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Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623876/averaging-in-time-frequency-domain-reveals-the-temporal-and-spatial-extent-of-seizures-recorded-by-scalp-eeg
#1
Rafeed Alkawadri, Nicolas Gaspard
To demonstrate the importance of averaging in time-frequency space and the added localizing value in time and space in a case of cortical myoclonus. One hundred myoclonic jerks were averaged in time series and in spectral domain. For the latter, we chose 100 (10-second) segments from interictal background and used the unpaired t-test for the jerk-related and control spectral data to obtain the t value and corresponding p value at each pixel. We corrected for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate procedure...
April 6, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620013/the-2017-ilae-classification-of-seizure-types-and-the-epilepsies-what-do-people-with-epilepsy-and-their-caregivers-need-to-know
#2
Martin J Brodie, Sameer M Zuberi, Ingrid E Scheffer, Robert S Fisher
The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) published in the April 2017 edition of Epilepsia three companion articles on the classification of seizures and the epilepsies. These represent a long-awaited update on the original 1981 and 1989 publications and provide a modern descriptive template. The new classification presents three levels of terminology, involving seizure types, epilepsy types, and syndromes. In this fourth paper, we present an interpretation of these new concepts for people with epilepsy and those who care for them, as well as for young medical doctors not specialized in epilepsy and nurses...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620012/rapid-antiepileptic-drug-withdrawal-may-obscure-localizing-information-obtained-during-presurgical-eeg-recordings
#3
Yulia Novitskaya, Mandy Hitz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a standard procedure during presurgical epilepsy assessment. Rapid and, at times, even pre-hospital withdrawal of medication is performed in some centres to enhance the yield of recorded seizures during video-EEG monitoring. AED withdrawal, however, affects the propensity and speed of propagation of epileptic activity, may evoke more severe seizures, and may cause pitfalls in EEG interpretation. We report a case which had been recommended to undergo intracranial EEG recordings in order to clarify apparently discordant MRI findings and ictal EEG patterns when monitoring was performed following complete AED withdrawal...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620009/the-link-between-structural-connectivity-and-neurocognition-illustrated-by-focal-epilepsy
#4
Elise Roger, Laurent Petit, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Anne-Sophie Job, Lorella Minotti, Philippe Kahane, Monica Baciu
Increasing attention is being paid to the assessment of white matter properties and its structural connectivity, both in healthy subjects and patients with cerebral lesions. Within this framework, new neurocognitive models based on hodological properties have been developed under a connectomic perspective in order to explain substrates and cognitive mechanisms related to cerebral functions such as language and memory. With regards to focal and drug-resistant epilepsy conceived as a network disorder, new insights in terms of structural connectivity have led to significant advances in epilepsy research, concerning fundamental research (neurocognitive mechanisms of plasticity) and clinical application (optimization of decision making for curative surgery)...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620008/de-novo-late-onset-absence-status-epilepticus-or-late-onset-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
Francesco Brigo, Veronica Tavernelli, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
Idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies (IGEs) are age-related epileptic syndromes with typical age onset in childhood or adolescence. We report a patient with de novo late-onset absence status epilepticus (ASE) occurring at the age of 64 years, with clinical and EEG features suggestive of late-onset IGE. We also discuss the relationship between de novo late-onset ASE and late-onset IGE, and provide a comprehensive and critical review of the available literature on late-onset (i.e. onset ≥60 years) IGE...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620007/ictal-spitting-in-non-dominant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-anatomo-electrophysiological-correlation
#6
Marcos Quevedo-Diaz, Adrià Tauste Campo, Manel Vila-Vidal, Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Rodrigo Rocamora
We report a patient presenting drug-resistant, non-dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with ictal spitting and prosopometamorphopsia, both extremely rare semiologies. Second-phase pre-surgical monitoring was performed using SEEG due to lesion-negative imaging and the rare semiology. The seizure onset zone was delimited to the right anterior hippocampus and the temporobasal cortex, with the propagation zone within the entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, direct electrical stimulation to the entorhinal cortex, which was reproduced in a number of trials, evoked spitting without leading to seizures or post-discharges...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620006/electroclinical-and-radiological-observation-of-dysfunctional-zones-in-a-patient-with-neurosyphilis
#7
Katsuya Sakai, Shogo Yazawa, Akiko Sugimoto, Koichi Nakao, Kazuhito Tsuruta, Eiji Ochiai, Yukiko Suzuki, Masao Matsuhashi
We report a 33-year-old Japanese man who suffered from repetitive generalized tonic-clonic seizures which were medically intractable. Neurosyphilis was serologically diagnosed in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and penicillin G (PcG) was consequently effective. The EEG during PcG pre-treatment showed frequent right occipital spikes and right frontocentral slow waves, which disappeared after treatment. During pre-treatment, positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose and Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography revealed occipital hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion ("hot" area) and fronto-temporo-parietal hypometabolism and hypoperfusion ("cool" area) over the right hemisphere...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624180/unilateral-abdominal-clonic-seizures-of-parietal-lobe-origin-eeg-findings
