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Marine Biotechnology

P R Gabbai-Armelin, H W Kido, M A Cruz, J P S Prado, I R Avanzi, M R Custódio, A C M Renno, R N Granito
Bone fractures characterize an important event in the medical healthcare, being related to traumas, aging, and diseases. In critical conditions, such as extensive bone loss and osteoporosis, the tissue restoration may be compromised and culminate in a non-union consolidation. In this context, the osteogenic properties of biomaterials with a natural origin have gained prominence. Particularly, marine sponges are promising organisms that can be exploited as biomaterials for bone grafts. Thus, the objectives of this study were to study the physicochemical and morphological properties of biosilica (BS) from sponges by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (SEM, FTIR and XRD respectively), mineralization, and pH...
November 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Cheng-Yung Lin, Po-Hsiang Zhang, You-Jei Chen, Chia-Lun Wu, Huai-Jen Tsai
The protein level of muscle-specific human NogoA is abnormally upregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice and patients. On the other hand, while the presence of miR-206 in muscle cells delays onset and death in ALS, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. Mammalian NogoA protein, also known as Reticulon 4a (Rtn4a), plays an important role in inhibiting the outgrowth of motor neurons. Our group previously identified zebrafish rtn4al as the target gene of miR-206 and found that knockdown of miR-206 increases rtn4al mRNA and Rtn4al protein in zebrafish embryos...
November 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Qinbo Qin, Liu Cao, Yude Wang, Li Ren, Qiwen Liu, Yuwei Zhou, Chongqing Wang, Huan Qin, Chun Zhao, Shaojun Liu
Autopolyploids are traditionally used to demonstrate multivalent pairing and unstable inheritance. However, the autotetraploid fish (4nRR) (RRRR, 4n = 200) derived from the distant hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. (RCC) (RR, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (BSB) (BB, 2n = 48) (♂) exhibits chromosome number (or ploidy) stability over consecutive generations (F1 -F10 ). Comparative analysis based on somatic and gametic chromosomal loci [centromeric, 5S rDNA, and Ag-NORs (silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions)] revealed that a substantial loss of chromosomal loci during genome doubling increases the divergence between homologous chromosomes and that diploid-like chromosome pairing was restored during meiosis in the first generation of 4nRR lineages...
November 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Miguel Rocha, Paulo Antas, L Filipe C Castro, Alexandre Campos, Vítor Vasconcelos, Filipe Pereira, Isabel Cunha
Adhesion in barnacles is still poorly understood. The cement gland secretes an insoluble multi-protein complex, which adheres very strongly to a variety of substrates in the presence of water. This adhesion mechanism is bioinspiring for the engineering of new adhesive materials, but to replicate this adhesive system, the genes coding for the cement constitutive proteins must be identified and elucidated, and their products characterised. Here, the complete sequences of three cement protein (CP) genes (CP-100K, CP-52K, and CP-19K) isolated from the cement gland of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (order Scalpelliformes) were obtained using RACE PCR...
November 10, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Ze Chen, Zhou Zheng, Feng-Lian Wang, Yuan-Pu Niu, Jin-Lai Miao, Hao Li
In recent years, some marine microbes have been used to degrade diesel oil. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the biodegradation are still poorly understood. In this study, a hypothermophilous marine strain, which can degrade diesel oil in cold seawater was isolated from Antarctic floe-ice and identified and named as Rhodococcus sp. LH. To clarify the biodegradation mechanisms, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics strategy was performed to determine the diesel biodegradation process-associated intracellular biochemical changes in Rhodococcus sp...
September 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
J R Parisi, K R Fernandes, I R Avanzi, B P Dorileo, A F Santana, A L Andrade, P R Gabbai-Armelin, C A Fortulan, E S Trichês, R N Granito, A C M Renno
Biomaterial-based bone grafts have an important role in the field of bone tissue engineering. One of the most promising classes of biomaterials is collagen, including the ones from marine biodiversity (in general, called spongin (SPG)). Also, hydroxyapatite (HA) has an important role in stimulating bone metabolism. Therefore, this work investigated the association of HA and SPG composites in order to evaluate their physico-chemical and morphological characteristics and their in vitro biological performance...
