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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#1
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050647/deleting-the-hcn1-subunit-of-hyperpolarization-activated-ion-channels-in-mice-impairs-acoustic-startle-reflexes-gap-detection-and-spatial-localization
#2
James R Ison, Paul D Allen, Donata Oertel
It has been proposed that the high temporal and spatial acuities of human listeners and animals tested in the hearing laboratory depend in part on the short time constants of auditory neurons that are able to preserve or sharpen the information conveyed in the timing of firing of auditory nerve fibers. We tested this hypothesis in a series of in vivo experiments, based on previous in vitro experiments showing that neuronal time constants are raised in brainstem slices when HCN1 channels are blocked or in slices obtained from Hcn1 (-/-) null mutant mice...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050646/gentamicin-applied-to-the-oval-window-suppresses-vestibular-function-in-guinea-pigs
#3
E B King, R K Shepherd, D J Brown, J B Fallon
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to treat the debilitating symptoms of Ménière's disease. Cochleotoxicity is an undesirable potential side effect of the treatment and the risk of hearing loss increases proportionately with gentamicin concentration in the cochlea. It has recently been shown that gentamicin is readily absorbed through the oval window in guinea pigs. The present study uses quantitative functional measures of vestibular and cochlea function to investigate the efficacy of treating the vestibule by applying a small volume of gentamicin onto the stapes footplate in guinea pigs...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004290/quantitative-analysis-of-aquaporin-expression-levels-during-the-development-and-maturation-of-the-inner-ear
#4
Takushi Miyoshi, Taro Yamaguchi, Kiyokazu Ogita, Yasuko Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Hiroaki Ito, Taisuke Kobayashi, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small membrane proteins that transport water molecules across the plasma membrane along the osmotic gradient. Mammals express 13 subtypes of AQPs, including the recently reported "subcellular AQPs", AQP11 and 12. Each organ expresses specific subsets of AQP subtypes, and in the inner ear, AQPs are essential for the establishment and maintenance of two distinct fluids, endolymph and perilymph. To evaluate the contribution of AQPs during the establishment of inner ear function, we used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression levels of all known AQPs during the entire development and maturation of the inner ear...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995350/cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-causes-degeneration-of-cochlear-vasculature-and-hearing-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#5
Mattia Carraro, Ali Almishaal, Elaine Hillas, Matthew Firpo, Albert Park, Robert V Harrison
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of congenital hearing loss in children. We have used a murine model of CMV infection to reveal functional and structural cochlear pathogenesis. The cerebral cortex of Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) was inoculated with 2000 pfu (plaque forming units) of murine CMV on postnatal day 3. At 6 weeks of age, cochlear function was monitored using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measures. Histological assessment of cochlear vasculature using a corrosion cast technique was made at 8 weeks...
December 19, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957612/aural-acoustic-stapedius-muscle-reflex-threshold-procedures-to-test-human-infants-and-adults
#6
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick
Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear...
December 12, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942887/predictions-of-the-contribution-of-hcn-half-maximal-activation-potential-heterogeneity-to-variability-in-intrinsic-adaptation-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#7
Jason Boulet, Ian C Bruce
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) exhibit a wide range in their strength of intrinsic adaptation on a timescale of 10s to 100s of milliseconds in response to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to determine how much of that variability could be caused by the heterogeneity in half-maximal activation potentials of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, which are known to produce intrinsic adaptation. In this study, a computational membrane model of cat type I SGN was developed based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model plus HCN and low-threshold potassium (KLT) conductances in which the half-maximal activation potential of the HCN channel was varied and the response of the SGN to pulse train and paired-pulse stimulation was simulated...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928634/pressurized-wideband-acoustic-stapedial-reflex-thresholds-normal-development-and-relationships-to-auditory-function-in-infants
#8
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Denis F Fitzpatrick
This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909837/simultaneous-intracochlear-pressure-measurements-from-two-cochlear-locations-propagation-of-distortion-products-in-gerbil
#9
Wei Dong
Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#10
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896486/neural-correlates-of-the-binaural-masking-level-difference-in-human-frequency-following-responses
#11
Christopher G Clinard, Sarah L Hodgson, Mary Ellen Scherer
The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is an auditory phenomenon where binaural tone-in-noise detection is improved when the phase of either signal or noise is inverted in one of the ears (SπNo or SoNπ, respectively), relative to detection when signal and noise are in identical phase at each ear (SoNo). Processing related to BMLDs and interaural time differences has been confirmed in the auditory brainstem of non-human mammals; in the human auditory brainstem, phase-locked neural responses elicited by BMLD stimuli have not been systematically examined across signal-to-noise ratio...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873085/quantitative-analysis-of-supporting-cell-subtype-labeling-among-creer-lines-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#12
