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Marine Biotechnology

Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Eun Jeong Lee, Ok Kyung Lee, Eun Yeol Lee
4-Deoxy-L-erythro-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH) reductase is a key enzyme in alginate utilizing metabolism, but the number of characterized DEH reductase is quite limited. In this study, novel two DEH reductases, VsRed-1 and VsRed-2, were identified in marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus, and the recombinant enzymes were expressed in an Escherichia coli system and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant VsRed-1 and VsRed-2 were pH 7.5, 30 °C, and pH 7.0, 35 °C, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Juan Zamora-Sillero, Adem Gharsallaoui, Carlos Prentice
The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Wilawan Thongda, Honggang Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Lauren N Jescovitch, Ming Liu, Ximing Guo, Meagan Schrandt, Sean P Powers, Eric Peatman
Culture of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is rapidly expanding. Combined with their continuing role as an environmental sentinel species and ecological model, this trend necessitates improved molecular tools for breeding and selection, as well as population assessment and genetic conservation. Here, we describe the development and validation of two panels of 58 single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) for the species. Population analyses revealed three distinct populations, based on FST values and STRUCTURE, among wild oysters sampled from Delaware Bay (1), northwest Florida (2), Alabama (2), Louisiana (2), and the Texas Gulf Coast (3), consistent with previous microsatellite and mtDNA analyses...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Lindon W K Moodie, Gunnar Cervin, Rozenn Trepos, Christophe Labriere, Claire Hellio, Henrik Pavia, Johan Svenson
By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Hua Ye, Shijun Xiao, Xiaoqing Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Zhengshi Zhang, Chengke Zhu, Bingjie Hu, Changhuan Lv, Shuming Zheng, Hui Luo
Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti) is an indigenous fish species and is popularly cultured in southwestern China. In recent years, intensive farming of S. prenanti and water quality deterioration has increased the susceptibility of this fish to various pathogens, including Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), which has caused severe damage to S. prenanti production. However, the understanding of molecular immune response of S. prenanti to A. hydrophila infection is still lacking. In order to better comprehend the S...
March 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Chenyang Yue, Qi Li, Hong Yu
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a commercially important bivalve in aquaculture worldwide. C. gigas has a fascinating sexual reproduction system consisting of dioecism, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism, while knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation is still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes of male and female gonads at different gametogenesis stages were characterized by RNA-seq. Hierarchical clustering based on genes differentially expressed revealed that 1269 genes were expressed specifically in female gonads and 817 genes were expressed increasingly over the course of spermatogenesis...
March 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhicheng Wang, Jun Cui, Jian Song, Haoze Wang, Kailun Gao, Xuemei Qiu, Meng Gou, Xin Li, Ziwen Hu, Xiuli Wang, Yaqing Chang
Heterosis is important for sea cucumber breeding, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. In this study, parental lines of Apostichopus japonicus from Russia (R) and China (C) were used to construct hybrids (CR and RC) by reciprocal crossing. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the hybrids (CR and RC) and the purebreds (CC and RR) at different developmental times. A total of 60.27 Gb of clean data was obtained, and 176,649 unigenes were identified, of which 50,312 unigenes were annotated...
February 28, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Guofang Feng, Wei Sun, Fengli Zhang, Sandi Orlić, Zhiyong Li
Symbiotic ammonia scavengers contribute to effective removal of ammonia in sponges. However, the phylogenetic diversity and in situ activity of ammonia-scavenging microbiota between different sponge species are poorly addressed. Here, transcribed ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA), hydrazine synthase genes (hzsA), and glutamine synthetase genes (glnA) were analyzed to reveal the active ammonia-scavenging microbiota in the sympatric sponges Theonella swinhoei, Plakortis simplex, and Phakellia fusca, and seawater...
February 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Nozomu Okino, Hiroyoshi Wakisaka, Yohei Ishibashi, Makoto Ito
Thraustochytrids are single cell marine eukaryotes that produce large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid. In the present study, we report the visualization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in a type strain of the thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium limacinum ATCC MYA-1381, using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with specific targeting/retaining signals. We expressed the egfp gene with ER targeting/retaining signals from A. limacinum calreticulin or BiP/GRP78 in the thraustochytrid, resulting in the distribution of EGFP signals at the perinuclear region and near lipid droplets...
January 29, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Mengxin Cai, Yufeng Si, Jianshe Zhang, Zhenjun Tian, Shaojun Du
Zebrafish embryonic slow muscle cells, with their superficial localization and clear sarcomere organization, provide a useful model system for genetic analysis of muscle cell differentiation and sarcomere assembly. To develop a quick assay for testing CRISPR-mediated gene editing in slow muscles of zebrafish embryos, we targeted a red fluorescence protein (RFP) reporter gene specifically expressed in slow muscles of myomesin-3-RFP (Myom3-RFP) zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that microinjection of RFP-sgRNA with Cas9 protein or Cas9 mRNA resulted in a mosaic pattern in loss of RFP expression in slow muscle fibers of the injected zebrafish embryos...
