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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777327/intensity-discrimination-and-speech-recognition-of-cochlear-implant-users
#1
Colette M McKay, Natalie Rickard, Katherine Henshall
The relation between speech recognition and within-channel or across-channel (i.e., spectral tilt) intensity discrimination was measured in nine CI users (11 ears). Within-channel intensity difference limens (IDLs) were measured at four electrode locations across the electrode array. Spectral tilt difference limens were measured with (XIDL-J) and without (XIDL) level jitter. Only three subjects could perform the XIDL-J task with the amount of jitter required to limit use of within-channel cues. XIDLs (normalized to %DR) were correlated with speech recognition (r = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749573/tone-evoked-acoustic-change-complex-acc-recorded-in-a-sedated-animal-model
#2
Alessandro Presacco, John C Middlebrooks
The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded cortical evoked potential complex generated in response to changes (e.g., frequency, amplitude) in an auditory stimulus. The ACC has been well studied in humans, but to our knowledge, no animal model has been evaluated. In particular, it was not known whether the ACC could be recorded under the conditions of sedation that likely would be necessary for recordings from animals. For that reason, we tested the feasibility of recording ACC from sedated cats in response to changes of frequency and amplitude of pure-tone stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744731/factors-affecting-speech-reception-in-background-noise-with-a-vocoder-implementation-of-the-fast-algorithm
#3
Shaikat Hossain, Raymond L Goldsworthy
Speech segregation in background noise remains a difficult task for individuals with hearing loss. Several signal processing strategies have been developed to improve the efficacy of hearing assistive technologies in complex listening environments. The present study measured speech reception thresholds in normal-hearing listeners attending to a vocoder based on the Fundamental Asynchronous Stimulus Timing algorithm (FAST: Smith et al. 2014), which triggers pulses based on the amplitudes of channel magnitudes in order to preserve envelope timing cues, with two different reconstruction bandwidths (narrowband and broadband) to control the degree of spectrotemporal resolution...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744730/persistent-auditory-nerve-damage-following-kainic-acid-excitotoxicity-in-the-budgerigar-melopsittacus-undulatus
#4
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744729/supra-threshold-hearing-and-fluctuation-profiles-implications-for-sensorineural-and-hidden-hearing-loss
#5
REVIEW
Laurel H Carney
An important topic in contemporary auditory science is supra-threshold hearing. Difficulty hearing at conversational speech levels in background noise has long been recognized as a problem of sensorineural hearing loss, including that associated with aging (presbyacusis). Such difficulty in listeners with normal thresholds has received more attention recently, especially associated with descriptions of synaptopathy, the loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers as a result of noise exposure or aging. Synaptopathy has been reported to cause a disproportionate loss of low- and medium-spontaneous rate (L/MSR) AN fibers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736560/click-evoked-auditory-efferent-activity-rate-and-level-effects
#6
Sriram Boothalingam, Julianne Kurke, Sumitrajit Dhar
There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696448/temporal-modulation-detection-depends-on-sharpness-of-spatial-tuning
#7
Ning Zhou, Matthew Cadmus, Lixue Dong, Juliana Mathews
Prior research has shown that in electrical hearing, cochlear implant (CI) users' speech recognition performance is related in part to their ability to detect temporal modulation (i.e., modulation sensitivity). Previous studies have also shown better speech recognition when selectively stimulating sites with good modulation sensitivity rather than all stimulation sites. Site selection based on channel interaction measures, such as those using imaging or psychophysical estimates of spread of neural excitation, has also been shown to improve speech recognition...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687165/mechanism-underlying-the-effects-of-estrogen-deficiency-on-otoconia
#8
Liping Yang, Yinfang Xu, Yan Zhang, Sarath Vijayakumar, Sherri M Jones, Yunxia Yesha Wang Lundberg
Otoconia-related vertigo and balance deficits, particularly benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), are common. Our recent studies in humans show that, while BPPV prevalence greatly increases with age in both genders, peri-menopausal women are especially susceptible. In the present study, we show that bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) mice have significant balance behavioral deficits, and that estrogen deficiency compromises otoconia maintenance and anchoring by reducing the expression of otoconial component and anchoring proteins...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633049/cortical-processing-related-to-intensity-of-a-modulated-noise-stimulus-a-functional-near-infrared-study
#9
Stefan Weder, Xin Zhou, Mehrnaz Shoushtarian, Hamish Innes-Brown, Colette McKay
Sound intensity is a key feature of auditory signals. A profound understanding of cortical processing of this feature is therefore highly desirable. This study investigates whether cortical functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals reflect sound intensity changes and where on the brain cortex maximal intensity-dependent activations are located. The fNIRS technique is particularly suitable for this kind of hearing study, as it runs silently. Twenty-three normal hearing subjects were included and actively participated in a counterbalanced block design task...
