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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014309/spectral-ripples-in-round-window-cochlear-microphonics-evidence-for-multiple-generation-mechanisms
#1
Karolina K Charaziak, Jonathan H Siegel, Christopher A Shera
The cochlear microphonic (CM) results from the vector sum of outer hair cell transduction currents excited by a stimulus. The classical theory of CM generation-that the response measured at the round window is dominated by cellular sources located within the tail region of the basilar membrane (BM) excitation pattern-predicts that CM amplitude and phase vary little with stimulus frequency. Contrary to expectations, CM amplitude and phase-gradient delay measured in response to low-level tones in chinchillas demonstrate a striking, quasiperiodic pattern of spectral ripples, even at frequencies > 5 kHz, where interference with neurophonic potentials is unlikely...
July 16, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968099/chronic-deafness-degrades-temporal-acuity-in-the-electrically-stimulated-auditory-pathway
#2
John C Middlebrooks
Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve with a penetrating intraneural (IN) electrode in acutely deafened cats produces much more restricted spread of excitation than is obtained in that preparation with a conventional cochlear implant (CI) as reported by Middlebrooks and Snyder (J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 8:258-279, 2007). That suggests that a future auditory prosthesis employing IN stimulation might offer human patients greater frequency selectivity than is available with a present-day CI. Nevertheless, it is a concern that the electrical field produced by an IN electrode might be too restricted to produce adequate stimulation of the partially depopulated auditory nerve of a deaf patient...
July 2, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968098/reflection-and-distortion-source-otoacoustic-emissions-evidence-for-increased-irregularity-in-the-human-cochlea-during-aging
#3
Carolina Abdala, Amanda J Ortmann, Christopher A Shera
Previous research on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) components has hinted at possible differences in the effect of aging on the two basic types of OAEs: those generated by a reflection mechanism in the cochlea and those created by nonlinear distortion (Abdala and Dhar in J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:403-421, 2012). This initial work led to the hypothesis that micromechanical irregularity ("roughness") increases in the aging cochlea, perhaps as the result of natural tissue degradation...
July 2, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946952/modeling-the-dependence-of-the-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-response-on-primary-frequency-ratio
#4
Renata Sisto, Uzma Shaheen Wilson, Sumitrajit Dhar, Arturo Moleti
When measured as a function of primary frequency ratio r = f2 /f1 , using a constant f2 , distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response demonstrates a bandpass shape, previously interpreted as the evidence for a cochlear "second filter." In this study, an alternate, interference-based explanation, previously advanced in variants, is forwarded on the basis of experimental data along with numerical and analytical solutions of nonlinear and linear cochlear models. The decrease of the DPOAE response with increasing and decreasing ratios is explained by a diminishing "overlap" generation region and the onset of negative interference among wavelets of different phase, respectively...
June 26, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881937/effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-detection-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users-relationships-with-average-threshold-gap-detection-and-rate-discrimination
#5
Robert P Carlyon, Stefano Cosentino, John M Deeks, Wendy Parkinson, Julie A Arenberg
Previous psychophysical and modeling studies suggest that cathodic stimulation by a cochlear implant (CI) may preferentially activate the peripheral processes of the auditory nerve, whereas anodic stimulation may preferentially activate the central axons. Because neural degeneration typically starts with loss of the peripheral processes, lower thresholds for cathodic than for anodic stimulation may indicate good local neural survival. We measured thresholds for 99-pulse-per-second trains of triphasic (TP) pulses where the central high-amplitude phase was either anodic (TP-A) or cathodic (TP-C)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869048/platelet-derived-growth-factor-subunit-b-signaling-promotes-pericyte-migration-in-response-to-loud-sound-in-the-cochlear-stria-vascularis
#6
Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Jing Cai, Jinhui Zhang, Ahmed Hassan, Manfred Auer, Xiaorui Shi
