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Nutritional Neuroscience

Eugene Huh, Jin Gyu Choi, Dongjin Noh, Hyung-Seok Yoo, Jeewon Ryu, Nam-Jung Kim, Hocheol Kim, Myung Sook Oh
OBJECTIVE: Ginger and its compound, 6-shogaol, have been known for improving gastrointestinal (GI) function and reducing inflammatory responses in GI tract. Recently, the treatment of GI dysfunction has been recognized as an important part of the management of neurodegenerative diseases, especially for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether ginger and 6-shogaol attenuate disruptions induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on the intestinal barrier and the enteric dopaminergic neurons...
September 19, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ipek Acar, Alper Cetinkaya, Incilay Lay, Esin Ileri-Gurel
OBJECTIVES: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the major sensor of extracellular Ca2+ , is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Although the essential ligand of CaSR is calcium, its activity can be regulated by aromatic L-amino acids. The expression of CaSR on enteroendocrine cells suggests that CaSR functions as a physiological amino acid sensor for gut hormone release. Here, we investigated the effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin secretion, and the role of CaSR in this mechanism in vivo...
September 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Saravana Babu Chidambaram, Abid Bhat, Bipul Ray, Mani Sugumar, Serva Peddha Muthukumar, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Meena Kishore Sakharkar
Polyphenols are shown to protect from or delay the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was aims to gain insight into the role of ahydroalcoholic extract of cocoa (standardised for epicatechin content) on mitochondrial biogenesis in MPP+ intoxicated human neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y). The effects of cocoa on PPARγ, PGC1α, Nrf2 and TFAM protein expression and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated...
September 12, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
K M Damodara Gowda, N Suchetha Kumari, Harshini Ullal
OBJECTIVE: Maternal health and nutrition during the perinatal period is the predominant factor influencing the functional development of the brain. Maternal malnutrition during the perinatal period causes retardation of brain development. The current study investigates the role of Astaxanthin (AsX) in spatial learning and memory and BDNF in perinatally undernourished Wistar rats. METHODS: The albino wistar rats were perinatally undernourished and administered with different dosages of AsX...
September 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Daniele Coradini Zamberlan, Leticia Priscilla Arantes, Marina Lopes Machado, Tassia Limana da Silveira, Aline Franzen da Silva, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Claudia Pinto Figueiredo, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that causes significant disruption in normal brain functioning, representing the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The main hallmark of AD is the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain formed by the deposition of insoluble amyloid protein (Aβ) outside of neurons. Despite intensive investigation of the mechanisms of AD pathogenesis during the past three decades, little has been achieved in terms of effective treatments or ways to prevent the disease...
September 9, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Renan de Oliveira Venci, Gabriel Bortoli Ramos, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Camila Cristina Ianoni Matiusso, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Audrei Pavanello, Kelly Valério Prates, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Ananda Malta
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effects of a maternal protein-caloric restriction diet during late pregnancy on the metabolism of rat offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD) during adulthood. METHODS: During late pregnancy, rat dams received either a low-protein (4%; LP group) or normoprotein (23%; NP group) diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed a standard diet (Control; C). Male offspring (60 days old) from both groups were then fed either the C diet or HFD until they were 90 days old...
September 6, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Peter A Hall, Cassandra J Lowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jéssica Molina, Andréia Joaquim, Leoni Vilano Bonamin, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Carolina Vieira Cardoso, Maria Martha Bernardi, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan
INTRODUCTION: Obesity promotes hypothalamic inflammation and local morphological changes in astrocytes, including the increased expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is seen as a sign of neuroinflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the astrocytic expression of GFAP in different brain areas from female rats that received a hypercaloric (HD) or a normocaloric (ND) diet during puberty (F0 generation) as well as in their male pups (F1 generation)...
August 20, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Octavio Gianatiempo, Silvina V Sonzogni, Estefanía A Fesser, Laura M Belluscio, Ezequiel Smucler, Mariela R Sued, Eduardo T Cánepa
OBJECTIVES: Early life represents a sensitive and critical period for an individual. Nutrition plays a crucial role in the maturation and functional development of the central nervous system. Inadequate nutrition before birth and during the postnatal life can seriously interfere with brain development and lead to behavioral and neurological disorders such as learning disabilities and psychiatric diseases. In addition, the quality of mother-infant interactions represents an important adaptive pathway that prepares offspring for the conditions of life...
August 18, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kristina Dominko, Domagoj Dikic, Silva Hecimovic
OBJECTIVES: Hypercholesterolaemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we tested whether cholesterol-mediated neurodegeneration induced either by cholesterol-rich diet or genetic mutation may share a common mechanism involving increased oxidative stress and mitochondria oxidant status. Additionally, we analysed whether upon cholesterol-rich diet, different brain regions (prefrontal cortex, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum) show distinct vulnerability to an oxidative stress response...
August 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Seon-Bong Lee, Eun-Hye Choi, Kang-Hyun Jeong, Kwang-Sik Kim, Soon-Mi Shim, Gun-Hee Kim
The present study investigated the effect of high-temperature-processed green tea extract (HTP_GTE) and its bioactive components on the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein in human microvascular endothelial cells. Compared to Aβ1-42 -only treatment, pretreatment of HTP_GTE was revealed to effectively inhibit ROS generation (P<0.05). HTP_GTE and catechins not only inhibit Aβ1-42 fibril formation but also destabilize preformed Aβ1-42 fibrils. The presence of HTP_GTE, Aβ1-42 fibril formation was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner at 12...
