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Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita, Hazumu Kadowaki, Naoto Ito, Makoto Sugiyama, Nigel C L Kwan, Katsuaki Sugiura
Although rabies still kills many people, global eradication of human rabies is considered to be feasible. Because the progress toward eradication may be different among regions with different socio-economic status, states that successfully eradicate this disease must be vigilant for re-emergence of rabies. In this article, we describe arguments over current rabies prevention measures and risk assessment results for rabies introduction and spread in rabies-free Japan. We also summarize the measures taken by representative countries and regions free from rabies...
December 25, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mitsuhito Hirano, Yasunori Ota, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Tomomi Takei, Reina Takeda, Toyotaka Kawamata, Kazuaki Yokoyama, Kaoru Uchimaru, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi, Yoichi Imai, Arinobu Tojo
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised hosts with hematological malignancies. Mortality due to mucormycosis in patients with hematological malignancy is high. However, the clinical symptoms of mucormycosis are poorly characterized, and diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific culture or serological markers or antigens. We present two cases in which nested polymerase chain reaction with specific primers was used in the serum of patients with hematological malignancies...
December 25, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Se-Min Hwang, Baeg-Ju Na, Yoo-Mi Jung, Hyun-Suk Lim, Jeong-Eun Seo, Shi-Nae Park, Young-Soo Cho, Eun-Hyang Song, Ji-Yeon Seo, Sung-Ryul Kim, Gang-Young Lee, Soon-Ja Kim, Young-Suk Park, Hae-Suk Seo
There is a paucity of data regarding the differentiating characteristics of patients with laboratory confirmed and those negative for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in South Korea. This is a hospital-based retrospective study comparing MERS-CoV-positive patients with MERS-CoV-negative patients. A total of 7 positive patients and 55 negative patients with a median age of 43 (P = 0.833) were included. No statistical differences were observed in relation to sex and the presence of comorbidities...
December 25, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kazuhiro Uda, Noriko Kinoshita, Naho Morisaki, Masashi Kasai, Yuho Horikoshi, Isao Miyairi
In Japan, 92.6% of antibiotics consumed are oral agents, most of which are for outpatients. A significant proportion is known to be dispensed for children; however, the specific pattern of antibiotic prescribing according to clinical specialty is still unclear. The aim of our study was to identify key targets for optimizing oral antibiotic use in children. We analyzed data on oral antimicrobial prescription patterns for children aged < 16 years old in three urban districts using a national database in Japan...
December 25, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Atsushi Kato, Kentaro Fujita, Masaki Ochiai, Seishiro Naito, Toshifumi Konda
Biological products, such as vaccines, blood products, antitoxin, and anti-venom, are released on the market following a lot release conducted by National Regulatory Authorities or National Control Laboratories, even if their manufacturing and marketing have been authorized. Independent lot release by regulatory authorities is not a unique procedure to Japan, but rather a common step worldwide. Previously Japan has carried out lot release mainly by laboratory tests, and the record of manufacturers' in-house tests was used as a reference, not involved in the decision of lot release...
November 30, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shizuka Tanaka, Dai Sendo, Mayumi Ichikawa, Kentaro Toyota, Masayuki Furuyama, Kenichi Komabayashi, Tatsuya Ikeda, Katsumi Mizuta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eiji Soga, Miki Akiyama, Yusuke Ohsaki, Wataru Hayashi, Takehisa Matsumoto, Kozue Oana, Noriyuki Nagano, Yoshiyuki Kawakami
A capnophilic Gram-negative rod was recovered from the urine of an octogenarian male patient with acute pyelonephritis. The isolate also demonstrated to produce CTX-M-2-type- extended-spectrum-β-lactamase. Interestingly, the isolate failed to grow on modified Drigalski (BTB) and MacConkey agars even in the CO2 -enriched atmosphere. The investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the pH-indicator dyes, bromothymol-blue and/or crystal-violet, incorporated into the agars should serve to inhibit the growth of the isolate...
November 30, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jaehyeon Lee, Joo-Hee Hwang, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Jeong-Hwan Hwang
To approach the clinical characteristics of rare Kluyvera ascorbata infection, we reviewed the medical records of patients from whom K. ascorbata was isolated from 2010 to 2016, and conducted a systematic review of the English and Spanish literature in PubMed for reports of K. ascorbata infection in humans from 1971 to 2018. A total of 43 cases (24 adults and 19 children) were enrolled: three in our hospital and 40 from literature review. The urinary tract was the most common site of infection (44.2%, 19/43), followed by the bloodstream (27...
