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Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

Taizo Wada, Yasunori Iwata, Yasutaka Kamikawa, Takashi Wada, Akihiro Yachie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Thambu David Sudarsanam, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munuswamy, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the frequently isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from blood culture. Here we port a case of methicillin-susceptible S. haemolyticus resistant to teicoplanin and heteroresistant to vancomycin. The isolate was found to susceptible to cefoxitin and resistant to teicoplanin in E-test. PAP-AUC analysis confirmed the presence of vancomycin heteroresistant subpopulation. NGS analysis of the genome revealed the presence of blaZ, msr(A) codes for cross-resistance of macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B and quinolone resistance encoding norA gene...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhu Li, Xuan Lu, Yufan Zhu, Pengfei Cheng, Shi Liu, Yi Zhang, Jingfeng Tang, Sijun Yang, Li Zhou
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with a variety of diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Our early study showed that lambda-interferons (IFN-λs) induced by activation of the toll-like receptors 3/ retinoic acid-inducible protein I (TLR3/RIG-I) signaling pathways contribute to inhibition of HSV-2 replication in the human cervical epithelial cells. However, anti-HSV-2 mechanisms and specific differences in signaling transduction by different IFN-λs in human cervical epithelial cells are unclear...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Seyit Ali Büyüktuna, Halef Okan Doğan, Deniz Bakır, Serpil Erşan, Derya Koç, Sevtap Bakır
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening viral infection. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the change in irisin concentrations in patients with CCHF. The study included a total of 30 patients with CCHF and 30 control subjects. Irisin concentrations were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. Median irisin concentrations were 9.03 (5.81-12.22) µg/mL and 4,.2 (3.39-7.62) µg/mL , respectively. There was no correlation between irisin and disease severity...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Noritoshi Hatanaka, Akinori Shimizu, Srinuan Somroop, Yiming Li, Masahiro Asakura, Akira Nagita, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
Campylobacter ureolyticus has been considered as a potential pathogenic bacterium. In this study, a total 586 stool samples were collected from 0-12 year-old children with diarrhea between November 2013 and April 2015 and examined with microbiological tests in the hospital for diagnosis of common enteric pathogens including C. jejuni and C. coli. Then in our laboratory, these samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence-based Campylobacter genus-specific PCR (C16S PCR) and 283 (48.3%) samples show positive with this PCR assay...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mohammad Shah, Erick Odoyo, Ernest Wandera, Cyrus Kathiiko, Martin Bundi, Gabriel Miringu, Sora Guyo, Satoshi Komoto, James Nyangao, Mohamed Karama, Takao Tsuji, Koki Taniguchi, Kouichi Morita, Yoshio Ichinose
This study aimed to investigate the incidence of rotavirus and enteric bacterial infections among children up to five years old with diarrhea living in suburban and rural areas in Kenya. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study, and a total of 1060 diarrheal fecal specimens were obtained from 722 children at the Kiambu County Hospital (KCH) located in a suburban area and 338 children from the Mbita District Hospital (MDH) located in a rural part of western Kenya, between August 2011 and December 2013. Of the 1060 isolates, group A rotavirus (RVA) was detected in 29...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Koichiro Matsui, Kaoru Okazaki, Yuho Horikoshi, Ryota Kakinuma, Masatoshi Kondo
Intrauterine infections are associated with life-threatening neonatal conditions such as sepsis, intracranial hemorrhage, and chronic lung disease. Herein we present a case of generalized congenital folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in a preterm neonate of 27 weeks gestational age successfully treated with antibiotics. Folliculitis is an important manifestation of intrauterine P. aeruginosa infection and prompt, effective treatment is crucial to ensuring a good prognosis.
