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Nutritional Neuroscience

Işınsu Alkan, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Gamze Altun, Erkan Erener
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of topiramate on the fat mass/obesity-associated protein (FTO) and on the neuropeptide Y (NPY) level in the hypothalamus depending on the recently increased prevalence of obesity. METHOD: In this study, twenty-four female rats were divided into four equal groups: Non-obese control, obese control, non-obese topiramate, and obese topiramate. Obese groups were fed with a 40% high-fat diet. At the end of the 9th week, the drug treatment started and the subjects were treated with topiramate once a day for 6 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Liming Dong, Yi Wang, Jingwei Lv, Hongxia Zhang, Ning Jiang, Cong Lu, Pan Xu, Xinmin Liu
OBJECTIVES: Chronic stress exposure can disrupt the balance of organisms, result in learning and memory impairments and induce oxidative stress. However, there is a lack of safe and effective long-term therapeutic agents for stress-related injuries. Fresh ginseng (FG), an unprocessed raw root of ginseng, has antioxidant and neuroprotective activities and has been used as functional health food in Asian countries for many years. The aim of this study was to verify the protective effects of FG on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced learning and memory impairments as well as oxidative stress damage in mice...
September 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Shoug M Alashmali, Alex P Kitson, Lin Lin, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure)...
September 13, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ali Ganji, Iman Farahani, Mohammad Reza Palizvan, Ali Ghazavi, Mostafa Ejtehadifar, Mohsen Ebrahimimonfared, Mana Shojapour, Ghasem Mosayebi
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic approaches for multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are accompanied by various undesirable side effects. Owing to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of walnut, we investigated its effects on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. METHODS: After EAE induction in mice, the treated group was gavaged daily with walnut oil. The weights and clinical symptoms were monitored daily for 21 days following the onset of symptoms...
September 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Noranege Epifânio Accioly, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Ovarian hormones (OH) and early malnutrition may affect the developing brain, with repercussions on behavioral and excitability-dependent processes. However, the possible synergistic effects of both factors have not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment in early life with OH and suckling among distinct litter sizes on recognition memory, anxiety behavior, and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD)...
September 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Francesca Saba, Annarita Sirigu, Rita Pillai, Paola Caria, Lina Cordeddu, Gianfranca Carta, Elisabetta Murru, Valeria Sogos, Sebastiano Banni
OBJECTIVES: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether modulation of the fatty acid profile by the CLA isomers c9,t11 or t10,c12CLA was associated with changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in human astrocytes. METHODS: Cultured astrocytes were treated for 6 days with 100 µM fatty acids (c9,t11CLA or t10,c12CLA or oleic acid)...
August 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Mohammad Gol, Davoud Ghorbanian, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Jamshid Faraji, Mohsen Pourghasem
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive pathological changes of the brain. A number of studies demonstrated compelling evidence of the importance of oxidative processes in AD pathogenesis. Raisin contains polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of raisin on neurobehavioral and histological changes in rats with Alzheimer...
August 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nicholas A DaSilva, Pragati P Nahar, Hang Ma, Aseel Eid, Zhengxi Wei, Susan Meschwitz, Nasser H Zawia, Angela L Slitt, Navindra P Seeram
OBJECTIVES: Urolithins, ellagitannin-gut microbial-derived metabolites, have been reported to mediate pomegranate's neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there are limited data on their effects against neuroinflammation. Herein, we: (1) evaluated whether urolithins (urolithins A and B and their methylated derivatives) attenuate neuroinflammation in murine BV-2 microglia and human SH-SY5Y neurons, and (2) evaluated hippocampus of transgenic AD (R1.40) mice administered a pomegranate extract (PE; 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) for inflammatory biomarkers...
August 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Michael J Wenger, Diane M DellaValle, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Jere D Haas
OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency (ID) - the highly prevalent nutritional deficiency - has been shown to have deleterious effects on measures of cognitive performance and brain activity. Many of these results are suggestive of the impact of ID on neurotransmitter regulation and myelination. A third critical potential effect of ID on brain function is at the level of brain energy expenditure; however, to date there has not been any method for indirectly estimating the impact of ID on energy expenditure in humans in the context of cognitive work...
August 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Rosângela Figueiredo Mendes-da-Silva, Diorginis José Soares Ferreira, Andréia Albuquerque Cunha Lopes-de-Morais, Patrícia Fortes Cavalcanti de Macêdo, Cláudia J Lagranha, Manuella Batista-de-Oliveira-Hornsby
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how safflower oil (SFO) influences brain electrophysiology and cortical oxidative status in the offspring, mothers received a diet with SFO during brain development period. METHODS: Beginning on the 14th day of gestation and throughout lactation, rats received safflower (safflower group - SG) or soybean oil (control group - CG) in their diet. At 65 days old, cortical spreading depression (CSD) and cortex oxidative status were analyzed in the offspring...
