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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191426/the-stress-response-in-the-non-sensory-cells-of-the-cochlea-under-pathological-conditions-possible-role-in-mediating-noise-vulnerability
#1
Anni Herranen, Kuu Ikäheimo, Jussi Virkkala, Ulla Pirvola
Various stressors, such as loud sounds and the effects of aging, impair the function and viability of the cochlear sensory cells, the hair cells. Stressors trigger pathophysiological changes in the cochlear non-sensory cells as well. We have here studied the stress response mounted in the lateral wall of the cochlea during acute noise stress and during age-related chronic stress. We have used the activation of JNK/c-Jun, ERK, and NF-κB pathways as a readout of the stress response, and the expression of the FoxO3 transcription factor as a possible additional player in cellular stress...
September 6, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191425/noise-induced-hypersensitization-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-larval-zebrafish
#2
Ashwin A Bhandiwad, David W Raible, Edwin W Rubel, Joseph A Sisneros
Overexposure to loud noise is known to lead to deficits in auditory sensitivity and perception. We studied the effects of noise exposure on sensorimotor behaviors of larval (5-7 days post-fertilization) zebrafish (Danio rerio), particularly the auditory-evoked startle response and hearing sensitivity to acoustic startle stimuli. We observed a temporary 10-15 dB decrease in startle response threshold after 18 h of flat-spectrum noise exposure at 20 dB re·1 ms-2 . Larval zebrafish also exhibited decreased habituation to startle-inducing stimuli following noise exposure...
September 6, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191424/surface-motion-of-tympanic-membrane-in-a-chinchilla-model-of-acute-otitis-media
#3
Xuelin Wang, Rong Z Gan
The conductive hearing loss caused by acute otitis media (AOM) is commonly related to a reduction of the tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in response to sound stimuli. However, spatial alterations of the TM surface motion associated with AOM have rarely been addressed. In this study, the TM surface motion was determined using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV) in a chinchilla model of AOM. The AOM was established by transbullar injection of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. The TM surface vibration was measured in control (uninfected) animals and two AOM groups of animals: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation...
September 6, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191423/improved-neural-coding-of-itd-with-bilateral-cochlear-implants-by-introducing-short-inter-pulse-intervals
#4
Brian D Buechel, Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Bertrand Delgutte
Bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users have poor perceptual sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs), which limits their ability to localize sounds and understand speech in noisy environments. This is especially true for high-rate (> 300 pps) periodic pulse trains, which are used as carriers in CI processors. Here, we investigate a novel stimulation strategy in which extra pulses are added to high-rate periodic pulse trains to introduce short inter-pulse intervals (SIPIs). We hypothesized that SIPIs can improve neural ITD sensitivity similarly to the effect observed by randomly jittering IPIs (Hancock et al...
September 6, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187298/otoprotective-effects-of-stephania-tetrandra-s-moore-herb-isolate-against-acoustic-trauma
#5
Yan Yu, Bing Hu, Jianxin Bao, Jessica Mulvany, Eric Bielefeld, Ryan T Harrison, Sarah A Neton, Partha Thirumala, Yingying Chen, Debin Lei, Ziyu Qiu, Qingyin Zheng, Jihao Ren, Maria Cristina Perez-Flores, Ebenezer N Yamoah, Pezhman Salehi
Noise is the most common occupational and environmental hazard, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second most common form of sensorineural hearing deficit. Although therapeutics that target the free-radical pathway have shown promise, none of these compounds is currently approved against NIHL by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The present study has demonstrated that tetrandrine (TET), a traditional Chinese medicinal alkaloid and the main chemical isolate of the Stephania tetrandra S...
September 5, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182318/correction-to-effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-detection-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users-relationships-with-average-threshold-gap-detection-and-rate-discrimination
#6
Robert P Carlyon, Stefano Cosentino, John M Deeks, Wendy Parkinson, Julie G Arenberg
The middle initial of Julie G. Arenberg's name was incorrect in the original publication; it is correct as displayed here.
September 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171386/intracochlear-sound-pressure-measurements-in-normal-human-temporal-bones-during-bone-conduction-stimulation
#7
Christof Stieger, Xiying Guan, Rosemary B Farahmand, Brent F Page, Julie P Merchant, Defne Abur, Hideko Heidi Nakajima
Bone conduction (BC) is heavily relied upon in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss, but is poorly understood. For example, the relative importance and frequency dependence of various identified BC sound transmission mechanisms that contribute to activate the cochlear partition remain unknown. Recently, we have developed techniques in fresh human cadaveric specimens to directly measure scalae pressures with micro-fiberoptic sensors, enabling us to monitor the input pressure drive across the cochlear partition that triggers the cochlear traveling wave during air conduction (AC) and round-window stimulation...
