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Nutritional Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125056/monosodium-glutamate-and-treadmill-exercise-anxiety-like-behavior-and-spreading-depression-features-in-young-adult-rats
#1
Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Catarina Nicácio Dos Santos, Nahara Oliveira Lima da Silva, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior...
November 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113539/dietary-fish-oil-and-to-a-lesser-extent-the-fat-1-transgene-increases-astrocyte-activation-in-response-to-intracerebroventricular-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-40-in-mice
#2
Kathryn E Hopperton, Nicholas C E James, Dana Mohammad, Maha Irfan, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. METHODS: Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40...
November 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098950/inhibition-of-hormonal-and-behavioral-effects-of-stress-by-tryptophan-in-rats
#3
Sumera Gul, Darakhshan Saleem, Muhammad A Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
OBJECTIVES: Stress in known to alter hormonal systems. Pharmacological doses of tryptophan, the essential amino acid precursor of serotonin, increase circulating leptin and decrease ghrelin in normal healthy adults. Because systemically injected leptin inhibits stress-induced behavioral deficits and systemically injected serotonin modulates leptin release from the adipocytes, we used tryptophan as a pharmacological tool to modulate hormonal and behavioral responses in unstressed and stressed rats...
November 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098943/vitamin-intake-is-associated-with-improved-visuospatial-and-verbal-semantic-memory-in-middle-aged-individuals
#4
Miles Flitton, Ian A Macdonald, Helen M Knight
OBJECTIVES: Factors maintaining cognitive health are still largely unknown. In particular, the cognitive benefits associated with vitamin intake and vitamin supplementation are disputed. We investigated self-reported vitamin intake and serum vitamin levels with performance in cognitive factors sensitive to dementia progression in two large middle-aged general population cohorts. METHODS: Survey data were used to assess regular vitamin intake in 4400 NCDS 1958 and 1177 TwinsUK cohort members, and serum homocysteine and B vitamin levels were measured in 675 individuals from the TwinsUK study...
November 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078744/assessment-of-the-relationship-between-food-addiction-and-nutritional-status-in-schizophrenic-patients
#5
Özge Küçükerdönmez, Murat Urhan, Merve Altın, Özge Hacıraifoğlu, Burak Yıldız
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is one of today's most important public health problems. It is suggested that overeating and substance addiction show similarities, and addiction to food may be an important factor in the obesity epidemic. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction among schizophrenic patients and to examine the relationship between food addiction and anthropometric measurements and dietary nutrient intake. METHODS: Study participants included a total of 104 schizophrenic outpatients, 62 females and 42 males...
October 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069983/short-term-and-long-term-efficacy-of-classical-ketogenic-diet-and-modified-atkins-diet-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Shahabeddin Rezaei, Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman, Amene Saghazadeh, Reza Shervin Badv, Maryam Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: Classical ketogenic diet (KD) and modified Atkins diet (MAD) are two types of KD commonly used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy throughout the world. Studies have shown the efficacy of these diets. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis study has to date compared the efficacy of KD and MAD in a time trend. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to compare the short-term and long-term efficacy of classical KD and MAD in children and adolescents with epilepsy and to determine the efficacy of classical KD and MAD at multiple time points and in a time trend...
October 25, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063799/genistein-mechanisms-of-action-for-a-pleiotropic-neuroprotective-agent-in-stroke
#7
Derek A Schreihofer, Anthony Oppong-Gyebi
Genistein is a plant estrogen promoted as an alternative to post-menopausal hormone therapy because of a good safety profile and its promotion as a natural product. Several preclinical studies of cerebral ischemia and other models of brain injury support a beneficial role for genistein in protecting the brain from injury whether administered chronically or acutely. Like estrogen, genistein is a pleiotropic molecule that engages several different mechanisms to enhance brain health, including reduction of oxidative stress, promotion of growth factor signaling, and immune suppression...
October 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063783/iron-therapy-substantially-restores-qeeg-maturational-lag-among-iron-deficient-anemic-infants
#8
Gloria A Otero, Thalía Fernández, F Bernardo Pliego-Rivero, Gustavo G Mendieta
OBJECTIVE: To use quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to assess the impact of iron-deficiency anemia on central nervous system maturation in the first year of life. METHOD: Twenty-five infants (3-12 months old) presenting ferropenic anemia (IDA) and 25 healthy controls (CTL1), matched by age/gender with the former, were studied in two stages. Electroencephalogram during spontaneous sleep was recorded from all participants; the fast Fourier transform was calculated to obtain absolute power (AP) and relative power (RP) qEEG measures...
