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Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Natalia Sánchez, James M Finley
Changes in the control of the lower extremities poststroke lead to persistent biomechanical asymmetries during walking. These asymmetries are associated with an increase in energetic cost, leading to the possibility that reducing asymmetry can improve walking economy. However, the influence of asymmetry on economy may depend on the direction and cause of asymmetry. For example, impairments with paretic limb advancement may result in shorter paretic steps, whereas deficits in paretic support or propulsion result in shorter nonparetic steps...
July 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Leonardo Boccuni, Sarah Meyer, Simon S Kessner, Nele De Bruyn, Bea Essers, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, André Peeters, Stefan Sunaert, Thierry Duprez, Lucio Marinelli, Carlo Trompetto, Vincent Thijs, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: Proportional motor recovery in the upper limb has been investigated, indicating about 70% of the potential for recovery of motor impairment within the first months poststroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the proportional recovery rule is applicable for upper-limb somatosensory impairment and to study underlying neural correlates of impairment and outcome at 6 months. METHODS: A total of 32 patients were evaluated at 4 to 7 days and 6 months using the Erasmus MC modification of the revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA) for impairment of (1) somatosensory perception (exteroception) and (2) passive somatosensory processing (sharp/blunt discrimination and proprioception); (3) active somatosensory processing was evaluated using the stereognosis component of the NSA...
July 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jennifer K Ferris, Jason L Neva, Beatrice A Francisco, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: In the chronic phase after stroke, cortical excitability differs between the cerebral hemispheres; the magnitude of this asymmetry depends on degree of motor impairment. It is unclear whether these asymmetries also affect capacity for plasticity in corticospinal tract excitability or whether hemispheric differences in plasticity are related to chronic sensorimotor impairment. METHODS: Response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) was assessed bilaterally in 22 individuals with chronic hemiparesis...
July 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Maurits H J Hoonhorst, Rinske H M Nijland, Peter J S van den Berg, Cornelis H Emmelot, Boudewijn J Kollen, Gert Kwakkel
BACKGROUND: The added prognostic value of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to clinical modeling for the upper limb is still unknown early poststroke. OBJECTIVE: To determine the added prognostic value of TMS of the adductor digiti minimi (TMS-ADM) to the clinical model based on voluntary shoulder abduction (SA) and finger extension (FE) during the first 48 hours and at 11 days after stroke. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with 3 logistic regression models, developed to predict upper-limb function at 6 months poststroke...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Digna de Kam, Alexander C Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Defective muscle coordination for balance recovery may contribute to stroke survivors' propensity for falling. Thus, we investigated deficits in muscle coordination for postural control and their association to body sway following balance perturbations in people with stroke. Specifically, we compared the automatic postural responses of 8 leg and trunk muscles recorded bilaterally in unimpaired individuals and those with mild to moderate impairments after unilateral supratentorial lesions (>6 months). These responses were elicited by unexpected floor translations in 12 directions...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Karin L de Gooijer-van de Groep, Jurriaan H de Groot, Hanneke van der Krogt, Erwin de Vlugt, J Hans Arendzen, Carel G M Meskers
BACKGROUND: The mechanism and time course of increased wrist joint stiffness poststroke and clinically observed wrist flexion deformity is still not well understood. The components contributing to increased joint stiffness are of neural reflexive and peripheral tissue origin and quantified by reflexive torque and muscle slack length and stiffness coefficient parameters. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time course of the components contributing to wrist joint stiffness during the first 26 weeks poststroke in a group of patients, stratified by prognosis and functional recovery of the upper extremity...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Valeria Pingue, Alberto Priori, Alberto Malovini, Caterina Pistarini
BACKGROUND: Poststroke dysphagia is associated with considerable morbidity and has high health care cost implications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the lesioned hemisphere and cathodal tDCS to the contralateral one during the early stage of rehabilitation can improve poststroke dysphagia. METHODS: A total of 40 patients referred to our neurorehabilitation department were randomized to receive anodal tDCS over the damaged hemisphere plus cathodal stimulation over the contralateral one versus sham stimulation during swallowing maneuvers over the course of 10 sessions of treatment...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Shihui Xing, Ayan Mandal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Jinsheng Zeng, Peter E Turkeltaub
BACKGROUND: In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, picture naming engages widely distributed brain regions in the parietal, frontal, and temporal cortices. However, it remains unknown whether those activated areas, along with white matter pathways between them, are actually crucial for naming. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify nodes and pathways implicated in naming in healthy older adults and test the impact of lesions to the connectome on naming ability...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
