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Maarten A Mees, Christiane Effenberg, Dietmar Appelhans, Richard Hoogenboom
Carbohydrates are important in signaling, energy storage and metabolism. Depending on their function, carbohydrates can be part of larger structures, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids or other functionalities (glycoside). To this end, polymers can act as carriers of carbohydrates in so-called glycopolymers, which mimic the multivalent carbohydrate functionalities. We chose a biocompatible poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) as the basis for making glycopolymers. Via the partial hydrolysis of PEtOx, a copolymer of PEtOx and polyethyleneimine (PEI) was obtained; the subsequent reductive amination with the linear forms of glucose and maltose yielded the glycopolymers...
October 21, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Natalia Eliza Domeradzka, Marc W T Werten, Frits A de Wolf, Renko de Vries
Previously, we developed triblock protein polymers that form fibrillar hydrogels at low protein polymer concentrations (denoted C2-SH48-C2). We here demonstrate that the structure of these hydrogels can be tuned via heterodimeric coiled coils that cross-link and bundle the self-assembled protein-polymer fibrils. We fused well-characterized, 47 amino acids-long heterodimeric coiled coil "linkers" (DA or DB) to the C-terminus of the triblock polymer. The resulting C2-SH48-C2-DA and C2-SH48-C2-DB polymers, were successfully produced as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris, with titers of purified protein in the order of g L-1 of clarified broth...
October 21, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Ghasem Bahlakeh, Hamed Salimi-Kenari, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Hamid Mirzadeh, Bo Nyström
The temperature-induced gelation of chitosan/glycerophosphate (Chs/GP) systems through physical interactions has shown great potential for various biomedical applications. In the present work, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) was added to the thermosensitive Chs/GP solution to improve the mechanical strength and gel properties of the incipient Chs/HEC/GP gel in comparison with the Chs/GP hydrogel at body temperature. The physical features of the macromolecular complexes formed by the synergistic interaction between chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose in the presence of β-glycerophosphate disodium salt solution have been studied essentially from a rheological point of view...
October 21, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Rajesh A Shenoi, Srinivas Abbina, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Understanding the influence of degradable chemical moieties on in vivo degradation, tissue distribution and excretion is critical for the design of novel biodegradable drug carriers. Polyketals have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic delivery platform due to their ability to degrade under mild acidic intracellular compartments and generation of non-toxic degradation products. However, the effect of chemical structure of the ketal groups on the in vivo degradation, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of water soluble ketal-containing polymers has not been explored...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Yang Wang, Ting Li, Xuefei Wang, Piming Ma, Huiyu Bai, Weifu Dong, Yi Xie, Mingqing Chen
Melanin, a kind of well-known multifunctional biomacromolecules that are widely available in large quantities from a variety of natural sources. In this work, Polyurethane (PU) /melanin nanocomposites with enhanced tensile strength and toughness were successfully fabricated via in situ polymerization. It was found that the tensile strength (σ), elongation-at-break (εmax) and work to fracture (W) were increased from 5.6 MPa, 770% and 33 MJ/m3 for PU to 51.5 MPa, 1880% and 413 MJ/m3 for PU/melanin (2 wt %) nanocomposite, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Hao-Ching Hsiao, Andres Santos, David W Howell, Jan L Patterson, Robin S L Fuchs-Young, Sarah E Bondos
Tumorigenic cell behaviors can be suppressed or enhanced by their physicochemical environment. As a first step toward developing materials that allow tumorigenic behaviors to be observed and manipulated, we cultured related MCF10 breast cell lines on fibers composed of the Drosophila protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx). These cell lines, originally derived from fibrocystic breast tissue, represent a continuum of tumorigenic behavior. Immortal but nontumorigenic MCF10A cells, as well as semitumorigenic MCF10AT cells, attached and spread on Ubx fibers...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Nikolas T Weissmueller, Hoang Dung Lu, Amanda Hurley, Robert K Prud'homme
One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nano-encapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Jenna N Harvestine, Nina L Vollmer, Steve S Ho, Christopher Andrew Zikry, Mark A Lee, J Kent Leach
Composite scaffolds of bioactive glass and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) provide advantages over homogenous scaffolds, yet their therapeutic potential can be improved by strategies that promote adhesion and present instructive cues to associated cells. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) enhances survival and function of associated cells. To synergize the benefits of an instructive ECM with composite scaffolds, we tested the capacity of ECM-coated composite scaffolds to promote cell persistence and resultant osteogenesis...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Martin Göse, Kira Scheffler, Uta Reibetanz
The modular construction of Layer-by-Layer biopolymer microcarriers facilitates a highly specific design of drug delivery systems. A supported lipid bilayer (SLB) contributes to biocompatibility and protection of sensitive active agents. The addition of a lipid anchor equipped with PEG (shielding from opsonins) and biotin (attachment of exchangeable outer functional molecules) enhances the microcarrier functionality even more. However, a homogeneously assembled supported lipid bilayer is a prerequisite for a specific binding of functional components...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J Harding, Michaelia P Cockshell, Claudine S Bonder, Nicolas H Voelcker
Porous silicon (pSi) substrates are a promising platform for cell expansion, since pore size and chemistry can be tuned to control cell behavior. In addition, a variety of bioactives can be loaded into the pores and subsequently released to act on cells adherent to the substrate. Here we construct a cell microarray on plasma polymer coated pSi substrates that enables the simultaneous culture of human endothelial cells on printed immobilized protein factors while a second soluble growth factor is released from the same substrate...