October 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058562/does-l-tryptophan-supplementation-reduce-chewing-deficits-in-an-experimental-model-of-cerebral-palsy
#9
Diego Cabral Lacerda, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Ana Elisa Toscano
Children with cerebral palsy commonly present with feeding difficulties that result from multiple orofacial sequelae, especially deficits in mastication. A previous study demonstrated that perinatal protein undernutrition accentuated the chewing impact in an experimental model of cerebral palsy. Therefore, the present study investigated whether nutritional manipulation reversed or minimized the chewing sequelae in cerebral palsy. We emphasized the relevance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of nutrients, especially tryptophan supplementation, to reduce the chewing deficits that are typical of this syndrome...
October 23, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046132/maternal-breastfeeding-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Andre F Carvalho, Paul Whiteley, Chia-Hung Tang, Wei-Cheng Yang, Tien-Yu Chen, Dian-Jeng Li, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of conditions variably affecting communicative and social interactive abilities presenting alongside behaviors with various restricted and repetitive patterns. In addition to genetic factors that influence the onset of the symptoms, there is growing interest in the potential involvement of non-genetic environmental factors. Some aspects of breastfeeding practices, including rates, timing, or optimality, have been put forward as environmental risk factors for autism...
October 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039252/western-style-diet-induces-object-recognition-deficits-and-alters-complexity-of-dendritic-arborization-in-the-hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-of-male-rats
#11
Kathryn S Sarfert, Melina L Knabe, Nicole S Gunawansa, Sarah N Blythe
OBJECTIVE: Research demonstrates a link between diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairments; however, no studies have utilized the Sholl analysis to assess changes in dendritic arborization as a possible cause of obesity-induced memory deficits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Western-style diet (WSD) on memory and dendritic complexity of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were fed either a control or WSD...
October 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034829/the-impact-of-obesity-on-brain-iron-levels-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-is-regionally-dependent
#12
Jian Han, Justin Plummer, Lumei Liu, Aria Byrd, Michael Aschner, Keith M Erikson
BACKGROUND: The importance of iron homeostasis is particularly apparent in the brain, where iron deficiency results in impaired cognition and iron accumulation is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Obesity is linked to iron deficiency systemically, but the effects of obesity on brain iron and its associated consequences, including neurodegenerative processes remain unexplored. This preliminary study examined the effect of dietary-induced obesity on brain regional iron, α-synuclein expression, and F2-isoprostane (oxidative stress marker) concentrations in selected brain regions...
October 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-a-calorie-restricted-ketogenic-diet-for-the-management-of-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#13
Mithu Storoni, Matthieu P Robert, Gordon T Plant
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited, bilateral, sequential optic neuropathy that usually affects young males. LHON arises from a defect in complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation chain that generates increased reactive oxygen species and causes a decline in cellular ATP production. There exists no cure at present for LHON. Asymptomatic LHON mutation carriers show signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may compensate for the compromise in complex I activity. Partial recovery in LHON is associated with a wider optic disc diameter and a younger age at disease onset, which may allow for greater mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity...
October 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990868/prevention-of-recognition-memory-loss-and-moderation-of-mitochondrial-dynamic-tendency-toward-fusion-by-flavone-derivatives-in-a%C3%AE-injected-rats-a-comparison-between-two-flavonoids-with-different-polarity
#14
Farshad Arsalandeh, Fariba Khodagholi, Shahin Ahmadian, Forough Foolad, Hamed Mohammadi Kamsorkh, Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh
Growing evidence sheds light on the use of flavonoids as the promising alternatives for the treatment of chronic conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of oral intake of two structurally different flavonoids 5-hydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (flavone 1) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (flavone 2) on recognition memory, hippocampal protein level of immediate early gene cFos and mitochondrial dynamic markers in Amyloid β (Aβ)-injected rats...
