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Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773970/face-preferences-for-infant-and-adult-directed-speakers-in-infants-of-depressed-and-nondepressed-mothers-association-with-infant-cognitive-development
#1
Peter S Kaplan, Ryan M Asherin, Jo M Vogeli, Shiva M Fekri, Kathryn E Scheyer, Kevin D Everhart
Face preferences for speakers of infant-directed and adult-directed speech (IDS and ADS) were investigated in 4- to 13.5-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Following 1-min of exposure to an ID or AD speaker (order counterbalanced), infants had an immediate paired-comparison test with a still, silent image of the familiarized versus a novel face. In the test phase, ID face preference ratios were significantly lower in infants of depressed than non-depressed mothers. Infants' ID face preference ratios, but not AD face preference ratios, correlated with their percentile scores on the cognitive ( Cog ) scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development (3rd Edition; BSID III), assessed concurrently...
May 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731696/negative-but-not-positive-parenting-interacts-with-infant-negative-affect-to-predict-infant-approach-evidence-of-diathesis-stress
#2
Jacob B Holzman, Nicole M Burt, Erin S Edwards, Leanna D Rosinski, David J Bridgett
Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life...
May 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725273/exploring-infant-gesture-and-joint-attention-as-related-constructs-and-as-predictors-of-later-language
#3
Virginia C Salo, Meredith L Rowe, Bethany Reeb-Sutherland
In infancy, use of gesture and the ability to engage in joint attention with others both predict later language development. Conceptually, gesture and joint attention abilities may reflect a similar underlying social communicative skill. However, these abilities are often studied separately. Despite the fact that gesture is often used in episodes of joint attention, little is known about the degree to which measures of gesture use and joint attention ability are associated with one another or how they similarly, or differentially, predict children's language abilities...
May 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662430/rules-infants-look-by-testing-the-assumption-of-transitivity-in-visual-salience
#4
Melissa M Kibbe, Zsuzsa Kaldy, Erik Blaser
What drives infants' attention in complex visual scenes? Early models of infant attention suggested that the degree to which different visual features were detectable determines their attentional priority. Here, we tested this by asking whether two targets - defined by different features, but each equally salient when evaluated independently - would drive attention equally when pitted head-to-head. In Experiment 1, we presented 6-month-old infants with an array of gabor patches in which a target region varied either in color or spatial frequency from the background...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576751/mother-toddler-cortisol-synchrony-moderates-risk-of-early-internalizing-symptoms
#5
Anne E Kalomiris, Elizabeth J Kiel
Cortisol synchrony is the degree to which mother-toddler cortisol levels are mutually regulated within a dyad. Synchrony's impact on toddler development is not well understood, so this study investigated how synchronous cortisol levels (reactivity and total concentration) in mother-toddler dyads moderates the association between risk factors (i.e., maternal worry, toddler inhibition) and early internalizing symptoms. Seventy mothers and their 2-year-old toddlers provided interpretable saliva samples. Behavioral observations were made to assess the toddler's temperament at age 2, and mothers reported on their toddler's internalizing symptoms when toddlers were 2- and 3-years-old...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541001/trajectory-discrimination-and-peripersonal-space-perception-in-newborns
#6
Giulia Orioli, Maria Laura Filippetti, Walter Gerbino, Danica Dragovic, Teresa Farroni
The ability to discriminate the trajectories of moving objects is highly adaptive and fundamental for physical and social interactions. Therefore, we could reasonably expect sensitivity to different trajectories already at birth, as a precursor of later communicative and defensive abilities. To investigate this possibility, we measured newborns' looking behavior to evaluate their ability to discriminate between visual stimuli depicting motion along different trajectories happening within the space surrounding their body...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623007/integrated-emotion-processing-in-infancy-matching-of-faces-and-bodies
#7
Alyson Hock, Leah Oberst, Rachel Jubran, Hannah White, Alison Heck, Ramesh S Bhatt
Accurate assessment of emotion requires the coordination of information from different sources such as faces, bodies, and voices. Adults readily integrate facial and bodily emotions. However, not much is known about the developmental origin of this capacity. Using a familiarization paired-comparison procedure, 6.5-month-olds in the current experiments were familiarized to happy, angry, or sad emotions in faces or bodies and tested with the opposite image type portraying the familiar emotion paired with a novel emotion...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070961/the-trajectory-of-concurrent-motor-and-vocal-behaviors-over-the-transition-to-crawling-in-infancy
#8
Sarah E Berger, Marian Cunsolo, Mariam Ali, Jana M Iverson
To document the trajectory of motor and vocal behaviors in real and developmental time, researchers observed infants at each of 4 biweekly naturalistic play sessions over the transition to crawling. An exhaustive and mutually exclusive coding scheme documented every vocalization and posture. Odds ratios of the likelihood of a given posture-vocalization dyad revealed that vocalization and crawling were significantly unlikely to co-occur at the session marking the onset of crawling. Infants' allocation of attention over the transition to crawling prompted behavioral trade-offs...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966559/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-color-location-binding-in-infants-visual-short-term-memory
#9
Lisa M Oakes, Heidi A Baumgartner, Shipra Kanjlia, Steven J Luck
Two experiments examined 8- and 10-month-old infants' (N = 71) binding of object identity (color) and location information in visual short-term memory (VSTM) using a one-shot change detection task. Building on previous work using the simultaneous streams change detection task, we confirmed that 8- and 10-month-old infants are sensitive to changes in binding between identity and location in VSTM. Further, we demonstrated that infants recognize specifically what changed in these events. Thus, infants' VSTM for binding is robust and can be observed in different procedures and with different stimuli...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375276/multiple-coordination-patterns-in-infant-and-adult-vocalizations
