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Nutritional Neuroscience

Md Nazmul Haque, Il Soo Moon
Stigmasterol (ST) is a multifunctional phytosterol and is found in diverse food. In our previous transcriptomics study, we found ST upregulated migration-related genes. In the present study, we carried out in vitro neurosphere migration assays to investigate the effects of ST on neuronal migration. For this purpose, neurospheres were produced by culturing rat (Sprague-Dawley) E14 cortical neurons. The addition of ST (75 μM) to culture medium increased not only the numbers of migratory neurons by 15% but the distance of movement up to 120 μm from the centers of neurospheres as compared to vehicle cultures...
November 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Hajara Aslam, Jessica Green, Felice N Jacka, Fiona Collier, Michael Berk, Julie Pasco, Samantha L Dawson
Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are often comorbid with gut problems, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between mental health and gut function. Several mechanisms might explain this comorbidity, such as inflammation and immune activation; intestinal permeability; perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neurotransmitter/neuropeptide dysregulation; dietary deficiencies; and disturbed gut microbiome composition. The potential of modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and subsequently mental health, through the use of functional foods, is an emerging and novel topic of interest...
November 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Alexandra T Wade, Courtney R Davis, Kathryn A Dyer, Jonathan M Hodgson, Richard J Woodman, Hannah A D Keage, Karen J Murphy
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet has been linked to improved cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet may not meet calcium requirements for older non-Mediterranean populations, which could limit long-term sustainability in Western countries. The current study therefore aimed to determine the cognitive and psychological effects of a Mediterranean diet with adequate calcium for an ageing Australian population. METHOD: A randomized controlled cross-over design trial compared a Mediterranean diet with 3-4 daily serves of dairy food (MedDairy) with a low-fat (LF) control diet...
November 8, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Mahtab Ramezani, Zahra Sahraei, Leila Simani, Kamran Heydari, Farzad Shahidi
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Clinical studies demonstrated that the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in several neurological diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD), and migraine. The purpose of this study is to investigate oxidative stress effects, antioxidant enzymes activity, neuroinflammatory markers levels, and neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients following administration of CoQ10 (300 mg/day). METHODS: Patients with AIS (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a placebo group (wheat starch, n = 30) or CoQ10-supplemented group (300 mg/day, n = 30)...
November 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Penelope D Manta-Vogli, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas, Kleopatra H Schulpis
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency, commonly named phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism inherited with an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by high blood and cerebral Phe levels, resulting in intellectual disabilities, seizures, etc. Early diagnosis and treatment of the patients prevent major neuro-cognitive deficits. Treatment consists of a lifelong restriction of Phe intake, combined with the supplementation of special medical foods, such as Amino Acid medical food (AA-mf), enriched in tyrosine (Tyr) and other amino acids and nutrients to avoid nutritional deficits...
October 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nittaya Marungruang, Tatiana Kovalenko, Iryna Osadchenko, Ulrikke Voss, Fang Huang, Stephen Burleigh, Galyna Ushakova, Galyna Skibo, Margareta Nyman, Olena Prykhodko, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Lingonberries (LB) have been shown to have beneficial metabolic effects, which is associated with an altered gut microbiota. This study investigated whether the LB-induced improvements were associated with altered gut- and neuroinflammatory markers, as well as cognitive performance in ApoE-/- mice fed high-fat (HF) diets. Whole LB, as well as two separated fractions of LB were investigated. Eight-week-old male ApoE-/- mice were fed HF diets (38% kcal) containing whole LB (wLB), or the insoluble (insLB) and soluble fractions (solLB) of LB for 8 weeks...
October 24, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Vanesa Carmona, Sagrario Martín-Aragón, Joshua Goldberg, David Schubert, Paloma Bermejo-Bescós
Long-term consumption of phytochemicals has been associated with a decreased risk of dementia. The modes of action of two flavonols (morin and isoquercitrin) and two flavanones (hesperidin and neohesperidin) were characterized as single-compound drugs in several Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related assays. First, these phytochemicals were assayed in an amyloid toxicity model (MC65 cells). Second, we examined the activity of the flavonoids in cell-free assays against β- and γ-secretases and acetylcholinesterase activities, as well as agents able to modify the fibrillogenesis of the amyloid β-peptide...
October 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Krista Christensen, Carey E Gleason, Julie A Mares
OBJECTIVES: Dietary carotenoids may limit neuronal damage from free radicals, potentially serving as a modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline. We examined intake of lutein and zeaxanthin (L and Z) in relation to cognitive performance among 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged ≥60 years. METHODS: L and Z intake from foods and supplements was estimated from two non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Outcomes included the CERAD Word Learning sub-test score, Animal Fluency test score, and Digit Symbol Substitution test score...
October 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Parisa Hasanein, Abbasali Emamjomeh, Nasibeh Chenarani, Mussa Bohlooli
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment and hyperalgesia are among the common manifestations of diabetes. Hyperglycemia may contribute to their developments but the exact pathophysiology underlying these complications is not fully understood. Flavonoids from plants original have beneficial effects on diabetes by improving glycemic control. Rutin (RUT) is a bioflavonoid found in many plants and foods with many biological activities including neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of RUT (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i...
October 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Conor P Kerley, Basil Elnazir, Peter Greally, David Coghlan
INTRODUCTION: Data suggest a potential role for vitamin D in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevention and treatment. It is likely that the serum response to vitamin D supplementation contributes to its effectiveness. Multiple factors affect serum vitamin D 25(OH)D response to supplementation. METHODS: We conducted post-hoc analysis of two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D3 supplementation, one RCT involving children with ASD and another involving children with asthma...
