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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909837/simultaneous-intracochlear-pressure-measurements-from-two-cochlear-locations-propagation-of-distortion-products-in-gerbil
#1
Wei Dong
Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#2
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896486/neural-correlates-of-the-binaural-masking-level-difference-in-human-frequency-following-responses
#3
Christopher G Clinard, Sarah L Hodgson, Mary Ellen Scherer
The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is an auditory phenomenon where binaural tone-in-noise detection is improved when the phase of either signal or noise is inverted in one of the ears (SπNo or SoNπ, respectively), relative to detection when signal and noise are in identical phase at each ear (SoNo). Processing related to BMLDs and interaural time differences has been confirmed in the auditory brainstem of non-human mammals; in the human auditory brainstem, phase-locked neural responses elicited by BMLD stimuli have not been systematically examined across signal-to-noise ratio...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873085/quantitative-analysis-of-supporting-cell-subtype-labeling-among-creer-lines-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#4
Melissa M McGovern, Joseph Brancheck, Auston C Grant, Kaley A Graves, Brandon C Cox
Four CreER lines that are commonly used in the auditory field to label cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are expressed in multiple SC subtypes, with some lines also showing reporter expression in hair cells (HCs). We hypothesized that altering the tamoxifen dose would modify CreER expression and target subsets of SCs. We also used two different reporter lines, ROSA26 (tdTomato) and CAG-eGFP, to achieve the same goal. Our results confirm previous reports that Sox2 (CreERT2) and Fgfr3-iCreER (T2) are not only expressed in neonatal SCs but also in HCs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873084/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-measured-below-300%C3%A2-hz-in-normal-hearing-human-subjects
#5
Anders T Christensen, Rodrigo Ordoñez, Dorte Hammershøi
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832500/long-lasting-forward-suppression-of-spontaneous-firing-in-auditory-neurons-implication-to-the-residual-inhibition-of-tinnitus
#6
A V Galazyuk, S V Voytenko, R J Longenecker
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound that has no external source. Sound stimuli can suppress spontaneous firing in auditory neurons long after stimulus offset. It is unknown how changes in sound stimulus parameters affect this forward suppression. Using in vivo extracellular recording in awake mice, we found that about 40 % of spontaneously active inferior colliculus (IC) neurons exhibited forward suppression of spontaneous activity after sound offset. The duration of this suppression increased with sound duration and lasted about 40 s following a 30-s stimulus offset...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830350/longitudinal-changes-in-audiometric-phenotypes-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#7
Kenneth I Vaden, Lois J Matthews, Mark A Eckert, Judy R Dubno
Presbyacusis, or age-related hearing loss, can be characterized in humans as metabolic and sensory phenotypes, based on patterns of audiometric thresholds that were established in animal models. The metabolic phenotype is thought to result from deterioration of the cochlear lateral wall and reduced endocochlear potential that decreases cochlear amplification and produces a mild, flat hearing loss at lower frequencies coupled with a gradually sloping hearing loss at higher frequencies. The sensory phenotype, resulting from environmental exposures such as excessive noise or ototoxic drugs, involves damage to sensory and non-sensory cells and loss of the cochlear amplifier, which produces a 50-70 dB threshold shift at higher frequencies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807642/improving-the-reliability-of-tinnitus-screening-in-laboratory-animals
#8
Aikeen Jones, Bradford J May
Behavioral screening remains a contentious issue for animal studies of tinnitus. Most paradigms base a positive tinnitus test on an animal's natural tendency to respond to the "sound" of tinnitus as if it were an actual sound. As a result, animals with tinnitus are expected to display sound-conditioned behaviors when no sound is present or to miss gaps in background sounds because tinnitus "fills in the gap." Reliable confirmation of the behavioral indications of tinnitus can be problematic because the reinforcement contingencies of conventional discrimination tasks break down an animal's tendency to group tinnitus with sound...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798720/electrically-evoked-medial-olivocochlear-efferent-effects-on-stimulus-frequency-otoacoustic-emissions-in-guinea-pigs
#9
Maria A Berezina-Greene, John J Guinan
Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are produced by cochlear irregularities reflecting energy from the peak region of the traveling wave (TW). Activation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents reduces cochlear amplification and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). In other OAEs, MOC activation can produce enhancements. The extent of MOC enhancements of SFOAEs has not been previously studied. In anesthetized guinea pigs, we electrically stimulated MOC fibers and recorded their effects on SFOAEs. MOC stimulation mostly inhibited SFOAEs but sometimes enhanced them...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796594/estimation-of-round-trip-outer-middle-ear-gain-using-dpoaes
