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Marine Biotechnology

Ze Chen, Zhou Zheng, Feng-Lian Wang, Yuan-Pu Niu, Jin-Lai Miao, Hao Li
In recent years, some marine microbes have been used to degrade diesel oil. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the biodegradation are still poorly understood. In this study, a hypothermophilous marine strain, which can degrade diesel oil in cold seawater was isolated from Antarctic floe-ice and identified and named as Rhodococcus sp. LH. To clarify the biodegradation mechanisms, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics strategy was performed to determine the diesel biodegradation process-associated intracellular biochemical changes in Rhodococcus sp...
September 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
J R Parisi, K R Fernandes, I R Avanzi, B P Dorileo, A F Santana, A L Andrade, P R Gabbai-Armelin, C A Fortulan, E S Trichês, R N Granito, A C M Renno
Biomaterial-based bone grafts have an important role in the field of bone tissue engineering. One of the most promising classes of biomaterials is collagen, including the ones from marine biodiversity (in general, called spongin (SPG)). Also, hydroxyapatite (HA) has an important role in stimulating bone metabolism. Therefore, this work investigated the association of HA and SPG composites in order to evaluate their physico-chemical and morphological characteristics and their in vitro biological performance...
September 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yuanyou Li, Ziyan Yin, Yewei Dong, Shuqi Wang, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Cuihong You
As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, the rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides us a unique model for clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts aiming at the replacement of dietary fish oil (rich in LC-PUFA) with vegetable oils (rich in C18 PUFA precursors but devoid of LC-PUFA). In the study of transcription regulation of gene encoding the Δ6Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase (Δ6Δ5 Fads), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first step of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in rabbitfish, a binding site for the transcription factor (TF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), was predicted in Δ6Δ5 fads2 promoter by bioinformatics analysis, and thus the present study focused on the regulatory roles of Pparγ on Δ6Δ5 fads2...
September 11, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Natsuko Miura, Keisuke Motone, Toshiyuki Takagi, Shunsuke Aburaya, Sho Watanabe, Wataru Aoki, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
The coral microbiome has attracted increased attention because of its potential roles in host protection against deadly diseases. However, little is known about the role of coral-associated bacteria against the temperature-dependent opportunistic pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. In this study, we tested whether bacteria associated with the reef-building coral Galaxea fascicularis could inhibit the growth of V. coralliilyticus. Twenty-nine cultivable bacteria were successfully isolated from a healthy colony of G...
September 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Ping Wu, Wuying Chu, Xuanming Liu, Xinhong Guo, Jianshe Zhang
Circadian clock genes and myogenic factors are tightly integrated to influence muscle growth upon dietary deprivation in animals. In this study, we reported that upon short-term fasting of Nile tilapia juveniles for 7 and 15 days, the growth of the fish stagnated and the size of muscle fibers decreased. To reveal the molecular mechanisms of how starvation affects fish muscle growth, we analyzed the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes and myogenic factors. After 7 and 15 days of fasting treatment, the muscle tissues were collected for 24 h (at zeitgeber times ZT0, ZT3, ZT6, ZT9, ZT12, ZT18, ZT21, and ZT24) from tilapia juveniles...
September 4, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Jisun Lee, Seul Lee, Andriy Synytsya, Peter Capek, Chang Won Lee, Ji Won Choi, Sarang Cho, Woo Jung Kim, Yong Il Park
Low molecular weight mannogalactofucans (LMMGFs) prepared by enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight Undaria galactofucan (MF) were evaluated for their anti-cancer effects against human prostate cancer. Correlation NMR and linkage analyses confirmed that LMMGFs consist mainly of α-fucose and β-galactose units: α-fucose units are 1,3-linked; β-galactose units are terminal, 1,3- and/or 1,6-linked; both sugars are partially sulphated, fucose at positions O-2 and/or O-4 and galactose at O-3. Mannose residue, as a minor sugar, presents as the 1,4-linked terminal units...
August 29, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Ivane R Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Tohru Tanaka, Asuka Sumi, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
With the emergence of several infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture, there is a growing interest in the use of feed additives to enhance shrimp immunity. Recently, the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a non-protein amino acid that plays a rate-limiting role in heme biosynthesis, has received attention for its positive effect on immunity in livestock animals. To evaluate the effect of 5-ALA in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we conducted microarray analysis, a Vibrio parahaemolyticus immersion challenge test, an ATP level assay, and gene expression analysis of some hemoproteins and genes associated with heme synthesis and degradation...