August 31, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171385/effects-of-3-3-iminodipropionitrile-on-hair-cell-numbers-in-cristae-of-cba-caj-and-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Brent A Wilkerson, Filippo Artoni, Colby Lea, Kayla Ritchie, Catherine A Ray, Olivia Bermingham-McDonogh
This study examines absolute hair cell numbers in the cristae of C57BL/6J mice and CBA/CaJ mice from weaning to adulthood as well as the dose required for 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN)-injury of the cristae in C57BL/6J mice and CBA/CaJ mice, the two mouse strains most commonly used by inner ear researchers. In cristae of CBA/CaJ and C57BL/6J mice, no loss of hair cells was observed up to 24 weeks. In both strains, dose-dependent loss of hair cells was observed 7 days after IDPN treatment of 2-month-old mice (IC50  = 16...
August 31, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128623/effects-of-masker-envelope-fluctuations-on-the-temporal-effect
#9
Skyler G Jennings, Kayla Sivas, Caitlin Stone
Under certain conditions, detection thresholds in simultaneous masking improve when the onset of a short sinusoidal probe is delayed from the onset of a long masker. This improvement, known as the temporal effect, is largest for broadband maskers and is smaller or absent for narrowband maskers centered on the probe frequency. This study tests the hypothesis that small or absent temporal effects for narrowband maskers are due to the inherent temporal envelope fluctuations of Gaussian noise. Temporal effects were measured for narrowband noise maskers with fluctuating ("fluctuating maskers") and flattened ("flattened maskers") temporal envelopes as a function of masker level (Exp...
August 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120621/human-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-adaptation-consolidation-time-between-repeated-training-blocks-improves-retention
#10
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Americo A Migliaccio
We sought to determine if separating vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation training into training blocks with a consolidation (rest) period in between repetitions would result in improved VOR adaptation and retention. Consolidation of motor learning refers to the brain benefitting from a rest period after prior exposure to motor training. The role of consolidation on VOR adaptation is unknown, though clinicians often recommend rest periods as a part of vestibular rehabilitation. The VOR is the main gaze stabilising system during rapid head movements...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968099/chronic-deafness-degrades-temporal-acuity-in-the-electrically-stimulated-auditory-pathway
#11
John C Middlebrooks
Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve with a penetrating intraneural (IN) electrode in acutely deafened cats produces much more restricted spread of excitation than is obtained in that preparation with a conventional cochlear implant (CI) as reported by Middlebrooks and Snyder (J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 8:258-279, 2007). That suggests that a future auditory prosthesis employing IN stimulation might offer human patients greater frequency selectivity than is available with a present-day CI. Nevertheless, it is a concern that the electrical field produced by an IN electrode might be too restricted to produce adequate stimulation of the partially depopulated auditory nerve of a deaf patient...
July 2, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968098/reflection-and-distortion-source-otoacoustic-emissions-evidence-for-increased-irregularity-in-the-human-cochlea-during-aging
#12
Carolina Abdala, Amanda J Ortmann, Christopher A Shera
Previous research on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) components has hinted at possible differences in the effect of aging on the two basic types of OAEs: those generated by a reflection mechanism in the cochlea and those created by nonlinear distortion (Abdala and Dhar in J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:403-421, 2012). This initial work led to the hypothesis that micromechanical irregularity ("roughness") increases in the aging cochlea, perhaps as the result of natural tissue degradation...
July 2, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946952/modeling-the-dependence-of-the-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-response-on-primary-frequency-ratio
#13
Renata Sisto, Uzma Shaheen Wilson, Sumitrajit Dhar, Arturo Moleti
When measured as a function of primary frequency ratio r = f2 /f1 , using a constant f2 , distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response demonstrates a bandpass shape, previously interpreted as the evidence for a cochlear "second filter." In this study, an alternate, interference-based explanation, previously advanced in variants, is forwarded on the basis of experimental data along with numerical and analytical solutions of nonlinear and linear cochlear models. The decrease of the DPOAE response with increasing and decreasing ratios is explained by a diminishing "overlap" generation region and the onset of negative interference among wavelets of different phase, respectively...
June 26, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076555/correction-to-aminoglycoside-damage-and-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-chicken-utricle
#14
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
This article was updated to correct a formatting error in Table 1.
