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Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Awad M Almuklass, Leah Davis, Landon D Hamilton, Jeffrey R Hebert, Enrique Alvarez, Roger M Enoka
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) eventually compromises the walking ability of most individuals burdened with the disease. Treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can restore some functional abilities in persons with MS, but its effectiveness may depend on stimulus-pulse duration. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 6-week intervention with narrow- or wide-pulse NMES on walking performance, neuromuscular function, and disability status of persons with relapsing-remitting MS...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Karen Caeyenberghs, Adam Clemente, Phoebe Imms, Gary Egan, Darren R Hocking, Alexander Leemans, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Derek K Jones, Peter H Wilson
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is associated with a range of cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. Rehabilitation programs are available that target motor skills or cognitive functioning. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence that training may enhance structural neuroplasticity in patients with ABI, as assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques that probe microstructure or morphology. Twenty-five research articles met key inclusion criteria...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe Archambault, Samir Sangani, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a highly prevalent and disabling poststroke impairment. USN is traditionally assessed with paper-and-pencil tests that lack ecological validity, generalization to real-life situations and are easily compensated for in chronic stages. Virtual reality (VR) can, however, counteract these limitations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the feasibility of a novel assessment of USN symptoms in a functional shopping activity, the Ecological VR-based Evaluation of Neglect Symptoms (EVENS)...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Somporn Sungkarat, Sirinun Boripuntakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Stephen R Lord, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Effects of Tai Chi (TC) on specific cognitive function and mechanisms by which TC may improve cognition in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of TC on cognitive functions and plasma biomarkers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) in a-MCI. METHODS: A total of 66 older adults with a-MCI (mean age = 67...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Ming-Ching Wen, Hannah S E Heng, Zhonghao Lu, Zheyu Xu, Ling Ling Chan, Eng King Tan, Louis C S Tan
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) can be classified into tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes with TD considered as the benign subtype. The neural alterations of the 2 subtypes in the early stages before administration of medications remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the subtype-related white matter (WM) microstructural features in newly diagnosed and drug-naive PD patients from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI)...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Matthew Strider Jeffers, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Mariana Gomez-Smith, Sarah Gasinzigwa, Jannis Achenbach, Astrid Feiten, Dale Corbett
BACKGROUND: The proportional recovery rule suggests that current rehabilitation practices may have limited ability to influence stroke recovery. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation needed to achieve recovery remains unknown. Similarities between rodent and human recovery biomarkers may allow determination of rehabilitation thresholds necessary to activate endogenous biological recovery processes. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relative influence that clinically relevant biomarkers of stroke recovery exert on functional outcome...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Matthew Strider Jeffers, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Dale Corbett
BACKGROUND: In human upper-limb stroke, initial level of functional impairment or corticospinal tract injury can accurately predict the degree of poststroke recovery, independent of rehabilitation practices. This proportional recovery rule implies that current rehabilitation practices may play little or no role in brain repair, with recovery largely a result of spontaneous biological recovery processes. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to determine if similar biomarkers predict recovery of poststroke function in rats, indicating that an endogenous biological recovery process might be preserved across mammalian species...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Michelle Marneweck, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Ana R P Smorenburg, Claudio L Ferre, Veronique H Flamand, Disha Gupta, Jason B Carmel, Yannick Bleyenheuft, Andrew M Gordon, Kathleen M Friel
BACKGROUND: In many children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), the corticospinal tract to the affected hand atypically originates in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the affected hand. Such ipsilateral connectivity is on average a predictor of poor hand function. However, there is high variability in hand function in these children, which might be explained by the complexity of motor representations of both hands in the contralesional hemisphere. OBJECTIVE: To measure the link between hand function and the size and excitability of motor representations of both hands, and their overlap, in the contralesional hemisphere of children with USCP...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Liesjet E H van Dokkum, Emmanuelle le Bars, Denis Mottet, Alain Bonafé, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Isabelle Laffont
BACKGROUND: Poststroke, the ipsilesional upper limb shows slight but substantial and long-term motor deficits. OBJECTIVE: To define brain activation patterns during a gross motor flexion/extension task of the ipsilesional elbow early poststroke before and after rehabilitation, in relation to the corresponding kinematic characteristics at each time point. METHOD: Simultaneous analysis of kinematic features (amplitude, frequency, smoothness, and trajectory of movement) and of corresponding functional magnetic resonance imaging activations (block-design)...
