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Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070961/the-trajectory-of-concurrent-motor-and-vocal-behaviors-over-the-transition-to-crawling-in-infancy
#1
Sarah E Berger, Marian Cunsolo, Mariam Ali, Jana M Iverson
To document the trajectory of motor and vocal behaviors in real and developmental time, researchers observed infants at each of 4 biweekly naturalistic play sessions over the transition to crawling. An exhaustive and mutually exclusive coding scheme documented every vocalization and posture. Odds ratios of the likelihood of a given posture-vocalization dyad revealed that vocalization and crawling were significantly unlikely to co-occur at the session marking the onset of crawling. Infants' allocation of attention over the transition to crawling prompted behavioral trade-offs...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966559/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-color-location-binding-in-infants-visual-short-term-memory
#2
Lisa M Oakes, Heidi A Baumgartner, Shipra Kanjlia, Steven J Luck
Two experiments examined 8- and 10-month-old infants' (N = 71) binding of object identity (color) and location information in visual short-term memory (VSTM) using a one-shot change detection task. Building on previous work using the simultaneous streams change detection task, we confirmed that 8- and 10-month-old infants are sensitive to changes in binding between identity and location in VSTM. Further, we demonstrated that infants recognize specifically what changed in these events. Thus, infants' VSTM for binding is robust and can be observed in different procedures and with different stimuli...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983193/maternal-lifetime-trauma-exposure-prenatal-cortisol-and-infant-negative-affectivity
#3
Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Katrina L Devick, Kelly J Brunst, Lianna R Lipton, Brent A Coull, Rosalind J Wright
Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966558/sample-size-statistical-power-and-false-conclusions-in-infant-looking-time-research
#4
Lisa M Oakes
Infant research is hard. It is difficult, expensive, and time consuming to identify, recruit and test infants. As a result, ours is a field of small sample sizes. Many studies using infant looking time as a measure have samples of 8 to 12 infants per cell, and studies with more than 24 infants per cell are uncommon. This paper examines the effect of such sample sizes on statistical power and the conclusions drawn from infant looking time research. An examination of the state of the current literature suggests that most published looking time studies have low power, which leads in the long run to an increase in both false positive and false negative results...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757809/if-you-go-down-to-the-woods-today-infants-distress-during-a-teddy-bear-s-picnic-in-relation-to-peer-relations-and-later-emotional-problems
#5
Dale F Hay, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Lisa Mundy, Rebecca Phillips, Siwan Roberts, Mirjam Meeuwsen, Ian Goodyer, Oliver Perra
Infants' emotional reactions to an unusual event were assessed at a simulated birthday party during which two costumed characters enacted a Teddy Bear's Picnic. Two hundred and fifty-eight firstborn infants in a representative British community sample were observed at a mean age of 12.8 months in the presence of their parents and other participating families, in a laboratory sitting room decorated with balloons and banners. The picnic scenario was followed by free play with the other participating infants...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936127/developmental-differences-in-infants-attention-to-social-and-nonsocial-threats
#6
Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
Research has demonstrated that humans detect threatening stimuli more rapidly than nonthreatening stimuli. Although the literature presumes that biases for threat should be normative, present early in development, evident across multiple forms of threat, and stable across individuals, developmental work in this area is limited. Here, we examine the developmental differences in infants' (4- to 24-month-olds) attention to social (angry faces) and nonsocial (snakes) threats using a new age-appropriate dot-probe task...
May 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936126/attention-to-threat-as-a-predictor-of-shyness-in-the-context-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems
#7
Alexandra C Hummel, Julie E Premo, Elizabeth J Kiel
The duration of children's attention to putative threat has been documented as a consistent predictor of later anxiety in inhibited children across childhood (Fox, 2010; Perez-Edgar & Fox, 2005). However, attention to threat has not been broadly examined within existing behavioral contexts, and has seldom been studied in very early childhood. Whereas toddlers with high levels of internalizing behavior may view fear-inducing stimuli as a threat, toddlers with high levels of externalizing behavior may demonstrate attention out of interest or sensation seeking...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286427/intraindividual-and-interindividual-di%C3%AF-erences-in-spontaneous-eye-blinking-relationships-to-working-memory-performance-and-frontal-eeg-asymmetry
#8
Leigh F Bacher, Shirley Retz, Courtney Lindon, Martha Ann Bell
The rate and timing of spontaneous eye blinking (SB) may be used to explore mechanisms of cognitive activity in infancy. In particular, SB rate is believed to reflect some dimensions of dopamine function; therefore, we hypothesized that SB rate would relate to working memory performance and to frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Forty, 10-mo-old infants completed an A-not-B task while SB and EEG were measured throughout. We found that SB rate varied across phases of the task, variability in SB rate was positively related to working memory performance, and frontal EEG asymmetry was related to individual differences in the rate of SB...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111526/parenting-supports-for-early-vocabulary-development-specific-effects-of-sensitivity-and-stimulation-through-infancy
#9
Claire Vallotton, Ann Mastergeorge, Tricia Foster, Kalli B Decker, Catherine Ayoub
Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development...