#10
Maryam Naghibolhosseini, Glenis R Long
The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate round-trip outer-middle ear pressure gain using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. The role of the outer and middle ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766433/midbrain-synchrony-to-envelope-structure-supports-behavioral-sensitivity-to-single-formant-vowel-like-sounds-in-noise
#11
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761740/aftereffects-of-intense-low-frequency-sound-on-spontaneous-otoacoustic-emissions-effect-of-frequency-and-level
#12
Lena Jeanson, Lutz Wiegrebe, Robert Gürkov, Eike Krause, Markus Drexl
The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718037/finite-element-modelling-of-the-acoustic-input-admittance-of-the-newborn-ear-canal-and-middle-ear
#13
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Nima Maftoon, Jacob Pitaro, W Robert J Funnell, Sam J Daniel
Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696081/tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-type-ii-cochlear-afferents-in-mice
#14
Pankhuri Vyas, Jingjing Sherry Wu, Amanda Zimmerman, Paul Fuchs, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687041/temporal-regularity-detection-and-rate-discrimination-in-cochlear-implant-listeners
#15
Etienne Gaudrain, John M Deeks, Robert P Carlyon
Cochlear implants (CIs) convey fundamental-frequency information using primarily temporal cues. However, temporal pitch perception in CI users is weak and, when measured using rate discrimination tasks, deteriorates markedly as the rate increases beyond 300 pulses-per-second. Rate pitch may be weak because the electrical stimulation of the surviving neural population of the implant recipient may not allow accurate coding of inter-pulse time intervals. If so, this phenomenon should prevent listeners from detecting when a pulse train is physically temporally jittered...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681700/profiles-of-stimulus-frequency-otoacoustic-emissions-from-0-5-to-20%C3%A2-khz-in-humans
#16
James B Dewey, Sumitrajit Dhar
The characteristics of human otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have not been thoroughly examined above the standard audiometric frequency range (>8 kHz). This is despite the fact that deterioration of cochlear function often starts at the basal, high-frequency end of the cochlea before progressing apically. Here, stimulus-frequency OAEs (SFOAEs) were obtained from 0.5 to 20 kHz in 23 young, audiometrically normal female adults and three individuals with abnormal audiograms, using a low-to-moderate probe level of 36 dB forward pressure level (FPL)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752925/application-of-mouse-models-to-research-in-hearing-and-balance
#17
REVIEW
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Sherri M Jones, Kenneth R Johnson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) have become the major model species for inner ear research. The major uses of mice include gene discovery, characterization, and confirmation. Every application of mice is founded on assumptions about what mice represent and how the information gained may be generalized. A host of successes support the continued use of mice to understand hearing and balance. Depending on the research question, however, some mouse models and research designs will be more appropriate than others...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631508/relation-between-cochlear-mechanics-and-performance-of-temporal-fine-structure-based-tasks
#18
Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Shimpei Yamagishi, Koich Hirota, Makio Kashino
This study examined whether the mechanical characteristics of the cochlea could influence individual variation in the ability to use temporal fine structure (TFS) information. Cochlear mechanical functioning was evaluated by swept-tone evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are thought to comprise linear reflection by micromechanical impedance perturbations, such as spatial variations in the number or geometry of outer hair cells, on the basilar membrane (BM). Low-rate (2 Hz) frequency modulation detection limens (FMDLs) were measured for carrier frequency of 1000 Hz and interaural phase difference (IPD) thresholds as indices of TFS sensitivity and high-rate (16 Hz) FMDLs and amplitude modulation detection limens (AMDLs) as indices of sensitivity to non-TFS cues...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628539/neural-representation-of-interaural-time-differences-in-humans-an-objective-measure-that-matches-behavioural-performance
#19
Jaime A Undurraga, Nick R Haywood, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Humans, and many other species, exploit small differences in the timing of sounds at the two ears (interaural time difference, ITD) to locate their source and to enhance their detection in background noise. Despite their importance in everyday listening tasks, however, the neural representation of ITDs in human listeners remains poorly understood, and few studies have assessed ITD sensitivity to a similar resolution to that reported perceptually. Here, we report an objective measure of ITD sensitivity in electroencephalography (EEG) signals to abrupt modulations in the interaural phase of amplitude-modulated low-frequency tones...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619213/bodipy-conjugated-xyloside-primes-fluorescent-glycosaminoglycans-in-the-inner-ear-of-opsanus-tau
#20
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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