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Nutritional Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343201/the-impact-of-blackcurrant-juice-on-attention-mood-and-brain-wave-spectral-activity-in-young-healthy-volunteers
#1
A W Watson, E J Okello, H J Brooker, S Lester, G J McDougall, K A Wesnes
There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials which indicates that consumption of berries has a positive effect upon the cognitive function of healthy adults. It has been recommended that studies combining cognitive and physiological measures be undertaken in order to strengthen the evidence base for the putative effects of flavonoid consumption on cognitive outcomes. This pilot study utilized a randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled crossover design to assess the influence of the acute administration of anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant juice, standardized at 500 mg of polyphenols, on mood and attention...
January 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338677/vitamin-b-6-and-depressive-symptomatology-over-time-in-older-latino-adults
#2
Sandra P Arévalo, Tammy M Scott, Luis M Falcón, Katherine L Tucker
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to depressive symptomatology. We examined the longitudinal association of vitamin B-6 status with depressive symptomatology across 3-time points over ∼5-7 years in a cohort of older Hispanic adults. METHODS: We used two-level hierarchical linear regression models for continuous outcomes. Vitamin B-6 status was associated with depressive symptomatology across these time points. RESULTS: Plasma pyridoxyl-5-phosphate (PLP) concentration, a time-varying predictor, was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338670/vitamin-a-and-vitamin-d-deficiencies-exacerbate-symptoms-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Yuxi Lei, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to determine whether co-deficiency of VA and VD exacerbates clinical symptoms in autistic children. METHODS: The Autism Behavior Checklist, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used to assess the symptoms of 332 children diagnosed as ASD. And the Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) was used to evaluate neurodevelopment in children with ASD...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338667/docosahexaenoic-acid-prevents-resistance-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-two-animal-models-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#4
Melika Moezifar, Mohammad Sayyah, Morteza Zendehdel, Hakimeh Gavzan
OBJECTIVES: One-third of epileptic patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Few clinical studies with small sample size indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids could control drug-resistant epilepsy. We examined the efficacy of acute and chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in two animal models of drug-resistant epilepsies, i.e. 6-Hz psychomotor seizures in mice and lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant kindled rats. METHODS: Mice received a single injection of DHA (300 µM, i...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325505/the-relationship-between-cholesterol-level-and-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-app-proteolysis-a%C3%AE-metabolism
#5
Chaoqun Wang, Yikai Shou, Jie Pan, Yue Du, Cuiqing Liu, Huanhuan Wang
Globally, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the elderly population, the hallmark of which is amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Energy metabolism and AD pathogenesis are believed to influence one another. Different cholesterol levels are thought to influence various steps in neurotoxic Aβ generation, including amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis and the corresponding activities of α-, β-, and γ-secretases. In addition, cholesterol has been proved to mediate Aβ metabolism, such as its fibrillation, transportation, degradation, and clearance processes...
January 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298622/oral-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-in-patients-with-migraine-effects-on-clinical-features-and-inflammatory-markers
#6
Monireh Dahri, Ali Tarighat-Esfanjani, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mazyar Hashemilar
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Migraine and inflammation are correlated. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an anti-inflammatory agent has shown useful effects in other diseases. The present study aimed to assess the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on inflammation and clinical features of migraine. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 45 non-menopausal women aged 18-50 years, diagnosed for episodic migraine according to the International Headache Society...
January 3, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292676/neuroprotective-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-against-peripheral-nerve-transection-induced-apoptosis
#7
Kosar Kian, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Hassan Ahmadvand, Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah, Zahra Shams
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a variety of neural injury models. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of EGCG following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups each as follows: Sham-operated group, SNT group, and Pre-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 30 minutes before nerve transection and followed for 3 days) and Post-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i...
January 2, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286866/omega-3-fatty-acid-deficiency-impairs-frontostriatal-recruitment-following-repeated-amphetamine-treatment-in-rats-a-7-tesla-in-vivo-phmri-study
#8
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist
Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid implicated in dopamine and glutamate synaptic plasticity, its role in neuroplastic brain changes that occur following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment are not known. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of repeated AMPH exposure and alterations in brain DHA levels on AMPH-induced brain activation patterns. Male rats were fed a diet with no n-3 fatty acids (Deficient, DEF, n = 20), a diet fortified with preformed DHA (fish oil, FO, n = 20), or a control diet fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (n = 20) from P21 to P90...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284375/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-disrupt-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-fed-or-overnight-fasted-rats
#9
M Rijnsburger, U A Unmehopa, L Eggels, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows dynamic changes upon neuroendocrine events and adjusts permeability with the tight junction (TJ) complex. It has been shown that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) affects BBB permeability...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284373/chrysin-isolated-from-pyrus-pashia-fruit-ameliorates-convulsions-in-experimental-animals
#10
Priyanka Sharma, Amita Kumari, Ashu Gulati, Sairam Krishnamurthy, Siva Hemalatha
OBJECTIVE: The traditional use of the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Pyrus pashia (EPP) as a potential anticonvulsant was validated using experimental animal models. Furthermore, the anticonvulsant activity of isolated chrysin was investigated against experimental animal models to draw a possible therapeutic mechanism of EPP. Additionally, the safety profile of chrysin was evaluated to explore the possible therapeutic alternative in the management of epilepsy. METHOD: The anticonvulsant activity in terms of duration of onset of hind limb tonic extension and convulsion of standardized EPP was evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of experimental epilepsy respectively...