September 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yuanyou Li, Ziyan Yin, Yewei Dong, Shuqi Wang, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Cuihong You
As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, the rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides us a unique model for clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts aiming at the replacement of dietary fish oil (rich in LC-PUFA) with vegetable oils (rich in C18 PUFA precursors but devoid of LC-PUFA). In the study of transcription regulation of gene encoding the Δ6Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase (Δ6Δ5 Fads), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first step of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in rabbitfish, a binding site for the transcription factor (TF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), was predicted in Δ6Δ5 fads2 promoter by bioinformatics analysis, and thus the present study focused on the regulatory roles of Pparγ on Δ6Δ5 fads2...
September 11, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Natsuko Miura, Keisuke Motone, Toshiyuki Takagi, Shunsuke Aburaya, Sho Watanabe, Wataru Aoki, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
The coral microbiome has attracted increased attention because of its potential roles in host protection against deadly diseases. However, little is known about the role of coral-associated bacteria against the temperature-dependent opportunistic pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. In this study, we tested whether bacteria associated with the reef-building coral Galaxea fascicularis could inhibit the growth of V. coralliilyticus. Twenty-nine cultivable bacteria were successfully isolated from a healthy colony of G...
September 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Ping Wu, Wuying Chu, Xuanming Liu, Xinhong Guo, Jianshe Zhang
Circadian clock genes and myogenic factors are tightly integrated to influence muscle growth upon dietary deprivation in animals. In this study, we reported that upon short-term fasting of Nile tilapia juveniles for 7 and 15 days, the growth of the fish stagnated and the size of muscle fibers decreased. To reveal the molecular mechanisms of how starvation affects fish muscle growth, we analyzed the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes and myogenic factors. After 7 and 15 days of fasting treatment, the muscle tissues were collected for 24 h (at zeitgeber times ZT0, ZT3, ZT6, ZT9, ZT12, ZT18, ZT21, and ZT24) from tilapia juveniles...
September 4, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Jisun Lee, Seul Lee, Andriy Synytsya, Peter Capek, Chang Won Lee, Ji Won Choi, Sarang Cho, Woo Jung Kim, Yong Il Park
Low molecular weight mannogalactofucans (LMMGFs) prepared by enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight Undaria galactofucan (MF) were evaluated for their anti-cancer effects against human prostate cancer. Correlation NMR and linkage analyses confirmed that LMMGFs consist mainly of α-fucose and β-galactose units: α-fucose units are 1,3-linked; β-galactose units are terminal, 1,3- and/or 1,6-linked; both sugars are partially sulphated, fucose at positions O-2 and/or O-4 and galactose at O-3. Mannose residue, as a minor sugar, presents as the 1,4-linked terminal units...
August 29, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Ivane R Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Tohru Tanaka, Asuka Sumi, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
With the emergence of several infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture, there is a growing interest in the use of feed additives to enhance shrimp immunity. Recently, the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a non-protein amino acid that plays a rate-limiting role in heme biosynthesis, has received attention for its positive effect on immunity in livestock animals. To evaluate the effect of 5-ALA in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we conducted microarray analysis, a Vibrio parahaemolyticus immersion challenge test, an ATP level assay, and gene expression analysis of some hemoproteins and genes associated with heme synthesis and degradation...
August 25, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhipeng Li, Xi Chen, Jun Li, Tong Meng, Lingwei Wang, Zhen Chen, Yanyan Shi, Xueping Ling, Weiang Luo, Dafeng Liang, Yinghua Lu, Qingbiao Li, Ning He
Schizochytrium sp. is a kind of marine microalgae with great potential as promising sustainable source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Polyketide synthase-like (PKS synthase) is supposed to be one of the main ways to synthesize PUFAs in Schizochytrium sp. In order to study the exact relationship between PKS and PUFA biosynthesis, chain length factor (CLF) and dehydrogenase (DH) were cloned from the PKS gene cluster in Schizochytrium sp., then disrupted by homologous recombination. The results showed that DH- and CLF-disrupted strains had significant decreases (65...