October 15, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Karin Kornmueller, Bernhard Lehofer, Claudia Meindl, Eleonore Fröhlich, Gerd Leitinger, Heinz Amenitsch, Ruth Prassl
Self-assembling amphiphilic designer peptides have been successfully applied as nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Understanding molecular interactions at the peptide-membrane interface is crucial, since interactions at this site often determine (in)compatibility. The present study aims to elucidate how model membrane systems of different complexity (in particular single-component phospholipid bilayers and lipoproteins) respond to the presence of amphiphilic designer peptides. We focused on two short anionic peptides, V₄WD₂ and A₆YD, which are structurally similar, but showed a different self-assembly behavior...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Hemraj Juwarker, Luke P Poveromo, Howard Levinson, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Dying cells release nucleic acids (NA) and NA-containing complexes that activate inflammatory pathways of immune cells. Sustained activation of these pathways contributes to chronic inflammation frequently encountered in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, grafting of cationic polymers onto a nanofibrous mesh enabled local scavenging of negatively charged pro-inflammatory molecules in the extracellular space. Nucleic acid scavenging nanofibers (NASFs) formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) conjugated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Suhee Song, Joonhee Lee, Songa Kweon, Jaeeun Song, Kyuseok Kim, Byeong-Su Kim
Functional hyperbranched polyglycerols (PGs) have recently garnered considerable interest due to their potential in biomedical applications. Here, we present a one-pot synthesis of hyperbranched PGs possessing amine functionality using a novel amino glycidyl ether monomer. A Boc-protected butanolamine glycidyl ether (BBAG) monomer was designed and polymerized with glycidol (G) through anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization to yield a series of hyperbranched P(G-co-BBAG) with controlled molecular weights (4800-16700 g/mol) and relatively low molecular weight distributions (1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Samantha J Paluck, Thi H Nguyen, Heather D Maynard
Heparin is a naturally occurring, highly sulfated polysaccharide that plays a critical role in a range of different biological processes. Therapeutically, it is mostly commonly used as an injectable solution as an anticoagulant for a variety of indications, although it has also been employed in other forms such as coatings on various biomedical devices. Due to the diverse functions of this polysaccharide in the body, including anticoagulation, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation, and protein stabilization, and drawbacks of its use, analogous heparin-mimicking materials are also widely studied for therapeutic applications...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Katrin Niegelhell, Michael Suessenbacher, Katrin Jammernegg, Thomas Ganner, Daniel Schwendenwein, Helmut Schwab, Franz Stelzer, Harald Plank, Stefan Spirk
The creation of nano- and micropatterned polymer films is a crucial step for innumerous applications in science and technology. However, there are several problems associated with environmental aspects concerning the polymer synthesis itself, crosslinkers to induce the patterns as well as toxic solvents used for the preparation and even more important development of the films (e.g. chlorobenzene). In this paper, we present a facile method to produce micro- and nanopatterned biopolymer thin films using enzymes as so called biodevelopers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Benjamin P Partlow, Mehran Bagheri, James L Harden, David L Kaplan
Native silk fibers exhibit strength and toughness that rival those of the best synthetic fibers. Importantly, the silkworm is able to spin these fibers using only water as a solvent with fine control of applied shear, drawing, pH and salt concentrations to efficiently convert the spinning dope into a fiber. This is in contrast to synthetic polymers that often require organic solvents and extreme processing conditions. Further insight is still needed into the mechanisms by which silkworms are capable of spinning such tough fibers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Liang Liu, Rong Wang, Juan Yu, Jie Jiang, Ke Zheng, Lijiang Hu, Zhiguo Wang, Yimin Fan
Partially deacetylated α-chitin nanofibers/nanowhiskers mixtures (DEChNs) and TEMPO-oxidized α-chitin nanowhiskers (TOChNs) that had positive and negative charges, respectively, were transformed into hydrogels with mass concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0% under ammonium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid "gas phase coagulation". To the best of our knowledge, 0.2% is the lowest mass content reported for the successful preparation of physical self-standing hydrogels based on chitin nanofibers/nanowhiskers...
October 12, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Aristeidis Papagiannopoulos, Anastasia Meristoudi, Stergios Pispas, Aurel Radulescu
We investigate the potential of self-assembled nanostructures of the PnBA-b-PAA amphiphilic diblock polyelectrolyte as candidates for protein nanocarriers. Three PnBA-b-PAA copolymers with different molecular weights and PnBA/PAA weight ratios are tested. The system with the most well-defined core-shell micellar structure is chosen for complexation with lysozyme. Its solutions are found to contain well-defined core-shell micelles that are stable upon increase of solution salt content to physiological levels...
October 12, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Narges Naseri, Deepa Bhanumathyamma, Aji P Mathew, Kristiina Oksman, Lenart Girandon
Double crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of sodium alginate and gelatin (SA/G) reinforced with 50 wt% cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have been prepared via freeze-drying process. The IPNs were designed to incorporate CNC with carboxyl surface groups as a part of the network contribute to the structural integrity and mechanical stability of the hydrogel. Structural morphology studies of the hydrogels showed a 3-dimensional (3D) network of interconnected pores with diameters in the range of 10-192 μm and hierarchical pores with a nanostructured pore wall roughness, which has potential benefits for cell adhesion...
October 11, 2016: Biomacromolecules
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