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Nutritional Neuroscience

Nicolas Violle, Pascale Rozan, Hervé Demais, Pi Nyvall Collen, Jean-François Bisson
OBJECTIVES: The green seaweed Ulva sp. contains a large amount of ulvans, a family of sulphated polysaccharides. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract of Ulva sp. (MSP) containing about 45% of ulvans. METHODS: After a 14-day administration of MSP at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, 48 and 60 male adult Wistar rats were respectively tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swimming test (FST)...
January 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kristy Du, Edward Markus, Mariel Fecych, Justin S Rhodes, J Lee Beverly
OBJECTIVE: High- protein diets have become increasingly popular with various touted benefits. However, the extent to which protein quantity and source affects cognitive functioning through altering postprandial amino acid profiles has not been investigated. Further, whether all protein sources are similarly anorexigenic is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of protein level and source on Barnes maze performance, satiety and plasma amino acid levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Adriana de Almeida Soares, Polyanna Mendes Camarço Louçana, Ema Pereira Nasi, Kamila Maria de Holanda Sousa, Odara Maria de Sousa Sá, Raimundo Pereira Silva-Néto
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prophylactic effect of OPFAϖ-3 in migraine. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, experimental, controlled, double-blind, and with comparison groups study. Sixty patients diagnosed with chronic migraine, according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition (beta version) (ICHD-3β), were prophylactically treated with amitriptyline. They were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was associated with OPFAϖ-3 and in group 2 with placebo...
January 5, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Karim Parastouei, Abbas Mirshafiey, Mohammad Reza Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Farid Solaymani-Mohammadi, Reza Chahardoli, Ehsan Alvandi, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
OBJECTIVES: It has been shown that calcitriol and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have modulatory effects on the immune system. The present study investigates the synergistic effects of combination treatment of calcitriol and ATRA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The mice were allocated to four preventive groups, each consisting of eight animals, ATRA (250 μg/mouse), calcitriol (100 ng/mouse), combination of ATRA and calcitriol (125  μg/mouse and 50 ng/mouse) and vehicle groups...
December 20, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nakisa Mohammadpour, Shima Jazayeri, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Mahmoud Djalali, Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Effatpanah, Rozita Davari-Ashtiani, Elham Karami
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that serum levels of vitamin D were lower in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children compared to healthy controls. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on symptoms of children with ADHD. METHODS: Sixty-two children aged 5-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2000IU vitamin D or placebo in addition to methylphenidate for 8 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Eftyhia Tsagalioti, Christina Trifonos, Aggeliki Morari, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Constantinos Giaginis
Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a major problem of public health that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and poor quality of life. Malnutrition is considered as a major problem that worsens the prognosis of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. In this aspect, the present review is aimed to critically collect and summarize all the available existing clinical data regarding the clinical impact of nutritional assessment in neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting on the crucial role of nutritional status in disease progression and management...
November 30, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Deborah P Waber, Cyralene P Bryce, Jonathan M Girard, Laura K Fischer, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Janina R Galler
OBJECTIVES: We compared the IQ and academic achievement of the young adult offspring of parents malnourished in infancy and those of a healthy control group in order to test the hypothesis that the offspring of previously malnourished individuals would show IQ and academic deficits that could be related to reduced parental socioeconomic status. METHODS: We conducted a group comparison study based on a community sample in Barbados (Barbados Nutrition Study). Participants were adult children ≥16 years of age whose parents had been malnourished during the first year of life (n = 64; Mean age 19...
November 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nora Schneider, Gisella Mutungi, Javier Cubero
OBJECTIVES: The establishment of organized sleep patterns is an important developmental process during infancy. Little is known about the role of nutrition in sleep maturation. This review focuses on exploring the link between infant sleep and nutrition with the aim to provide an overview of existing literature on the impact of diet and specific nutrients on sleep modulation in infants. METHODS: An exploratory literature search was performed on the topic in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases, with a focus on publications in English...
November 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
M Atif Raza Cheema, Shazia Nawaz, Sumera Gul, Tabinda Salman, Sabira Naqvi, Ahsana Dar, Darakhshan J Haleem
OBJECTIVES: In the last few decades, therapeutic uses of medicinal compounds present in food as a normal constituent has risen substantially, largely because of their fewer side effects and adequate efficacy. This study is designed to investigate a role of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the potential nootropic, anxiolytic, and other beneficial effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and Olea europaea (OE) oil in rat models. METHODS: Animals were treated with NS and OE oil orally at doses of 0...
November 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Shinki Murakami, Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato Asanuma
OBJECTIVES: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in astrocyte plays important roles in brain homeostasis. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of FPP on activation of Nrf2 and release of Nrf2-regulated neuroprotective antioxidants and detoxifying molecules. METHODS: Primary cultured astrocytes from rat embryos were treated with FPP for 6 or 24 hours...
November 14, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nazanin Mohebali, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Hossein Ghafoori, Zeinab Farahmand, Elham MohammadKhani, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Abdolreza Ghamarian, Mansoureh Farhangniya, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Despite vast ongoing researches focusing on the area, little is known about novel treatments. In this study, we aimed to survey the effects of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) extract on amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-injected rat. METHODS: For this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts of caper leaf and fruit were prepared. Total phenolic content, DPPH, and FRAP assay were accomplished to determine antioxidant activity of C...
