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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721606/fluid-structure-finite-element-modelling-and-clinical-measurement-of-the-wideband-acoustic-input-admittance-of-the-newborn-ear-canal-and-middle-ear
#1
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Nima Maftoon, Jacob Pitaro, W Robert J Funnell, Sam J Daniel
The anatomical differences between the newborn ear and the adult one result in different input admittance responses in newborns than those in adults. Taking into account fluid-structure interactions, we have developed a finite-element model to investigate the wideband admittance responses of the ear canal and middle ear in newborns for frequencies up to 10 kHz. We have also performed admittance measurements on a group of 23 infants with ages between 14 and 28 days, for frequencies from 250 to 8000 Hz with 1/12-octave resolution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#2
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#3
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653118/quantitative-pneumatic-otoscopy-using-a-light-based-ranging-technique
#4
Ryan L Shelton, Ryan M Nolan, Guillermo L Monroy, Paritosh Pande, Michael A Novak, Ryan G Porter, Stephen A Boppart
Otitis media is the leading cause of hearing loss in children. It is commonly associated with fluid in the ear, which can result in up to 45 dB of hearing loss for extended periods of time during a child's most important developmental years. Accurate assessment of middle ear effusions is an important part of understanding otitis media. Current technologies used to diagnose otitis media with effusion are pneumatic otoscopy, tympanometry, and acoustic reflectometry. While all of these techniques can reasonably diagnose the presence of an effusion, they provide limited information about the infection present behind the tympanic membrane...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#5
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593438/eye-movements-are-correctly-timed-during-walking-despite-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#6
Eric R Anson, Tim Kiemel, John P Carey, John J Jeka
Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia (the perception that the world is bouncing or unstable) during walking. Efference copy/proprioception contributes to locomotion gaze stability in animals, sometimes inhibiting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Gaze stability requires both adequate eye velocity and appropriate timing of eye movements. It is unknown whether eye velocity (VOR gain), timing (phase), or both are impaired for individuals with BVH during walking...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447225/functional-interplay-between-the-putative-measures-of-rostral-and-caudal-efferent-regulation-of-speech-perception-in-noise
#7
Sandeep Maruthy, U Ajith Kumar, G Nike Gnanateja
Efferent modulation has been demonstrated to be very important for speech perception, especially in the presence of noise. We examined the functional relationship between two efferent systems: the rostral and caudal efferent pathways and their individual influences on speech perception in noise. Earlier studies have shown that these two efferent mechanisms were correlated with speech perception in noise. However, previously, these mechanisms were studied in isolation, and their functional relationship with each other was not investigated...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361374/spatial-gradients-in-the-size-of-inner-hair-cell-ribbons-emerge-before-the-onset-of-hearing-in-rats
#8
Radha Kalluri, Maya Monges-Hernandez
The size and locations of pre-synaptic ribbons and glutamate receptors within and around inner hair cells are correlated with auditory afferent response features such as the spontaneous discharge rate (SR), threshold, and dynamic range of sound intensity representation (the so-called SR-groups). To test if the development of these spatial gradients requires experience with sound intensity, we quantified the size and spatial distribution of synaptic ribbons from the inner hair cells of neonatal rats before and after the onset of hearing (from post-natal day (P) 3 to P33)...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#9
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303412/auditory-enhancement-in-cochlear-implant-users-under-simultaneous-and-forward-masking
#10
Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement is the phenomenon whereby the salience or detectability of a target sound within a masker is enhanced by the prior presentation of the masker alone. Enhancement has been demonstrated using both simultaneous and forward masking in normal-hearing listeners and may play an important role in auditory and speech perception within complex and time-varying acoustic environments. The few studies of enhancement in hearing-impaired listeners have reported reduced or absent enhancement effects under forward masking, suggesting a potentially peripheral locus of the effect...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281035/acoustic-context-alters-vowel-categorization-in-perception-of-noise-vocoded-speech
#11
Christian E Stilp
Normal-hearing listeners' speech perception is widely influenced by spectral contrast effects (SCEs), where perception of a given sound is biased away from stable spectral properties of preceding sounds. Despite this influence, it is not clear how these contrast effects affect speech perception for cochlear implant (CI) users whose spectral resolution is notoriously poor. This knowledge is important for understanding how CIs might better encode key spectral properties of the listening environment. Here, SCEs were measured in normal-hearing listeners using noise-vocoded speech to simulate poor spectral resolution...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#12
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138791/effect-of-pulse-polarity-on-thresholds-and-on-non-monotonic-loudness-growth-in-cochlear-implant-users
#13
Olivier Macherey, Robert P Carlyon, Jacques Chatron, Stéphane Roman
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101695/the-spatial-release-of-cognitive-load-in-cocktail-party-is-determined-by-the-relative-levels-of-the-talkers
#14
Guillaume Andéol, Clara Suied, Sébastien Scannella, Frédéric Dehais
In a multi-talker situation, spatial separation between talkers reduces cognitive processing load: this is the "spatial release of cognitive load". The present study investigated the role played by the relative levels of the talkers on this spatial release of cognitive load. During the experiment, participants had to report the speech emitted by a target talker in the presence of a concurrent masker talker. The spatial separation (0° and 120° angular distance in azimuth) and the relative levels of the talkers (adverse, intermediate, and favorable target-to-masker ratio) were manipulated...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097439/modeling-responses-in-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus-implications-for-forward-masking-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#15
Nima Salimi, Muhammad S A Zilany, Laurel H Carney
A phenomenological model of the responses of neurons in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) of the rodent is presented in this study. Pure tones at the characteristic frequency (CF) and broadband noise stimuli evoke offset-type responses in these neurons. SPON neurons also phase-lock to the envelope of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli for a range of modulation frequencies. Model SPON neuron received inhibitory input that was relayed by the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body from the contralateral model ventral cochlear nucleus neuron...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050647/deleting-the-hcn1-subunit-of-hyperpolarization-activated-ion-channels-in-mice-impairs-acoustic-startle-reflexes-gap-detection-and-spatial-localization
#16
James R Ison, Paul D Allen, Donata Oertel
It has been proposed that the high temporal and spatial acuities of human listeners and animals tested in the hearing laboratory depend in part on the short time constants of auditory neurons that are able to preserve or sharpen the information conveyed in the timing of firing of auditory nerve fibers. We tested this hypothesis in a series of in vivo experiments, based on previous in vitro experiments showing that neuronal time constants are raised in brainstem slices when HCN1 channels are blocked or in slices obtained from Hcn1 (-/-) null mutant mice...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439720/the-impact-of-oral-promethazine-on-human-whole-body-motion-perceptual-thresholds
#17
Ana Diaz-Artiles, Adrian J Priesol, Torin K Clark, David P Sherwood, Charles M Oman, Laurence R Young, Faisal Karmali
Despite the widespread treatment of motion sickness symptoms using drugs and the involvement of the vestibular system in motion sickness, little is known about the effects of anti-motion sickness drugs on vestibular perception. In particular, the impact of oral promethazine, widely used for treating motion sickness, on vestibular perceptual thresholds has not previously been quantified. We examined whether promethazine (25 mg) alters vestibular perceptual thresholds in a counterbalanced, double-blind, within-subject study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#18
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429126/assessing-the-role-of-place-and-timing-cues-in-coding-frequency-and-amplitude-modulation-as-a-function-of-age
#19
Kelly L Whiteford, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#20
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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