#8
Danah Aljaafari, Fábio A Nascimento, Alon Abraham, Danielle M Andrade, Richard A Wennberg
Unilateral abdominal clonic seizures represent a peculiar and rare manifestation of focal onset epilepsy. We present the case of a 26-year-old man with right-sided abdominal clonic movements associated with seizures arising from the left parietal area. We show the ictal EEG correlates of these events, including source localization of early ictal spikes; findings that have not been demonstrated in previously reported cases. The electro-clinical features in this patient suggested that clinical onset occurred after anterior propagation of ictal activity from a region posterior to the neck and trunk area of the sensory homunculus of the postcentral gyrus...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623877/long-term-seizure-outcome-following-epilepsy-surgery-in-the-parietal-lobe-a-meta-analysis
#9
Sanja Pilipović-Dragović, Aleksandar J Ristić, Zoran Bukumirić, Goran Trajković, Dragoslav Sokić
Due to a limited number of patients with drug-resistant parietal lobe epilepsy in surgical series, there are insufficient data about long-term seizure outcome following surgery restricted to the parietal lobe. We performed a meta-analysis to asses long-term outcomes in patients with parietal lobe epilepsy who underwent surgery confined to the parietal lobe or resection with major involvement of the parietal cortex. An English language literature search for studies on parietal lobe surgery and outcome was conducted using the MEDLINE database, followed by a manual search based on specific criteria...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620011/ictal-laryngospasm-monitored-by-video-eeg-and-polygraphy-a-potential-sudep-mechanism
#10
Nuria Lacuey, Laura Vilella, Johnson P Hampson, Jayakumar Sahadevan, Samden D Lhatoo
A 56-year-old man with refractory bitemporal epilepsy was monitored in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU). In a video-EEG captured seizure, brief oroalimentary automatisms were followed by increased inspiratory effort, accompanied by prominent, visible tracheal movements and audible inspiratory stridor. The patient's oxygen saturation rapidly declined to 62%; persistent severe hypoxemia ended with spontaneous effective respiration commencing at seizure end. Subsequent seizures necessitated intensive care unit admission for respiratory distress, and ventilator support...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620010/epilepsy-surgery-for-patients-with-genetic-refractory-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#11
Remi Stevelink, Maurits Wcb Sanders, Maarten P Tuinman, Eva H Brilstra, Bobby Pc Koeleman, Floor E Jansen, Kees Pj Braun
In recent years, many different DNA mutations underlying the development of refractory epilepsy have been discovered. However, genetic diagnostics are still not routinely performed during presurgical evaluation and reports on epilepsy surgery outcome for patients with genetic refractory epilepsy are limited. We aimed to create an overview of the literature on seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery in patients with different genetic causes of refractory epilepsy. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase prior to January 2017 and included studies describing treatment outcome following epilepsy surgery in patients with genetic causes of epilepsy...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444765/early-infancy-onset-stimulation-induced-myoclonic-seizures-in-three-siblings-with-inherited-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchor-deficiency
#12
Yukiko Mogami, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Yoshiko Murakami, Tae Ikeda, Sadami Kimura, Keiko Yanagihara, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Taroh Kinoshita
Inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency causes a variety of clinical symptoms, including epilepsy, however, little information is available regarding seizures as a symptom. We report three siblings with inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency with PIGL gene mutations. The phenotypes of the subjects were not consistent with CHIME syndrome or Mabry syndrome, as reported in previous studies. All shared some clinical manifestations, including transient apnoea as neonates, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444764/clinical-radiological-pathological-correlation-in-an-unusual-case-of-refractory-epilepsy-a-two-year-journey-of-whodunit
#13
Deepak Menon, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Anita Mahadevan, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Sudheeran Kannoth, Pradeep P Nair, Mathew Abraham, Bejoy Thomas, Sanjeev V Thomas
New-onset refractory focal epilepsy poses significant challenges to the clinician in the absence of specific diagnostic biomarkers. Differential diagnoses based on imaging may be expanded by a veritable spectrum of peri-ictal imaging findings that may mask the underlying substrate. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with refractory focal seizures of left parieto-occipital origin with cytotoxic gyral oedema noted over the same region on imaging. Despite an initial negative autoantibody profile, the patient was treated with immunosuppression, followed by serial relapses requiring immune-modulation...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444763/somatosensory-reflex-epilepsy-simultaneous-video-eeg-monitoring-and-surface-emg
#14
Kyoung Jin Hwang, Dae Won Seo, Seong Bong Hong, Eun Yeon Joo
