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Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423069/trypophobia-an-investigation-of-clinical-features
#1
Michelle Vlok-Barnard, Dan J Stein
Objective: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia...
April 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423068/suicide-and-meteorological-factors-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-1996-2011-a-time-series-analysis
#2
Daniel H Bando, Chei T Teng, Fernando M Volpe, Eduardo de Masi, Luiz A Pereira, Alfésio L Braga
Objective: Considering the scarcity of reports from intertropical latitudes and the Southern Hemisphere, we aimed to examine the association between meteorological factors and suicide in São Paulo. Method: Weekly suicide records stratified by sex were gathered. Weekly averages for minimum, mean, and maximum temperature (°C), insolation (hours), irradiation (MJ/m2), relative humidity (%), atmospheric pressure (mmHg), and rainfall (mm) were computed. The time structures of explanatory variables were modeled by polynomial distributed lag applied to the generalized additive model...
April 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380109/-i-love-you-forever-more-or-less-stability-and-change-in-adolescents-romantic-love-status-and-associations-with-mood-states
#3
Hafez Bajoghli, Vahid Farnia, Narges Joshaghani, Mohammad Haghighi, Leila Jahangard, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Objective: Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Method: Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait), and hypomania...
March 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380108/the-relationship-between-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-and-executive-function-among-individuals-with-schizophrenia-differences-by-illness-duration
#4
Viviane Grassmann, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Mark Duncan, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Guy E Faulkner
Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Cognitive impairment continues to be a core and consistent deficit. Previous studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with cognitive performance. Thus, it may play a supportive role in mitigating cognitive impairments among individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and executive function among adults with schizophrenia...
March 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380107/biting-myself-so-i-don-t-bite-the-dust-prevalence-and-predictors-of-deliberate-self-harm-and-suicide-ideation-in-azorean-youths
#5
Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Joana Cabral
Objective: To characterize non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors, methods, and functions as well as suicide ideation in the adolescent population of a Portuguese community in São Miguel Island, Azores. Increasing rates of NSSI behaviors among adolescents have been observed globally, while suicidal behavior has been pointed as a major cause of death during adolescence. Methods: A sample of 1,763 adolescents, aged 14 to 22, was randomly drawn from public and private schools and administered a set of self-report questionnaires...
March 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355346/association-between-dietary-patterns-and-mental-disorders-in-pregnant-women-in-southern-brazil
#6
Jéssica T A Paskulin, Michele Drehmer, Maria T Olinto, Juliana F Hoffmann, Andréa P Pinheiro, Maria I Schmidt, Maria A Nunes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and mental disorders among pregnant women in southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 712 pregnant women recruited from the Study of Food Intake and Eating Behaviors in Pregnancy (ECCAGe). Food intake assessment was performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to evaluate participants' mental health...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355345/chronic-dosing-with-mirtazapine-does-not-produce-sedation-in-rats
#7
Alberto Salazar-Juárez, Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Paola Merino-Reyes, Maura Matus-Ortega, Jorge A Hernández-Calderón, Benito Antón
OBJECTIVE: Sedation/somnolence are major side effects of pharmacotherapies for depression, and negatively affect long-term treatment compliance in depressed patients. Use of mirtazapine (MIR), an atypical antidepressant approved for the treatment of moderate to severe depression with comorbid anxiety disorders, is associated with significant sedation/somnolence, especially in short-term therapy. Nonetheless, studies with human subjects suggest that MIR-induced sedation is transient, especially when high and repeated doses are used...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355344/psychiatric-event-in-multiple-sclerosis-could-it-be-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#8
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of "psychiatric-onset MS" would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355343/association-between-body-image-dissatisfaction-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#9
Fiorela Flores-Cornejo, Mayumi Kamego-Tome, Mariana A Zapata-Pachas, German F Alvarado
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355342/association-of-weight-control-behaviors-with-body-mass-index-and-weight-based-self-evaluation
#10
Sabrina Chapuis-de-Andrade, Rafael M de Araujo, Diogo R Lara
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of weight control behaviors (WCBs) and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and weight-based self-evaluation. METHODS: Data were collected by the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP) from 27,501 volunteers (30.4% men, mean age 28.9±8.7 years). RESULTS: The most prevalent WCBs for men and women were exhaustive physical exercise and prolonged fasting, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300949/increased-affective-empathy-in-bipolar-patients-during-a-manic-episode
#11
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
Objective: To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during an acute manic or depressive episode. Methods: The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years) during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years) during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years). Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Results: In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300948/superwellness-program-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-based-group-intervention-to-reduce-weight-gain-in-patients-treated-with-antipsychotic-drugs
#12