April 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623476/transcription-and-microrna-profiling-of-cultured-human-tympanic-membrane-epidermal-keratinocytes
#10
Peder Aabel, Tor Paaske Utheim, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Helge Rask-Andersen, Rodney James Dilley, Magnus von Unge
The human tympanic membrane (TM) has a thin outer epidermal layer which plays an important role in TM homeostasis and ear health. The specialised cells of the TM epidermis have a different physiology compared to normal skin epidermal keratinocytes, displaying a dynamic and constitutive migration that maintains a clear TM surface and assists in regeneration. Here, we characterise and compare molecular phenotypes in keratinocyte cultures from TM and normal skin. TM keratinocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549594/keratinocyte-growth-factor-kgf-modulates-epidermal-progenitor-cell-kinetics-through-activation-of-p63-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#11
Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Naotaro Akiyama, Masahiro Takahashi, Hiromi Kojima
The basal stem/progenitor cell maintains homeostasis of the epidermis. Progressive disturbance of this homeostasis has been implicated as a possible cause in the pathogenesis of epithelial disease, such as middle ear cholesteatoma. In many cases of stem/progenitor cell regulation, the importance of extracellular signals provided by the surrounding cells is well-recognized. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a mesenchymal-cell-derived paracrine growth factor that specifically participates in skin homeostasis; however, the overexpression of KGF induces middle ear cholesteatoma...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549593/introducing-short-interpulse-intervals-in-high-rate-pulse-trains-enhances-binaural-timing-sensitivity-in-electric-hearing
#12
Sridhar Srinivasan, Bernhard Laback, Piotr Majdak, Bertrand Delgutte
Common envelope-based stimulation strategies for cochlear implants (CIs) use relatively high carrier rates in order to properly encode the speech envelope. For such rates, CI listeners show poor sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs), which are important for horizontal-plane sound localization and spatial unmasking of speech. Based on the findings from previous studies, we predicted that ITD sensitivity can be enhanced by including pulses with short interpulse intervals (SIPIs), to a 1000-pulses-per-second (pps) reference pulse train...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532190/effect-of-pulse-rate-on-loudness-discrimination-in-cochlear-implant-users
#13
Mahan Azadpour, Colette M McKay, Mario A Svirsky
Stimulation pulse rate affects current amplitude discrimination by cochlear implant (CI) users, indicated by the evidence that the JND (just noticeable difference) in current amplitude delivered by a CI electrode becomes larger at higher pulse rates. However, it is not clearly understood whether pulse rate would affect discrimination of speech intensities presented acoustically to CI processors, or what the size of this effect might be. Intensity discrimination depends on two factors: the growth of loudness with increasing sound intensity and the loudness JND (or the just noticeable loudness increment)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508100/temporal-effects-on-monaural-amplitude-modulation-sensitivity-in-ipsilateral-contralateral-and-bilateral-noise
#14
Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Luis E López-Bascuas, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
The amplitude modulations (AMs) in speech signals are useful cues for speech recognition. Several adaptation mechanisms may make the detection of AM in noisy backgrounds easier when the AM carrier is presented later rather than earlier in the noise. The aim of the present study was to characterize temporal adaptation to noise in AM detection. AM detection thresholds were measured for monaural (50 ms, 1.5 kHz) pure-tone carriers presented at the onset ('early' condition) and 300 ms after the onset ('late' condition) of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral (diotic) broadband noise, as well as in quiet...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464412/speech-intelligibility-predicted-from-neural-entrainment-of-the-speech-envelope
#15
Jonas Vanthornhout, Lien Decruy, Jan Wouters, Jonathan Z Simon, Tom Francart
