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Nutritional Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338444/the-role-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#1
Sabrina Esposito, Simona Bonavita, Maddalena Sparaco, Antonio Gallo, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, where environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility. The role of diet on MS has not been comprehensively elucidated; therefore, through an extensive search of relevant literature, this review reports the most significant evidence regarding nutrition as a possible co-factor influencing the inflammatory cascade by acting on both its molecular pathways and gut microbiota. Since nutritional status and dietary habits in MS patients have not been extensively reported, the lack of a scientific-based consensus on dietary recommendation in MS could encourage many patients to experiment alternative dietetic regimens, increasing the risk of malnutrition...
March 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279130/dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-central-neuropeptide-y-injection-affect-dietary-preference-and-hypothalamic-gene-expression-in-chicks
#2
Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on central NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. METHODS: Day-of-hatch chicks were fed one of three diets (3000 kcal ME/kg) ad libitum from hatch: high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF; 30% ME derived from soybean oil), and high protein (HP; 25 vs. 22% CP). In Experiment 1, chicks received intracerebroventricular injections of 0 (vehicle), 0.2, or 2.0 nmol NPY on day 4 and food intake was recorded for 6 hours...
March 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276272/gut-brain-and-brain-gut-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-models-effects-of-a-uridine-and-fish-oil-diet
#3
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Hidde Douna, Nick van Wijk, Sofia Lopes da Silva, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Recent investigations have focused on the potential role of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The 'dual-hit' hypothesis of PD speculates that a putative pathogen enters the brain via two routes: the olfactory system and the GI system. Here, we investigated (1) whether local exposures of the neurotoxin rotenone in the gut or the brain of mice could induce PD-like neurological and GI phenotypes as well as a characteristic neuropathology in accordance with this 'dual-hit hypothesis' and (2) the effects of a diet containing uridine and fish oil providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in both models...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276271/an-anthocyanin-enriched-extract-from-strawberries-delays-disease-onset-and-extends-survival-in-the-hsod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Aimee N Winter, Erika K Ross, Heather M Wilkins, Trisha R Stankiewicz, Tyler Wallace, Keith Miller, Daniel A Linseman
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from the death of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. Several processes such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis, contribute to disease progression. Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds derived from fruits and vegetables that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic abilities. Thus, these unique compounds may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of ALS...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276261/high-monosaccharide-intake-inhibits-anorexigenic-hypothalamic-insulin-response-in-male-rats
#5
Viviane Wagner Ramos, Leandro Oliveira Batista, Elisaldo Mendes Cordeiro, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira, Kelse Tibau Albuquerque
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to evaluate if intake of 20% fructose solution is able to change the anorexigenic hypothalamic insulin action. METHODS: Thirty day-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: standard chow and water for the rats (Control group, C) and standard chow and 20% fructose solution for the rats (Fructose group, F).These treatments lasted 8 weeks. Three-month-old rats from group C and F received insulin or saline intracerebroventricular injections for evaluation of 24 h food intake, phosphorylated forms of the IR (p-IR) and Akt (p-Akt) proteins and quantified hypothalamic insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) proteins...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276260/holothuria-scabra-extracts-exhibit-anti-parkinson-potential-in-c-elegans-a-model-for-anti-parkinson-testing
#6
Pawanrat Chalorak, Prapaporn Jattujan, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein and selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, thereby leading to cognitive and motor impairments. Nowadays, the drugs commonly used for PD treatment, such as levodopa, provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, seeking new drugs against PD, especially from plants and marine organisms, is one of the major research areas to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the anti-Parkinson activity of the extracts from the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276257/pre-conceptual-and-prenatal-supplementary-folic-acid-and-multivitamin-intake-behavioral-problems-and-hyperkinetic-disorders-a-study-based-on-the-danish-national-birth-cohort-dnbc
#7
Jasveer Virk, Zeyan Liew, Jørn Olsen, Ellen A Nohr, Janet M Catov, Beate Ritz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early folic acid or multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HKD), treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and ADHD-like behaviors reported by parents participating in the DNBC for children at age 7. METHODS: HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital, Central Psychiatric and Pharmaceutical registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use and risk ratios (RRs) for parent-reported ADHD behavior collected with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), comparing children whose mothers took folic acid or multivitamin supplements early in pregnancy defined as starting periconceptionally (4 weeks prior to their last menstrual period (LMP)) through 8 weeks after their LMP (4-8 weeks), to children whose mothers indicated no supplement use for the same entire period...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245707/standardized-extract-of-lactuca-sativa-linn-and-its-fractions-abrogates-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-in-mice-a-possible-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#8
Jai Malik, Jagpreet Kaur, Sunayna Choudhary
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine- induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. METHODS: Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i...
February 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224818/adjunctive-low-dose-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-for-major-depression-an-open-label-pilot-trial
#9
Deidre J Smith, Jerome Sarris, Nathan Dowling, Manjula O'Connor, Chee H Ng
OVERVIEW: Whilst the majority of evidence supports the adjunctive use of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in improving mood, to date no study exists using low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone as an adjunctive treatment in patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: A naturalistic 8-week open-label pilot trial of low-dose DHA, (260 mg or 520 mg/day) in 28 patients with MDD who were non-responsive to medication or psychotherapy, with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of greater than 17, was conducted...
