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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#1
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429126/assessing-the-role-of-place-and-timing-cues-in-coding-frequency-and-amplitude-modulation-as-a-function-of-age
#2
Kelly L Whiteford, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361374/spatial-gradients-in-the-size-of-inner-hair-cell-ribbons-emerge-before-the-onset-of-hearing-in-rats
#3
Radha Kalluri, Maya Monges-Hernandez
The size and locations of pre-synaptic ribbons and glutamate receptors within and around inner hair cells are correlated with auditory afferent response features such as the spontaneous discharge rate (SR), threshold, and dynamic range of sound intensity representation (the so-called SR-groups). To test if the development of these spatial gradients requires experience with sound intensity, we quantified the size and spatial distribution of synaptic ribbons from the inner hair cells of neonatal rats before and after the onset of hearing (from post-natal day (P) 3 to P33)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361373/methylmercury-exposure-reduces-the-auditory-brainstem-response-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Sarah E Wolf, John P Swaddle, Daniel A Cristol, William J Buchser
Mercury contamination from mining and fossil fuel combustion causes damage to humans and animals worldwide. Mercury exposure has been implicated in mammalian hearing impairment, but its effect on avian hearing is unknown. In this study, we examined whether lifetime dietary mercury exposure affected hearing in domestic zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by studying their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Zebra finches exposed to mercury exhibited elevated hearing thresholds, decreased amplitudes, and longer latencies in the ABR, the first evidence of mercury-induced hearing impairment in birds...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#5
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303412/auditory-enhancement-in-cochlear-implant-users-under-simultaneous-and-forward-masking
#6
Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement is the phenomenon whereby the salience or detectability of a target sound within a masker is enhanced by the prior presentation of the masker alone. Enhancement has been demonstrated using both simultaneous and forward masking in normal-hearing listeners and may play an important role in auditory and speech perception within complex and time-varying acoustic environments. The few studies of enhancement in hearing-impaired listeners have reported reduced or absent enhancement effects under forward masking, suggesting a potentially peripheral locus of the effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303411/identifying-the-origin-of-effects-of-contralateral-noise-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-in-unanesthetized-mice
#7
Yingyue Xu, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jonathan H Siegel
Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are known to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. Based on measurements in humans (Marks and Siegel, companion paper), we applied a sensitive method to attempt to differentiate MEM and MOC reflexes using contralateral acoustic stimulation in mice under different levels of anesthesia...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281035/acoustic-context-alters-vowel-categorization-in-perception-of-noise-vocoded-speech
#8
Christian E Stilp
Normal-hearing listeners' speech perception is widely influenced by spectral contrast effects (SCEs), where perception of a given sound is biased away from stable spectral properties of preceding sounds. Despite this influence, it is not clear how these contrast effects affect speech perception for cochlear implant (CI) users whose spectral resolution is notoriously poor. This knowledge is important for understanding how CIs might better encode key spectral properties of the listening environment. Here, SCEs were measured in normal-hearing listeners using noise-vocoded speech to simulate poor spectral resolution...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#9
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138791/effect-of-pulse-polarity-on-thresholds-and-on-non-monotonic-loudness-growth-in-cochlear-implant-users
#10
Olivier Macherey, Robert P Carlyon, Jacques Chatron, Stéphane Roman
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#11
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050646/gentamicin-applied-to-the-oval-window-suppresses-vestibular-function-in-guinea-pigs
#12
E B King, R K Shepherd, D J Brown, J B Fallon
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to treat the debilitating symptoms of Ménière's disease. Cochleotoxicity is an undesirable potential side effect of the treatment and the risk of hearing loss increases proportionately with gentamicin concentration in the cochlea. It has recently been shown that gentamicin is readily absorbed through the oval window in guinea pigs. The present study uses quantitative functional measures of vestibular and cochlea function to investigate the efficacy of treating the vestibule by applying a small volume of gentamicin onto the stapes footplate in guinea pigs...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004290/quantitative-analysis-of-aquaporin-expression-levels-during-the-development-and-maturation-of-the-inner-ear