August 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Azam Mesdaghinia, Marziye Alinejad, Alireza Abed, Azhdar Heydari, Hamid Reza Banafshe
OBJECTIVES: Thiamine serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in brain function and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are important for oxidant stress defenses. Several studies have reported that thiamine deficiency in the central nervous system reduces seizure threshold. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of thiamine alone and in combination with sub-effective dose of diazepam on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic-clonic seizures in mice...
August 2, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Hande Cekici, Nevin Sanlier
The link between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a complex developmental disorder manifesting itself in significant delays or deviation in interaction and communication, has provided a fresh point of view and signals that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of ASD, as well as play an active role in treatment by alleviating symptoms. OBJECTIVE: In this review study aimed at evaluating, with scientific and concrete proof, the current medical nutrition implementations on ASD, existing medical nutrition therapies have been addressed and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed in light of current research...
August 1, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Pramod Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Singh, Rajesh Singh Yadav, Rajendra Nath, Anju Mehrotra, Akash Rawat, Rakesh Kumar Dixit
OBJECTIVES: In view of the increasing risk of lead on human health, the present study has been carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acid on chronic lead-induced neurotoxicity and behavioral impairment in rats. METHODS: Different neurobehavioral parameters, biochemical assays, and histopathological analyses in brain regions of rats were conducted. RESULTS: Rats exposed to different doses of lead (lead acetate 2...
August 1, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Rita Cassia Macedo, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Rosemari Otton
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate some indicators of redox status, and inflammation on different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of obese rats treated with green tea (GT). We hypothesized that obesity could affect the redox balance in different brain regions due to the diverse nature of the cells as well as the selective neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress, and GT could triggers benefits effects restoring the redox status. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with GT by gavage (12 weeks/5 days/week; 500 mg/kg of body weight) and obesity was induced by cafeteria diet (8 weeks)...
July 31, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Daisuke Nishi, Kuan-Pin Su, Kentaro Usuda, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Yi-Ju Jill Chiang, Tai-Wei Guu, Kei Hamazaki, Naoki Nakaya, Toshimasa Sone, Kenji Hashimoto, Tomohito Hamazaki, Yutaka J Matsuoka
OBJECTIVES: Although safe approaches for improving depression in pregnancy are required and the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been suggested, the amount of supplemental omega-3 PUFAs has varied among previous studies and adequate amount might be different among countries. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the feasibility of using 1800 mg of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation for our future double-blind, placebo-control trial, and to clarify the clinical difference and the similarity between two sites of Japan and Taiwan...
July 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Erika Vanesa Cadena-Burbano, Carolina Cadete Lucena Cavalcanti, Amanda Braz Lago, Raquel de Arruda Campos Benjamim, Thaynan Raquel Dos Prazeres Oliveira, Jacqueline Maria Silva, Raul Manhães-De-Castro, Raquel Da Silva Aragão
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of two maternal high-fat diets with different energy densities on the somatic growth, reflex ontogeny, and locomotor activity of offspring. METHODS: Twenty-nine female Wistar rats (220-250 g) were mated and grouped into three different dietary conditions: control (n = 11, AIN-93G diet, 3.6 kcal/g), high-fat/high-caloric (HH, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 4.62 kcal/g), and high-fat/isocaloric (HI, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 3...
July 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
DSouza Serena Stephen, Asha Abraham
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of specially formulated high-fat simple carbohydrate diet (HFSC) on the serotonin metabolic pathway in male C57BL/6J mice. METHODS: Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that specially formulated HFSC induces metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice. In the present investigation, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were analyzed in two brain regions (hypothalamus, corpus striatum), urine and plasma of HFSC-fed mice on a monthly basis up to 5 months using high-performance liquid chromatography fitted with electrochemical detector...
July 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kinga Krzysztoforska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
Protocatechuic acid has very promising properties potentially useful in the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases progression. It is the main metabolite of the complex polyphenolic compounds and is believed to be responsible for beneficial effects associated with consumption of the food products rich in polyphenols. Protocatechuic acid is present in the circulation significantly longer and at higher concentrations than parent compounds and easily crosses the blood brain barrier. The aim of the following paper is to provide an extensive and actual report on protocatechuic acid and its pharmacological potential in prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in humans based on existing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies...
July 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Katarina Bojović, Biljana Stanković, Nikola Kotur, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Vladimir Gašić, Sonja Pavlović, Branka Zukić, Đurđica Ignjatović
Gastrointestinal disturbances, nutritional deficiencies, and food intolerances are frequently observed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). To reveal possible association of celiac disease risk variants (HLA-DQ), lactose intolerance associated variant (LCT-13910C>T) as well as variant associated with vitamin D function (VDR FokI) with NDD, polymerase chain reaction-based methodology was used. Additionally, intestinal peptide permeability was estimated in NDD patients and healthy children by measuring the level of peptides in urine using high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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