February 22, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221821/enhanced-neural-activation-with-blueberry-supplementation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Erin L Boespflug, James C Eliassen, Jonathan A Dudley, Marcelle D Shidler, Wilhelmina Kalt, Suzanne S Summer, Amanda L Stein, Amanda N Stover, Robert Krikorian
OBJECTIVES: Preclinical studies have shown that blueberry supplementation can improve cognitive performance and neural function in aged animals and have identified associations between anthocyanins and such benefits. Preliminary human trials also suggest cognitive improvement in older adults, although direct evidence of enhancement of brain function has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on regional brain activation in older adults at risk for dementia...
February 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221817/neuroprotective-effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-is-mediated-by-a-reduction-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#11
Marco Aurélio Mori, Ana Marcia Delattre, Bruno Carabelli, Claudia Pudell, Mariza Bortolanza, Pedro Vinícius Staziaki, Jesuí Vergilio Visentainer, Paula Fernandes Montanher, Elaine A Del Bel, Anete Curte Ferraz
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by deterioration of the nigrostriatal system and associated with chronic neuroinflammation. Glial activation has been associated with regulating the survival of dopaminergic neurons and is thought to contribute to PD through the release of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors, such as reactive nitric oxide (NO) that triggers or exacerbates neurodegeneration in PD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert protective effects, including antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant activity, and may be promising for delaying or preventing PD by attenuating neuroinflammation and preserving dopaminergic neurons...
February 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198207/neurophysiological-symptoms-and-aspartame-what-is-the-connection
#12
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Yeong Yeh Lee
Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity...
February 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198205/supplementation-with-macular-carotenoids-reduces-psychological-stress-serum-cortisol-and-sub-optimal-symptoms-of-physical-and-emotional-health-in-young-adults
#13
Nicole Tressa Stringham, Philip V Holmes, James M Stringham
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the root cause of several deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. We hypothesize that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities of the macular carotenoids (MCs) lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin could, via daily supplementation, provide a dietary means of benefit. METHODS: A total of 59 young healthy subjects participated in a 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of MC supplementation on blood cortisol, psychological stress ratings, behavioural measures of mood, and symptoms of sub-optimal health...
February 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195006/the-differential-effects-of-high-fat-and-high-fructose-diets-on-physiology-and-behavior-in-male-rats
#14
Lauren Woodie, Sarah Blythe
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study is to directly compare a diet high in fat with a diet high in fructose. This side-by-side comparison will allow us to determine the physiological and behavioral effects resulting from the consumption of a diet dominated by one macronutrient. METHODS: Rats were fed pelletized food containing either 60% fat or 55% fructose diet, or control chow (5.8% kcal of fat, 44.3% kcal carb) for 9 weeks. Animals performed a classic Morris Water Maze (MWM) and a reversal MWM to assess spatial and working memory near the end of the feeding period...
February 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195005/current-evidence-for-ampk-activation-involvement-on-resveratrol-induced-neuroprotection-in-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Narayana Pineda-Ramírez, Germán Fernando Gutiérrez Aguilar, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Penélope Aguilera
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia is a neurological condition in which energetics and oxidative stress are dysregulated. Resveratrol is a stilbene with potent pharmacological effects associated with its antioxidant properties. In the brain, resveratrol produces protective responses against ischemia, decreases infarct volume and improves neurological function. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular sensor that acts as a switch to initiate adaptive changes in response to fluctuations in energy metabolism...
February 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#16
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165879/resveratrol-prevents-ammonia-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cellular-redox-imbalance-in-c6-astroglial-cells
#17
Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Diogo Onofre Souza, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, André Quincozes-Santos
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that presents several protective effects in the central nervous system, including gliotoxicity associated to hyperammonemia, a key element for the development of hepatic encephalopathy. In this condition, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which, in turn, exacerbates mitochondrial failure and causes cellular damage. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction and the maintenance of cellular redox status by resveratrol contribute to its protective action toward ammonia toxicity...
February 6, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116978/aflatoxin-b1-reduces-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-defenses-and-increases-protein-kinase-c-activation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-young-rats
#18
Naiéli Schiefelbein Souto, Ana Claudia Monteiro Braga, Mayara Lutchemeyer de Freitas, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Ana Flávia Furian
OBJECTIVES: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most widespread mycotoxin, and it is a feed contaminant and is highly toxic, causing carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. Many researches clarified the peripheral effects of the exposition to AFB1; however, there are few studies explaining their effects on central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects caused by acute oral administration of AFB1 on behavioral tests and selected biochemical parameters...
January 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102110/evaluation-of-the-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-a-hydrophilic-extract-from-the-green-seaweed-ulva-sp-in-rats
#19
Nicolas Violle, Pascale Rozan, Hervé Demais, Pi Nyvall Collen, Jean-François Bisson
OBJECTIVES: The green seaweed Ulva sp. contains a large amount of ulvans, a family of sulphated polysaccharides. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract of Ulva sp. (MSP) containing about 45% of ulvans. METHODS: After a 14-day administration of MSP at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, 48 and 60 male adult Wistar rats were respectively tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swimming test (FST)...
January 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091281/satiety-and-memory-enhancing-effects-of-a-high-protein-meal-depend-on-the-source-of-protein
#20
Kristy Du, Edward Markus, Mariel Fecych, Justin S Rhodes, J Lee Beverly
OBJECTIVE: High- protein diets have become increasingly popular with various touted benefits. However, the extent to which protein quantity and source affects cognitive functioning through altering postprandial amino acid profiles has not been investigated. Further, whether all protein sources are similarly anorexigenic is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of protein level and source on Barnes maze performance, satiety and plasma amino acid levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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