October 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971744/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-guanidinoacetic-acid-as-a-possible-treatment-to-replenish-cerebral-creatine-in-agat-deficiency
#15
Sergej M Ostojic
Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that severely affects brain bioenergetics. Characterized by mental retardation, language impairment, and behavioral disorders, AGAT deficiency is a treatable condition, where long-term creatine supplementation usually restores brain creatine levels and improves its clinical features. In some cases of AGAT deficiency, creatine treatment might be somewhat limited due to possible shortcomings in performance and transport of creatine to the brain...
October 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958196/the-metabolic-and-neuroinflammatory-changes-induced-by-consuming-a-cafeteria-diet-are-age-dependent
#16
Deborah Teixeira, Ana Lucia Cecconello, Wania Aparecida Partata, Luciano Stürmer de Fraga, Maria Flávia Marques Ribeiro, Renata Padilha Guedes
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of a palatable cafeteria diet on serum parameters and neuroinflammatory markers of young and aged female Wistar rats. METHODS: Three-month-old (young) and 18-month-old (aged) female Wistar rats had access to a cafeteria diet (Caf-Young, Caf-Aged) or a standard chow diet (Std-Young, Std-Aged). RESULTS: The Caf-Young group showed a higher food consumption, weight gain, visceral fat depot, serum insulin and leptin levels, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the Std-Young group...
September 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946820/coenzyme-q10-supplementation-improves-acute-outcomes-of-stroke-in-rats-pretreated-with-atorvastatin
#17
Sanaz Nasoohi, Leila Simani, Fariba Khodagholi, Sara Nikseresht, Mehrdad Faizi, Nima Naderi
OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone) stands among the safest supplements in the elderly to protect against cardiovascular disorders. Noteworthy, CoQ10 deficiency is common in many surviving stroke patients as they are mostly prescribed statins for the secondary prevention of stroke incidence lifelong. Accordingly, the current study aims to experimentally examine whether CoQ10 supplementation in animals receiving atorvastatin may affect acute stroke-induced injury. METHODS: Adult rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion after atorvastatin pretreatment (5 or 10 mg/ kg/day; po; 30 days) with or without CoQ10 (200 mg/kg/day)...
September 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944721/early-life-sugar-consumption-has-long-term-negative-effects-on-memory-function-in-male-rats
#18
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Joanna Liang, Scott E Kanoski
OBJECTIVES: Added dietary sugars contribute substantially to the diet of children and adolescents in the USA, and recent evidence suggests that consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during early life has deleterious effects on hippocampal-dependent memory function. Here, we test whether the effects of early-life sugar consumption on hippocampal function persist into adulthood when access to sugar is restricted to the juvenile/adolescent phase of development. METHODS: Male rats were given ad libitum access to an 11% weight-by-volume sugar solution (made with high fructose corn syrup-55) throughout the adolescent phase of development (post-natal day (PN) 26-56)...
September 25, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931353/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-microglia-activation-and-increases-neuroplasticity-in-mice-consuming-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Amanda N Carey, Kelsea R Gildawie, Abigail Rovnak, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
OBJECTIVES: Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. Blueberries may prevent and even reverse age-related alterations in neurochemistry and behavior. It was previously demonstrated that middle-aged mice fed HFD had impaired memory; however, supplementation of HFD with blueberry reduced these memory deficits. As a follow-up to that study, the brain tissue from HFD-fed mice with and without blueberry supplementation was assessed to determine the neuroprotective mechanism(s) by which blueberry allayed cognitive dysfunction associated with HFD...
September 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914170/the-investigation-of-the-effects-of-topiramate-on-the-hypothalamic-levels-of-fat-mass-obesity-associated-protein-and-neuropeptide-y-in-obese-female-rats
#20
Işınsu Alkan, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Gamze Altun, Erkan Erener
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of topiramate on the fat mass/obesity-associated protein (FTO) and on the neuropeptide Y (NPY) level in the hypothalamus depending on the recently increased prevalence of obesity. METHOD: In this study, twenty-four female rats were divided into four equal groups: Non-obese control, obese control, non-obese topiramate, and obese topiramate. Obese groups were fed with a 40% high-fat diet. At the end of the 9th week, the drug treatment started and the subjects were treated with topiramate once a day for 6 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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