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Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#1
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303412/auditory-enhancement-in-cochlear-implant-users-under-simultaneous-and-forward-masking
#2
Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement is the phenomenon whereby the salience or detectability of a target sound within a masker is enhanced by the prior presentation of the masker alone. Enhancement has been demonstrated using both simultaneous and forward masking in normal-hearing listeners and may play an important role in auditory and speech perception within complex and time-varying acoustic environments. The few studies of enhancement in hearing-impaired listeners have reported reduced or absent enhancement effects under forward masking, suggesting a potentially peripheral locus of the effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303411/identifying-the-origin-of-effects-of-contralateral-noise-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-in-unanesthetized-mice
#3
Yingyue Xu, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jonathan H Siegel
Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are known to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. Based on measurements in humans (Marks and Siegel, companion paper), we applied a sensitive method to attempt to differentiate MEM and MOC reflexes using contralateral acoustic stimulation in mice under different levels of anesthesia...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281035/acoustic-context-alters-vowel-categorization-in-perception-of-noise-vocoded-speech
#4
Christian E Stilp
Normal-hearing listeners' speech perception is widely influenced by spectral contrast effects (SCEs), where perception of a given sound is biased away from stable spectral properties of preceding sounds. Despite this influence, it is not clear how these contrast effects affect speech perception for cochlear implant (CI) users whose spectral resolution is notoriously poor. This knowledge is important for understanding how CIs might better encode key spectral properties of the listening environment. Here, SCEs were measured in normal-hearing listeners using noise-vocoded speech to simulate poor spectral resolution...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#5
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138791/effect-of-pulse-polarity-on-thresholds-and-on-non-monotonic-loudness-growth-in-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Olivier Macherey, Robert P Carlyon, Jacques Chatron, Stéphane Roman
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101695/the-spatial-release-of-cognitive-load-in-cocktail-party-is-determined-by-the-relative-levels-of-the-talkers
#7
Guillaume Andéol, Clara Suied, Sébastien Scannella, Frédéric Dehais
In a multi-talker situation, spatial separation between talkers reduces cognitive processing load: this is the "spatial release of cognitive load". The present study investigated the role played by the relative levels of the talkers on this spatial release of cognitive load. During the experiment, participants had to report the speech emitted by a target talker in the presence of a concurrent masker talker. The spatial separation (0° and 120° angular distance in azimuth) and the relative levels of the talkers (adverse, intermediate, and favorable target-to-masker ratio) were manipulated...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097439/modeling-responses-in-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus-implications-for-forward-masking-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#8
Nima Salimi, Muhammad S A Zilany, Laurel H Carney
A phenomenological model of the responses of neurons in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) of the rodent is presented in this study. Pure tones at the characteristic frequency (CF) and broadband noise stimuli evoke offset-type responses in these neurons. SPON neurons also phase-lock to the envelope of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli for a range of modulation frequencies. Model SPON neuron received inhibitory input that was relayed by the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body from the contralateral model ventral cochlear nucleus neuron...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054149/a-model-of-electrically-stimulated-auditory-nerve-fiber-responses-with-peripheral-and-central-sites-of-spike-generation
#9
Suyash Narendra Joshi, Torsten Dau, Bastian Epp
A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. A single ANF is modeled as a network of two exponential integrate-and-fire point-neuron models, referred to as peripheral and central axons of the ANF. The peripheral axon is excited by the cathodic charge, inhibited by the anodic charge, and exhibits longer spike latencies than the central axon; the central axon is excited by the anodic charge, inhibited by the cathodic charge, and exhibits shorter spike latencies than the peripheral axon...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050647/deleting-the-hcn1-subunit-of-hyperpolarization-activated-ion-channels-in-mice-impairs-acoustic-startle-reflexes-gap-detection-and-spatial-localization
#10
James R Ison, Paul D Allen, Donata Oertel
It has been proposed that the high temporal and spatial acuities of human listeners and animals tested in the hearing laboratory depend in part on the short time constants of auditory neurons that are able to preserve or sharpen the information conveyed in the timing of firing of auditory nerve fibers. We tested this hypothesis in a series of in vivo experiments, based on previous in vitro experiments showing that neuronal time constants are raised in brainstem slices when HCN1 channels are blocked or in slices obtained from Hcn1 (-/-) null mutant mice...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050646/gentamicin-applied-to-the-oval-window-suppresses-vestibular-function-in-guinea-pigs
#11
E B King, R K Shepherd, D J Brown, J B Fallon
