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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815315/emerging-gene-therapies-for-genetic-hearing-loss
#1
REVIEW
Hena Ahmed, Olga Shubina-Oleinik, Jeffrey R Holt
Gene therapy, or the treatment of human disease using genetic material, for inner ear dysfunction is coming of age. Recent progress in developing gene therapy treatments for genetic hearing loss has demonstrated tantalizing proof-of-principle in animal models. While successful translation of this progress into treatments for humans awaits, there is growing interest from patients, scientists, clinicians, and industry. Nonetheless, it is clear that a number of hurdles remain, and expectations for total restoration of auditory function should remain tempered until these challenges have been overcome...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#2
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755310/core-body-temperature-effects-on-the-mouse-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#3
Patrick P Hübner, Serajul I Khan, David M Lasker, Americo A Migliaccio
Core body temperature has been shown to affect vestibular end-organ and nerve afferents so that their resting discharge rate and sensitivity increase with temperature. Our aim was to determine whether these changes observed in extracellular nerve recordings of anaesthetized C57BL/6 mice corresponded to changes in the behavioural vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of alert mice. The VOR drives eye rotations to keep images stable on the retina during head movements. We measured the VOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) and phase (delay between vestibular stimulus and response) during whole-body sinusoidal rotations ranging 0...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755309/spatial-selectivity-in-cochlear-implants-effects-of-asymmetric-waveforms-and-development-of-a-single-point-measure
#4
Robert P Carlyon, John M Deeks, Jaime Undurraga, Olivier Macherey, Astrid van Wieringen
Three experiments studied the extent to which cochlear implant users' spatial selectivity can be manipulated using asymmetric waveforms and tested an efficient method for comparing spatial selectivity produced by different stimuli. Experiment 1 measured forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) for a partial tripolar (pTP) probe. Maskers were presented on bipolar pairs separated by one unused electrode; waveforms were either symmetric biphasic ("SYM") or pseudomonophasic with the short high-amplitude phase being either anodic ("PSA") or cathodic ("PSC") on the more apical electrode...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755308/effect-of-context-on-the-contribution-of-individual-harmonics-to-residue-pitch
#5
Hedwig E Gockel, Sami Alsindi, Charles Hardy, Robert P Carlyon
There is evidence that the contribution of a given harmonic in a complex tone to residue pitch is influenced by the accuracy with which the frequency of that harmonic is encoded. The present study investigated whether listeners adjust the weights assigned to individual harmonics based on acquired knowledge of the reliability of the frequency estimates of those harmonics. In a two-interval forced-choice task, seven listeners indicated which of two 12-harmonic complex tones had the higher overall pitch. In context trials (60 % of all trials), the fundamental frequency (F0) was 200 Hz in one interval and 200 + ΔF0 Hz in the other...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752334/erratum-to-a-modeling-study-of-the-responses-of-the-lateral-superior-olive-to-ipsilateral-sinusoidally-amplitude-modulated-tones
#6
Le Wang, H Steven Colburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748487/predictions-of-speech-chimaera-intelligibility-using-auditory-nerve-mean-rate-and-spike-timing-neural-cues
#7
Michael R Wirtzfeld, Rasha A Ibrahim, Ian C Bruce
Perceptual studies of speech intelligibility have shown that slow variations of acoustic envelope (ENV) in a small set of frequency bands provides adequate information for good perceptual performance in quiet, whereas acoustic temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues play a supporting role in background noise. However, the implications for neural coding are prone to misinterpretation because the mean-rate neural representation can contain recovered ENV cues from cochlear filtering of TFS. We investigated ENV recovery and spike-time TFS coding using objective measures of simulated mean-rate and spike-timing neural representations of chimaeric speech, in which either the ENV or the TFS is replaced by another signal...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733803/vocoder-simulations-explain-complex-pitch-perception-limitations-experienced-by-cochlear-implant-users
#8
Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
Pitch plays a crucial role in speech and music, but is highly degraded for people with cochlear implants, leading to severe communication challenges in noisy environments. Pitch is determined primarily by the first few spectrally resolved harmonics of a tone. In implants, access to this pitch is limited by poor spectral resolution, due to the limited number of channels and interactions between adjacent channels. Here we used noise-vocoder simulations to explore how many channels, and how little channel interaction, are required to elicit pitch...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721606/fluid-structure-finite-element-modelling-and-clinical-measurement-of-the-wideband-acoustic-input-admittance-of-the-newborn-ear-canal-and-middle-ear
#9
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Nima Maftoon, Jacob Pitaro, W Robert J Funnell, Sam J Daniel
