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Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840593/exploring-links-among-imitation-mental-development-and-temperament
#1
Susan K Fenstermacher, Kimberly J Saudino
Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616938/greater-pupil-size-in-response-to-emotional-faces-as-an-early-marker-of-social-communicative-difficulties-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#2
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570495/infants-associate-praise-and-admonishment-with-fair-and-unfair-individuals
#3
Trent D DesChamps, Arianne E Eason, Jessica A Sommerville
Recent evidence suggests that infants possess a rudimentary sensitivity to fairness: infants expect resources to be distributed fairly and equally, and prefer individuals that distribute resources fairly over those that do so unfairly. The goal of the present work was to determine whether infants' evaluations of fair and unfair individuals also includes an understanding that fair individuals are worthy of praise and unfair individuals are worthy of admonishment. After watching individuals distribute goods fairly or unfairly to recipients, 15-month-old (Experiments 1 and 2) and 13-month-old (Experiment 3) infants took part in a test phase in which they saw only the distributors' faces accompanied by praise or admonishment...
July 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134573/free-viewing-gaze-behavior-in-infants-and-adults
#4
John M Franchak, David J Heeger, Uri Hasson, Karen E Adolph
The current study investigated age differences in free viewing gaze behavior. Adults and 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month-old infants watched a 60-s Sesame Street video clip while their eye movements were recorded. Adults displayed high inter-subject consistency in eye movements; they tended to fixate the same places at the same. Infants showed weaker consistency between observers and inter-subject consistency increased with age. Across age groups, the influence of both bottom-up features (fixating visually-salient areas) and top-down features (looking at faces) increased...
April 1, 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019648/indirect-effects-of-maternal-sensitivity-on-infant-emotion-regulation-behaviors-the-role-of-vagal-withdrawal
#5
Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
The potential indirect effect of observed maternal sensitivity at 5 months on the development of infants' behavioral regulation of emotion from 5 to 10 months (i.e., distraction and maternal-orientation behaviors) via infant's vagal withdrawal was investigated (N = 230). Results indicated that maternal sensitivity at 5 months was not directly associated with behavioral regulation at 10 months. However, greater maternal sensitivity at 5 months was associated with greater vagal withdrawal at 10 months, after controlling for vagal withdrawal at 5 months...
March 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957950/the-development-of-selective-attention-orienting-is-an-agent-of-change-in-learning-and-memory-efficacy
#6
Julie Markant, Dima Amso
The present study examined whether the developmental transition from facilitation-based orienting mechanisms available very early in life to selective attention orienting (e.g., inhibition of return, IOR) promotes better learning and memory in infancy. We tested a single age group (4-month-olds) undergoing rapid development of attention orienting mechanisms. Infants completed a spatial cueing task designed to elicit IOR, in which cat or dog category exemplars consistently appeared in either the cued or noncued locations...
March 1, 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949376/multiple-measures-of-fixation-on-social-content-in-infancy-evidence-for-a-single-social-cognitive-construct
#7
Karri Gillespie-Smith, James P Boardman, Ian C Murray, Jane E Norman, Anne O'Hare, Sue Fletcher-Watson
The preference of infants to fixate on social information in a stimulus is well known. We examine how this preference manifests across a series of free-viewing tasks using different stimulus types. Participants were thirty typically developing infants. We measured eye movements when viewing isolated faces, faces alongside objects in a grid, and faces naturally presented in photographed scenes. In each task, infants fixated social content for longer than nonsocial content. Social preference scores representing distribution of fixation to social versus general image content were highly correlated and thus combined into a single composite measure, which was independent of demographic and behavioral measures...
March 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561475/perception-of-multisensory-gender-coherence-in-6-and-9-month-old-infants
#8
Anne Hillairet de Boisferon, Eve Dupierrix, Paul C Quinn, Hélène Lœvenbruck, David J Lewkowicz, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
One of the most salient social categories conveyed by human faces and voices is gender. We investigated the developmental emergence of the ability to perceive the coherence of auditory and visual attributes of gender in 6- and 9-month-old infants. Infants viewed two side-by-side video clips of a man and a woman singing a nursery rhyme and heard a synchronous male or female soundtrack. Results showed that 6-month-old infants did not match the audible and visible attributes of gender, and 9-month-old infants matched only female faces and voices...
December 1, 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345517/vocal-coordination-during-early-parent-infant-interactions-predicts-language-outcome-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Jessie B Northrup, Jana M Iverson
This study examined vocal coordination during mother-infant interactions in the infant siblings (high risk infants; HR) of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at heightened risk for developing language delays. Vocal coordination between mothers and HR infants was compared to a group of low risk (LR; no first- or second-degree relative with ASD) dyads, and used to predict later language development. Nine-month-old infants were videotaped at home playing with their mothers, and interactions were coded for the frequency and timing of vocalizations...
September 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273232/the-infant-orienting-with-attention-task-assessing-the-neural-basis-of-spatial-attention-in-infancy
#10
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sebastian Schneegans, John P Spencer
Infant visual attention develops rapidly over the first year of life, significantly altering the way infants respond to peripheral visual events. Here we present data from 5-, 7- and 10-month-old infants using the Infant Orienting With Attention (IOWA) task, designed to capture developmental changes in visual spatial attention and saccade planning. Results indicate rapid development of spatial attention and visual response competition between 5 and 10 months. We use a dynamic neural field (DNF) model to link behavioral findings to neural population activity, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for observed developmental changes...