October 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sunmin Park, Suna Kang, Da Sol Kim, Bo Rerum Moon
OBJECTIVES: The water extracts of Cinnamomum cassia Blume bark (CCB; Lauraceae), Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower (LJT; Caprifoliaceae), and Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. leaves (APL; Rosaceae) prevented amyloid-β (25-35)-induced cell death in PC12 cells in our preliminary study. We evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of CCB, LJT, and APL improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in rats with experimentally induced AD-type dementia. METHODS: Male rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of amyloid-β (25-35, AD) or amyloid-β (35-25, non-plaque forming, normal-controls, Non-AD-CON), at a rate of 3...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
David O Kennedy, Philippa A Jackson, Joanne Forster, Julie Khan, Torsten Grothe, Tania Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay
A wild green-oats extract (Neuravena(®)) containing a range of potentially bioactive components, including flavonoids and triterpene saponins, has previously been shown to enhance animal stress responses and memory, and improve cognitive performance in humans at a dose of 1600 mg. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced cross-over study assessed the effects of single doses of the green-oat extract (GOE) across a broad range of cognitive domains in healthy adults aged 40-65 years who self-reported that they felt that their memory had declined with age...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Mehmet Oz, Enver Ahmet Demir, Merve Caliskan, Rasim Mogulkoc, Abdulkerim Kasım Baltaci, K Esra Nurullahoglu Atalik
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, effects of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) on anxiety-like behavior, and learning and memory were investigated in a model of transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: The animals were assigned to sham-operated, ischemia, and two DiOHF-treated (10 mg/kg i.p.) groups. DiOHF was administered at 1 hour before and immediately after the ischemia. Male rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce acute cerebral ischemia for 20 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 7 days...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Patrycja Szachta, Aneta Opolska, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Mirosława Gałęcka, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Paweł Krukow, Zofia Lasik
Depressive episodes are associated not only with changes in neurotransmission in the central nervous system, but also may lead to structural changes in the brain through neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and immunological mechanisms. The aim of this article is to present a new hypothesis connecting the inflammatory theory of depression with IgG food hypersensitivity and leaky gut syndrome. This new potential pathway that may mediate the pathogenesis of depression implies the existence of subsequent developmental stages...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Derek R Fisher, Shibu M Poulose, Donna F Bielinski, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
The shift in equilibrium towards excess reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production from innate antioxidant defenses in brain is a critical factor in the declining neural function and cognitive deficit accompanying age. Previous studies from our laboratory have reported that walnuts, rich in polyphenols, antioxidants, and omega fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, improve the age-associated declines in cognition and neural function in rats. Possible mechanisms of action of these effects include enhancing protective signaling, altering membrane microstructures, decreasing inflammation, and preventing accumulation of polyubiquitinated protein aggregates in critical regions of the brain...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Claudia Marschollek, Fariba Karimzadeh, Maryam Jafarian, Milad Ahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Mohajeri, Sadegh Rahimi, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Ali Gorji
OBJECTIVES: The potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different types of headaches has been suggested by several medieval literatures. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagating wave of neuroglial depolarization, was established as a target for anti-migraine drugs. This study was designed to investigate the effect of garlic extract on CSD in adult rats. METHODS: CSD was induced by KCl microinjection in the somatosensory cortex. The effects of five different concentrations of garlic oil (1-500 μl/l) were tested on different characteristic features of CSD in necocortical slices...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Cheng Chen, Xue Bai, Yanwen Bi, Guixiang Liu, Hao Li, Zhen Liu, Huaxiang Liu
Paclitaxel (PT)-induced neurotoxicity is a significant problem associated with successful treatment of cancers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor and plays an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whether IGF-1 has protective effects on neurite growth, cell viability, neuronal apoptosis and neuronal phenotypes in DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear. In this study, primary cultured rat DRG neurons were used to assess the effects of IGF-1 on DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity...
February 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Bharat Vashistha, Abhisheak Sharma, Vivek Jain
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Vincristine (50 µg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to induce painful neuropathy in rats. Various pain sensitive tests, viz., pinprick, hot plate, paint-brush, and acetone test were performed on different days (1, 6, 14, and 21) to assess the degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia, mechanical dynamic allodynia, and cold allodynia, respectively. The electrophysiological and histopathological evaluations were also investigated...
January 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Yuichi Sato, Satoshi Goshi, Yusuke Kawauchi, Yuuki Nishigaki, Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Satoru Hashimoto, Manabu Takeuchi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Tetsutaro Ozawa, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Yutaka Aoyagi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement under sedation often causes apnea or hypoventilation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether unsedated PEG placement in ALS patients using ultrathin endoscopy (UTE) via the transoral route can improve safety. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2013, PEG placement was identified and reviewed in 45 patients with ALS. PEG was performed in 14 patients using transoral UTE without sedation (UTE group), 17 patients using conventional normal-diameter esophagogastroduodenoscopy (C-EGD) without sedation (unsedated C-EGD group) and 14 patients using C-EGD with sedation (sedated C-EGD group)...
January 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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