August 22, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Dhinesh Kumar Thiyagarajamoorthy, Charli Deepak Arulanandam, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Santhosh Gokul Murugaiah, Muthukumar Krishnan, Arthur James Rathinam
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the brain disorders which affects the thinking and behavioral skills of patients. This disorder comes along with an overproduction of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid and the prefrontal cortex of SCZ patients. In this study, marine bacterial compounds were screened for their suitability as antagonists against human kynurenine aminotransferase (hKAT-1) which causes the synthesis of kynurenic acid downstream which ultimately causes the SCZ disorder according to the kynurenic hypothesis of SCZ...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Kai Song, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Crassostrea gigas is a model mollusk, but its genetic features have not been studied comprehensively. In this study, we used whole-genome resequencing data to identify and characterize nucleotide diversity and population recombination rate in a diverse collection of 21 C. gigas samples. Our analyses revealed that C. gigas harbors both extremely high genetic diversity and recombination rates across the whole genome as compared with those of the other taxa. The noncoding regions, introns, intergenic spacers, and untranslated regions (UTRs) showed a lower level diversity than the synonymous sites...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
A Tsalafouta, E Sarropoulou, N Papandroulakis, M Pavlidis
The present study identified and characterized six key genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a commercially important European aquaculture species. The key genes involved in the HPI axis for which gene structure and synteny analysis was carried out, comprised of two functional forms of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), as well as three forms of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) genes and one form of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene. To explore their functional roles during development but also in the stress response, the expression profiles of gr1, gr2, mr, pomc_aI, pomc_aII, and pomc_β were examined during early ontogeny and after an acute stress challenge...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yang Liu, Sheng Lu, Feng Liu, Changwei Shao, Qian Zhou, Na Wang, Yangzhen Li, Yingming Yang, Yingping Zhang, Hejun Sun, Weiwei Zheng, Songlin Chen
The Japanese flounder is one of the most widely farmed economic flatfish species throughout eastern Asia including China, Korea, and Japan. Edwardsiella tarda is a major species of pathogenic bacteria that causes ascites disease and, consequently, a huge economy loss for Japanese flounder farming. After generation selection, traditional breeding methods can hardly improve the E. tarda resistance effectively. Genomic selection is an effective way to predict the breeding potential of parents and has rarely been used in aquatic breeding...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Dan Qing Feng, Jian He, Si Yu Chen, Pei Su, Cai Huan Ke, Wei Wang
The extensive use of copper and booster biocides in antifouling (AF) paints has raised environmental concerns and the need to develop new AF agents. In the present study, 18 alkaloids derived from terrestrial plants were initially evaluated for AF activity using laboratory bioassays with the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus albicostatus. The results showed that 4 of the 18 alkaloids were effective in inhibiting larval settlement of B. neritina, with an EC50 range of 6.18 to 43.11 μM, and 15 of the 18 alkaloids inhibited larval settlement of B...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Mikihiro Shinohara, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Enkong Tang, Daisuke Funabara, Makoto Kakinuma, Kaoru Maeyama, Kiyohito Nagai, Masahiko Awaji, Shugo Watabe, Shuichi Asakawa
Color is one of the most important factors determining the commercial value of pearls. Pinctada fucata is a well-known pearl oyster producing high-quality Akoya pearls. Phenotypic variation in amount of yellow pigmentation produces white and yellowish pearls. It has been reported that polymorphism of yellow pigmentation of Akoya pearls is genetically regulated, but the responsible gene(s) has remained unknown. Here, we prepared pearl sac pairs formed in the same recipient oyster but coming from donor oysters that differ in their color...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yeonju Na, Ha-Nul Lee, Jiwoong Wi, Won-Joong Jeong, Dong-Woog Choi
Pyropia are commercially valuable marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone. They are extremely tolerant to desiccation stress. We have previously identified and reported desiccation response genes (DRGs) based on transcriptome analysis of P. tenera. Among them, PtDRG1 encodes a polypeptide of 22.6 kDa that is located in the chloroplast. PtDRG1 does not share sequence homology with any known gene deposited in public database. Transcription of PtDRG1 gene was upregulated by osmotic stress induced by mannitol or H2 O2 as well as desiccation stress, but not by heat...
October 2018: Marine Biotechnology
B S Harish, Kiran Babu Uppuluri
Protease inhibitors control major biological protease activities to maintain physiological homeostasis. Marine bacteria isolated from oligotrophic conditions could be taxonomically distinct, metabolically unique, and offers a wide variety of biochemicals. In the present investigation, marine sediments were screened for the potential bacteria that can produce trypsin inhibitors. A moderate halotolerant novel marine bacterial strain of Oceanimonas sp. BPMS22 was isolated, identified, and characterized. The effect of various process parameters like salt concentration, temperature, and pH was studied on the growth of the bacteria and production of trypsin inhibitor...
August 18, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
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