Laura R Magni, Clarissa Ferrari, Giuseppe Rossi, Elena Staffieri, Aldo Uberti, Dario Lamonaca, Ileana Boggian, Silvia Merlin, Giuseppe Primerano, Alessandra Mombrini, Roberto Poli, Francesco M Saviotti, Maria T Caldera, Luciana Zanotti, Roberta Rossi
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program) on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU) approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59) and control (n=26). The Superwellness Program (experimental group) consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300947/frequency-of-brain-tissue-donation-for-research-after-suicide
#13
Vanessa K Longaray, Carolina S Padoan, Pedro D Goi, Rodrigo C da Fonseca, Daniel C Vieira, Francine H de Oliveira, Flávio Kapczinski, Pedro V Magalhães
Objectives: To describe the frequency of brain tissue donation for research purposes by families of individuals that committed suicide. Methods: All requests for brain tissue donation to a brain biorepository made to the families of individuals aged 18-60 years who had committed suicide between March 2014 and February 2016 were included. Cases presenting with brain damage due to acute trauma were excluded. Results: Fifty-six cases of suicide were reported...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300946/kraepelin-s-views-on-obsessive-neurosis-a-comparison-with-dsm-5-criteria-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Holger Steinberg, Dirk Carius, Leonardo F Fontenelle
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is considered one of the founders of modern psychiatric nosology. However, his conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive phenomena is relatively understudied. In this article, we compare and contrast excerpts from the eighth edition (1909-1915) of Kraepelin's Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry focusing on what Kraepelin called "obsessive neurosis" and related "original pathological conditions" with the current DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently with DSM-5 OCD, Kraepelin described obsessive neurosis as characterized by obsessive ideas, compulsive acts, or both together...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300935/specific-and-social-fears-in-children-and-adolescents-separating-normative-fears-from-problem-indicators-and-phobias
#15
Paola P Laporte, Pedro M Pan, Mauricio S Hoffmann, Lauren S Wakschlag, Luis A Rohde, Euripedes C Miguel, Daniel S Pine, Gisele G Manfro, Giovanni A Salum
Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears...
March 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300934/an-evolutionary-approach-to-mania-studying-sardinian-immigrants-to-argentina
#16
Mauro G Carta, Alessandra Perra, Michela Atzeni, Silvia D'Oca, Maria F Moro, Peter K Kurotschka, Daniela Moro, Federica Sancassiani, Luigi Minerba, Maria V Brasesco, Gustavo Mausel, Antonio E Nardi, Leonardo Tondo
Objective: To ascertain lifetime prevalence of positivity to a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorders (BD) in Sardinian immigrants to Argentina and residents of Sardinia and assess whether such positivity affects quality of life (QoL) in either group. Our hypothesis is that screen positivity for BD may be more frequent in immigrants. Methods: Observational study. Subjects were randomly selected from the membership lists of associations of Sardinian immigrants in Argentina...
March 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273279/tbars-and-bdnf-levels-in-newborns-exposed-to-crack-cocaine-during-pregnancy-a-comparative-study
#17
Victor Mardini, Luis A Rohde, Keila M Ceresér, Carolina M Gubert, Emily G da Silva, Fernando Xavier, Rodrigo Parcianello, Liane M Röhsig, Flávio Pechansky, Claudia M Szobot
Objectives: To compare levels of a marker of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in umbilical cord blood (UCB) between newborns exposed to crack/cocaine in utero (exposed newborns [EN], n=57) and non-exposed newborns (NEN, n=99), as well as in maternal peripheral blood at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Potential confounders, including perinatal parameters, psychopathology, and use of other substances, were assessed...
March 2, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273278/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-polymorphisms-modulate-working-memory-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#18
Camila T Matsuzaka, Denise Christofolini, Vanessa K Ota, Ary Gadelha, Arthur A Berberian, Cristiano Noto, Diego R Mazzotti, Leticia M Spindola, Patricia N Moretti, Marilia A C Smith, Maria I Melaragno, Sintia I Belangero, Rodrigo A Bressan
Objective: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. Methods: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks...
March 2, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177063/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-in-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-upper-middle-income-country
#19
Kerryn S Armstrong, Henk Temmingh
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) among patients with serious mental illness in the current South African health care context. Methods: We collected data on patient, illness, and treatment characteristics of patients discharged on one or more antipsychotic agents from January to June 2014. We analyzed the associations of APP with demographic and clinical variables using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression, and examined prescription patterns...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099631/associations-of-cerebrovascular-metabolism-genotypes-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-age-at-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#20
Fabricio F de Oliveira, Elizabeth S Chen, Marilia C Smith, Paulo H Bertolucci
Objective: To study associations of cerebrovascular metabolism genotypes and haplotypes with age at Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) onset and with neuropsychiatric symptoms according to each dementia stage. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were assessed for age at dementia onset and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores according to Clinical Dementia Rating scores, apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) haplotypes, angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) variants rs1800764 and rs4291, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor gene (LDLR) variants rs11669576 and rs5930, cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) variants I422V and TaqIB, and liver X receptor beta gene (NR1H2) polymorphism rs2695121...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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