November 30, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shinji Saito, Mina Nakauchi, Ikuyo Takayama, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
From 2005 to July 6, 2018, a total of 435 swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant virus (H3N2v) human infections were reported in the USA. The largest H3N2v outbreak in the USA occurred in 2011-2012. This virus obtained the HA gene from human seasonal H3N2 influenza A viruses (seasonal H3N2) via human-to-swine transmission in the mid-1990s and was classified as Cluster IV H3N2v. For early detection of public health threats associated with Cluster IV H3N2v in distinction from seasonal H3N2, we developed highly specific and sensitive one-step real-time RT-PCR assays directly targeting the HA genes of Cluster IV H3N2v and seasonal H3N2...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xingxin Liu, Wei Zhou, Yongmei Jiang, Linghan Kuang
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are one of the vital complications for acute leukemia patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. Among them, Geotrichum clavatum fungal infections present extremely rare with atypical clinical symptoms which make it difficult to diagnosis. In this paper, we report a case of infection caused by Geotrichum clavatum in a 10-year old acute leukemia child, which is the first documented case from mainland China. With childhood leukemia as the basic disease, the child suffered from repeated bacterial and fungal infection, and even underwent abdominal surgery during the treatment...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
S M Lutful Kabir, Nityananda Chowdhury, Masahiro Asakura, Sachi Shiramaru, Ken Kikuchi, Atsushi Hinenoya, Sucharit Basu Neogi, Shinji Yamasaki
Proper surveillance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, major pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis, is necessary to tackle the increasing disease burden. To detect these pathogenic species, a variety of PCR assays have been developed. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of 12 PCR assays targeting 23S rRNA, ceuE, lpxA, hipO, mapA, ask, and cdt genes of C. jejuni and C. coli. The PCR assays had sensitivity of 85.2-100%, and 97-100%, and specificity of 90.5-100%, and 94.3-100% for the tested C...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tetsuo Nakayama, Shigeru Suga, Kenji Okada, Nobuhiko Okabe
A follow-up serological study was conducted involving 47 subjects who received four doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) together with Salk-type inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV) until 6 years of age. All antibody levels declined more rapidly than expected within 3 years after the completion of the primary vaccination with 4th booster dose and titers persisted until 6 years of age. The positive rate of the IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT) was 31...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kyoichi Saito, Kiwamu Nakamura, Rie Harada, Ryuichi Nakano, Hisakazu Yano, Keiji Kanemitsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Naoki Tsuruma, Kazuya Watanabe, Shigehiro Takahashi, Manami Nakashita, Atsuko Ito, Kenichi Kobayashi, Masami Tsugita
We hypothesized that quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) would be associated with 30-day mortality in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria and might be a selection criterion for the use of carbapenem as initial empirical therapy. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in six hospitals. All patients who had bacteremia due to ESBL-producing bacteria were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze 30-day mortality as the main outcome...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Noriko Inasaki, Yumiko Aoyagi, Seiji Morioka, Sumiyo Hasegawa, Tetsuya Yoneda, Yumiko Saga, Masae Itamochi, Masatsugu Obuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Daniel Tena, Natividad Rodríguez, Laura Toribio, Alejandro González-Praetorius
Infectious keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can lead to loss of vision. The aim of the study was to investigate the microbiological characteristics of this infection at the University Hospital of Guadalajara (Spain). We retrospectively reviewed all cases diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2016. During the 7-year study period, 297 corneal scrapes corresponding to 298 patients were performed. Antibiotic treatment previous to the culture occurred in 59 cases (19.5%). Contact lens wear was the most common risk factor (33...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yuki Ashizuka, Asako Nakamura, Hideaki Yoshitomi, Takayuki Kobayashi, Jumboku Kajiwara, Susumu Katsuki, Makoto Kuroda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yada Aronthippaitoon, Waraporn Samer, Thitima Atuntee, Hathairat Thananchai, Kriangkrai Thongkorn, Pornsawan Pongsopawijit, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Noguchi, Eun-Sil Park, Akihito Kawai, Wilaiwan Petsophonsakul
The rabies vaccinations coverage has been reported as 70-80% of dogs in annual reports. However, there are still outbreaks of rabies in humans and dogs in Thailand, which indicate the necessity of ensuring seroprevalence in vaccinated dogs and efficacy of human immunization. The cost effective easy competitive ELISA (CEE-cELISA) was developed for monitoring protective immunity against the rabies virus in human and dog sera by using the monoclonal antibody clone 1-46-12, which recognized a conformation epitope of rabies G protein, with an ELISA plate coated with whole viral antigen of commercial vaccine...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Takao Ozaki, Yasuhiro Goto, Naoko Nishimura, Takashi Nakano, Hideaki Kumihashi, Munehide Kano, Satoko Ohfuji
Nagoya City initiated a public subsidization program for mumps vaccination using either Torii- or Hoshino-strains in August 2010. To demonstrate the effects of the program, we used publicly available information from Nagoya City to investigate the changes in immunization rate and numbers of patients who developed post-immunization adverse reactions, including post-vaccinal aseptic meningitis, in the 7 years since its initiation. We also investigated the numbers of mumps patients reported during this period by sentinel sites in a national database...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Shigeru Tajima, Makiko Ikeda, Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi Hien Thu Le, Thi Thu Hang Pham, Do Quyen Pham, Thi Quynh Mai Le, Takahiro Maeki, Satoshi Taniguchi, Fumihiro Kato, Meng Ling Moi, Koichi Morita, Chang-Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Futoshi Hasebe
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into five genotypes (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV), and the GI and GIII strains have been the most widely distributed in JE endemic areas. In recent years, GV JEV has been detected in China and Korea, suggesting that GV JEV may invade other JE endemic areas, including Vietnam, and that more attention should be paid to JEV strains circulating in these areas. In this study, we investigated the neutralization ability of the sera collected from 22 Vietnamese JE patients who lived in northern Vietnam against GI and GV JEV strains...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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