September 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709351/newborn-body-perception-sensitivity-to-spatial-congruency
#11
Maria Laura Filippetti, Giulia Orioli, Mark H Johnson, Teresa Farroni
Studies on adults have demonstrated that the perception our own body can be manipulated by varying both temporal and spatial properties of multisensory information. While human newborns are capable of detecting the temporal synchrony of visuo-tactile body-related cues, it remains unknown whether they also utilise spatial information for body perception. Twenty newborns were presented with a video of an infant's face touched with a paintbrush, while their own face was touched either in the spatially congruent, or an incongruent, location...
July 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273231/pathways-among-caregiver-education-household-resources-and-infant-growth-in-39-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Robert H Bradley, Jennifer E Lansford, Kirby Deater-Deckard
Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = ...
July 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26207101/intrasensory-redundancy-facilitates-infant-detection-of-tempo-extending-predictions-of-the-intersensory-redundancy-hypothesis
#13
Lorraine E Bahrick, Robert Lickliter, Irina Castellanos, James Torrence Todd
Research has demonstrated that intersensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized across multiple senses) is highly salient and facilitates processing of amodal properties in multimodal events, bootstrapping early perceptual development. The present study is the first to extend this central principle of the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (IRH) to certain types of intrasensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized within a single sense). Infants were habituated to videos of a toy hammer tapping silently (unimodal control), depicting intersensory redundancy (synchronized with a soundtrack) or intrasensory redundancy (synchronized with another visual event; light flashing or bat tapping)...
July 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25685095/self-conscious-shyness-growth-during-toddlerhood-strong-role-of-genetics-and-no-prediction-from-fearful-shyness
#14
Natalie D Eggum-Wilkens, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, Nazan Aksan, H Hill Goldsmith
Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included: 1) determining if fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, 2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and 3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-conscious shyness increased across toddlerhood, but onset was earlier than predicted by theory...
March 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25685094/trajectories-of-regulatory-behaviors-in-early-infancy-determinants-of-infant-self-distraction-and-self-comforting
#15
Elizabeth M Planalp, Julia M Braungart-Rieker
The ability to effectively regulate emotions is an important marker for early socioemotional development. The uses of self-comforting behaviors and self-distraction have been empirically supported as effective regulatory strategies for infants, though research on determinants of such behaviors is scarce. Thus, a more thorough examination of the development of regulatory behaviors is needed. For the current study, 135 mothers, fathers, and their infants participated in laboratory visits at 3-, 5-, and 7-months of age where parent sensitivity and infant regulatory strategies were coded from the Still Face Paradigm...
March 1, 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640417/eighteen-month-olds-but-not-14-month-olds-use-social-context-to-bind-action-sequences
#16
Christine Fawcett, Gustaf Gredebäck
We demonstrate that 18-month-olds, but not 14-month-olds, can anticipate others' actions based on an interpretation of shared goals that bind together individual actions into a collaborative sequence. After viewing a sequence of actions performed by two people who socially interact, 18-month-olds bound together the socially engaged actors' actions such that they later expected the actors to share the same final goal. Eighteen-month-olds who saw nonsocially engaged actors did not have this expectation and neither did 14-month-olds when viewing either socially or nonsocially engaged actors...
January 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574156/the-relation-between-reactivity-at-4-months-and-behavioral-inhibition-in-the-second-year-replication-across-three-independent-samples
#17
Nathan A Fox, Nancy Snidman, Sara A Haas, Kathryn A Degnan, Jerome Kagan
This paper examines the predictive relations between two infant temperamental biases assessed at 4 months and inhibited behavior during the first two years of life in three independent samples from two research laboratories. Although each sample used slightly different criteria for classifying infants, the results across samples were consistent. Infants of both genders who displayed high levels of motor activity and distress to unfamiliar events were more inhibited at 14 months of age. By 24 months there were significant sex differences: boys identified as high reactive were more inhibited than high reactive girls...
January 2015: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26568703/pointing-as-epistemic-request-12-month-olds-point-to-receive-new-information
#18
Ágnes M Kovács, Tibor Tauzin, Ernő Téglás, György Gergely, Gergely Csibra
Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event in order to share their appreciation of it with others. In the current study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants' pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants' motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds' pointing gestures by exhibiting 'informing' or 'sharing' behavior...
November 1, 2014: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25147483/learning-stimulus-location-associations-in-8-and-11-month-old-infants-multimodal-versus-unimodal-information
#19
Sophie Ter Schure, Dorothy J Mandell, Paola Escudero, Maartje E J Raijmakers, Scott P Johnson
Research on the influence of multimodal information on infants' learning is inconclusive. While one line of research finds that multimodal input has a negative effect on learning, another finds positive effects. The present study aims to shed some new light on this discussion by studying the influence of multimodal information and accompanying stimulus complexity on the learning process. We assessed the influence of multimodal input on the trial-by-trial learning of 8- and 11-month-old infants. Using an anticipatory eye movement paradigm, we measured how infants learn to anticipate the correct stimulus-location associations when exposed to visual-only, auditory-only (unimodal), or auditory and visual (multimodal) information...
September 2014: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25635173/individual-differences-in-infant-oculomotor-behavior-during-the-viewing-of-complex-naturalistic-scenes
#20
Sam V Wass, Tim J Smith
Little research hitherto has examined how individual differences in attention, as assessed using standard experimental paradigms, relate to individual differences in how attention is spontaneously allocated in more naturalistic contexts. Here, we analyzed the time intervals between refoveating eye movements (fixation durations) while typically developing 11-month-old infants viewed a 90-min battery ranging from complex dynamic to noncomplex static materials. The same infants also completed experimental assessments of cognitive control, psychomotor reaction times (RT), processing speed (indexed via peak look during habituation), and arousal (indexed via tonic pupil size)...
July 2014: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
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