Melissa M McGovern, Joseph Brancheck, Auston C Grant, Kaley A Graves, Brandon C Cox
Four CreER lines that are commonly used in the auditory field to label cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are expressed in multiple SC subtypes, with some lines also showing reporter expression in hair cells (HCs). We hypothesized that altering the tamoxifen dose would modify CreER expression and target subsets of SCs. We also used two different reporter lines, ROSA26 (tdTomato) and CAG-eGFP, to achieve the same goal. Our results confirm previous reports that Sox2 (CreERT2) and Fgfr3-iCreER (T2) are not only expressed in neonatal SCs but also in HCs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873084/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-measured-below-300%C3%A2-hz-in-normal-hearing-human-subjects
#13
Anders T Christensen, Rodrigo Ordoñez, Dorte Hammershøi
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832500/long-lasting-forward-suppression-of-spontaneous-firing-in-auditory-neurons-implication-to-the-residual-inhibition-of-tinnitus
#14
A V Galazyuk, S V Voytenko, R J Longenecker
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound that has no external source. Sound stimuli can suppress spontaneous firing in auditory neurons long after stimulus offset. It is unknown how changes in sound stimulus parameters affect this forward suppression. Using in vivo extracellular recording in awake mice, we found that about 40 % of spontaneously active inferior colliculus (IC) neurons exhibited forward suppression of spontaneous activity after sound offset. The duration of this suppression increased with sound duration and lasted about 40 s following a 30-s stimulus offset...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830350/longitudinal-changes-in-audiometric-phenotypes-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#15
Kenneth I Vaden, Lois J Matthews, Mark A Eckert, Judy R Dubno
Presbyacusis, or age-related hearing loss, can be characterized in humans as metabolic and sensory phenotypes, based on patterns of audiometric thresholds that were established in animal models. The metabolic phenotype is thought to result from deterioration of the cochlear lateral wall and reduced endocochlear potential that decreases cochlear amplification and produces a mild, flat hearing loss at lower frequencies coupled with a gradually sloping hearing loss at higher frequencies. The sensory phenotype, resulting from environmental exposures such as excessive noise or ototoxic drugs, involves damage to sensory and non-sensory cells and loss of the cochlear amplifier, which produces a 50-70 dB threshold shift at higher frequencies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807642/improving-the-reliability-of-tinnitus-screening-in-laboratory-animals
#16
Aikeen Jones, Bradford J May
Behavioral screening remains a contentious issue for animal studies of tinnitus. Most paradigms base a positive tinnitus test on an animal's natural tendency to respond to the "sound" of tinnitus as if it were an actual sound. As a result, animals with tinnitus are expected to display sound-conditioned behaviors when no sound is present or to miss gaps in background sounds because tinnitus "fills in the gap." Reliable confirmation of the behavioral indications of tinnitus can be problematic because the reinforcement contingencies of conventional discrimination tasks break down an animal's tendency to group tinnitus with sound...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798720/electrically-evoked-medial-olivocochlear-efferent-effects-on-stimulus-frequency-otoacoustic-emissions-in-guinea-pigs
#17
Maria A Berezina-Greene, John J Guinan
Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are produced by cochlear irregularities reflecting energy from the peak region of the traveling wave (TW). Activation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents reduces cochlear amplification and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). In other OAEs, MOC activation can produce enhancements. The extent of MOC enhancements of SFOAEs has not been previously studied. In anesthetized guinea pigs, we electrically stimulated MOC fibers and recorded their effects on SFOAEs. MOC stimulation mostly inhibited SFOAEs but sometimes enhanced them...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796594/estimation-of-round-trip-outer-middle-ear-gain-using-dpoaes
#18
Maryam Naghibolhosseini, Glenis R Long
The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate round-trip outer-middle ear pressure gain using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. The role of the outer and middle ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752925/application-of-mouse-models-to-research-in-hearing-and-balance
#19
REVIEW
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Sherri M Jones, Kenneth R Johnson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) have become the major model species for inner ear research. The major uses of mice include gene discovery, characterization, and confirmation. Every application of mice is founded on assumptions about what mice represent and how the information gained may be generalized. A host of successes support the continued use of mice to understand hearing and balance. Depending on the research question, however, some mouse models and research designs will be more appropriate than others...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631508/relation-between-cochlear-mechanics-and-performance-of-temporal-fine-structure-based-tasks
#20
Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Shimpei Yamagishi, Koich Hirota, Makio Kashino
This study examined whether the mechanical characteristics of the cochlea could influence individual variation in the ability to use temporal fine structure (TFS) information. Cochlear mechanical functioning was evaluated by swept-tone evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are thought to comprise linear reflection by micromechanical impedance perturbations, such as spatial variations in the number or geometry of outer hair cells, on the basilar membrane (BM). Low-rate (2 Hz) frequency modulation detection limens (FMDLs) were measured for carrier frequency of 1000 Hz and interaural phase difference (IPD) thresholds as indices of TFS sensitivity and high-rate (16 Hz) FMDLs and amplitude modulation detection limens (AMDLs) as indices of sensitivity to non-TFS cues...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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