August 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jason R Anderson, John Gunstad, John Updegraff, Amy Sato, Payton L Hagerdorn, M Beth Spitznagel
OBJECTIVES: Recent work suggests potential postprandial benefits for cognition and on-task behavior in children, depending on the macronutrients consumed, as well as individual differences such as sex and glucoregulation. We examined the effects of 1% milk versus apple juice on cognition and on-task behavior among healthy school-age children, predicting that milk would promote better performance and a greater presence of on-task behavior compared to juice. We also examined how sex and glucoregulation influenced cognition and behavior following each beverage...
August 10, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Despoina Galani, Dafni Korela, Sevasti Maragou, Despoina Arna, Maria Basta
BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) predominantly occurs in alcoholic patients. Few case reports have described this diagnosis as a result of dieting. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed resulting in permanent and severe neurologic sequelae and even death. The typical neurological signs may be absent or missed during the early stages of thiamine deficiency. Case report; A 23-year-old female presented to the hospital with confusion, bilateral lateral rectus palsy, and ataxia...
August 9, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Maximus Berger, Sean Taylor, Linton Harriss, Sandra Campbell, Fintan Thompson, Samuel Jones, Maria Makrides, Robert Gibson, G Paul Amminger, Zoltan Sarnyai, Robyn McDermott
Background Dietary intake of long-chain omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) represents a putative modifiable risk factor for depression, and a high ratio of omega 6 (n-6) to n-3 LCPUFA is frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder. Recent reports suggest that the availability of fish and seafood may be associated with lower depression rates. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of fish consumption and LCPUFA levels with depressive symptoms. Methods Participants for this cross-sectional study (n=206) were recruited at a community screening programme in two Torres Strait Islander communities (Mer and Waiben)...
August 3, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Atieh Mirzababaei, Faezeh Khorsha, Mansoureh Togha, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ali Asghar Okhovat, Khadijeh Mirzaei
Purpose/introduction: Migraine is a common disorder, with attacks causing neurological dysfunction and pain. Many foods are involved in reducing the severity of migraine attacks. This study aimed to assess the effects that adhering to the Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet had on headache severity and duration among women suffering from migraine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred and sixty-six women (18-45 years) were enrolled after being referred to a headache clinic for the first time...
July 31, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Elham Hadipour, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Masoud Fereidoni
Alzheimer's is an age-related disease with a hallmark of progressive loss of memory formation followed by a damage in the brain function due to the neural degeneration and extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques accumulation. This study examines the protective effects of vitamin K2 on toxicity induced by (Aβ) (1-42) and H2 O2 in PC12 cells as an appropriate model of Alzheimer's cell damage. PC12 cells pretreated with vitamin K2 (5-200 μM) for 4, 24 and 48 h, and exposed to either Aβ (25 µM) for 48 h or H2 O2 (150 µM) for 24 h...
July 30, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ali Reza Khalatbary, Emad Khademi
Epigallocatechin gallate is the most abundant composition of the tea catechins and is thought to be responsible for the majority of biological activity of green tea extracts such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. Meanwhile, EGCG has been shown to be some of the neuroprotective effects against neural injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This paper summarizes current knowledge on neuroprotective effects of EGCG and their molecular mechanisms responsible for the neuroprotection in various models of neurodegenerative and neural injury...
July 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Paolo Bergamo, Raffaella Crescenzo, Lucia Iannotta, Lucia Treppiccione, Susanna Iossa, Luisa Cigliano
OBJECTIVES: A strong rise of the fructose content in the human diet occurred in the last decade, as corn syrup is widely used as a sweetener for beverages and processed food. Since young people make a widespread consumption of added sugars, we evaluated the effects of a two weeks fructose-rich diet on brain redox homeostasis, autophagy and synaptic plasticity in the cortex of young and adults rats, in order to highlight the early risks to which brain is exposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Short-term fructose feeding was associated with an imbalance of redox homeostasis, as lower amount of Nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2, lower activity of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Glutathione reductase, together with lower Glutathione/Oxidized Glutathione ratio, were found in fructose-fed young and adult rats...
July 24, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Domenico Sergi, Amanda C Morris, Darcy E Kahn, Fiona H McLean, Elizabeth A Hay, Phil Kubitz, Alasdair MacKenzie, Maria G Martinoli, Janice E Drew, Lynda M Williams
A high-fat diet induces hypothalamic inflammation in rodents which, in turn, contributes to the development of obesity by eliciting both insulin and leptin resistance. However, the mechanism by which long-chain saturated fatty acids trigger inflammation is still contentious. To elucidate this mechanism, the effect of fatty acids on the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα was investigated in the mHypoE-N42 hypothalamic cell line (N42). N42 cells were treated with lauric acid (LA) and palmitic acid (PA)...
July 21, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Lina Begdache, Hamed Kianmehr, Nasim Sabounchi, Maher Chaar, Jade Marhaba
Independent reports describe the structural differences between the human male and female brains and the differential gender-susceptibility to mood disorders. Nutrition is one of the modifiable risk factors that has been reported to impact brain chemistry and affect mental health. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary patterns in adult men and women in relation to mental distress. Another aim was to develop evidence-based prototypes using System Dynamic Modeling methodology to better describe our findings...
July 20, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
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