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Nutritional Neuroscience

Nazanin Mohebali, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Hossein Ghafoori, Zeinab Farahmand, Elham MohammadKhani, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Abdolreza Ghamarian, Mansoureh Farhangniya, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Despite vast ongoing researches focusing on the area, little is known about novel treatments. In this study, we aimed to survey the effects of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) extract on amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-injected rat. METHODS: For this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts of caper leaf and fruit were prepared. Total phenolic content, DPPH, and FRAP assay were accomplished to determine antioxidant activity of C...
October 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Linda Nguyen, Ahmed Eltanahay, Ryan C Turner, Patrick Bonasso, Chelsea Knotts, Adam Moeck, Joseph C Maroon, Julian E Bailes, Charles L Rosen
Studies using traditional treatment strategies for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have produced limited clinical success. Interest in treatment for mild TBI is at an all time high due to its association with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Traditional pharmaceutical interventions have failed to transition to the clinic for the treatment of mild TBI. As such, many pre-clinical studies are now implementing non-pharmaceutical therapies for TBI...
October 5, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Mohammadreza Alizadeh-Ghodsi, Ali Zavvari, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Bahman Yousefi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease which manifests demyelination of neuronal cells in the brain. Despite extensive research on the mechanisms of disease development and progression, the exact mechanism is not elucidated yet, which has hampered drug development and subsequent treatment of the disease. We have recently shown that the serum levels of arsenic and malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, are high in MS patients. In this article, we would like to formulate the hypothesis that arsenic may cause MS by induction of inflammation, degeneration, and apoptosis in neuronal cells...
October 4, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Jazmín García-Morales, Francisco José Calvo-Silva, Francisca Fernández-Valverde, Norma Serrano-García
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD). 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a mitochondrial toxin that specifically inhibits complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC) and is used to generate an experimental model of HD. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fish liver oil (FO) over the mitochondrial dysfunction induced via partial ETC inhibition by 3-NP. METHODS: This study was performed in rats and consisted of two phases: (i) administration of increasing doses of 3-NP and (ii) administration of FO for 14 days before to 3-NP...
September 28, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Goat whey, a usually discarded byproduct from goat cheese manufacturing, is a good source of sialic acid (SA), an oligosaccharide that is involved in processes such as memory and brain excitability. Here, we investigated in rats the effect of dried goat whey (DGW) on memory and the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). We also provide evidence for the involvement of SA in this effect. In addition, we tested animals under unfavorable suckling conditions to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency would modulate DGW action...
September 20, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Veerappan Venkatesh Gobi, Srinivasagam Rajasankar, Muthu Ramkumar, Chinnasamy Dhanalakshmi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Ranganathan Chidambaram
The present study was aimed to find out the effect of Agaricus blazei mushroom extract against rotenone-induced cellular model. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are divided into four experimental groups (control, rotenone (100 nM), A. blazei (5 μg/ml) + rotenone (100 nM), and A. blazei alone treated) based on MTT assay, cells were allowed to measure the ROS, TBARS levels, and antioxidants activities. Finally, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) and expressions of apoptotic proteins were also analyzed...
September 20, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Youssef Bahbiti, Hammou Ammouri, Inssaf Berkiks, Aboubaker El Hessni, Ali Ouichou, Redouan Nakache, Miloud Chakit, Leila Bikjdaouene, Abdelhalem Mesfioui
Argan oil (AO) is rich in oleic and linoleic acids, polyphenols, sterols, and tocopherols. This composition gives it numerous beneficial pharmacological effects such as hypolipemiant, hypotensive, and antiproliferative. Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures and status epilepticus (SE). This study aims at investigating AO effects on (i) latency to first seizure, seizure severity, weight loss, mortality rate, (ii) lipid peroxidation level, nitrite level, and catalase activity in the hippocampus after SE induced by pilocarpine (PC)...
September 12, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Itziar Abete, Maria Angeles Zulet, Estíbaliz Goyenechea, Vanessa Blazquez, Ana Maria de Arce Borda, Adolfo Lopez de Munain, J Alfredo Martinez
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, including dietary patterns, could involve specific factors participating in inflammation that confer a higher risk of suffering a stroke. However, little attention has been apparently given to habitual food consumption in patients suffering a cerebrovascular event. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of dietary habits as well as other lifestyle-related variables on the risk of suffering a stroke. DESIGN: A case-control study was designed...
September 7, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jaspal Patil, Ashok Matte, Carina Mallard, Mats Sandberg
OBJECTIVES: This study concerns: (1) the long-term effects of peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in neonatal rats on inflammation and antioxidant parameters in brain and (2) the effects of a Spirulina-enriched diet given to lactating mothers on protective and inflammatory parameters in brains of suckling pups subjected to peripheral inflammation. METHODS: Five-day old rat pups were treated with LPS (i.p. 2 mg/kg). After 3, 7, 30, and 65 days, mRNA, miRNA, and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-system were examined...