Normal blood supply to the cochlea is critical for hearing. Noise damages auditory sensory cells and has a marked effect on the microvasculature in the cochlear lateral wall. Pericytes in the stria vascularis (strial pericytes) are particularly vulnerable and sensitive to acoustic trauma. Exposure of NG2DsRedBAC transgenic mice (6-8 weeks old) to wide-band noise at a level of 120 dB for 3 h per day for 2 consecutive days produced a significant hearing threshold shift and caused pericytes to protrude and migrate from their normal endothelial attachment sites...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869047/psychophysical-tuning-curves-as-a-correlate-of-electrode-position-in-cochlear-implant-listeners
#7
Lindsay DeVries, Julie G Arenberg
Speech understanding abilities vary widely among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. A potential source of this variability is the electrode-neuron interface (ENI), which includes peripheral factors such as electrode position and integrity of remaining spiral ganglion neurons. Suboptimal positioning of the electrode array has been associated with poorer speech outcomes; however, postoperative computerized tomography (CT) scans are often not available to clinicians. CT-estimated electrode-to-modiolus distance (distance from the inner wall of the cochlea) has been shown to account for some variability in behavioral thresholds...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869046/characterization-of-adult-vestibular-organs-in-11-creer-mouse-lines
#8
Jennifer S Stone, Serena R Wisner, Stephanie A Bucks, Marcia M Mellado Lagarde, Brandon C Cox
Utricles are vestibular sense organs that encode linear head movements. They are composed of a sensory epithelium with type I and type II hair cells and supporting cells, sitting atop connective tissue, through which vestibular nerves project. We characterized utricular Cre expression in 11 murine CreER lines using the ROSA26tdTomato reporter line and tamoxifen induction at 6 weeks of age. This characterization included Calbindin2CreERT2 , Fgfr3-iCreERT2 , GFAP-A-CreER™, GFAP-B-CreER™, GLAST-CreERT2 , Id2CreERT2 , OtoferlinCreERT2 , ParvalbuminCreERT2 , Prox1CreERT2 , Sox2CreERT2 , and Sox9-CreERT2 ...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785464/contribution-of-cochlear-compression-to-discrimination-of-rippled-spectra-in-on-and-low-frequency-noise
#9
Olga N Milekhina, Dmitry I Nechaev, Alexander Ya Supin
The goal of the study was to assess cochlear compression when rippled-spectrum signals are perceived in noise assuming that the noise might produce both masking and confounding effects. In normal listeners, discrimination between rippled signals with and without ripple phase reversals was assessed in background noise. The signals were band-limited (0.5 oct at a - 6-dB level) rippled noise centered at 2 kHz, with a ripple density of 3.5 oct-1 . The noise (masker) was band-limited nonrippled noise centered at either 2 kHz (on-frequency masker) or 1 kHz (low-frequency masker)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777327/intensity-discrimination-and-speech-recognition-of-cochlear-implant-users
#10
Colette M McKay, Natalie Rickard, Katherine Henshall
The relation between speech recognition and within-channel or across-channel (i.e., spectral tilt) intensity discrimination was measured in nine CI users (11 ears). Within-channel intensity difference limens (IDLs) were measured at four electrode locations across the electrode array. Spectral tilt difference limens were measured with (XIDL-J) and without (XIDL) level jitter. Only three subjects could perform the XIDL-J task with the amount of jitter required to limit use of within-channel cues. XIDLs (normalized to %DR) were correlated with speech recognition (r = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749573/tone-evoked-acoustic-change-complex-acc-recorded-in-a-sedated-animal-model
#11
Alessandro Presacco, John C Middlebrooks
The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded cortical evoked potential complex generated in response to changes (e.g., frequency, amplitude) in an auditory stimulus. The ACC has been well studied in humans, but to our knowledge, no animal model has been evaluated. In particular, it was not known whether the ACC could be recorded under the conditions of sedation that likely would be necessary for recordings from animals. For that reason, we tested the feasibility of recording ACC from sedated cats in response to changes of frequency and amplitude of pure-tone stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744731/factors-affecting-speech-reception-in-background-noise-with-a-vocoder-implementation-of-the-fast-algorithm
#12
Shaikat Hossain, Raymond L Goldsworthy
Speech segregation in background noise remains a difficult task for individuals with hearing loss. Several signal processing strategies have been developed to improve the efficacy of hearing assistive technologies in complex listening environments. The present study measured speech reception thresholds in normal-hearing listeners attending to a vocoder based on the Fundamental Asynchronous Stimulus Timing algorithm (FAST: Smith et al. 2014), which triggers pulses based on the amplitudes of channel magnitudes in order to preserve envelope timing cues, with two different reconstruction bandwidths (narrowband and broadband) to control the degree of spectrotemporal resolution...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744730/persistent-auditory-nerve-damage-following-kainic-acid-excitotoxicity-in-the-budgerigar-melopsittacus-undulatus