January 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840593/exploring-links-among-imitation-mental-development-and-temperament
#10
Susan K Fenstermacher, Kimberly J Saudino
Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616938/greater-pupil-size-in-response-to-emotional-faces-as-an-early-marker-of-social-communicative-difficulties-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#11
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570495/infants-associate-praise-and-admonishment-with-fair-and-unfair-individuals
#12
Trent D DesChamps, Arianne E Eason, Jessica A Sommerville
Recent evidence suggests that infants possess a rudimentary sensitivity to fairness: infants expect resources to be distributed fairly and equally, and prefer individuals that distribute resources fairly over those that do so unfairly. The goal of the present work was to determine whether infants' evaluations of fair and unfair individuals also includes an understanding that fair individuals are worthy of praise and unfair individuals are worthy of admonishment. After watching individuals distribute goods fairly or unfairly to recipients, 15-month-old (Experiments 1 and 2) and 13-month-old (Experiment 3) infants took part in a test phase in which they saw only the distributors' faces accompanied by praise or admonishment...
July 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134573/free-viewing-gaze-behavior-in-infants-and-adults
#13
John M Franchak, David J Heeger, Uri Hasson, Karen E Adolph
The current study investigated age differences in free viewing gaze behavior. Adults and 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month-old infants watched a 60-s Sesame Street video clip while their eye movements were recorded. Adults displayed high inter-subject consistency in eye movements; they tended to fixate the same places at the same. Infants showed weaker consistency between observers and inter-subject consistency increased with age. Across age groups, the influence of both bottom-up features (fixating visually-salient areas) and top-down features (looking at faces) increased...
April 1, 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019648/indirect-effects-of-maternal-sensitivity-on-infant-emotion-regulation-behaviors-the-role-of-vagal-withdrawal
#14
Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
The potential indirect effect of observed maternal sensitivity at 5 months on the development of infants' behavioral regulation of emotion from 5 to 10 months (i.e., distraction and maternal-orientation behaviors) via infant's vagal withdrawal was investigated (N = 230). Results indicated that maternal sensitivity at 5 months was not directly associated with behavioral regulation at 10 months. However, greater maternal sensitivity at 5 months was associated with greater vagal withdrawal at 10 months, after controlling for vagal withdrawal at 5 months...
March 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957950/the-development-of-selective-attention-orienting-is-an-agent-of-change-in-learning-and-memory-efficacy
#15
Julie Markant, Dima Amso
The present study examined whether the developmental transition from facilitation-based orienting mechanisms available very early in life to selective attention orienting (e.g., inhibition of return, IOR) promotes better learning and memory in infancy. We tested a single age group (4-month-olds) undergoing rapid development of attention orienting mechanisms. Infants completed a spatial cueing task designed to elicit IOR, in which cat or dog category exemplars consistently appeared in either the cued or noncued locations...
March 1, 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949376/multiple-measures-of-fixation-on-social-content-in-infancy-evidence-for-a-single-social-cognitive-construct
#16
Karri Gillespie-Smith, James P Boardman, Ian C Murray, Jane E Norman, Anne O'Hare, Sue Fletcher-Watson
The preference of infants to fixate on social information in a stimulus is well known. We examine how this preference manifests across a series of free-viewing tasks using different stimulus types. Participants were thirty typically developing infants. We measured eye movements when viewing isolated faces, faces alongside objects in a grid, and faces naturally presented in photographed scenes. In each task, infants fixated social content for longer than nonsocial content. Social preference scores representing distribution of fixation to social versus general image content were highly correlated and thus combined into a single composite measure, which was independent of demographic and behavioral measures...
March 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561475/perception-of-multisensory-gender-coherence-in-6-and-9-month-old-infants
#17
Anne Hillairet de Boisferon, Eve Dupierrix, Paul C Quinn, Hélène Lœvenbruck, David J Lewkowicz, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
One of the most salient social categories conveyed by human faces and voices is gender. We investigated the developmental emergence of the ability to perceive the coherence of auditory and visual attributes of gender in 6- and 9-month-old infants. Infants viewed two side-by-side video clips of a man and a woman singing a nursery rhyme and heard a synchronous male or female soundtrack. Results showed that 6-month-old infants did not match the audible and visible attributes of gender, and 9-month-old infants matched only female faces and voices...
December 1, 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345517/vocal-coordination-during-early-parent-infant-interactions-predicts-language-outcome-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jessie B Northrup, Jana M Iverson
This study examined vocal coordination during mother-infant interactions in the infant siblings (high risk infants; HR) of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at heightened risk for developing language delays. Vocal coordination between mothers and HR infants was compared to a group of low risk (LR; no first- or second-degree relative with ASD) dyads, and used to predict later language development. Nine-month-old infants were videotaped at home playing with their mothers, and interactions were coded for the frequency and timing of vocalizations...
September 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273232/the-infant-orienting-with-attention-task-assessing-the-neural-basis-of-spatial-attention-in-infancy
#19
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sebastian Schneegans, John P Spencer
Infant visual attention develops rapidly over the first year of life, significantly altering the way infants respond to peripheral visual events. Here we present data from 5-, 7- and 10-month-old infants using the Infant Orienting With Attention (IOWA) task, designed to capture developmental changes in visual spatial attention and saccade planning. Results indicate rapid development of spatial attention and visual response competition between 5 and 10 months. We use a dynamic neural field (DNF) model to link behavioral findings to neural population activity, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for observed developmental changes...
September 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709351/newborn-body-perception-sensitivity-to-spatial-congruency
#20
Maria Laura Filippetti, Giulia Orioli, Mark H Johnson, Teresa Farroni
Studies on adults have demonstrated that the perception our own body can be manipulated by varying both temporal and spatial properties of multisensory information. While human newborns are capable of detecting the temporal synchrony of visuo-tactile body-related cues, it remains unknown whether they also utilise spatial information for body perception. Twenty newborns were presented with a video of an infant's face touched with a paintbrush, while their own face was touched either in the spatially congruent, or an incongruent, location...
July 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
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