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Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789997/non-gaussian-methods-for-causal-structure-learning
#1
REVIEW
Shohei Shimizu
Causal structure learning is one of the most exciting new topics in the fields of machine learning and statistics. In many empirical sciences including prevention science, the causal mechanisms underlying various phenomena need to be studied. Nevertheless, in many cases, classical methods for causal structure learning are not capable of estimating the causal structure of variables. This is because it explicitly or implicitly assumes Gaussianity of data and typically utilizes only the covariance structure. In many applications, however, non-Gaussian data are often obtained, which means that more information may be contained in the data distribution than the covariance matrix is capable of containing...
May 22, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781050/testing-the-causal-direction-of-mediation-effects-in-randomized-intervention-studies
#2
Wolfgang Wiedermann, Xintong Li, Alexander von Eye
In a recent update of the standards for evidence in research on prevention interventions, the Society of Prevention Research emphasizes the importance of evaluating and testing the causal mechanism through which an intervention is expected to have an effect on an outcome. Mediation analysis is commonly applied to study such causal processes. However, these analytic tools are limited in their potential to fully understand the role of theorized mediators. For example, in a design where the treatment x is randomized and the mediator (m) and the outcome (y) are measured cross-sectionally, the causal direction of the hypothesized mediator-outcome relation is not uniquely identified...
May 21, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#3
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767282/the-effect-of-medical-marijuana-laws-on-marijuana-related-attitude-and-perception-among-us-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Hefei Wen, Jason M Hockenberry, Benjamin G Druss
Marijuana liberalization policies are gaining momentum in the USA, coupled with limited federal interference and growing dispensary industry. This evolving regulatory landscape underscores the importance of understanding the attitudinal/perceptual pathways from marijuana policy to marijuana use behavior, especially for adolescents and young adults. Our study uses the restricted-access National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004-2012 data and a difference-in-differences design to compare the pre-policy, post-policy changes in marijuana-related attitude/perception between adolescents and young adults from ten states that implemented medical marijuana laws during the study period and those from the remaining states...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767281/hiv-risk-among-displaced-adolescent-girls-in-ethiopia-the-role-of-gender-attitudes-and-self-esteem
#5
Laura Gauer Bermudez, Gary Yu, Lily Lu, Kathryn Falb, Jennate Eoomkham, Gizman Abdella, Lindsay Stark
Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa have been deemed one of the most critical populations to address in the campaign for an HIV-free generation. Experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), harmful gender norms, diminished personal agency, and age-disparate sex have been identified as factors in the increasing rate of new infections among this population. Using baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in three refugee camps in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State in Ethiopia, our study quantitatively examined the associations between HIV risk factors, attitudes on gender inequality, IPV acceptability, and self-esteem for female adolescent refugees primarily from Sudan and South Sudan (n = 919)...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748900/ehealth-familias-unidas-efficacy-trial-of-an-evidence-based-intervention-adapted-for-use-on-the-internet-with-hispanic-families
#6
Yannine Estrada, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rachel Wagstaff, Lourdes M Rojas, Maria I Tapia, Maria Rosa Velázquez, Krystal Sardinas, Hilda Pantin, Madeline Y Sutton, Guillermo Prado
While substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth continue to be public health concerns, few evidence-based preventive interventions are developed for and implemented with Hispanic/Latino youth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of eHealth Familias Unidas, an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based family intervention for Hispanics. A randomized controlled trial design (n = 230) was used to evaluate intervention effects on substance use and condomless sex among a sample of Hispanic eighth graders with behavioral problems...
May 10, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748899/implementing-a-coach-delivered-dating-violence-prevention-program-with-high-school-athletes
#7
Maria Catrina D Jaime, Heather L McCauley, Daniel J Tancredi, Michele R Decker, Jay G Silverman, Brian O'Connor, Elizabeth Miller
Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes...
May 10, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728796/the-cost-effectiveness-of-the-kiva-antibullying-program-results-from-a-decision-analytic-model
#8
Mattias Persson, Linn Wennberg, Linda Beckman, Christina Salmivalli, Mikael Svensson
Bullying causes substantial suffering for children and adolescents. A number of bullying prevention programs have been advocated as effective methods for counteracting school bullying. However, there is a lack of economic evaluations of bullying prevention programs assessing the "value for money." The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the Finnish bullying prevention program KiVa in comparison to "status quo" (treatment as usual) in a Swedish elementary school setting (grades 1 to 9)...
