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Nutritional Neuroscience

Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Masashi Arakawa
OBJECTIVES: The present prebirth cohort study examined the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and behavioral problems in Japanese children aged 5 years. METHODS: Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and peer problems were assessed using the Japanese parent-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
March 13, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Tom M McLellan, Lyndon A Riviere, Kelly W Williams, Dennis McGurk, Harris R Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. METHODS: This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U...
March 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Thaísa Meira Sandini, Thiago Marinho Reis-Silva, Natalia Moreira, Maria Martha Bernardi, Ivo Lebrun, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
OBJECTIVES: Estrogen and phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones (SIF) treatment has been suggested to improve mood, behavior, and cognitive function in postmenopausal women. However, there is a lack of information on the mechanism of such treatment on the central nervous system. We used rats to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with commercial isoflavones on behavior, hormones, and brain neurotransmitter levels. METHODS: Intact female middle-aged (12 months) rats received 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of commercial isoflavones extract by gavage for 90 days...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Eman N Hosny, Hussein G Sawie, Mohamed E Elhadidy, Yasser A Khadrawy
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against aluminum chloride (AlCl3 )-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty-one male albino rats were divided into 3 groups: control, AlCl3 -intoxicated group that received daily oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg for 30 days) and protected group injected daily with caffeine (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) one hour before oral administration of AlCl3 for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Na+ /K+ -ATPase were measured spectrophotometrically...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. An ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract containing curcumin has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic turmeric extract against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: The ethanolic turmeric extract and citicoline were administered to the TMT exposed rats from day 1 to day 28 of the experiment...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Soo Jin Yang, Hyun Ju Do, Youngae Jung, Geum-Sook Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose (VO) was recently reported to have a protective effect against weight gain as well as affect various metabolic changes related to food intake and gut-brain signaling. We hypothesized that VO prevents weight gain by altering neurometabolome profiles in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. To test this hypothesis, we assessed metabolite profiles in the hypothalamus of standard diet- or high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice in the absence or presence of VO. In total, 29 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF, and (3) HF + VO...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
D J S Ferreira, A A Pedroza, G R F Braz, M P Fernandes, C J Lagranha
Mitochondria are important organelles in eukaryotic organisms, wherein their capacity to produce energy vary among the tissues depending upon the amounts of oxygen consumed. Part of the oxygen consumed during ATP generation produces reactive oxygen species, which if not efficiently removed can trigger a systemic damage to molecular compounds characterized as oxidative stress. Several studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) are related to a plethora of neural disorders...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Azadeh Mesripour, Fatima Alhimma, Valiollah Hajhashemi
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have an important role in mediating the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on brain plasticity and mood. GC drugs and elevated cortisol level can cause psychiatric disorders including depression. The B-vitamins have numerous benefits on general health as well as mood, and cognition. The aim was evaluating the effect of vitamin B6 following dexamethasone (DEX)-induced depression in mice, to see if it can be proposed as a remedy for psychiatric problems following GC therapy...
February 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ahmad Jayedi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the dose-response association of serum 25(OH)D and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Scopus from database inception up to September 2017. Longitudinal cohort studies reporting risk estimates of incident dementia or AD in the general population, and for three or more quantitative categories of serum 25(OH)D were included. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using fixed-effects/random-effects models...
February 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Sayyed Vahab Azizi, Zahra Arabi, Rayhaneh Ahangar-Parvin, Marziyeh Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, Tiziana Larussa, Fariba Khatami, Maryam Nemati
OBJECTIVES: A spectrum of immunomodulatory properties was attributed to vitamin D (VD). Here, the VD effects on expression of some Th17 cell- related cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors were investigated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: One group of C57BL/6 mice, considered as healthy group, was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). EAE was induced in other three groups and treated from day +3 to +30 with PBS, olive oil (VD vehicle) or 200 ng of VD...
February 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
John A Bellone, Jeffrey R Murray, Paolo Jorge, Travis G Fogel, Mary Kim, Desiree R Wallace, Richard E Hartman
OBJECTIVES: We tested whether supplementing with pomegranate polyphenols can enhance cognitive/functional recovery after stroke. METHODS: In this parallel, block-randomized clinical trial, we administered commercially-available pomegranate polyphenol or placebo pills twice per day for one week to adult inpatients in a comprehensive rehabilitation setting starting approximately 2 weeks after stroke. Pills contained 1 g of polyphenols derived from whole pomegranate, equivalent to levels in approximately 8 oz of juice...
