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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#1
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138791/effect-of-pulse-polarity-on-thresholds-and-on-non-monotonic-loudness-growth-in-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Olivier Macherey, Robert P Carlyon, Jacques Chatron, Stéphane Roman
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101695/the-spatial-release-of-cognitive-load-in-cocktail-party-is-determined-by-the-relative-levels-of-the-talkers
#3
Guillaume Andéol, Clara Suied, Sébastien Scannella, Frédéric Dehais
In a multi-talker situation, spatial separation between talkers reduces cognitive processing load: this is the "spatial release of cognitive load". The present study investigated the role played by the relative levels of the talkers on this spatial release of cognitive load. During the experiment, participants had to report the speech emitted by a target talker in the presence of a concurrent masker talker. The spatial separation (0° and 120° angular distance in azimuth) and the relative levels of the talkers (adverse, intermediate, and favorable target-to-masker ratio) were manipulated...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097439/modeling-responses-in-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus-implications-for-forward-masking-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#4
Nima Salimi, Muhammad S A Zilany, Laurel H Carney
A phenomenological model of the responses of neurons in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) of the rodent is presented in this study. Pure tones at the characteristic frequency (CF) and broadband noise stimuli evoke offset-type responses in these neurons. SPON neurons also phase-lock to the envelope of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli for a range of modulation frequencies. Model SPON neuron received inhibitory input that was relayed by the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body from the contralateral model ventral cochlear nucleus neuron...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#5
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050647/deleting-the-hcn1-subunit-of-hyperpolarization-activated-ion-channels-in-mice-impairs-acoustic-startle-reflexes-gap-detection-and-spatial-localization
#6
James R Ison, Paul D Allen, Donata Oertel
It has been proposed that the high temporal and spatial acuities of human listeners and animals tested in the hearing laboratory depend in part on the short time constants of auditory neurons that are able to preserve or sharpen the information conveyed in the timing of firing of auditory nerve fibers. We tested this hypothesis in a series of in vivo experiments, based on previous in vitro experiments showing that neuronal time constants are raised in brainstem slices when HCN1 channels are blocked or in slices obtained from Hcn1 (-/-) null mutant mice...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050646/gentamicin-applied-to-the-oval-window-suppresses-vestibular-function-in-guinea-pigs
#7
E B King, R K Shepherd, D J Brown, J B Fallon
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to treat the debilitating symptoms of Ménière's disease. Cochleotoxicity is an undesirable potential side effect of the treatment and the risk of hearing loss increases proportionately with gentamicin concentration in the cochlea. It has recently been shown that gentamicin is readily absorbed through the oval window in guinea pigs. The present study uses quantitative functional measures of vestibular and cochlea function to investigate the efficacy of treating the vestibule by applying a small volume of gentamicin onto the stapes footplate in guinea pigs...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004290/quantitative-analysis-of-aquaporin-expression-levels-during-the-development-and-maturation-of-the-inner-ear
#8
Takushi Miyoshi, Taro Yamaguchi, Kiyokazu Ogita, Yasuko Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Hiroaki Ito, Taisuke Kobayashi, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small membrane proteins that transport water molecules across the plasma membrane along the osmotic gradient. Mammals express 13 subtypes of AQPs, including the recently reported "subcellular AQPs", AQP11 and 12. Each organ expresses specific subsets of AQP subtypes, and in the inner ear, AQPs are essential for the establishment and maintenance of two distinct fluids, endolymph and perilymph. To evaluate the contribution of AQPs during the establishment of inner ear function, we used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression levels of all known AQPs during the entire development and maturation of the inner ear...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995350/cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-causes-degeneration-of-cochlear-vasculature-and-hearing-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Mattia Carraro, Ali Almishaal, Elaine Hillas, Matthew Firpo, Albert Park, Robert V Harrison
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of congenital hearing loss in children. We have used a murine model of CMV infection to reveal functional and structural cochlear pathogenesis. The cerebral cortex of Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) was inoculated with 2000 pfu (plaque forming units) of murine CMV on postnatal day 3. At 6 weeks of age, cochlear function was monitored using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measures. Histological assessment of cochlear vasculature using a corrosion cast technique was made at 8 weeks...