August 29, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Claire J Scavuzzo, Christopher J Moulton, Ryan J Larsen
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important tool for studying the effects of nutrition on brain health. MRS can be used to measure the concentrations of metabolites which are related to cognitive performance and sensitive to diet. These measurements can provide information about metabolic efficiency, plasma membrane stability, antioxidant status, and neurotransmitter availability. MRS can therefore be used to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms by which diet influences cognition, and to characterize the effects of nutritional interventions targeted to improve cognition...
August 29, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Betty R McConn, Justin Matias, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of high-protein and high-fat diets, and fasting and refeeding, on appetite regulation in chicks. METHODS: Day of hatch chicks were fed one of four diets: basal, high protein (25% crude protein), and 15 and 30% high fat (15 and 30% metabolizable energy derived from soybean oil, respectively), and assigned to one of three treatments at 4 days: (1) access to feed, (2) 3 hours of fasting, or (3) fasting followed by 1 hour of refeeding...
August 16, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Raghavendra Rao, Kathleen Ennis, Gabriele R Lubach, Eric F Lock, Michael K Georgieff, Christopher L Coe
OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency (ID) anemia leads to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits by altering iron-dependent brain metabolism. The objective of the study was to determine if ID induces metabolomic abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the pre-anemic stage and to ascertain the aspects of abnormal brain metabolism affected. METHODS: Standard hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), transferrin (Tf) saturation, and zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZnPP/H)] were compared at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months in iron-sufficient (IS; n = 7) and iron-deficient (ID; n = 7) infant rhesus monkeys...
August 6, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Byron C Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jin Yu, Hong Zhu, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli, Saeid Taheri, Mark Stephen Kindy
OBJECTIVES: Dietary supplementation of fruits and vegetables has been the main stay for nutritional benefit and overall well-being. GrandFusion(®) is a nutritional supplement that contains the natural nutrients from whole fruits and vegetables that include complex nutrients and phytonutrients that contain anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. METHODS: In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet supplemented with GrandFusion(®) for 2 months prior to 1 hour of ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) followed by various times of reperfusion...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Tatsuhiko Goto, Yoshifumi Kubota, Atsushi Toyoda
OBJECTIVES: The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Olga Szczesniak, Knut A Hestad, Jon Fredrik Hanssen, Knut Rudi
OBJECTIVE: Human depression is a major burden, both on the individuals who suffer from the disease and on society at large. Traditionally, depression has been linked to psychological and biological causes, but there has been increasing interest in the gut-brain axis. In this regard, we have recently shown that specific bacteria are correlated with human depression, and we hypothesize that volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are mediators. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the direct correlation between VFAs, depression and cortisol in a cohort consisting of 34 depressed patients and 17 controls...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Brenda Gabriela Maldonado-Cedillo, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, Sergio Montes, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Camilo Ríos, Vicente Beltrán-Campos, Mireya Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Sofia Díaz-Cintra
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Kamila Castro, Luciana da Silveira Klein, Diego Baronio, Carmem Gottfried, Rudimar Riesgo, Ingrid Schweigert Perry
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) consist in a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that share common features with autism, such as impairments in communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors, stereotypies, and a limited repertoire of interests and activities. Some studies have reported that folic acid supplementation could be associated with a higher incidence of autism, and therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies involving relationships between this molecule and ASD. The MEDLINE database was searched for studies written in English which evaluated the relationship between autism and folate...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jingmei Cai, Ja-Young Jang, Jihyun Kim, Kyungha Shin, Kwang Sei Kim, Dongsun Park, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, Byeongwoo Ahn, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Junsoo Lee, Yun-Bae Kim
OBJECTIVES: Since oils and fats can induce metabolic syndrome, leading to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, the present study was performed to find out whether the plant oils affect the cerebral hemorrhage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHR-SP) rats. METHODS: From 47 days of age, male SHR-SP rats were given drinking water containing 1% NaCl to induce hypertension, and simultaneously fed semi-purified diets containing 10% perilla oil, canola oil, or shortening...
September 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Carla J Santos, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Ana L Oliveira, Marina C Oliveira, Julia S Gomes, Daniele C Aguiar
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a chronic disease frequently associated with serious co-morbidities, such as diabetes type II, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, regarding the behavioral consequences of modified diet constituents and the propensity to development of stress related disorders. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify whether chronic exposure to a normocaloric/high-carbohydrate diet will modify the animal's behavior after different stressful stimuli...
July 29, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
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