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Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria

Karina M de Castro-Silva, Anna C Carvalho, Maria T Cavalcanti, Pedro da S Martins, José R França, Maria Oquendo, Afrânio L Kritski, Annika Sweetland
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. METHODS: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis...
October 22, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Luciana M Fonseca, Glenda G Haddad, Guilherme P Mattar, Melaine C de Oliveira, Sharon S Simon, Laura M Guilhoto, Geraldo F Busatto, Shahid Zaman, Anthony J Holland, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Cassio M Bottino
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease occurs at a higher prevalence and an earlier age in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) than typically developing individuals. However, diagnosing dementia in individuals with intellectual disability remains a challenge due to pre-existing cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS) for individuals with DS...
October 22, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Arthur A Berberian, Ary Gadelha, Natália M Dias, Tatiana P Mecca, William E Comfort, Rodrigo A Bressan, Acioly T Lacerda
OBJECTIVE: In schizophrenia, scores reflecting deficits in different cognitive processes are strongly correlated, making it difficult to establish a solid relationship between different cognitive mechanisms and other features of this disorder. The objective of this study was to explore whether three frequently postulated executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition) could be compared between groups and considered independently in terms of their respective roles in functional outcome...
October 22, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Luciana T S Massaro, Renata R Abdalla, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Ilana Pinsky, Clarice S Madruga
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the rates of binge drinking (BD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) reported for 2006 with those reported for 2012, exploring their associations with unprotected sex, early pregnancy, and abortion in a representative sample of women in Brazilian households. METHODS: This was a descriptive analysis of data from a cross-sectional study involving randomized multistage cluster sampling of the population ≥ 14 years of age. Weighted prevalence rates and odds ratios were estimated, and serial mediation analysis was performed...
October 22, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Melanie M Ashton, Michael Berk, Chee H Ng, Malcolm Hopwood, Seetal Dodd, Alyna Turner, Ellie Brown, Felice N Jacka, Susan M Cotton, Jon-Paul Khoo, Mary Lou Chatterton, Bianca E Kavanagh, Sarah E Nadjidai, Samantha L Lo Monaco, Brian H Harvey, Jerome Sarris, Gin S Malhi, Nathan L Dowling, Olivia M Dean
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar depression is characterized by neurobiological features including perturbed oxidative biology, reduction in antioxidant levels, and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress markers. Bipolar depression manifests systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and changes in brain growth factors. The depressive phase of the disorder is the most common and responds the least to conventional treatments. Garcinia mangostana Linn, commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Elizabeth León-Mayer, Joanna Rocuant-Salinas, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Jorge Folino, Craig Neumann
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy-Short Form (SRP-SF) to assess psychopathic traits in female offenders and to test gender-based item modifications. METHOD: A South American sample of female offenders (n=210) was assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R); 110 subjects also completed the standard SRP-SF, while 109 completed a version with items rewritten to be more relevant for females. The underlying latent structure of the PCL-R and both versions of the SRP-SF were examined...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Clarice S Madruga, Thales L Paim, Hamer N Palhares, Andre C Miguel, Luciana T S Massaro, Raul Caetano, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in Brazil and to investigate the direct and indirect effects of alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle (SL), depressive symptoms (DS), and sleep dissatisfaction (SD) on BZD use. METHODS: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) used stratified cluster probabilistic sampling to select 4,607 individuals aged 14 years and older from the Brazilian household population...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Carolina V R D'Aurea, Dalva Poyares, Giselle S Passos, Marcos G Santana, Shawn D Youngstedt, Altay A Souza, Juliana Bicudo, Sergio Tufik, Marco T de Mello
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of resistance exercise and stretching on sleep, mood, and quality of life in chronic insomnia patients. METHODS: Three 4-month treatments included: resistance exercise (n=10), stretching (n=10), and control (n=8). Sleep was evaluated with polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. Mood and quality of life were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), respectively...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Ana Adan, Diego A Forero
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma and telomere length (TL) are important risk factors for major depressive disorder. We examined whether there was an association between childhood trauma and TL in a sample of Colombians who were assessed for depressive symptoms. METHODS: We applied the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to 92 Colombian subjects (mean age = 21)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Amanda P Trindade, Jose C Appolinario, Paulo Mattos, Janet Treasure, Bruno P Nazar
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the risk of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in Brazilian university students through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Secondary goals were to analyze whether any specific majors were related to higher ED risk and whether any regions of Brazil had higher proportions of college students at risk of ED. METHODS: The procedures followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and a search was conducted in three electronic databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Vicente E Caballo, Isabel C Salazar, Víctor Arias, Stefan G Hofmann, Joshua Curtiss
OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self Report (LSAS-SR) based on a large sample recruited from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. METHODS: Two groups of participants were included: a non-clinical sample involving 31,243 community subjects and a clinical sample comprising 529 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used in order to determine the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Patrícia Santos, Ana P Herrmann, Elaine Elisabetsky, Angelo Piato
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and the efficacy of the available anxiolytic drugs is less than desired. Adverse effects also compromise patient quality of life and adherence to treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that the pathophysiology of anxiety and related disorders is multifactorial, involving oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and glutamatergic dysfunction. The aim of this review was to evaluate data from animal studies and clinical trials showing the anxiolytic effects of agents whose mechanisms of action target these multiple domains...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Sandra Fortes, Carolina Ziebold, Geoffrey M Reed, Rebeca Robles-Garcia, Monica R Campos, Emilene Reisdorfer, Ricardo Prado, David Goldberg, Linda Gask, Jair J Mari
OBJECTIVE: Disorders characterized by "distressing unexplained somatic symptoms" are challenging. In the ICD-11 Primary Health Care (PHC) Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Mental Disorders (ICD-11 PHC), a new category, bodily stress syndrome (BSS), was included to diagnose patients presenting unexplained somatic symptoms. The present study investigated the association of BSS with anxiety, depression, and four subgroups of physical symptoms in a Brazilian primary health care (PHC) sample...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Taiane de A Cardoso, Thaíse C Mondin, Pedro V Magalhães, Flavio Kapczinski, Luciano D M Souza, Ricardo A da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses, Carolina D Wiener
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and psychiatric disorders in young adults in southern Brazil. METHODS: This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1,023 young adults between the ages of 21 and 32 years. Current episodes of psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version. MetS was evaluated using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
María de la Paz Maino, Susana Morales, Orietta Echávarri, Jorge Barros, Arnol García, Claudia Moya, Tita Szmulewicz, Ronit Fischman, Catalina Núñez, Alemka Tomicic
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and sociodemographic factors that increase or decrease suicidal risk in a clinical sample of subjects seeking mental health care. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed at three health centers in Santiago, Chile. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ), Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2), Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2), in addition to a sociodemographic survey, were applied to 544 participants (333 with suicidal behavior and 211 without current suicidal behavior)...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Herika C da Silva, Maísa M Furtado da Rosa, William Berger, Mariana P Luz, Mauro Mendlowicz, Evandro S F Coutinho, Carla M Portella, Pamela I S Marques, Daniel C Mograbi, Ivan Figueira, Paula Ventura
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the diagnosis rate of this disorder ascertained by psychiatrists in training. METHODS: We interviewed 200 adults under treatment in a university mental health outpatient clinic. The PTSD diagnoses obtained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) were compared with the patients' medical records. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (20.5%) were diagnosed with current PTSD, but only one of them (2...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Anna C Queiroz de Medeiros, Lucia de F C Pedrosa, Maria E Yamamoto
OBJECTIVE: Food cravings play an important role in the neurobiology of appetitive behavior, being positively associated with negative feelings, eating disorders, and obesity. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r), a short version of the most widely used measure of this behavior. METHODS: Undergraduate students (n=505) completed the full version of the FCQ-T and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Andre R Brunoni, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Adriano H Moffa, Luana V Aparício, Pedro Gordon, Izio Klein, Rosa M Rios, Lais B Razza, Colleen Loo, Frank Padberg, Leandro Valiengo
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), are increasingly being used to treat mental disorders, particularly major depression. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize the main advances, limitations, and perspectives of the field. METHODS: We searched PubMed and other databases from inception to July 2017 for articles, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, evaluating the use of NIBS in psychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Ila M Linares, Antonio W Zuardi, Luis C Pereira, Regina H Queiroz, Raphael Mechoulam, Francisco S Guimarães, José A Crippa
OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the non-psychotomimetic compounds of Cannabis sativa, causes anxiolytic-like effects in animals, with typical bell-shaped dose-response curves. No study, however, has investigated whether increasing doses of this drug would also cause similar curves in humans. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of different doses of CBD and placebo in healthy volunteers performing a simulated public speaking test (SPST), a well-tested anxiety-inducing method...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Giuliana C Cividanes, Andrea F Mello, Marcelo F Mello
OBJECTIVE: Much research has been published on the role of sexual revictimization in the emergence of mental disorders in adulthood, but findings have sometimes been contradictory. The present systematic review sought to assess the state of the evidence on revictimization as a potential factor for the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in five databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Campbell Library, PsycINFO, and LILACS), using the terms PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse, and rape...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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