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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635804/water-waves-to-sound-waves-using-zebrafish-to-explore-hair-cell-biology
#1
REVIEW
Sarah B Pickett, David W Raible
Although perhaps best known for their use in developmental studies, over the last couple of decades, zebrafish have become increasingly popular model organisms for investigating auditory system function and disease. Like mammals, zebrafish possess inner ear mechanosensory hair cells required for hearing, as well as superficial hair cells of the lateral line sensory system, which mediate detection of directional water flow. Complementing mammalian studies, zebrafish have been used to gain significant insights into many facets of hair cell biology, including mechanotransduction and synaptic physiology as well as mechanisms of both hereditary and acquired hair cell dysfunction...
January 11, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30623319/neural-itd-sensitivity-and-temporal-coding-with-cochlear-implants-in-an-animal-model-of-early-onset-deafness
#2
Yoojin Chung, Brian D Buechel, Woongsang Sunwoo, Joseph D Wagner, Bertrand Delgutte
Users of cochlear implant (CI) face challenges in everyday situations such as understanding conversations in noise, even with CIs in both ears. These challenges are related to difficulties with tasks that require fine temporal processing such as discrimination of pulse rates or interaural time differences (ITD), a major cue for sound localization. The degradation in temporal processing and ITD sensitivity are especially acute in those who lost hearing in early childhood. Here, we characterized temporal coding and ITD sensitivity of single neurons in a novel animal model of early-onset deafness...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30623318/interaural-pitch-discrimination-range-effects-for-bilateral-and-single-sided-deafness-cochlear-implant-users
#3
Matthew J Goupell, Stefano Cosentino, Olga A Stakhovskaya, Joshua G W Bernstein
By allowing bilateral access to sound, bilateral cochlear implants (BI-CIs) or unilateral CIs for individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD; i.e., normal or near-normal hearing in one ear) can improve sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Spatial hearing in the horizontal plane is primarily conveyed by interaural time and level differences computed from neurons in the superior olivary complex that receive frequency-matched inputs. Because BI-CIs and SSD-CIs do not necessarily convey frequency-matched information, it is critical to understand how to align the inputs to CI users...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30564989/a-new-model-for-congenital-vestibular-disorders
#4
Sigmund J Lilian, Hayley E Seal, Anastas Popratiloff, June C Hirsch, Kenna D Peusner
Many developmental disorders of the inner ear are manifested clinically as delayed motor development and challenges in maintaining posture and balance, indicating involvement of central vestibular circuits. How the vestibular circuitry is rewired in pediatric cases is poorly understood due to lack of a suitable animal model. Based on this, our lab designed and validated a chick embryo model to study vestibular development in congenital vestibular disorders. The developing inner ear or "otocyst" on the right side of 2-day-old chick embryos (E2) was surgically rotated 180° in the anterior-posterior axis, forming the "anterior-posterior axis rotated otocyst chick" or ARO chick...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543016/effect-of-chronic-stimulation-and-stimulus-level-on-temporal-processing-by-cochlear-implant-listeners
#5
Robert P Carlyon, François Guérit, Alexander J Billig, Yu Chuen Tam, Frances Harris, John M Deeks
A series of experiments investigated potential changes in temporal processing during the months following activation of a cochlear implant (CI) and as a function of stimulus level. Experiment 1 tested patients on the day of implant activation and 2 and 6 months later. All stimuli were presented using direct stimulation of a single apical electrode. The dependent variables were rate discrimination ratios (RDRs) for pulse trains with rates centred on 120 pulses per second (pps), obtained using an adaptive procedure, and a measure of the upper limit of temporal pitch, obtained using a pitch-ranking procedure...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456730/speech-perception-with-spectrally-non-overlapping-maskers-as-measure-of-spectral-resolution-in-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Erin R O'Neill, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Poor spectral resolution contributes to the difficulties experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users when listening to speech in noise. However, correlations between measures of spectral resolution and speech perception in noise have not always been found to be robust. It may be that the relationship between spectral resolution and speech perception in noise becomes clearer in conditions where the speech and noise are not spectrally matched, so that improved spectral resolution can assist in separating the speech from the masker...