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014309/spectral-ripples-in-round-window-cochlear-microphonics-evidence-for-multiple-generation-mechanisms
#15
Karolina K Charaziak, Jonathan H Siegel, Christopher A Shera
The cochlear microphonic (CM) results from the vector sum of outer hair cell transduction currents excited by a stimulus. The classical theory of CM generation-that the response measured at the round window is dominated by cellular sources located within the tail region of the basilar membrane (BM) excitation pattern-predicts that CM amplitude and phase vary little with stimulus frequency. Contrary to expectations, CM amplitude and phase-gradient delay measured in response to low-level tones in chinchillas demonstrate a striking, quasiperiodic pattern of spectral ripples, even at frequencies > 5 kHz, where interference with neurophonic potentials is unlikely...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869048/platelet-derived-growth-factor-subunit-b-signaling-promotes-pericyte-migration-in-response-to-loud-sound-in-the-cochlear-stria-vascularis
#16
Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Jing Cai, Jinhui Zhang, Ahmed Hassan, Manfred Auer, Xiaorui Shi
Normal blood supply to the cochlea is critical for hearing. Noise damages auditory sensory cells and has a marked effect on the microvasculature in the cochlear lateral wall. Pericytes in the stria vascularis (strial pericytes) are particularly vulnerable and sensitive to acoustic trauma. Exposure of NG2DsRedBAC transgenic mice (6-8 weeks old) to wide-band noise at a level of 120 dB for 3 h per day for 2 consecutive days produced a significant hearing threshold shift and caused pericytes to protrude and migrate from their normal endothelial attachment sites...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869046/characterization-of-adult-vestibular-organs-in-11-creer-mouse-lines
#17
Jennifer S Stone, Serena R Wisner, Stephanie A Bucks, Marcia M Mellado Lagarde, Brandon C Cox
Utricles are vestibular sense organs that encode linear head movements. They are composed of a sensory epithelium with type I and type II hair cells and supporting cells, sitting atop connective tissue, through which vestibular nerves project. We characterized utricular Cre expression in 11 murine CreER lines using the ROSA26tdTomato reporter line and tamoxifen induction at 6 weeks of age. This characterization included Calbindin2CreERT2 , Fgfr3-iCreERT2 , GFAP-A-CreER™, GFAP-B-CreER™, GLAST-CreERT2 , Id2CreERT2 , OtoferlinCreERT2 , ParvalbuminCreERT2 , Prox1CreERT2 , Sox2CreERT2 , and Sox9-CreERT2 ...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749573/tone-evoked-acoustic-change-complex-acc-recorded-in-a-sedated-animal-model
#18
Alessandro Presacco, John C Middlebrooks
The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded cortical evoked potential complex generated in response to changes (e.g., frequency, amplitude) in an auditory stimulus. The ACC has been well studied in humans, but to our knowledge, no animal model has been evaluated. In particular, it was not known whether the ACC could be recorded under the conditions of sedation that likely would be necessary for recordings from animals. For that reason, we tested the feasibility of recording ACC from sedated cats in response to changes of frequency and amplitude of pure-tone stimuli...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687165/mechanism-underlying-the-effects-of-estrogen-deficiency-on-otoconia
#19
Liping Yang, Yinfang Xu, Yan Zhang, Sarath Vijayakumar, Sherri M Jones, Yunxia Yesha Wang Lundberg
Otoconia-related vertigo and balance deficits, particularly benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), are common. Our recent studies in humans show that, while BPPV prevalence greatly increases with age in both genders, peri-menopausal women are especially susceptible. In the present study, we show that bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) mice have significant balance behavioral deficits, and that estrogen deficiency compromises otoconia maintenance and anchoring by reducing the expression of otoconial component and anchoring proteins...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881937/effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-detection-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users-relationships-with-average-threshold-gap-detection-and-rate-discrimination
#20
Robert P Carlyon, Stefano Cosentino, John M Deeks, Wendy Parkinson, Julie A Arenberg
Previous psychophysical and modeling studies suggest that cathodic stimulation by a cochlear implant (CI) may preferentially activate the peripheral processes of the auditory nerve, whereas anodic stimulation may preferentially activate the central axons. Because neural degeneration typically starts with loss of the peripheral processes, lower thresholds for cathodic than for anodic stimulation may indicate good local neural survival. We measured thresholds for 99-pulse-per-second trains of triphasic (TP) pulses where the central high-amplitude phase was either anodic (TP-A) or cathodic (TP-C)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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