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kayoko Matsuo, Junji Moribe, Niichiro Abe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yasushi Torii, Nakaba Sugimoto, Tomoko Kohda, Shunji Kozaki, Kazunori Morokuma, Yoshikane Horikawa, Akihiro Ginnaga, Akihiko Yamamoto, Motohide Takahashi
Botulinum toxin is most poisonous substance, and it is thought to be a high risk of it being used as a biological weapon; researchers of the toxin are exposed to such a hazard. Botulinum toxoid vaccines have been produced and used in Japan.  However, clinical studies using these vaccines were conducted before establishment of the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research in Japan, and their immunogenicity and safety using a systematic approach were not assessed. In this study, we produced new tetravalent (type A, B, E, and F) botulinum toxoid vaccine, the first derived from M toxin in the world, and conducted quality control tests with reference to the minimum requirements in Japan for adsorbed tetanus toxoid vaccine...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yang Qin, Feiqiu Wen, Yuejie Zheng, Ruizhen Zhao, Qinghua Hu, Renli Zhang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes high rates of mortality and a substantial burden to health systems worldwide. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolated from children treated at Shenzhen Children's Hospital. 140 MRSA strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We further performed spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), pvl gene and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shinya Tsuzuki, Shinichi Hosokawa, Takeji Matsushita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Takaaki Tanaka, Hajime Kamiya, Kazutoyo Asada, Shigeru Suga, Masaru Ido, Masakazu Umemoto, Kazunobu Ouchi, Hiroaki Ito, Haruo Kuroki, Takashi Nakano, Koki Taniguchi
In Japan, monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccines were approved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To monitor the changes in the RV genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, we performed a prospective observational study among children (<5 years) with gastroenteritis who tested RV-positive on antigen rapid tests. Stool samples were collected from three different sites in Japan: Tsu City, Mie Prefecture; Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture; and Isumi City, Chiba Prefecture. RV genotypes were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Yoshikura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Raphael de Oliveira Rodrigues, Silvia Helena Barem Rabenhorst, Paulo Germano de Carvalho, Greyce Luri Sasahara, Luciana Mabel Ferreira Vasconcelos, Érico Antônio Gomes de Arruda, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da Silva, Ilana Farias Ribeiro, E Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias
We evaluated IL-10 -592 C/A, IL-4 -589 C/T, IFN-γ +874 A/T, CTLA-4 +49 A/G gene polymorphisms in efavirenz hypersensitivity reaction. A total of 63 HIV-positive patients under treatment at a public hospital were included in the study, of which 21 presented efavirenz hypersensitivity. Patients who presented efavirenz hypersensitivity reaction showed a higher frequency of the IL-10 -592A allele than the controls (p = 0.028). The allele A was associated with increased risk to efavirenz hypersensitivity (OR = 2...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aarti Rama, Shreekant Kesari, Pradeep Das, Vijay Kumar
Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/ tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to handle the nuisance caused by them. Because tolerating an hour exposure of DDT is not so challenging for resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes trivial and futile task...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Minetaro Arita
Since the beginning of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) have been drastically reduced, with only 74 cases reported in 2 endemic countries in 2015. The current limited PV transmission suggests that we are in the endgame of the polio eradication program. However, specific challenges have emerged in the endgame, including tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in biorisk management of PV. To overcome these challenges, several PV studies have been implemented in the eradication program...
January 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yoshifumi Uwamino, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Satoshi Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nozomu Hanaoka, Minenosuke Matsutani, Masaaki Satoh, Motohiko Ogawa, Mutsunori Shirai, Shuji Ando
We developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Rickettsia spp., including Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. Species-specific LAMP primers were developed for orthologous genes conserved among Rickettsia spp. The selected modified primers could detect all the Rickettsia spp. tested. The LAMP method was successfully used to detect 100 DNA copies of Rickettsia spp. within approximately 60 min at 63℃. Therefore, this method may be an excellent tool for the early diagnosis of rickettsiosis in a laboratory or in the field...
January 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shigeru Tajima, Eri Nakayama, Akira Kotaki, Meng Ling Moi, Makiko Ikeda, Kazumi Yagasaki, Yuka Saito, Ken-Ichi Shibasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Tomohiko Takasaki
Cases of autochthonous infections of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) were detected in Japan after a 70-year period devoid of dengue outbreaks. We previously showed that E gene sequences are identical in 11 of the 12 DENV-1 strains autochthonous to Japan. However, the E sequence represents only 14% of the DENV-1 genome. In the present study, we have sequenced the entire genome of 6 autochthonous DENV-1 strains that were isolated from patients during the 2014 outbreak. Sequencing of 5 Yoyogi group strains with identical E sequences and 1 Shizuoka strain with a different E sequence revealed that the first Yoyogi group strain differed from the Shizuoka strain by 18 amino acid residues...
January 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yoshio Iijima, Joseph O Oundo, Takumi Hibino, Suleiman M Saidi, Atsushi Hinenoya, Kayo Osawa, Toshiro Shirakawa, Ro Osawa, Shinji Yamasaki
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an important agent of endemic and epidemic diarrhea worldwide, particularly in developing countries. DEC cannot be differentiated from commensal E. coli on selective media, although there are a few exceptions. Most studies use the colony isolation method, which cannot detect low numbers of DEC, and therefore, these studies might underestimate the incidence of DEC. In the present study, we employed a colony sweep method with real-time PCR targeting virulence genes of 5 categories of DEC; this technique can detect very low numbers of DEC among hundreds of commensal E...
January 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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