The loss of independent joint control, clinically referred to as limb synergies, is prevalent in the paretic upper limb of individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. To understand the underlying neural mechanisms, we previously reported that an increased overlap of cortical representations of shoulder/elbow could contribute to the abnormal poststroke synergies. However, these previous results were limited to a fixed time window just before the onset of motor tasks. Questions such as (1) how this overlap develops during motor preparation and (2) whether such development is also linked to upper limb synergies, remain unclear...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Svetlana Pundik, Aleka Scoco, Margaret Skelly, Jessica P McCabe, Janis J Daly
OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory function is critical to normal motor control. After stroke, dysfunction of the sensory systems prevents normal motor function and degrades quality of life. Structural neuroplasticity underpinnings of sensory recovery after stroke are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in bilateral cortical thickness (CT) that may drive recovery of sensory acuity. METHODS: Chronic stroke survivors (n = 20) were treated with 12 weeks of rehabilitation...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Klaus Kucher, Donald Johns, Doris Maier, Rainer Abel, Andreas Badke, Hagen Baron, Roland Thietje, Steven Casha, Renate Meindl, Baltazar Gomez-Mancilla, Christian Pfister, Rüdiger Rupp, Norbert Weidner, Anis Mir, Martin E Schwab, Armin Curt
BACKGROUND: Neutralization of central nervous system neurite growth inhibitory factors, for example, Nogo-A, is a promising approach to improving recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). In animal SCI models, intrathecal delivery of anti-Nogo-A antibodies promoted regenerative neurite growth and functional recovery. OBJECTIVE: This first-in-man study assessed the feasibility, safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the human anti-Nogo-A antibody ATI355 following intrathecal administration in patients with acute, complete traumatic paraplegia and tetraplegia...
May 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Elizabeth A Lynch, Brigit M Chesworth, Louise A Connell
Despite the exponential growth in the evidence base for stroke rehabilitation, there is still a paucity of knowledge about how to consistently and sustainably deliver evidence-based stroke rehabilitation therapies in clinical practice. This means that people with stroke will not consistently benefit from research breakthroughs, simply because clinicians do not always have the skills, authority, knowledge or resources to be able to translate the findings from a research trial and apply these in clinical practice...
May 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Amanda E Stone, Jaimie A Roper, Daniel C Herman, Chris J Hass
BACKGROUND: Persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) show deficits in gait and neuromuscular control following rehabilitation. This altered behavior extends to locomotor adaptation and learning, however the contributing factors to this observed behavior have yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in locomotor adaptation and learning between ACLR and controls, and identify underlying contributors to motor adaptation in these individuals...
May 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Manuela Hamoudi, Heidi M Schambra, Brita Fritsch, Annika Schoechlin-Marx, Cornelius Weiller, Leonardo G Cohen, Janine Reis
BACKGROUND: Motor training alone or combined with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) positioned over the motor cortex (M1) improves motor function in chronic stroke. Currently, understanding of how tDCS influences the process of motor skill learning after stroke is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of tDCS on the stages of motor skill learning and on generalization to untrained motor function. METHODS: In this randomized, sham-controlled, blinded study of 56 mildly impaired chronic stroke patients, tDCS (anode over the ipsilesional M1 and cathode on the contralesional forehead) was applied during 5 days of training on an unfamiliar, challenging fine motor skill task (sequential visual isometric pinch force task)...
April 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jennifer Crozier, Marc Roig, Janice J Eng, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons, Joyce Fung, Michelle Ploughman, Damian M Bailey, Shane N Sweet, Nicholas Giacomantonio, Alexander Thiel, Michael Trivino, Ada Tang
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Individuals poststroke possess less than half of the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as their nonstroke counterparts, leading to inactivity, deconditioning, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Preserving cardiovascular health is critical to lower stroke risk; however, stroke rehabilitation typically provides limited opportunity for cardiovascular exercise. Optimal cardiovascular training parameters to maximize recovery in stroke survivors also remains unknown...
April 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Serene Sulyn Paul, Leland E Dibble, Raymond G Walther, Clough Shelton, Richard Klaus Gurgel, Mark Eric Lester
BACKGROUND: Individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) alter their movement and reduce mobility to try to stabilize their gaze and avoid symptoms of dizziness and vertigo. OBJECTIVE: To determine if individuals with UVH 6 weeks after surgery demonstrate altered head and trunk kinematics during community ambulation. METHODS: A total of 15 vestibular schwannoma patients with documented postoperative unilateral vestibular loss and 9 healthy controls with symmetrical vestibulo-ocular reflexes participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Ameen Barghi, Jane B Allendorfer, Edward Taub, Brent Womble, Jarrod M Hicks, Gitendra Uswatte, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Victor W Mark
BACKGROUND: Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a method of physical rehabilitation that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with chronic stroke, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial tested whether CIMT can also induce increases in white matter integrity in patients with MS. METHODS: Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic MS were randomized to receive either CIMT or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment (reported in the first article of this pair)...
March 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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