Somatosensory reflex epilepsy is induced by repetitive cutaneous contact of a circumscribed body area with a tight time-lock between somatosensory stimulation and seizure. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man with seizures induced by repetitive tapping on the sole of the right foot. Simultaneous video-EEG monitoring and surface electromyography was performed during a seizure triggered by repetitive tapping on the right sole aspect using a hammer. Stimulation produced a tingling sensation on the right sole that extended to the right lower leg...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444762/hemimegalencephaly-with-bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba-syndrome
#15
Ryan Ghusayni, Monisha Sachdev, William Gallentine, Mohamad A Mikati, Marie T McDonald
Hemimegalencephaly is known to occur in Proteus syndrome, but has not been reported, to our knowledge, in the other PTEN mutation-related syndrome of Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba. Here, we report a patient with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome who also had hemimegalencephaly and in whom the hemimegalencephaly was evident well before presentation of the characteristic manifestations of Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. An 11-year-old boy developed drug-resistant focal seizures on the fifth day of life. MRI revealed left hemimegalencephaly...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313492/rufinamide-for-the-treatment-of-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-evidence-from-clinical-trials-and-clinical-practice
#16
Pasquale Striano, Rob McMurray, Estevo Santamarina, Mercè Falip
Rufinamide was granted orphan drug status in 2004 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients aged ≥4 years, and was subsequently approved for this indication in several countries, including Europe and the United States. Structurally unrelated to other antiepileptic drugs, rufinamide is thought to act primarily by prolonging the inactivation phase of voltage-gated sodium channels. Rufinamide was approved on the basis of an international, randomised, placebo-controlled Phase III trial, conducted in 138 patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, which demonstrated its favourable tolerability profile and efficacy in significantly reducing the frequency of drop attacks and total seizures, compared with placebo...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265005/facing-the-hidden-wall-in-mesial-extratemporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Tom Theys, Thomas Decramer, Wim Van Paesschen, Xavier De Tiège, Lorella Minotti, Marec von Lehe, Stephan Chabardès, Philippe Kahane, Anne-Sophie Job
Refractory extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE) tends to have a less favourable surgical outcome in comparison to temporal lobe epilepsy. ETLE poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, particularly in cases where seizures develop from the midline. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenges and therapeutic strategies in mesial ETLE. The great diversity of interhemispheric functional areas and extensive connectivity to extramesial structures results in very heterogeneous seizure semiology. Specific signs, such as ictal body turning, can suggest a mesial onset...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171397/crossing-the-lines-between-epilepsy-syndromes-a-myoclonic-epilepsy-variant-with-prominent-eyelid-myoclonia-and-atonic-components
#18
Pinelopi Dragoumi, Jacqueline Emery, Fiona Chivers, Megan Brady, Archana Desurkar, J Helen Cross, Krishna B Das
Accurate diagnosis of a distinct epilepsy syndrome is based on well-defined electroclinical features that differentiate separate nosological entities. In clinical practice, however, syndromes may overlap and cases may present with unusual manifestations posing a diagnostic challenge. This heterogeneity has been documented in several cases presenting with eyelid myoclonia with or without absences (EMA) diagnosed either as Jeavons syndrome (JS) variants or as genetic generalised epilepsies defined by the presence of this unique clinical entity...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171396/sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-activated-by-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#19
Xiaoli Wang, Lara V Marcuse, Lang Jin, Ying Zhang, Wenjuan Zhang, Beibei Chen, Na Yuan, Bi Wang, Yonghong Liu
Most sleep-related seizures occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, particularly during stage changes. Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a rare epileptic syndrome characterized by paroxysmal motor seizures, mainly arising from NREM sleep. Here, we report a patient with SHE who had seven seizures captured on video-EEG-polysomnography during REM sleep. Ictal semiology of this patient ranged from brief paroxysmal arousals to hypermotor seizures. On EEG-polysomnography, the spontaneous arousals were more frequent during REM than NREM sleep, with a considerably higher arousal index in REM sleep (20/hour)...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160210/exceptional-response-to-brivaracetam-in-a-patient-with-refractory-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-and-absence-seizures
#20
Alberto Grande-Martín, David Sopelana-Garay, José Manuel Pardal-Fernández, Rosa María Sánchez-Honrubia, Álvaro Abelardo Sánchez-Larsen
Brivaracetam is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for patients with focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it has been suggested that it could provide broad-spectrum efficacy given its similarity to levetiracetam and based on the results from preclinical studies and others of patients with generalized epilepsy. We present the case of a woman with refractory idiopathic generalized epilepsy and absence seizures with dramatic response to brivaracetam. Our report supports a consideration of treatment with this new antiepileptic drug on a case-by-case basis in patients with refractory generalized epilepsy, while we await further studies on this topic...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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