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Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Michele Veldsman, Leonid Churilov, Emilio Werden, Qi Li, Toby Cumming, Amy Brodtmann
: Background Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. Objective We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function...
September 7, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Janne M Veerbeek, Anneli C Langbroek-Amersfoort, Erwin E H van Wegen, Carel G M Meskers, Gert Kwakkel
Background Robot technology for poststroke rehabilitation is developing rapidly. A number of new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effects of robot-assisted therapy for the paretic upper limb (RT-UL). Objective To systematically review the effects of poststroke RT-UL on measures of motor control of the paretic arm, muscle strength and tone, upper limb capacity, and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in comparison with nonrobotic treatment. Methods Relevant RCTs were identified in electronic searches...
September 5, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Delin Ma, Jeffrey M Shuler, Aishwarya Kumar, Quincy R Stanford, Sudheer Tungtur, Hiroshi Nishimune, John A Stanford
Background The use of exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is controversial. Although moderate exercise appears to be beneficial for limb muscles in ALS, the effects of exercise on bulbar muscles such as the tongue have not been studied. Objective To determine the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function in the SOD1-G93A rat model of ALS. Methods We compared the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function and neuromuscular junction innervation in female SOD1-G93A rats and age-matched female wild-type controls...
August 28, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Melanie C Baniña, Aditi A Mullick, Bradford J McFadyen, Mindy F Levin
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) poststroke hemiparesis commonly leads to chronic disability. Despite moderate-to-good clinical recovery, many patients with UL hemiparesis still do not fully use their arm in daily tasks. Decreased arm use may be related to deficits in performance of more complex movement than what is usually assessed clinically. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences between poststroke and nondisabled control subjects in making complex corrective movements to avoid an obstacle in the reaching path...
August 19, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Anil Sindhurakar, Samuel D Butensky, Eric Meyers, Joshua Santos, Thelma Bethea, Ashley Khalili, Andrew P Sloan, Robert L Rennaker, Jason B Carmel
Background Rodents are the primary animal model of corticospinal injury and repair, yet current behavioral tests do not show the large deficits after injury observed in humans. Forearm supination is critical for hand function and is highly impaired by corticospinal injury in both humans and rats. Current tests of rodent forelimb function do not measure this movement. Objective To determine if quantification of forelimb supination in rats reveals large-scale functional loss and partial recovery after corticospinal injury...
August 16, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Pietro Caliandro, Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Giuseppe Reale, Giacomo Della Marca, Giuseppe La Torre, Giordano Lacidogna, Chiara Iacovelli, Luca Padua, Placido Bramanti, Paolo Maria Rossini
Background After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. Recently, complexity of brain connectivity has been described using graph theory, a mathematical approach that depicts important properties of complex systems by quantifying topologies of network representations. Functional and dynamic changes of brain connectivity can be reliably analyzed via electroencephalography (EEG) recordings even when they are not yet reflected in structural changes of connections...
August 10, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Katie P Wadden, Kristopher De Asis, Cameron S Mang, Jason L Neva, Sue Peters, Bimal Lakhani, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Conventionally, change in motor performance is quantified with discrete measures of behavior taken pre- and postpractice. As a high degree of movement variability exists in motor performance after stroke, pre- and posttesting of motor skill may lack sensitivity to predict potential for motor recovery. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the use of predictive models of motor learning based on individual performance curves and clinical characteristics of motor function in individuals with stroke...
August 10, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Hartwig Woldag, Nancy Voigt, Maria Bley, Horst Hummelsheim
BACKGROUND: Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) has proven effective in patients with subacute and chronic forms of aphasia. It has remained unclear, however, whether intensity of therapy or constraint is the relevant factor. Data about intensive speech and language therapy (SLT) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effective component of CIAT and assess the feasibility of SLT in the acute stage after stroke. METHOD: A total of 60 patients with aphasia (68...
August 9, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Bokkyu Kim, Carolee Winstein
Background There is growing interest to establish recovery biomarkers, especially neurological biomarkers, in order to develop new therapies and prediction models for the promotion of stroke rehabilitation and recovery. However, there is no consensus among the neurorehabilitation community about which biomarker(s) have the highest predictive value for motor recovery. Objective To review the evidence and determine which neurological biomarker(s) meet the high evidence quality criteria for use in predicting motor recovery...