May 4, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725791/population-based-system-of-parenting-support-to-reduce-the-prevalence-of-child-social-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-difference-in-differences-study
#9
Orla Doyle, Mary Hegarty, Conor Owens
The quality of parenting is recognised as an important determinant of children's mental health. Parenting interventions typically target high-risk families rather than adopting a universal approach. This study examined the population impact of the Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on the prevalence of children's social, emotional, and behavioural problems. A propensity score matching difference-in-differences method was used to compare intervention and comparison regions matched on socio-demographic characteristics in midlands Ireland...
May 3, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717391/parental-restriction-of-movie-viewing-prospectively-predicts-adolescent-alcohol-and-marijuana-initiation-implications-for-media-literacy-programs
#10
Melissa J Cox, Joy Gabrielli, Tim Janssen, Kristina M Jackson
Youth are heavy consumers of media, and exposure to mature media content is associated with initiation and progression of substance use. Parental restriction of such content has been shown to be an effective mechanism to reduce negative consequences attributed to exposure to mature media content. This study assessed the influence of parental restriction of movie watching across Motion Picture Association of America rating categories on subsequent alcohol and marijuana initiation at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Using data from a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use (N = 1023), we used logistic regression analyses to determine the odds of alcohol and marijuana initiation across movie rating categories, within R-rated restriction categories in particular, and based on changes in parental restriction of movies over time...
May 2, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707731/why-does-a-universal-anti-bullying-program-not-help-all-children-explaining-persistent-victimization-during-an-intervention
#11
Tessa M L Kaufman, Tina Kretschmer, Gijs Huitsing, René Veenstra
Although anti-bullying interventions are often effective, some children continue to be victimized. To increase knowledge of potential factors that might impede children's benefiting from an anti-bullying intervention, we examined potential reasons for individual differences in victimization trajectories during a group-based anti-bullying intervention. Data stem from a five-wave survey among 9122 children (7-12 years old; grades 2-5) who participated in the KiVa anti-bullying intervention (n = 6142) or were in control schools (n = 2980 children)...
April 30, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704147/associations-between-marijuana-use-trajectories-and-educational-and-occupational-success-in-young-adulthood
#12
Kara Thompson, Bonnie Leadbeater, Megan Ames, Gabriel J Merrin
Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical stage when the economic foundations for life-long health are established. To date, there is little consensus as to whether marijuana use is associated with poor educational and occupational success in adulthood. We investigated associations between trajectories of marijuana use from ages 15 to 28 and multiple indicators of economic well-being in young adulthood including achievement levels (i.e., educational attainment and occupational prestige), work characteristics (i...
April 28, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671253/novel-methods-for-screening-contributions-from-attachment-and-biobehavioral-catch-up
#13
E B Caron, Caroline K P Roben, Heather A Yarger, Mary Dozier
Preventative interventions are needed across the lifespan, including for children who have experienced maltreatment. However, interventions' effect sizes are typically smaller in real-world settings than in clinical trials. Identifying providers who are likely to implement interventions with fidelity could promote implementation outcomes through targeted allocation of training resources. This study tested two pre-training screening measures as predictors of provider fidelity to Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), a preventative intervention for maltreated infants...
April 18, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651646/an-examination-of-gay-couples-motivations-to-use-or-forego-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-expressed-during-couples-hiv-testing-and-counseling-chtc-sessions
#14
Tyrel J Starks, Kendell M Doyle, Ore Shalhav, Steven A John, Jeffrey T Parsons
While many gay couples perceive themselves to have little risk for HIV transmission, research estimates that 35-68% of new HIV infections are transmitted within main partnerships. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for those partnered gay and bisexual men (GBM) who engage in sex outside their primary relationship or who have an HIV-positive partner. There is reason to believe that couples' sero-status and sexual agreement will shape perceptions of PrEP's personal relevance among gay couples. The current study examined motivations for and ambivalence towards PrEP uptake reported in a sample of 67 gay couples during completion of a brief CDC-recommended prevention intervention: Couples HIV Testing and Counseling...