November 19, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456729/time-compressed-speech-identification-is-predicted-by-auditory-neural-processing-perceptuomotor-speed-and-executive-functioning-in-younger-and-older-listeners
#7
James W Dias, Carolyn M McClaskey, Kelly C Harris
Older adults typically have difficulty identifying speech that is temporally distorted, such as reverberant, accented, time-compressed, or interrupted speech. These difficulties occur even when hearing thresholds fall within a normal range. Auditory neural processing speed, which we have previously found to predict auditory temporal processing (auditory gap detection), may interfere with the ability to recognize phonetic features as they rapidly unfold over time in spoken speech. Further, declines in perceptuomotor processing speed and executive functioning may interfere with the ability to track, access, and process information...
November 19, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421148/vestibular-evoked-myographic-correlation
#8
Bernd Lütkenhöner
This work started from the hypothesis that the physiological processes giving rise to the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) can be induced not only by transient sounds but also by a continuous stimulation with a stochastic signal. The hypothesis is based on the idea that the number of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) decreases after a momentary amplitude increase of the effective stimulus, whereas a momentary amplitude decrease has the opposite effect. This concept was theoretically analyzed by assuming that the effective stimulus is closely related to the envelope of the stimulus actually presented...
November 12, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377852/interaction-between-pitch-and-timbre-perception-in-normal-hearing-listeners-and-cochlear-implant-users
#9
Xin Luo, Samara Soslowsky, Kathryn R Pulling
Despite their mutually exclusive definitions, pitch and timbre perception interact with each other in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Cochlear implant (CI) users have worse than normal pitch and timbre perception. However, the pitch-timbre interaction with CIs is not well understood. This study tested the interaction between pitch and sharpness (an aspect of timbre) perception related to the fundamental frequency (F0) and spectral slope of harmonic complex tones, respectively, in both NH listeners and CI users...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341698/study-of-the-mechanisms-by-which-aminoglycoside-damage-is-prevented-in-chick-embryonic-hair-cells
#10
Huanju Bai, Xi Wang, Xue Gao, Jie Bing, Weiqian Wang, Xuebo Zhang, Chao Xi, Lingling Jiang, Xinwen Zhang, Zhongming Han, Shaoju Zeng, Jincao Xu
A major side effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics is mammalian hair cell death. It is thus intriguing that embryonic chick hair cells treated with aminoglycosides at embryonic day (E) 12 are insensitive to ototoxicity. To exclude some unknown factors in vivo that might be involved in preventing aminoglycoside damage to embryonic hair cells, we first cultured chick embryonic basilar papilla (BP) with an aminoglycoside antibiotic in vitro. The results indicated that the hair cells were almost intact at E12 and E14 and were only moderately damaged in most parts of the BP at E16 and E18...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264229/interaural-time-difference-perception-with-a-cochlear-implant-and-a-normal-ear
#11
Tom Francart, Konstantin Wiebe, Thomas Wesarg
Currently there is a growing population of cochlear-implant (CI) users with (near) normal hearing in the non-implanted ear. This configuration is often called SSD (single-sided deafness) CI. The goal of the CI is often to improve spatial perception, so the question raises to what extent SSD CI listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs). In a controlled lab setup, sensitivity to ITDs was investigated in 11 SSD CI listeners. The stimuli were 100-pps pulse trains on the CI side and band-limited click trains on the acoustic side...
December 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191424/surface-motion-of-tympanic-membrane-in-a-chinchilla-model-of-acute-otitis-media
#12
Xuelin Wang, Rong Z Gan
The conductive hearing loss caused by acute otitis media (AOM) is commonly related to a reduction of the tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in response to sound stimuli. However, spatial alterations of the TM surface motion associated with AOM have rarely been addressed. In this study, the TM surface motion was determined using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV) in a chinchilla model of AOM. The AOM was established by transbullar injection of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. The TM surface vibration was measured in control (uninfected) animals and two AOM groups of animals: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation...
December 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341699/amplitude-modulation-detection-in-children-with-a-history-of-temporary-conductive-hearing-loss-remains-impaired-for-years-after-restoration-of-normal-hearing
#13
Margo McKenna Benoit, Mark Orlando, Kenneth Henry, Paul Allen
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is considered a form of relative sensory deprivation that often occurs during a critical period of language acquisition in children. Animal studies have demonstrated that hearing loss during early development can impair behavioral sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM), critical for speech understanding, even after restoration of normal hearing thresholds. AM detection in humans with a history of OME-associated conductive hearing loss (CHL) has not been previously investigated...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182318/correction-to-effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-detection-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users-relationships-with-average-threshold-gap-detection-and-rate-discrimination
#14
Robert P Carlyon, Stefano Cosentino, John M Deeks, Wendy Parkinson, Julie G Arenberg
The middle initial of Julie G. Arenberg's name was incorrect in the original publication; it is correct as displayed here.