August 8, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Franca Rosa Guerini, Elisabetta Farina, Andrea Saul Costa, Francesca Baglio, Francesca Lea Saibene, Nicolò Margaritella, Elena Calabrese, Milena Zanzottera, Elisabetta Bolognesi, Raffaello Nemni, Mario Clerici
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Rate of decline and functional restoration in AD greatly depend on the capacity for neural plasticity within residual neural tissues; this is at least partially influenced by polymorphisms in genes that determine neural plasticity, including Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) and synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether correlations could be detected between polymorphisms of ApoE4 and SNAP-25 and the outcome of a multidimensional rehabilitative approach, based on cognitive stimulation, behavioral, and functional therapy (multidimensional stimulation therapy [MST])...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
E Susan Duncan, Tanya Schmah, Steven L Small
BACKGROUND: Performance variability in individuals with aphasia is typically regarded as a nuisance factor complicating assessment and treatment. OBJECTIVE: We present the alternative hypothesis that intraindividual variability represents a fundamental characteristic of an individual's functioning and an important biomarker for therapeutic selection and prognosis. METHODS: A total of 19 individuals with chronic aphasia participated in a 6-week trial of imitation-based speech therapy...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Dipesh H Vasant, Emilia Michou, Neil O'Leary, Andy Vail, Satish Mistry, Shaheen Hamdy
Background Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) appears to promote cortical plasticity and swallowing recovery poststroke. Objective We aimed to assess clinical effectiveness with longer follow-up. Methods Dysphagic patients (n = 36; median = 71 years; 61% male) recruited from 3 trial centers within 6 weeks of stroke, received active or sham PES in a single-blinded randomized design via an intraluminal pharyngeal catheter (10 minutes, for 3days). The primary outcome measure was the Dysphagia Severity Rating (DSR) scale (<4, no-mild; ≥4, moderate-severe)...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jung Hoon Choi, Joon Ha Park, In Hye Kim, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Hyun-Mo Koo, Gak Hwangbo, Ki-Yeon Yoo, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Jun Hwi Cho, Soo Young Choi, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim, Il-Jun Kang, Moo-Ho Won
BACKGROUND: The positive correlation between therapeutic exercise and memory recovery in cases of ischemia has been extensively studied; however, long-term exercise begun after ischemic neuronal death as a chronic neurorestorative strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate possible mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced memory impairment in the aged gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Kelly M Clanchy, Sean M Tweedy, Stewart G Trost
BACKGROUND: Individuals with brain impairment (BI) are less active than the general population and have increased risk of chronic disease. OBJECTIVE: This controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a physical activity (PA) intervention for community-dwelling adults with BI. METHODS: A total of 43 adults with BI (27 male, 16 female; age 38.1 ± 11.9 years; stage of change 1-3) who walked as their primary means of locomotion were allocated to an intervention (n = 23) or control (n = 20) condition...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Stephen Polgar, Leila Karimi, Melissa Buultjens, Meg E Morris
The remarkable scientific and technological advances in the field of cell research have not been translated into viable restorative therapies for brain disorders. In this article, we examine the best available evidence for the clinical efficacy of reconstructive intracerebral transplantation in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), with the aim of identifying methodological obstacles to the translation process. The major stumbling block is the fact that the potential contributions of people with neural grafts and the effects of the physical and social environment in which they recover have not been adequately investigated and applied to advancing the clinical stages of the research program...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Kathleen M Friel, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Jason Fuller, Claudio L Ferre, Marina Brandão, Jason B Carmel, Yannick Bleyenheuft, Jaimie L Gowatsky, Arielle D Stanford, Stefan B Rowny, Bruce Luber, Bruce Bassi, David L K Murphy, Sarah H Lisanby, Andrew M Gordon
Background Intensive bimanual therapy can improve hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). We compared the effects of structured bimanual skill training versus unstructured bimanual practice on motor outcomes and motor map plasticity in children with USCP. Objective We hypothesized that structured skill training would produce greater motor map plasticity than unstructured practice. Methods Twenty children with USCP (average age 9.5; 12 males) received therapy in a day camp setting, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Pieter Meyns, Leen Van Gestel, Inge Leunissen, Paul De Cock, Stefan Sunaert, Hilde Feys, Jacques Duysens, Kaat Desloovere, Els Ortibus
Background Even though lower-limb motor disorders are core features of spastic cerebral palsy (sCP), the relationship with brain lesions remains unclear. Unraveling the relation between gait pathology, lower-limb function, and brain lesions in sCP is complex for several reasons; wide heterogeneity in brain lesions, ongoing brain maturation, and gait depends on a number of primary motor functions/deficits (eg, muscle strength, spasticity). Objective To use a comprehensive approach combining conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with sCP above 3 years old to relate quantitative parameters of brain lesions in multiple brain areas to gait performance...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Gert Kwakkel, Caroline Winters, Erwin E H van Wegen, Rinske H M Nijland, Annette A A van Kuijk, Anne Visser-Meily, Jurriaan de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt, J Hans Arendzen, Alexander C H Geurts, Carel G M Meskers
Background and Objective Favorable prognosis of the upper limb depends on preservation or return of voluntary finger extension (FE) early after stroke. The present study aimed to determine the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (EMG-NMS) on upper limb capacity early poststroke. Methods A total of 159 ischemic stroke patients were included: 58 patients with a favorable prognosis (>10° of FE) were randomly allocated to 3 weeks of mCIMT or usual care only; 101 patients with an unfavorable prognosis were allocated to 3-week EMG-NMS or usual care only...
October 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jacquelyn J Cragg, Jenny Haefeli, Catherine R Jutzeler, Frank Röhrich, Norbert Weidner, Marion Saur, Doris D Maier, Yorck B Kalke, Christian Schuld, Armin Curt, John K Kramer
Background Approximately 60% of patients suffering from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) develop pain within days to weeks after injury, which ultimately persists into chronic stages. To date, the consequences of pain after SCI have been largely examined in terms of interfering with quality of life. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of pain and pain management on neurological recovery after SCI. Methods We analyzed clinical data in a prospective multicenter observational cohort study in patients with SCI...
September 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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