December 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280418/comparative-effect-of-camellia-sinensis-teas-on-object-recognition-test-deficit-and-metabolic-changes-induced-by-cafeteria-diet
#11
Melina Bucco Soares, Juliana Bernera Ramalho, Aryele Pinto Izaguirry, Natasha Frasson Pavin, Cristiano Chiapinotto Spiazzi, Helen Lidiane Schimidt, Pâmela Billig Mello-Carpes, Francielli Weber Santos
OBJECTIVES: Consumption of high-fat and high-sugar diets in Western countries has increased significantly causing major global health problems including metabolic syndrome and obesity. In addition, studies have suggested that obesity can lead to learning and memory deficits. In this context, the use of natural compounds with low costs, minor side effects and increased antioxidant activity, such as teas, could reduce the damages induced by obesity. We investigated the effect of white, green, red, and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their possible neuroprotective mechanisms in an experimental obesity model induced by a cafeteria diet (CD)...
December 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280414/the-relationship-between-dietary-quality-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-level-and-the-val66met-polymorphism-in-predicting-depression
#12
Amy Froud, Jenifer Murphy, Lachlan Cribb, Chee H Ng, Jerome Sarris
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophic factor implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, may be influenced by dietary quality. Both dietary quality and serum BDNF have been researched independently in regard to their effect on depression; however, there is limited research investigating the relationship between the two factors and how they interact in depression. Additionally, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (Val66Met) in the BDNF gene, which has been implicated in BDNF levels and depression, may contribute to the complex relationship between depression, dietary quality, and BDNF level...
December 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272216/recurrent-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-in-pregnancy-a-case-report
#13
Angela Stephens, Khilen Patel, Ashwin Rao, Paul Browne, Susanna Raley, Linda Street
INTRODUCTION: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurologic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1. Thiamine stores can be depleted rapidly in patients with severe hyperemesis. Treatment with thiamine typically results in complete resolution of the neurological abnormalities. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old G2P0010 at 13.2 weeks gestation presented with altered mental status and transaminitis. She had a medical termination in her previous pregnancy following an admission for a similar clinical scenario...
December 22, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254457/effect-of-ketogenic-diets-on-leukocyte-counts-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#14
Karisa C Schreck, MonYi Lwin, Roy E Strowd, Bobbie J Henry-Barron, Jaishri O Blakeley, Mackenzie C Cervenka
OBJECTIVES: Ketogenic diets (KDs) have long been used to treat epilepsy and are being explored in a variety of diseases. Preclinical data suggest KDs affect inflammation and cytokine release. It is unknown whether KDs affect white blood cell (WBC) counts over time. This is particularly important in clinical populations who may be immune-suppressed at baseline, such as those with cancer or autoimmune disorders. METHODS: A retrospective review of 125 consecutive adults seen at the Adult Epilepsy Diet Center (AEDC) was conducted...
December 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251222/dietary-polydextrose-and-galactooligosaccharide-increase-exploratory-behavior-improve-recognition-memory-and-alter-neurochemistry-in-the-young-pig
#15
Stephen A Fleming, Supida Monaikul, Alexander J Patsavas, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Ryan N Dilger
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that dietary prebiotics have the potential to improve memory, alter social behavior, and reduce anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding prebiotics early in life on cognition and neurochemistry using a translational piglet model. METHODS: Pigs were provided customized milk replacer containing 2 g/L each of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) or 0 g/L (Control) from postnatal day (PND) 2-33...
December 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224485/assessment-of-dietary-factors-dietary-practices-and-exercise-on-mental-distress-in-young-adults-versus-matured-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Lina Begdache, Maher Chaar, Nasim Sabounchi, Hamed Kianmehr
The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress...
December 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215971/a-mediterranean-style-dietary-intervention-supplemented-with-fish-oil-improves-diet-quality-and-mental-health-in-people-with-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial-helfimed
#17
Natalie Parletta, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Jihyun Cho, Amy Wilson, Svetlana Bogomolova, Anthony Villani, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Theo Niyonsenga, Sarah Blunden, Barbara Meyer, Leonie Segal, Bernhard T Baune, Kerin O'Dea
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether a Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) supplemented with fish oil can improve mental health in adults suffering depression. METHODS: Adults with self-reported depression were randomized to receive fortnightly food hampers and MedDiet cooking workshops for 3 months and fish oil supplements for 6 months, or attend social groups fortnightly for 3 months. Assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months included mental health, quality of life (QoL) and dietary questionnaires, and blood samples for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis...
December 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198184/impact-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-on-the-auditory-functions-in-the-young-and-adult-guinea-pig
#18
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Brian Blakley, Jean-Luc Jougleux, Marc E Surette, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing function in the guinea pig offspring at post-natal day (PNd) 24 and PNd84 born from dams suffering from iron deficiency during pregnancy and lactation by using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). METHOD: Female guinea pigs (n = 24 per dietary group) were fed an iron sufficient (IS) diet (114 mg/kg) or an iron deficient (ID) diet (11.7 mg/kg) during the gestation and lactation periods. Pups in both groups were weaned at PNd9 and given the IS diet...
December 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185388/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-functional-fatty-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-alternative-for-central-nervous-system-diseases-a-review
#19
Fatemeh Seifar, Mohammad Khalili, Habib Khaledyan, Shirin Amiri Moghadam, Azimeh Izadi, Amirreza Azimi, Seied Kazem Shakouri
OBJECTIVES: α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor...
November 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183255/suckling-in-litters-with-different-sizes-and-early-and-late-swimming-exercise-differentially-modulates-anxiety-like-behavior-memory-and-electrocorticogram-potentiation-after-spreading-depression-in-rats
#20
Mariana Barros E Silva-Gondim, Thays Kallyne Marinho de Souza, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo Rodrigues, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L6 and L12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised...
November 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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