April 12, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644545/adaptive-recruitment-and-parenting-interventions-for-immigrant-latino-families-with-adolescents
#15
Diego Garcia-Huidobro, Maria O Diaspro-Higuera, Dora Palma, Roberto Palma, Luis Ortega, Rebecca Shlafer, Elizabeth Wieling, Timothy Piehler, Gerald August, Maria V Svetaz, Iris W Borowsky, Michele L Allen
Parenting programs are an effective strategy to prevent multiple risky outcomes during adolescence. However, these programs usually enroll one caregiver and have low attendance. This study evaluated the preliminary results, cost, and satisfaction of adaptive recruitment and parenting interventions for immigrant Latino families. A mixed methods study was conducted integrating a pre-post design with embedded qualitative and process evaluations. Fifteen immigrant Latino families with an adolescent child aged 10-14 were recruited...
April 11, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633176/promoting-adolescent-girls-well-being-in-pakistan-a-mixed-methods-study-of-change-over-time-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-the-compass-program
#16
Khudejha Asghar, Yana Mayevskaya, Marni Sommer, Ayesha Razzaque, Betsy Laird, Yasmin Khan, Shamsa Qureshi, Kathryn Falb, Lindsay Stark
Promoting resilience among displaced adolescent girls in northern Pakistan may buffer against developmental risks such as violence exposure and associated longer-term consequences for physical and mental well-being. However, girls' access to such programming may be limited by social norms restricting movement. A mixed-method evaluation examined change over time, feasibility, and acceptability of the COMPASS program in three districts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province through a single-group within-participant pretest-posttest of adolescent girls aged 12-19 enrolled in the intervention (n = 78), and qualitative in-depth interviews with girls following posttest completion (n = 15)...
April 10, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633175/race-ethnicity-differences-in-trends-of-marijuana-cigarette-and-alcohol-use-among-8th-10th-and-12th-graders-in-washington-state-2004-2016
#17
Renee M Johnson, Charles B Fleming, Christopher Cambron, Lorraine T Dean, Sherri-Chanelle Brighthaupt, Katarina Guttmannova
Accurate estimates of substance use in the teenage years by race/ethnicity may help identify when to intervene to prevent long-term substance use disparities. We examined trends in past 30-day use of marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in Washington State, which passed a recreational marijuana law in 2012 and initiated retail marijuana sales in 2014. Data are from the 2004-2016 Washington Healthy Youth Surveys (n = 161,992). We used time series regression models to assess linear and quadratic trends in substance use for the full sample and stratified on race/ethnicity and grade level and examined relative differences in prevalence of use by race/ethnicity...
April 10, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629508/contextual-risk-profiles-and-trajectories-of-adolescent-dating-violence-perpetration
#18
H Luz McNaughton Reyes, Vangie A Foshee, Nathan Markiewitz, May S Chen, Susan T Ennett
Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and used variable-centered approaches that fail to capture the configurations of factors that may jointly explain involvement in dating violence. The current study used a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis, to identify key configurations (or profiles) of contextual risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration across the neighborhood, school, friend and family contexts...
April 9, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629507/the-protecting-strong-african-american-families-program-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-rural-african-american-couples
#19
Allen W Barton, Steven R H Beach, Ashley C Wells, Justin B Ingels, Phaedra S Corso, Megan C Sperr, Tracy N Anderson, Gene H Brody
This study presents results from a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a family-centered intervention designed to promote strong couple, coparenting, and parent-child relationships in two-parent African American families. A total of 346 African American couples with an early adolescent child participated; all families lived in rural, low-income communities in the southern USA. Intent-to-treat growth curve analyses involving three waves and spanning 17 months indicated that ProSAAF participants, compared with control participants, reported greater improvements in relationship communication, confidence, satisfaction, partner support, coparenting, and parenting...
April 9, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629506/what-influences-parental-engagement-in-early-intervention-parent-program-and-community-predictors-of-enrolment-retention-and-involvement
#20
Naomi J Hackworth, Jan Matthews, Elizabeth M Westrupp, Cattram Nguyen, Tracey Phan, Amanda Scicluna, Warren Cann, Donna Bethelsen, Shannon K Bennetts, Jan M Nicholson
Poor participant engagement undermines individual and public health benefits of early intervention programs. This study assessed the extent to which three types of engagement (participant enrolment, retention and involvement) were influenced by individual, program and contextual factors. Data were from a cluster randomised controlled trial (N = 1447) of a community-based parenting program, delivered at two levels of intensity (group sessions with and without individualised home coaching) conducted in Victoria, Australia...
April 9, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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