December 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Bobo Tong, Catherine R Jutzeler, Jacquelyn J Cragg, Lukas Grassner, Jan M Schwab, Steve Casha, Fred Geisler, John L K Kramer
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify reliable biomarkers of spinal cord injury recovery for clinical practice and clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to correlate serum albumin levels with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (n = 591) participating in the Sygen clinical trial. Serum albumin concentrations were obtained as part of routine blood chemistry analysis, at trial entry (24-72 hours), 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injury...
December 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Eric N Beck, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: It may be possible to use attention-based exercise to decrease demands associated with walking in Parkinson's disease (PD), and thus improve dual task walking ability. For example, an external focus of attention (focusing on the effect of an action on the environment) may recruit automatic control processes degenerated in PD, whereas an internal focus (limb movement) may recruit conscious (nonautomatic) control processes. Thus, we aimed to investigate how externally and internally focused exercise influences dual task walking and symptom severity in PD...
December 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Hedwig Kooijmans, Marcel W M Post, Henk J Stam, Lucas H V van der Woude, Dorien C M Spijkerman, Govert J Snoek, Helma M H Bongers-Janssen, C F van Koppenhagen, Jos W Twisk, Johannes B J Bussmann
BACKGROUND: Most people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) have a very inactive lifestyle. Higher activity levels have been associated with health benefits and enhanced quality of life. Consequently, encouraging an active lifestyle is important and behavioral interventions are needed to establish durable lifestyle changes. OBJECTIVE: The Healthy Active Behavioral Intervention in SCI (HABITS) study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured self-management intervention to promote an active lifestyle in inactive persons with long-term SCI...
December 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Ruth N Barker, Kathryn S Hayward, Richard G Carson, David Lloyd, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability need opportunities to engage in task-oriented practice to achieve meaningful recovery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of SMART Arm training, with or without outcome-triggered electrical stimulation to usual therapy, on arm function for stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 3 parallel groups, concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis...
December 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Antonia F Ten Brink, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Martijn J Schut, Mirjam Kouwenhoven, Anja L H Eijsackers, Tanja C W Nijboer
BACKGROUND: Patients with neglect ignore or respond slower to contralesional stimuli. Neglect negatively influences independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Prism adaptation (PA) is one of the most frequently studied treatments, yet there is little evidence regarding positive effects on neglect behavior in ADL. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether PA in the subacute phase ameliorates neglect in situations of varying complexity. METHODS: A total of 70 neglect patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation received either PA or sham adaptation (SA) for 2 weeks, with full access to standard treatment...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Bettina Mohr, Benjamin Stahl, Marcelo L Berthier, Friedemann Pulvermüller
BACKGROUND: Patients with brain lesions and resultant chronic aphasia frequently suffer from depression. However, no effective interventions are available to target neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with aphasia who have severe language and communication deficits. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 2 different methods of speech and language therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in aphasia on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) using secondary analysis (BILAT-1 trial)...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Alex R Terpstra, Todd A Girard, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: In the chronic stages of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), progressive hippocampal volume loss-continuing well after acute neurological insults have resolved-has now been well documented. Previous research in other populations suggests that elevated anxiety symptoms are associated with compromise to the medial temporal lobes. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether higher anxiety symptoms predict greater hippocampal volume loss in moderate-severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Chao-Jung Hsu, Janis Kim, Elliot J Roth, William Z Rymer, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Individuals with stroke usually show reduced muscle activities of the paretic leg and asymmetrical gait pattern during walking. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether applying a resistance force to the nonparetic leg would enhance the muscle activities of the paretic leg and improve the symmetry of spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with chronic poststroke hemiparesis participated in this study...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Jody L Wellcome, Benjamin Wells de Witt, Jeffrey P Cheng, Elizabeth R Skidmore, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
BACKGROUND: Environmental enrichment (EE) confers benefits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when provided daily for > 6 hours, but not 2 or 4 hours, which more accurately reflects the daily amount of clinical rehabilitation. The lack of benefit with sub-therapeutic EE suggests that augmentation with galantamine (GAL), which enhances cognition after TBI, may be indicated to confer benefits. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 2 and 4 hours of EE paired with GAL will provide benefits comparable to 24 hours of EE alone...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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