#10
Drew H Abney, Anne S Warlaumont, D Kimbrough Oller, Sebastian Wallot, Christopher T Kello
The study of vocal coordination between infants and adults has led to important insights into the development of social, cognitive, emotional and linguistic abilities. We used an automatic system to identify vocalizations produced by infants and adults over the course of the day for fifteen infants studied longitudinally during the first two years of life. We measured three different types of vocal coordination: coincidence-based, rate-based, and cluster-based. Coincidence-based and rate-based coordination are established measures in the developmental literature...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983193/maternal-lifetime-trauma-exposure-prenatal-cortisol-and-infant-negative-affectivity
#11
Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Katrina L Devick, Kelly J Brunst, Lianna R Lipton, Brent A Coull, Rosalind J Wright
Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966558/sample-size-statistical-power-and-false-conclusions-in-infant-looking-time-research
#12
Lisa M Oakes
Infant research is hard. It is difficult, expensive, and time consuming to identify, recruit and test infants. As a result, ours is a field of small sample sizes. Many studies using infant looking time as a measure have samples of 8 to 12 infants per cell, and studies with more than 24 infants per cell are uncommon. This paper examines the effect of such sample sizes on statistical power and the conclusions drawn from infant looking time research. An examination of the state of the current literature suggests that most published looking time studies have low power, which leads in the long run to an increase in both false positive and false negative results...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757809/if-you-go-down-to-the-woods-today-infants-distress-during-a-teddy-bear-s-picnic-in-relation-to-peer-relations-and-later-emotional-problems
#13
Dale F Hay, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Lisa Mundy, Rebecca Phillips, Siwan Roberts, Mirjam Meeuwsen, Ian Goodyer, Oliver Perra
Infants' emotional reactions to an unusual event were assessed at a simulated birthday party during which two costumed characters enacted a Teddy Bear's Picnic. Two hundred and fifty-eight firstborn infants in a representative British community sample were observed at a mean age of 12.8 months in the presence of their parents and other participating families, in a laboratory sitting room decorated with balloons and banners. The picnic scenario was followed by free play with the other participating infants...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936127/developmental-differences-in-infants-attention-to-social-and-nonsocial-threats
#14
Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
Research has demonstrated that humans detect threatening stimuli more rapidly than nonthreatening stimuli. Although the literature presumes that biases for threat should be normative, present early in development, evident across multiple forms of threat, and stable across individuals, developmental work in this area is limited. Here, we examine the developmental differences in infants' (4- to 24-month-olds) attention to social (angry faces) and nonsocial (snakes) threats using a new age-appropriate dot-probe task...
May 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936126/attention-to-threat-as-a-predictor-of-shyness-in-the-context-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems
#15
Alexandra C Hummel, Julie E Premo, Elizabeth J Kiel
The duration of children's attention to putative threat has been documented as a consistent predictor of later anxiety in inhibited children across childhood (Fox, 2010; Perez-Edgar & Fox, 2005). However, attention to threat has not been broadly examined within existing behavioral contexts, and has seldom been studied in very early childhood. Whereas toddlers with high levels of internalizing behavior may view fear-inducing stimuli as a threat, toddlers with high levels of externalizing behavior may demonstrate attention out of interest or sensation seeking...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286427/intraindividual-and-interindividual-di%C3%AF-erences-in-spontaneous-eye-blinking-relationships-to-working-memory-performance-and-frontal-eeg-asymmetry
#16
Leigh F Bacher, Shirley Retz, Courtney Lindon, Martha Ann Bell
The rate and timing of spontaneous eye blinking (SB) may be used to explore mechanisms of cognitive activity in infancy. In particular, SB rate is believed to reflect some dimensions of dopamine function; therefore, we hypothesized that SB rate would relate to working memory performance and to frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Forty, 10-mo-old infants completed an A-not-B task while SB and EEG were measured throughout. We found that SB rate varied across phases of the task, variability in SB rate was positively related to working memory performance, and frontal EEG asymmetry was related to individual differences in the rate of SB...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111526/parenting-supports-for-early-vocabulary-development-specific-effects-of-sensitivity-and-stimulation-through-infancy
#17
Claire Vallotton, Ann Mastergeorge, Tricia Foster, Kalli B Decker, Catherine Ayoub
Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development...
January 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840593/exploring-links-among-imitation-mental-development-and-temperament
#18
Susan K Fenstermacher, Kimberly J Saudino
Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616938/greater-pupil-size-in-response-to-emotional-faces-as-an-early-marker-of-social-communicative-difficulties-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#19
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570495/infants-associate-praise-and-admonishment-with-fair-and-unfair-individuals
#20
Trent D DesChamps, Arianne E Eason, Jessica A Sommerville
Recent evidence suggests that infants possess a rudimentary sensitivity to fairness: infants expect resources to be distributed fairly and equally, and prefer individuals that distribute resources fairly over those that do so unfairly. The goal of the present work was to determine whether infants' evaluations of fair and unfair individuals also includes an understanding that fair individuals are worthy of praise and unfair individuals are worthy of admonishment. After watching individuals distribute goods fairly or unfairly to recipients, 15-month-old (Experiments 1 and 2) and 13-month-old (Experiment 3) infants took part in a test phase in which they saw only the distributors' faces accompanied by praise or admonishment...
July 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
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