The anatomical differences between the newborn ear and the adult one result in different input admittance responses in newborns than those in adults. Taking into account fluid-structure interactions, we have developed a finite-element model to investigate the wideband admittance responses of the ear canal and middle ear in newborns for frequencies up to 10 kHz. We have also performed admittance measurements on a group of 23 infants with ages between 14 and 28 days, for frequencies from 250 to 8000 Hz with 1/12-octave resolution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#10
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#11
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653118/quantitative-pneumatic-otoscopy-using-a-light-based-ranging-technique
#12
Ryan L Shelton, Ryan M Nolan, Guillermo L Monroy, Paritosh Pande, Michael A Novak, Ryan G Porter, Stephen A Boppart
Otitis media is the leading cause of hearing loss in children. It is commonly associated with fluid in the ear, which can result in up to 45 dB of hearing loss for extended periods of time during a child's most important developmental years. Accurate assessment of middle ear effusions is an important part of understanding otitis media. Current technologies used to diagnose otitis media with effusion are pneumatic otoscopy, tympanometry, and acoustic reflectometry. While all of these techniques can reasonably diagnose the presence of an effusion, they provide limited information about the infection present behind the tympanic membrane...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#13
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593438/eye-movements-are-correctly-timed-during-walking-despite-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#14
Eric R Anson, Tim Kiemel, John P Carey, John J Jeka
Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia (the perception that the world is bouncing or unstable) during walking. Efference copy/proprioception contributes to locomotion gaze stability in animals, sometimes inhibiting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Gaze stability requires both adequate eye velocity and appropriate timing of eye movements. It is unknown whether eye velocity (VOR gain), timing (phase), or both are impaired for individuals with BVH during walking...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447225/functional-interplay-between-the-putative-measures-of-rostral-and-caudal-efferent-regulation-of-speech-perception-in-noise
#15
Sandeep Maruthy, U Ajith Kumar, G Nike Gnanateja
Efferent modulation has been demonstrated to be very important for speech perception, especially in the presence of noise. We examined the functional relationship between two efferent systems: the rostral and caudal efferent pathways and their individual influences on speech perception in noise. Earlier studies have shown that these two efferent mechanisms were correlated with speech perception in noise. However, previously, these mechanisms were studied in isolation, and their functional relationship with each other was not investigated...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439720/the-impact-of-oral-promethazine-on-human-whole-body-motion-perceptual-thresholds
#16
Ana Diaz-Artiles, Adrian J Priesol, Torin K Clark, David P Sherwood, Charles M Oman, Laurence R Young, Faisal Karmali
Despite the widespread treatment of motion sickness symptoms using drugs and the involvement of the vestibular system in motion sickness, little is known about the effects of anti-motion sickness drugs on vestibular perception. In particular, the impact of oral promethazine, widely used for treating motion sickness, on vestibular perceptual thresholds has not previously been quantified. We examined whether promethazine (25 mg) alters vestibular perceptual thresholds in a counterbalanced, double-blind, within-subject study...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#17
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429126/assessing-the-role-of-place-and-timing-cues-in-coding-frequency-and-amplitude-modulation-as-a-function-of-age
#18
Kelly L Whiteford, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361373/methylmercury-exposure-reduces-the-auditory-brainstem-response-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#19
Sarah E Wolf, John P Swaddle, Daniel A Cristol, William J Buchser
Mercury contamination from mining and fossil fuel combustion causes damage to humans and animals worldwide. Mercury exposure has been implicated in mammalian hearing impairment, but its effect on avian hearing is unknown. In this study, we examined whether lifetime dietary mercury exposure affected hearing in domestic zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by studying their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Zebra finches exposed to mercury exhibited elevated hearing thresholds, decreased amplitudes, and longer latencies in the ABR, the first evidence of mercury-induced hearing impairment in birds...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303411/identifying-the-origin-of-effects-of-contralateral-noise-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-in-unanesthetized-mice
#20
Yingyue Xu, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jonathan H Siegel
Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are known to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. Based on measurements in humans (Marks and Siegel, companion paper), we applied a sensitive method to attempt to differentiate MEM and MOC reflexes using contralateral acoustic stimulation in mice under different levels of anesthesia...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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