December 19, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942887/predictions-of-the-contribution-of-hcn-half-maximal-activation-potential-heterogeneity-to-variability-in-intrinsic-adaptation-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#10
Jason Boulet, Ian C Bruce
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) exhibit a wide range in their strength of intrinsic adaptation on a timescale of 10s to 100s of milliseconds in response to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to determine how much of that variability could be caused by the heterogeneity in half-maximal activation potentials of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, which are known to produce intrinsic adaptation. In this study, a computational membrane model of cat type I SGN was developed based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model plus HCN and low-threshold potassium (KLT) conductances in which the half-maximal activation potential of the HCN channel was varied and the response of the SGN to pulse train and paired-pulse stimulation was simulated...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909837/simultaneous-intracochlear-pressure-measurements-from-two-cochlear-locations-propagation-of-distortion-products-in-gerbil
#11
Wei Dong
Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957612/aural-acoustic-stapedius-muscle-reflex-threshold-procedures-to-test-human-infants-and-adults
#12
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick
Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928634/pressurized-wideband-acoustic-stapedial-reflex-thresholds-normal-development-and-relationships-to-auditory-function-in-infants
#13
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Denis F Fitzpatrick
This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807642/improving-the-reliability-of-tinnitus-screening-in-laboratory-animals
#14
Aikeen Jones, Bradford J May
Behavioral screening remains a contentious issue for animal studies of tinnitus. Most paradigms base a positive tinnitus test on an animal's natural tendency to respond to the "sound" of tinnitus as if it were an actual sound. As a result, animals with tinnitus are expected to display sound-conditioned behaviors when no sound is present or to miss gaps in background sounds because tinnitus "fills in the gap." Reliable confirmation of the behavioral indications of tinnitus can be problematic because the reinforcement contingencies of conventional discrimination tasks break down an animal's tendency to group tinnitus with sound...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798720/electrically-evoked-medial-olivocochlear-efferent-effects-on-stimulus-frequency-otoacoustic-emissions-in-guinea-pigs
#15
Maria A Berezina-Greene, John J Guinan
Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are produced by cochlear irregularities reflecting energy from the peak region of the traveling wave (TW). Activation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents reduces cochlear amplification and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). In other OAEs, MOC activation can produce enhancements. The extent of MOC enhancements of SFOAEs has not been previously studied. In anesthetized guinea pigs, we electrically stimulated MOC fibers and recorded their effects on SFOAEs. MOC stimulation mostly inhibited SFOAEs but sometimes enhanced them...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796594/estimation-of-round-trip-outer-middle-ear-gain-using-dpoaes
#16
Maryam Naghibolhosseini, Glenis R Long
The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate round-trip outer-middle ear pressure gain using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. The role of the outer and middle ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766433/midbrain-synchrony-to-envelope-structure-supports-behavioral-sensitivity-to-single-formant-vowel-like-sounds-in-noise
#17
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761740/aftereffects-of-intense-low-frequency-sound-on-spontaneous-otoacoustic-emissions-effect-of-frequency-and-level
#18
Lena Jeanson, Lutz Wiegrebe, Robert Gürkov, Eike Krause, Markus Drexl
The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons)...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718037/finite-element-modelling-of-the-acoustic-input-admittance-of-the-newborn-ear-canal-and-middle-ear
#19
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Nima Maftoon, Jacob Pitaro, W Robert J Funnell, Sam J Daniel
Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696081/tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-type-ii-cochlear-afferents-in-mice
#20
Pankhuri Vyas, Jingjing Sherry Wu, Amanda Zimmerman, Paul Fuchs, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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