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to treat the debilitating symptoms of Ménière's disease. Cochleotoxicity is an undesirable potential side effect of the treatment and the risk of hearing loss increases proportionately with gentamicin concentration in the cochlea. It has recently been shown that gentamicin is readily absorbed through the oval window in guinea pigs. The present study uses quantitative functional measures of vestibular and cochlea function to investigate the efficacy of treating the vestibule by applying a small volume of gentamicin onto the stapes footplate in guinea pigs...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942887/predictions-of-the-contribution-of-hcn-half-maximal-activation-potential-heterogeneity-to-variability-in-intrinsic-adaptation-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#12
Jason Boulet, Ian C Bruce
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) exhibit a wide range in their strength of intrinsic adaptation on a timescale of 10s to 100s of milliseconds in response to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to determine how much of that variability could be caused by the heterogeneity in half-maximal activation potentials of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, which are known to produce intrinsic adaptation. In this study, a computational membrane model of cat type I SGN was developed based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model plus HCN and low-threshold potassium (KLT) conductances in which the half-maximal activation potential of the HCN channel was varied and the response of the SGN to pulse train and paired-pulse stimulation was simulated...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909837/simultaneous-intracochlear-pressure-measurements-from-two-cochlear-locations-propagation-of-distortion-products-in-gerbil
#13
Wei Dong
Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873085/quantitative-analysis-of-supporting-cell-subtype-labeling-among-creer-lines-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#14
Melissa M McGovern, Joseph Brancheck, Auston C Grant, Kaley A Graves, Brandon C Cox
Four CreER lines that are commonly used in the auditory field to label cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are expressed in multiple SC subtypes, with some lines also showing reporter expression in hair cells (HCs). We hypothesized that altering the tamoxifen dose would modify CreER expression and target subsets of SCs. We also used two different reporter lines, ROSA26 (tdTomato) and CAG-eGFP, to achieve the same goal. Our results confirm previous reports that Sox2 (CreERT2) and Fgfr3-iCreER (T2) are not only expressed in neonatal SCs but also in HCs...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873084/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-measured-below-300%C3%A2-hz-in-normal-hearing-human-subjects
#15
Anders T Christensen, Rodrigo Ordoñez, Dorte Hammershøi
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830350/longitudinal-changes-in-audiometric-phenotypes-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#16
Kenneth I Vaden, Lois J Matthews, Mark A Eckert, Judy R Dubno
Presbyacusis, or age-related hearing loss, can be characterized in humans as metabolic and sensory phenotypes, based on patterns of audiometric thresholds that were established in animal models. The metabolic phenotype is thought to result from deterioration of the cochlear lateral wall and reduced endocochlear potential that decreases cochlear amplification and produces a mild, flat hearing loss at lower frequencies coupled with a gradually sloping hearing loss at higher frequencies. The sensory phenotype, resulting from environmental exposures such as excessive noise or ototoxic drugs, involves damage to sensory and non-sensory cells and loss of the cochlear amplifier, which produces a 50-70 dB threshold shift at higher frequencies...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687041/temporal-regularity-detection-and-rate-discrimination-in-cochlear-implant-listeners
#17
Etienne Gaudrain, John M Deeks, Robert P Carlyon
Cochlear implants (CIs) convey fundamental-frequency information using primarily temporal cues. However, temporal pitch perception in CI users is weak and, when measured using rate discrimination tasks, deteriorates markedly as the rate increases beyond 300 pulses-per-second. Rate pitch may be weak because the electrical stimulation of the surviving neural population of the implant recipient may not allow accurate coding of inter-pulse time intervals. If so, this phenomenon should prevent listeners from detecting when a pulse train is physically temporally jittered...
April 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957612/aural-acoustic-stapedius-muscle-reflex-threshold-procedures-to-test-human-infants-and-adults
#18
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick
Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928634/pressurized-wideband-acoustic-stapedial-reflex-thresholds-normal-development-and-relationships-to-auditory-function-in-infants
#19
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Denis F Fitzpatrick
This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807642/improving-the-reliability-of-tinnitus-screening-in-laboratory-animals
#20
Aikeen Jones, Bradford J May
Behavioral screening remains a contentious issue for animal studies of tinnitus. Most paradigms base a positive tinnitus test on an animal's natural tendency to respond to the "sound" of tinnitus as if it were an actual sound. As a result, animals with tinnitus are expected to display sound-conditioned behaviors when no sound is present or to miss gaps in background sounds because tinnitus "fills in the gap." Reliable confirmation of the behavioral indications of tinnitus can be problematic because the reinforcement contingencies of conventional discrimination tasks break down an animal's tendency to group tinnitus with sound...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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