#13
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744729/supra-threshold-hearing-and-fluctuation-profiles-implications-for-sensorineural-and-hidden-hearing-loss
#14
REVIEW
Laurel H Carney
An important topic in contemporary auditory science is supra-threshold hearing. Difficulty hearing at conversational speech levels in background noise has long been recognized as a problem of sensorineural hearing loss, including that associated with aging (presbyacusis). Such difficulty in listeners with normal thresholds has received more attention recently, especially associated with descriptions of synaptopathy, the loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers as a result of noise exposure or aging. Synaptopathy has been reported to cause a disproportionate loss of low- and medium-spontaneous rate (L/MSR) AN fibers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736560/click-evoked-auditory-efferent-activity-rate-and-level-effects
#15
Sriram Boothalingam, Julianne Kurke, Sumitrajit Dhar
There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687165/mechanism-underlying-the-effects-of-estrogen-deficiency-on-otoconia
#16
Liping Yang, Yinfang Xu, Yan Zhang, Sarath Vijayakumar, Sherri M Jones, Yunxia Yesha Wang Lundberg
Otoconia-related vertigo and balance deficits, particularly benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), are common. Our recent studies in humans show that, while BPPV prevalence greatly increases with age in both genders, peri-menopausal women are especially susceptible. In the present study, we show that bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) mice have significant balance behavioral deficits, and that estrogen deficiency compromises otoconia maintenance and anchoring by reducing the expression of otoconial component and anchoring proteins...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696448/temporal-modulation-detection-depends-on-sharpness-of-spatial-tuning
#17
Ning Zhou, Matthew Cadmus, Lixue Dong, Juliana Mathews
Prior research has shown that in electrical hearing, cochlear implant (CI) users' speech recognition performance is related in part to their ability to detect temporal modulation (i.e., modulation sensitivity). Previous studies have also shown better speech recognition when selectively stimulating sites with good modulation sensitivity rather than all stimulation sites. Site selection based on channel interaction measures, such as those using imaging or psychophysical estimates of spread of neural excitation, has also been shown to improve speech recognition...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633049/cortical-processing-related-to-intensity-of-a-modulated-noise-stimulus-a-functional-near-infrared-study
#18
Stefan Weder, Xin Zhou, Mehrnaz Shoushtarian, Hamish Innes-Brown, Colette McKay
Sound intensity is a key feature of auditory signals. A profound understanding of cortical processing of this feature is therefore highly desirable. This study investigates whether cortical functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals reflect sound intensity changes and where on the brain cortex maximal intensity-dependent activations are located. The fNIRS technique is particularly suitable for this kind of hearing study, as it runs silently. Twenty-three normal hearing subjects were included and actively participated in a counterbalanced block design task...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623476/transcription-and-microrna-profiling-of-cultured-human-tympanic-membrane-epidermal-keratinocytes
#19
Peder Aabel, Tor Paaske Utheim, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Helge Rask-Andersen, Rodney James Dilley, Magnus von Unge
The human tympanic membrane (TM) has a thin outer epidermal layer which plays an important role in TM homeostasis and ear health. The specialised cells of the TM epidermis have a different physiology compared to normal skin epidermal keratinocytes, displaying a dynamic and constitutive migration that maintains a clear TM surface and assists in regeneration. Here, we characterise and compare molecular phenotypes in keratinocyte cultures from TM and normal skin. TM keratinocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549594/keratinocyte-growth-factor-kgf-modulates-epidermal-progenitor-cell-kinetics-through-activation-of-p63-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#20
Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Naotaro Akiyama, Masahiro Takahashi, Hiromi Kojima
The basal stem/progenitor cell maintains homeostasis of the epidermis. Progressive disturbance of this homeostasis has been implicated as a possible cause in the pathogenesis of epithelial disease, such as middle ear cholesteatoma. In many cases of stem/progenitor cell regulation, the importance of extracellular signals provided by the surrounding cells is well-recognized. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a mesenchymal-cell-derived paracrine growth factor that specifically participates in skin homeostasis; however, the overexpression of KGF induces middle ear cholesteatoma...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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