January 27, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Shangyong Li, Linna Wang, Xuehong Chen, Wenwen Zhao, Mi Sun, Yantao Han
Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate presents in brown macroalgae, has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. Oligoalginate lyases catalyze the degradation of alginate oligomers into monomers, a prerequisite for bioethanol production. In this study, two new oligoalginate lyase genes, oalC6 and oalC17, were cloned from Cellulophaga sp. SY116, and expressed them in Escherichia coli. The deduced oligoalginate lyases, OalC6 and OalC17, belonged to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 6 and 17, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Amal Abdelhamid, Meriem Jouini, Haifa Bel Haj Amor, Zeineb Mzoughi, Mehdi Dridi, Rafik Ben Said, Abderrahman Bouraoui
Phlorotannins, phenolic compounds produced exclusively by seaweeds, have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. However, there have been few works on these compounds from Mediterranean seaweeds. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical analysis and pharmacological potential of phlorotannin-rich fractions from three brown seaweeds collected along the Tunisia coast: Cystoseira sedoides (PHT-SED), Cladostephus spongeosis (PHT-CLAD), and Padina pavonica (PHT-PAD). Phytochemical determinations showed considerable differences in total phenolic content (TPC) and phlorotannin content (PHT)...
January 18, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Lizenn Delisle, Marine Fuhrmann, Claudie Quéré, Marianna Pauletto, Vianney Pichereau, Fabrice Pernet, Charlotte Corporeau
Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key mitochondrial protein. VDAC drives cellular energy metabolism by controlling the influx and efflux of metabolites and ions through the mitochondrial membrane, playing a role in its permeabilization. This protein exerts a pivotal role during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp, through its involvement in a particular metabolism that plays in favor of the virus, the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect corresponds to an atypical metabolic shift toward an aerobic glycolysis that provides energy for rapid cell division and resistance to apoptosis...
January 17, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Fumito Ohmori, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Daisuke Funabara, Hiroki Koyama, Kiyohito Nagai, Kaoru Maeyama, Kikuhiko Okamoto, Shuichi Asakawa, Shugo Watabe
Although a wide variety of proteins and genes possibly related to the shell formation in bivalve have been identified, their functions have been only partially approved. We have recently performed deep sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata using a next-generation sequencer, identifying a dozen of novel gene candidates which are possibly associated with the nacreous layer formation. Among the ESTs, we focused on three novel isoforms (N16-6, N16-7, and N19-2) of N16 and N19 families with reference to five known genes in the families and determined the full-length cDNA sequences of these isoforms...
January 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Amr Badary, Shouhei Takamatsu, Mitsuharu Nakajima, Stefano Ferri, Peter Lindblad, Koji Sode
An important feature offered by marine cyanobacterial strains over freshwater strains is the capacity to grow in seawater, replacing the need for often-limited freshwater. However, there are only limited numbers of marine cyanobacteria that are available for genetic manipulation and bioprocess applications. The marine unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. strain NKBG 15041c (NKBG15041c) has been extensively studied. Recombinant DNA technologies are available for this strain, and its genomic information has been elucidated...
January 12, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Xiao Hui Gu, Dan Li Jiang, Yan Huang, Bi Jun Li, Chao Hao Chen, Hao Ran Lin, Jun Hong Xia
Selection of new lines with high salinity tolerance allows for economically feasible production of tilapias in brackish water areas. Mapping QTLs and identifying the markers linked to salinity-tolerant traits are the first steps in the improvement of the tolerance in tilapia through marker-assisted selection techniques. By using QTL-seq strategy and linkage-based analysis, two significant QTL intervals (chrLG4 and chrLG18) on salinity-tolerant traits were firstly identified in the Nile tilapia. Fine mapping with microsatellite and SNP markers suggested a major QTL region that located at 23...
January 9, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
P Ventura, G Toullec, C Fricano, L Chapron, V Meunier, E Röttinger, P Furla, S Barnay-Verdier
In the context of global change, symbiotic cnidarians are largely affected by seawater temperature elevation leading to symbiosis breakdown. This process, also called bleaching, is triggered by the dysfunction of the symbiont photosystems causing an oxidative stress and cell death to both symbiont and host cells. In our study, we wanted to elucidate the intrinsic capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with thermal stress in the absence of symbiont. In that aim, we have characterized an animal primary cell culture form regenerating tentacles of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis...
January 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Kuntong Jia, Yongming Yuan, Wei Liu, Lan Liu, Qiwei Qin, Meisheng Yi
Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is one of the major causative agents of fish diseases and has caused significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There is currently no commercial vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against SGIV infection. Annually, an increasing number of small molecule compounds from various sources have been produced, and many are proved to be potential inhibitors against viruses. Here, a high-throughput in vitro cell viability-based screening assay was developed to identify antiviral compounds against SGIV using the luminescent-based CellTiter-Glo reagent in cultured grouper spleen cells by quantificational measurement of the cytopathic effects induced by SGIV infection...
February 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Grace Lin, Le Wang, Si Te Ngoh, Lianghui Ji, Laszlo Orbán, Gen Hua Yue
Tilapia is one of most important foodfish species. The low omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio in freshwater tilapia meat is disadvantageous for human health. Increasing omega-3 content is an important task in breeding to increase the nutritional value of tilapia. However, conventional breeding to increase omega-3 content is difficult and slow. To accelerate the increase of omega-3 through marker-assisted selection (MAS), we conducted QTL mapping for fatty acid contents and profiles in a F2 family of saline tilapia generated by crossing red tilapia and Mozambique tilapia...
February 2018: Marine Biotechnology
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