August 25, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhipeng Li, Xi Chen, Jun Li, Tong Meng, Lingwei Wang, Zhen Chen, Yanyan Shi, Xueping Ling, Weiang Luo, Dafeng Liang, Yinghua Lu, Qingbiao Li, Ning He
Schizochytrium sp. is a kind of marine microalgae with great potential as promising sustainable source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Polyketide synthase-like (PKS synthase) is supposed to be one of the main ways to synthesize PUFAs in Schizochytrium sp. In order to study the exact relationship between PKS and PUFA biosynthesis, chain length factor (CLF) and dehydrogenase (DH) were cloned from the PKS gene cluster in Schizochytrium sp., then disrupted by homologous recombination. The results showed that DH- and CLF-disrupted strains had significant decreases (65...
August 22, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
B S Harish, Kiran Babu Uppuluri
Protease inhibitors control major biological protease activities to maintain physiological homeostasis. Marine bacteria isolated from oligotrophic conditions could be taxonomically distinct, metabolically unique, and offers a wide variety of biochemicals. In the present investigation, marine sediments were screened for the potential bacteria that can produce trypsin inhibitors. A moderate halotolerant novel marine bacterial strain of Oceanimonas sp. BPMS22 was isolated, identified, and characterized. The effect of various process parameters like salt concentration, temperature, and pH was studied on the growth of the bacteria and production of trypsin inhibitor...
August 18, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yangfan Wang, Guidong Sun, Qifan Zeng, Zhihui Chen, Xiaoli Hu, Hengde Li, Shi Wang, Zhenmin Bao
Selective breeding is a common and effective approach for genetic improvement of aquaculture stocks with parental selection as the key factor. Genomic selection (GS) has been proposed as a promising tool to facilitate selective breeding. Here, we evaluated the predictability of four GS methods in Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) through real dataset analyses of four economical traits (e.g., shell length, shell height, shell width, and whole weight). Our analysis revealed that different GS models exhibited variable performance in prediction accuracy depending on genetic and statistical factors, but non-parametric method, including reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regression (RKHS) and sparse neural networks (SNN), generally outperformed parametric linear method, such as genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and BayesB...
August 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Min Tao, Yi Zhou, Shengnan Li, Huan Zhong, Hong Hu, Liujiao Yuan, Mi Luo, Jie Chen, Li Ren, Jing Luo, Chun Zhang, Shaojun Liu
The knowledge of understanding the molecular traits of the sterile triploid fish is sparse. Herein, we analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) alternations in the testes of the sterile triploid fish produced by crossing the tetraploid fish with the diploid fish, compared with those of tetraploids and diploids used as the controls. A total of 136, 134, and 142 conserved miRNAs and 105, 112, and 119 novel miRNAs were identified in the diploid, triploid, and tetraploid fish, respectively. The genes targeted by the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and were enriched in the GO term cell surface receptor signaling pathway, cellular process, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, and metabolic process...
August 6, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Mohsen Mohammadi, Behrouz Taheri, Niloofar Momenzadeh, Reza Salarinia, Iraj Nabipour, Zahra Farshadzadeh, Afshar Bargahi
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted attentions as a novel antimicrobial agent because of their unique activity against microbes. In the present study, we described a new, previously unreported AMP, moronecidin-like peptide, from Hippocampus comes and compared its antimicrobial activity with moronecidin from hybrid striped bass. Antibacterial assay indicated that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to moronecidin and moronecidin-like compared with gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, both AMPs were found to exhibit effective antifungal activity...
July 23, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Suxu Tan, Wenwen Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhong, Changxu Tian, Donghong Niu, Lisui Bao, Tao Zhou, Yulin Jin, Yujia Yang, Zihao Yuan, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Alternative splicing is the process of generating multiple transcripts from a single pre-mRNA used by eukaryotes to regulate gene expression and increase proteomic complexity. Although alternative splicing profiles have been well studied in mammalian species, they have not been well studied in aquatic species, especially after biotic stresses. In the present study, genomic information and RNA-Seq datasets were utilized to characterize alternative splicing profiles and their induced changes after bacterial infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)...