February 13, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Hamid Reza Banafshe, Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud, Alireza Abed, Maryam Saghazadeh, Azam Mesdaghinia
OBJECTIVE(S): Neuropathic pain due to lesion or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system is often refractory to the conventional analgesics. Currently, there is no proven treatment to prevent or cure neuropathic pain. A recent surge of new data suggests the potential effects of vitamin D in the medical community. This study was designed to determine whether acute or chronic vitamin D administration was effective in alleviating symptoms of neuropathic pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain...
February 12, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sorayya Kheirouri, Siamak Naghizadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with DR were allocated into the Zn (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25) groups to receive 30 mg Zn gluconate or maltose dextrin per day, respectively, for three months...
February 8, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sam LaMagna, Kerstin Olsson, Deena Warshaw, Gabriela Fazilov, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Richard J Bodnar
Murine genetic variance affects sucrose's ability to condition flavor preferences (CFP) relative to saccharin. Whereas BALB/c mice display robust sucrose- and fructose-CFP, C57BL/6 mice only display sucrose-CFP. Prior exposure to sucrose or saccharin solutions alters subsequent food choice responsiveness. The present study examined whether pre-exposure for one month to 10% sucrose or 0.2% saccharin altered subsequent sucrose-CFP in male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Two weeks later, food-restricted mice were exposed to 10 CFP training trials with uniquely flavored 16% sucrose and 0...
February 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Monavereh Soti, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Razieh Kooshki, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani
OBJECTIVES: Natural products have a potential role on food intake in mammals. It has been reported that phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has a regulatory role on metabolic processes. Here, the effects of ABA on feeding behavior and brain oxidative stress were investigated in male Wistar rats. METHODS: ABA was injected intracerebroventricularly. Experimental groups were included (n = 9): control (received no injection), ABA vehicle (received normal saline), and ABA-treated groups were injected with different doses of ABA (2...
February 6, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Christian Wolfrum, Daria Peleg-Raibstein
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have linked maternal obesity with metabolic as well as psychiatric disorders in the progeny. However, very little is known how maternal overnutrition may affect the cognitive abilities of the offspring. METHODS: Here, we tested the hypothesis whether maternal high-fat diet (HFD) exposure in mice may induce long-term cognitive impairments and neurochemical dysfunctions in the offspring during different age trajectories. RESULTS: We found that maternal HFD led to cognitive disabilities in adult offspring compared to controls...
February 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Snehal Gite, R Paul Ross, Dara Kirke, Freddy Guihéneuf, Justine Aussant, Dagmar B Stengel, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Catherine Stanton
OBJECTIVES: To search for novel compounds that will protect neuronal cells under stressed conditions that may help to restore neuronal plasticity. METHODS: A model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was used to compare the efficacy of 6 crude extracts and 10 pure compounds (6 polyphenols, 2 carotenoids, 1 amino acid analogue, and 1 known antidepressant drug) to increase neuronal plasticity and to decrease cytotoxicity...
January 29, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Tatiane Helena Batista, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Fabiana Cardoso Vilela
OBJECTIVE: We tested the correlation between maternal protein malnutrition and autistic-like symptoms using behavioral tests in rodents that measure main behavioral characteristics observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Pregnant female rats were fed a normal diet or a hypoproteic diet during gestation and lactation periods. The litters were weighed every 3 days during lactation, and the offspring were tested in behavioral tasks during infancy (postnatal day (PND) 5: quantification of ultrasonic vocalizations; PND 13: homing behavior test) and adolescence (PND 30-32: open field, hole-board, play social behavior, and object recognition tests) in order to capture the prevalence of some of the core and associated symptoms of ASD...
January 28, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Leandro Oliveira Batista, Viviane Wagner Ramos, Mariana Alejandra Rosas Fernández, Carlos Marcelo Concha Vilca, Kelse Tibau de Albuquerque
OBJECTIVE: We evaluate whether the consumption of fructose for 8 weeks affects enzymes and transcription factors of the lipogenic and inflammatory pathways in the hypothalamus of Wistar rats. METHODS: At 30 days, the animals were divided into groups: Control (C) and Fructose (F) and maintained with free access to feed and filtered water (C) or aqueous solution of purified fructose at 20% (F). RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed for the target genes and proteins...
January 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kathleen F Holton, Jeanette M Johnstone, Elizabeth T Brandley, Joel T Nigg
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate dietary intake among individuals with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to evaluate the likelihood that those with ADHD have inadequate intakes. METHODS: Children, 7-12 years old, with (n = 23) and without (n = 22) ADHD, and college students, 18-25 years old, with (n = 21) and without (n = 30) ADHD comprised the samples. Children's dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using 24-hour recalls over 3 days...
January 23, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
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