#13
Takushi Miyoshi, Taro Yamaguchi, Kiyokazu Ogita, Yasuko Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Hiroaki Ito, Taisuke Kobayashi, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small membrane proteins that transport water molecules across the plasma membrane along the osmotic gradient. Mammals express 13 subtypes of AQPs, including the recently reported "subcellular AQPs", AQP11 and 12. Each organ expresses specific subsets of AQP subtypes, and in the inner ear, AQPs are essential for the establishment and maintenance of two distinct fluids, endolymph and perilymph. To evaluate the contribution of AQPs during the establishment of inner ear function, we used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression levels of all known AQPs during the entire development and maturation of the inner ear...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995350/cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-causes-degeneration-of-cochlear-vasculature-and-hearing-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Mattia Carraro, Ali Almishaal, Elaine Hillas, Matthew Firpo, Albert Park, Robert V Harrison
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of congenital hearing loss in children. We have used a murine model of CMV infection to reveal functional and structural cochlear pathogenesis. The cerebral cortex of Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) was inoculated with 2000 pfu (plaque forming units) of murine CMV on postnatal day 3. At 6 weeks of age, cochlear function was monitored using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measures. Histological assessment of cochlear vasculature using a corrosion cast technique was made at 8 weeks...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942887/predictions-of-the-contribution-of-hcn-half-maximal-activation-potential-heterogeneity-to-variability-in-intrinsic-adaptation-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#15
Jason Boulet, Ian C Bruce
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) exhibit a wide range in their strength of intrinsic adaptation on a timescale of 10s to 100s of milliseconds in response to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to determine how much of that variability could be caused by the heterogeneity in half-maximal activation potentials of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, which are known to produce intrinsic adaptation. In this study, a computational membrane model of cat type I SGN was developed based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model plus HCN and low-threshold potassium (KLT) conductances in which the half-maximal activation potential of the HCN channel was varied and the response of the SGN to pulse train and paired-pulse stimulation was simulated...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909837/simultaneous-intracochlear-pressure-measurements-from-two-cochlear-locations-propagation-of-distortion-products-in-gerbil
#16
Wei Dong
Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#17
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896486/neural-correlates-of-the-binaural-masking-level-difference-in-human-frequency-following-responses
#18
Christopher G Clinard, Sarah L Hodgson, Mary Ellen Scherer
The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is an auditory phenomenon where binaural tone-in-noise detection is improved when the phase of either signal or noise is inverted in one of the ears (SπNo or SoNπ, respectively), relative to detection when signal and noise are in identical phase at each ear (SoNo). Processing related to BMLDs and interaural time differences has been confirmed in the auditory brainstem of non-human mammals; in the human auditory brainstem, phase-locked neural responses elicited by BMLD stimuli have not been systematically examined across signal-to-noise ratio...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873085/quantitative-analysis-of-supporting-cell-subtype-labeling-among-creer-lines-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#19
Melissa M McGovern, Joseph Brancheck, Auston C Grant, Kaley A Graves, Brandon C Cox
Four CreER lines that are commonly used in the auditory field to label cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are expressed in multiple SC subtypes, with some lines also showing reporter expression in hair cells (HCs). We hypothesized that altering the tamoxifen dose would modify CreER expression and target subsets of SCs. We also used two different reporter lines, ROSA26 (tdTomato) and CAG-eGFP, to achieve the same goal. Our results confirm previous reports that Sox2 (CreERT2) and Fgfr3-iCreER (T2) are not only expressed in neonatal SCs but also in HCs...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873084/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-measured-below-300%C3%A2-hz-in-normal-hearing-human-subjects
#20
Anders T Christensen, Rodrigo Ordoñez, Dorte Hammershøi
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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