July 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Han Ming Gan, Christopher Austin, Stuart Linton
The Christmas Island red crab, Gecarcoidea natalis, is an herbivorous land crab that consumes mostly fallen leaf litter. In order to subsist, G. natalis would need to have developed specialised digestive enzymes capable of supplying significant amounts of metabolisable sugars from this diet. To gain insights into the carbohydrate metabolism of G. natalis, a transcriptome assembly was performed, with a specific focus on identifying transcripts coding for carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) using in silico approaches...
July 11, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Melanie Hebe Hughes, Héctor Juan Prado, María Cecilia Rodríguez, Karina Michetti, Patricia Inés Leonardi, María Cristina Matulewicz
The aims of the present study were to characterize for the first time the carrageenan extracted from cystocarpic stage of S. crispata collected in the Patagonian coast of Argentina, and to prepare interpolyelectrolytic complexes (IPECs) between the polysaccharide extracted from cystocarpic stage of Sarcothalia crispata and Gigartina skottsbergii thalli, and basic butylated methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit E), in order to test their potential for the controlled release of ibuprofen as model drug. The structural determination revealed that the polysaccharides extracted from S...
July 9, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Dhinesh Kumar Thiyagarajamoorthy, Charli Deepak Arulanandam, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Santhosh Gokul Murugaiah, Muthukumar Krishnan, Arthur James Rathinam
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the brain disorders which affects the thinking and behavioral skills of patients. This disorder comes along with an overproduction of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid and the prefrontal cortex of SCZ patients. In this study, marine bacterial compounds were screened for their suitability as antagonists against human kynurenine aminotransferase (hKAT-1) which causes the synthesis of kynurenic acid downstream which ultimately causes the SCZ disorder according to the kynurenic hypothesis of SCZ...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Kai Song, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Crassostrea gigas is a model mollusk, but its genetic features have not been studied comprehensively. In this study, we used whole-genome resequencing data to identify and characterize nucleotide diversity and population recombination rate in a diverse collection of 21 C. gigas samples. Our analyses revealed that C. gigas harbors both extremely high genetic diversity and recombination rates across the whole genome as compared with those of the other taxa. The noncoding regions, introns, intergenic spacers, and untranslated regions (UTRs) showed a lower level diversity than the synonymous sites...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
A Tsalafouta, E Sarropoulou, N Papandroulakis, M Pavlidis
The present study identified and characterized six key genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a commercially important European aquaculture species. The key genes involved in the HPI axis for which gene structure and synteny analysis was carried out, comprised of two functional forms of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), as well as three forms of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) genes and one form of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene. To explore their functional roles during development but also in the stress response, the expression profiles of gr1, gr2, mr, pomc_aI, pomc_aII, and pomc_β were examined during early ontogeny and after an acute stress challenge...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yang Liu, Sheng Lu, Feng Liu, Changwei Shao, Qian Zhou, Na Wang, Yangzhen Li, Yingming Yang, Yingping Zhang, Hejun Sun, Weiwei Zheng, Songlin Chen
The Japanese flounder is one of the most widely farmed economic flatfish species throughout eastern Asia including China, Korea, and Japan. Edwardsiella tarda is a major species of pathogenic bacteria that causes ascites disease and, consequently, a huge economy loss for Japanese flounder farming. After generation selection, traditional breeding methods can hardly improve the E. tarda resistance effectively. Genomic selection is an effective way to predict the breeding potential of parents and has rarely been used in aquatic breeding...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Dan Qing Feng, Jian He, Si Yu Chen, Pei Su, Cai Huan Ke, Wei Wang
The extensive use of copper and booster biocides in antifouling (AF) paints has raised environmental concerns and the need to develop new AF agents. In the present study, 18 alkaloids derived from terrestrial plants were initially evaluated for AF activity using laboratory bioassays with the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus albicostatus. The results showed that 4 of the 18 alkaloids were effective in inhibiting larval settlement of B. neritina, with an EC50 range of 6.18 to 43.11 μM, and 15 of the 18 alkaloids inhibited larval settlement of B...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
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