeman-and-the-lobotomy
#11
James P Caruso, Jason P Sheehan
At the peak of his career, Walter J. Freeman II was a celebrated physician and scientist. He served as the first chairman of the Department of Neurology at George Washington University and was a tireless advocate of surgical treatment for mental illness. His eccentric appearance, engaging personality during interviews, and theatrical demonstrations of his surgical techniques gained him substantial popularity with local and national media, and he performed more than 3000 prefrontal and transorbital lobotomies between 1930 and 1960...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859560/topectomy-versus-leukotomy-j-lawrence-pool-s-contribution-to-psychosurgery
#12
Ryan Holland, David Kopel, Peter W Carmel, Charles J Prestigiacomo
Surgery of the mind has a rather checkered past. Though its history begins with the prehistoric trephination of skulls to allow "evil spirits" to escape, the early- to mid-20th century saw a surge in the popularity of psychosurgery. The 2 prevailing operations were topectomy and leukotomy for the treatment of certain mental illnesses. Although they were modified and refined by several of their main practitioners, the effectiveness of and the ethics involved with these operations remained controversial. In 1947, Dr...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859559/the-origins-and-persistence-of-psychosurgery-in-the-state-of-iowa
#13
Francis J Jareczek, Marshall T Holland, Matthew A Howard, Timothy Walch, Taylor J Abel
Neurosurgery for the treatment of psychological disorders has a checkered history in the United States. Prior to the advent of antipsychotic medications, individuals with severe mental illness were institutionalized and subjected to extreme therapies in an attempt to palliate their symptoms. Psychiatrist Walter Freeman first introduced psychosurgery, in the form of frontal lobotomy, as an intervention that could offer some hope to those patients in whom all other treatments had failed. Since that time, however, the use of psychosurgery in the United States has waxed and waned significantly, though literature describing its use is relatively sparse...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859558/the-early-argument-for-prefrontal-leucotomy-the-collision-of-frontal-lobe-theory-and-psychosurgery-at-the-1935-international-neurological-congress-in-london
#14
Lillian B Boettcher, Sarah T Menacho
The pathophysiology of mental illness and its relationship to the frontal lobe were subjects of immense interest in the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous studies emerged during this time on cortical localization and frontal lobe theory, drawing upon various ideas from neurology and psychiatry. Reflecting the intense interest in this region of the brain, the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London hosted a special session on the frontal lobe. Among other presentations, Yale physiologists John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen presented a study on frontal lobectomy in primates, and neurologist Richard Brickner presented a case of frontal ablation for olfactory meningioma performed by the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon Walter Dandy...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859557/pneumoencephalography-in-the-workup-of-neuropsychiatric-illnesses-a-historical-perspective
#15
Mariam Ishaque, David J Wallace, Ramesh Grandhi
Throughout history, neurosurgical procedures have been fundamental in advancing neuroscience; however, this has not always been without deleterious side effects or harmful consequences. While critical to the progression of clinical neuroscience during the early 20th century, yet, at the same time, poorly tolerated by patients, pneumoencephalography is one such procedure that exemplifies this juxtaposition. Presented herein are historical perspectives and reflections on the role of the pneumoencephalography in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760042/introduction-minimally-invasive-spine-surgery
#16
Erica F Bisson, Deshpande V Rajakumar, Praveen V Mummaneni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760041/editorial-nuances-of-restoration-of-lumbar-lordosis-using-an-mis-anterior-column-release-versus-posterior-3-column-osteotomy
#17
Michael S Virk, Praveen V Mummaneni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760040/stereotactic-navigation-for-the-prepsoas-oblique-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion-technical-note-and-case-series
#18
Anthony M DiGiorgio, Caleb S Edwards, Michael S Virk, Praveen V Mummaneni, Dean Chou
The prepsoas retroperitoneal approach is a minimally invasive technique used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The approach may have a more favorable risk profile than the transpsoas approach, decreasing the risks that come with dissecting through the psoas muscle. However, the oblique angle of the spine in the prepsoas approach can be disorienting and challenging. This technical report provides an overview of the use of navigation in prepsoas oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion in a series of 49 patients...
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760039/neuronavigation-and-3d-fluoroscopy-guided-lag-screw-reduction-and-osteosynthesis-for-traumatic-spondylolistheses-of-the-axis-a-path-worth-exploring
#19
Jan-Philip Zeden, Jan-Uwe Müller, Ehab Ahmed Mohamed El Refaee, Henry W S Schroeder, Dirk T Pillich
OBJECTIVE In traumatic spondylolistheses of the axis, there is a marked heterogeneity of the observed injury patterns, with a wide range of the severity-from stable fractures, which can be treated conservatively with very good success, to highly unstable fractures, which should be treated surgically. A number of classification systems have been devised to assess the instability of the injuries and to derive a corresponding therapy recommendation. In particular, the results and recommendations regarding medium-severity cases are still inconclusive...
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760038/fully-endoscopic-lumbar-interbody-fusion-using-a-percutaneous-unilateral-biportal-endoscopic-technique-technical-note-and-preliminary-clinical-results
#20
Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, Jin Hwa Eum, Choon Keun Park
OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive spine surgery can minimize damage to normal anatomical structures. Recently, fully endoscopic spine surgeries have been attempted for lumbar fusion surgery. In this study, the authors performed a percutaneous unilateral biportal endoscopic (UBE) technique as a minimally invasive surgery for lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to present the UBE technique of fully endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) and to analyze the clinical results. METHODS Patients who were to undergo single-level fusion surgery from L3-4 to L5-S1 were enrolled...
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
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