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171386/intracochlear-sound-pressure-measurements-in-normal-human-temporal-bones-during-bone-conduction-stimulation
#15
Christof Stieger, Xiying Guan, Rosemary B Farahmand, Brent F Page, Julie P Merchant, Defne Abur, Hideko Heidi Nakajima
Bone conduction (BC) is heavily relied upon in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss, but is poorly understood. For example, the relative importance and frequency dependence of various identified BC sound transmission mechanisms that contribute to activate the cochlear partition remain unknown. Recently, we have developed techniques in fresh human cadaveric specimens to directly measure scalae pressures with micro-fiberoptic sensors, enabling us to monitor the input pressure drive across the cochlear partition that triggers the cochlear traveling wave during air conduction (AC) and round-window stimulation...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171385/effects-of-3-3-iminodipropionitrile-on-hair-cell-numbers-in-cristae-of-cba-caj-and-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Brent A Wilkerson, Filippo Artoni, Colby Lea, Kayla Ritchie, Catherine A Ray, Olivia Bermingham-McDonogh
This study examines absolute hair cell numbers in the cristae of C57BL/6J mice and CBA/CaJ mice from weaning to adulthood as well as the dose required for 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN)-injury of the cristae in C57BL/6J mice and CBA/CaJ mice, the two mouse strains most commonly used by inner ear researchers. In cristae of CBA/CaJ and C57BL/6J mice, no loss of hair cells was observed up to 24 weeks. In both strains, dose-dependent loss of hair cells was observed 7 days after IDPN treatment of 2-month-old mice (IC50  = 16...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120621/human-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-adaptation-consolidation-time-between-repeated-training-blocks-improves-retention
#17
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Americo A Migliaccio
We sought to determine if separating vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation training into training blocks with a consolidation (rest) period in between repetitions would result in improved VOR adaptation and retention. Consolidation of motor learning refers to the brain benefitting from a rest period after prior exposure to motor training. The role of consolidation on VOR adaptation is unknown, though clinicians often recommend rest periods as a part of vestibular rehabilitation. The VOR is the main gaze stabilising system during rapid head movements...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968099/chronic-deafness-degrades-temporal-acuity-in-the-electrically-stimulated-auditory-pathway
#18
John C Middlebrooks
Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve with a penetrating intraneural (IN) electrode in acutely deafened cats produces much more restricted spread of excitation than is obtained in that preparation with a conventional cochlear implant (CI) as reported by Middlebrooks and Snyder (J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 8:258-279, 2007). That suggests that a future auditory prosthesis employing IN stimulation might offer human patients greater frequency selectivity than is available with a present-day CI. Nevertheless, it is a concern that the electrical field produced by an IN electrode might be too restricted to produce adequate stimulation of the partially depopulated auditory nerve of a deaf patient...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968098/reflection-and-distortion-source-otoacoustic-emissions-evidence-for-increased-irregularity-in-the-human-cochlea-during-aging
#19
Carolina Abdala, Amanda J Ortmann, Christopher A Shera
Previous research on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) components has hinted at possible differences in the effect of aging on the two basic types of OAEs: those generated by a reflection mechanism in the cochlea and those created by nonlinear distortion (Abdala and Dhar in J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:403-421, 2012). This initial work led to the hypothesis that micromechanical irregularity ("roughness") increases in the aging cochlea, perhaps as the result of natural tissue degradation...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946952/modeling-the-dependence-of-the-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-response-on-primary-frequency-ratio
#20
Renata Sisto, Uzma Shaheen Wilson, Sumitrajit Dhar, Arturo Moleti
When measured as a function of primary frequency ratio r = f2 /f1 , using a constant f2 , distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response demonstrates a bandpass shape, previously interpreted as the evidence for a cochlear "second filter." In this study, an alternate, interference-based explanation, previously advanced in variants, is forwarded on the basis of experimental data along with numerical and analytical solutions of nonlinear and linear cochlear models. The decrease of the DPOAE response with increasing and decreasing ratios is explained by a diminishing "overlap" generation region and the onset of negative interference among wavelets of different phase, respectively...
October 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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