Speech intelligibility is currently measured by scoring how well a person can identify a speech signal. The results of such behavioral measures reflect neural processing of the speech signal, but are also influenced by language processing, motivation, and memory. Very often, electrophysiological measures of hearing give insight in the neural processing of sound. However, in most methods, non-speech stimuli are used, making it hard to relate the results to behavioral measures of speech intelligibility. The use of natural running speech as a stimulus in electrophysiological measures of hearing is a paradigm shift which allows to bridge the gap between behavioral and electrophysiological measures...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349595/the-development-of-a-nano-based-approach-to-alleviate-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity
#16
Mohammad N Kayyali, Andrew J Ramsey, Elizabeth M Higbee-Dempsey, Lesan Yan, Bert W O'Malley, Andrew Tsourkas, Daqing Li
Cisplatin-induced hearing loss is experienced by a high percentage of patients with squamous cell carcinoma undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy. A novel nano-construct capable of sequestering extracellular cisplatin was developed to combat this problem. The nano-construct consisted of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) entrapped within polymeric micelles, which were formed from a glutathione diethyl ester-conjugated amphiphilic diblock copolymer. The glutathione-micelles were analyzed at the cellular level and in an organotypic study for safety evaluation...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313147/voice-discrimination-by-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-benefits-of-early-implantation-for-vocal-tract-length-perception
#17
Yael Zaltz, Raymond L Goldsworthy, Liat Kishon-Rabin, Laurie S Eisenberg
Cochlear implant (CI) users find it extremely difficult to discriminate between talkers, which may partially explain why they struggle to understand speech in a multi-talker environment. Recent studies, based on findings with postlingually deafened CI users, suggest that these difficulties may stem from their limited use of vocal-tract length (VTL) cues due to the degraded spectral resolution transmitted by the CI device. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of adult CI users who had no prior acoustic experience, i...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302822/robust-neuronal-discrimination-in-primary-auditory-cortex-despite-degradations-of-spectro-temporal-acoustic-details-comparison-between-guinea-pigs-with-normal-hearing-and-mild-age-related-hearing-loss
#18
Yonane Aushana, Samira Souffi, Jean-Marc Edeline, Christian Lorenzi, Chloé Huetz
This study investigated to which extent the primary auditory cortex of young normal-hearing and mild hearing-impaired aged animals is able to maintain invariant representation of critical temporal-modulation features when sounds are submitted to degradations of fine spectro-temporal acoustic details. This was achieved by recording ensemble of cortical responses to conspecific vocalizations in guinea pigs with either normal hearing or mild age-related sensorineural hearing loss. The vocalizations were degraded using a tone vocoder...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294193/effects-of-acoustic-environment-on-tinnitus-behavior-in-sound-exposed-rats
#19
Aikeen Jones, Bradford J May
Laboratory studies often rely on a damaging sound exposure to induce tinnitus in animal models. Because the time course and ultimate success of the induction process is not known in advance, it is not unusual to maintain sound-exposed animals for months while they are periodically assessed for behavioral indications of the disorder. To demonstrate the importance of acoustic environment during this period of behavioral screening, sound-exposed rats were tested for tinnitus while housed under quiet or constant noise conditions...
April 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464411/optimal-human-passive-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-adaptation-does-not-rely-on-passive-training
#20
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main vision-stabilising system during rapid head movements in humans. A visual-vestibular mismatch stimulus can be used to train or adapt the VOR response because it induces a retinal image slip error signal that drives VOR motor learning. The training context has been shown to affect VOR adaptation. We sought to determine whether active (self-generated) versus passive (externally imposed) head rotation vestibular training would differentially affect adaptation and short-term retention of the active and passive VOR responses...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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