October 10, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Anthony W Watson, Arjan Scheepens, David O Kennedy, Janine M Cooney, Tania M Trower, Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay
Emerging evidence from human intervention trials indicates health benefits of consuming blackcurrant fruit, including improvements to cognitive performance, modulation of blood flow, regulation of blood glucose and inhibition of enzymes underpinning normal cognitive function. Of particular relevance is our previous demonstration of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and B inhibition after the consumption of a New Zealand "Blackadder" blackcurrant juice in humans. The current study uses a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross- over design to assess the pharmacodynamics of the effects on platelet MAO-B inhibition and associated substrates, plasma prolactin levels and blood glucose levels after consumption of a single serve of "Blackadder" blackcurrant juice standardised to 500 mg polyphenols...
October 5, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Hande Çekici, Nilüfer Acar Tek
OBJECTIVES: It has been reported that in most neurological patients, resting energy expenditure due to hypermetabolism is increased. Physical activity, which is another component of energy expenditure, varies depending on the course of the disease. Different mechanisms are used to explain changes in energy expenditure in this population. Pathological problems of centers that regulate energy balance in the brain, endocrine and metabolic dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory anomalies are thought to be at the root of this situation...
October 5, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Camyla Rocha de Carvalho Guedine, Liana Clébia de Morais Pordeus, Tania Regina Riul, Alceu Afonso Jordão, Sebastião Sousa Almeida
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of the cafeteria diet during lactation and/or post-lactation on physiological parameters and anxiety in the offspring of Wistar rats. METHODS: Male offspring of Wistar rats (n = 60) were randomized into four groups: Control (C), Lactation Cafeteria (LC), Post-lactation Cafeteria (PC) and Total Cafeteria (TC). Later in adult life the animals were submitted to the behavioral (elevated plus-maze and open field) and biological (body weight, consumption and food preference, glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum protein, and oxidative stress) evaluations...
October 5, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Valerie L Darcey, Goldie A McQuaid, Diana H Fishbein, John W VanMeter
During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes substantial structural development, including cortical thinning, a process associated with improvements in behavioral control. The cingulate cortex is among the regions recruited in response inhibition and mounting evidence suggests cingulate function may be sensitive to availability of an essential dietary nutrient, omega-3 fatty acids (N3; i.e. EPA + DHA). Our primary aim was to investigate the relationship between a biomarker of omega-3 fatty acids -- percent of whole blood fatty acids as EPA + DHA (N3 Index) -- and cingulate morphology, in typically developing adolescent males (n = 29) and females (n = 33)...
September 28, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ashley R Polokowski, Haque Shakil, Cheryl L Carmichael, Laura C Reigada
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is prevalent, costly, and associated with significant adverse outcomes. The importance of nutrition is underestimated in the management of mental health disorders. In particular, omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) are a critical component for healthy development and have been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the current state of the research to identify potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between ω-3 FAs and anxiety reduction...
September 28, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Eugene Huh, Jin Gyu Choi, Dongjin Noh, Hyung-Seok Yoo, Jeewon Ryu, Nam-Jung Kim, Hocheol Kim, Myung Sook Oh
OBJECTIVE: Ginger and its compound, 6-shogaol, have been known for improving gastrointestinal (GI) function and reducing inflammatory responses in GI tract. Recently, the treatment of GI dysfunction has been recognized as an important part of the management of neurodegenerative diseases, especially for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether ginger and 6-shogaol attenuate disruptions induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on the intestinal barrier and the enteric dopaminergic neurons...
September 19, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ipek Acar, Alper Cetinkaya, Incilay Lay, Esin Ileri-Gurel
OBJECTIVES: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the major sensor of extracellular Ca2+ , is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Although the essential ligand of CaSR is calcium, its activity can be regulated by aromatic L-amino acids. The expression of CaSR on enteroendocrine cells suggests that CaSR functions as a physiological amino acid sensor for gut hormone release. Here, we investigated the effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin secretion, and the role of CaSR in this mechanism in vivo...
September 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Saravana Babu Chidambaram, Abid Bhat, Bipul Ray, Mani Sugumar, Serva Peddha Muthukumar, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Meena Kishore Sakharkar
Polyphenols are shown to protect from or delay the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was aims to gain insight into the role of ahydroalcoholic extract of cocoa (standardised for epicatechin content) on mitochondrial biogenesis in MPP+ intoxicated human neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y). The effects of cocoa on PPARγ, PGC1α, Nrf2 and TFAM protein expression and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated...
September 12, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
K M Damodara Gowda, N Suchetha Kumari, Harshini Ullal
OBJECTIVE: Maternal health and nutrition during the perinatal period is the predominant factor influencing the functional development of the brain. Maternal malnutrition during the perinatal period causes retardation of brain development. The current study investigates the role of Astaxanthin (AsX) in spatial learning and memory and BDNF in perinatally undernourished Wistar rats. METHODS: The albino wistar rats were perinatally undernourished and administered with different dosages of AsX...
September 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Daniele Coradini Zamberlan, Leticia Priscilla Arantes, Marina Lopes Machado, Tassia Limana da Silveira, Aline Franzen da Silva, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Claudia Pinto Figueiredo, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that causes significant disruption in normal brain functioning, representing the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The main hallmark of AD is the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain formed by the deposition of insoluble amyloid protein (Aβ) outside of neurons. Despite intensive investigation of the mechanisms of AD pathogenesis during the past three decades, little has been achieved in terms of effective treatments or ways to prevent the disease...
September 9, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
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