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Trauma, Violence & Abuse

Vandhana Choenni, Alice Hammink, Dike van de Mheen
This review examines the association between alcohol and illicit drug use and the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM). In clinical populations, alcohol use is related to IPV, although other variables are also known to influence this relationship. Studies in specialized social/health care and in the community have also demonstrated the association between alcohol use and IPV. Although data on the association between illicit drug use and IPV are less clear, in most studies perpetration seems related to the use of cannabis and cocaine...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Carissa van den Berk-Clark, David Patterson Silver Wolf
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has suggested that competing neurobehavioral decision-making processes might affect health outcomes among traumatized populations. Regulatory imbalances to impulsive and executive decision systems are affected by high levels of stress, including stress resulting from traumatic events. Such regulatory imbalances have been associated with addictive behaviors. However, it is not well known whether addictive behavior increases or decreases the likelihood of utilization of behavioral health services among traumatized populations...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Olusesan Ayodeji Makinde, Olalekan Olaleye, Olufunmbi Olukemi Makinde, Svetlana S Huntley, Brandon Brown
Baby factories and baby harvesting are relatively new terms that involve breeding, trafficking, and abuse of infants and their biological mothers. Since it was first described in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization report in Nigeria in 2006, several more baby factories have been discovered over the years. Infertile women are noted to be major patrons of these baby factories due to the stigmatization of childless couples in Southern Nigeria and issues around cultural acceptability of surrogacy and adoption...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Christopher R DeCou, Shannon M Lynch
OBJECTIVE: Although experiences of community violence are linked with negative outcomes for adults and children, few standardized measures assessing community violence exist, and available measures lack consistency concerning the definition of community violence. Further, most measures currently utilized to assess adult exposure to community violence were designed for use with children and adolescents. To address these identified concerns and make recommendations for future research, this article reviews contemporary definitions of community violence, identifies the outcomes of exposure to community violence for adults, and evaluates measures of exposure to community violence with published psychometric data employing adult samples...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Ian A Elliott
A preparatory process is widely accepted to be a common feature in the perpetration of sexual offenses. Numerous commentators, however, have documented the difficulties in defining and understanding this process, given its transient nature and its specificity to this one form of criminal behavior. This theoretical review aims to provide a universal model of a grooming process for the achievement of illicit or illegal goals in which achievement requires the compliance or submission of another individual-one that can be applied both to the sexual offending process and beyond...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Desmond Upton Patton, Jun Sung Hong, Sadiq Patel, Michael J Kral
School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Sarah R Lowe, Sandro Galea
Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Benjamin Steiner, Jared M Ellison, H Daniel Butler, Calli M Cain
A considerable amount of research has been directed at understanding the sources of inmate misconduct (offending within prison), whereas few studies have focused on identifying the causes and correlates of prisoner victimization. The sources of inmate victimization should be distinguished from those of offending, however, because the policy implications of each focus differ to some extent. In order to determine the predictors of inmate victimization and stimulate further research on the topic, we systematically reviewed studies of the causes/correlates of prisoner victimization published between 1980 and 2014...
January 2017: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Cory A Crane, Stephanie A Godleski, Sarahmona M Przybyla, Robert C Schlauch, Maria Testa
The current meta-analytic review examined the experimental literature to quantify the causal effect of acute alcohol consumption on self-reported and observed indicators of male-to-female general, sexual, and intimate partner aggression. Database and reference list searches yielded 22 studies conducted between 1981 and 2014 that met all criteria for inclusion and that were subjected to full text coding for analysis. Results detected a significant overall effect (d = .36), indicating that male participants who consumed alcohol evidenced greater aggressive behavior toward females while completing a subsequent laboratory aggression paradigm than male participants who received no alcohol...
December 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Nahara Rodrigues Laterza Lopes, LĂșcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious form of child maltreatment that needs to be prevented. The aim of this study was to summarize the main AHT prevention strategies described in literature, aiming to identify evidence of their efficiency, as well as strengths and limitations. International databases were reviewed from 2005 to 2015 using the key words Shaken Baby Syndrome or abusive head trauma or nonaccidental head trauma or abusive head injury or nonaccidental head injury and prevention A total of 1,215 articles were found and 34 complete articles were selected for this study...
November 6, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Angie C Kennedy, Kristen A Prock
Child sexual abuse (CSA), sexual assault (SA), and intimate partner violence (IPV) occur within social contexts that shape how survivors judge themselves and are evaluated by others. Because these are gendered sexual and intimate crimes that violate social norms about what is appropriate and acceptable, survivors may experience stigma that includes victim-blaming messages from the broader society as well as specific stigmatizing reactions from others in response to disclosure; this stigmatization can be internalized among survivors as self-blame, shame, and anticipatory stigma...
November 1, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Julia Rudolph, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse...
October 26, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Joe Wark, Jo-Ann Vis
Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children...
October 21, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Katrina Kubicek
Research investigating intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minorities is limited. The research that does exist has found that rates of IPV are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women, the most commonly studied population in this area. This limited research has resulted in a dearth of prevention/intervention programs targeted for these populations. While some may argue that existing IPV programs can be used for these populations, this review presents an argument for more targeted work with sexual minority populations, using young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as an example...
October 18, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Nadia Vossoughi, Yo Jackson, Stephanie Gusler, Katie Stone
Currently, there are approximately 10.8 million child refugees worldwide. Youth living in refugee camps face a wide range of difficulties placing them at risk for trauma exposure and negative mental health outcomes. However, little is known about the mental health functioning of these youth. The present review provides a systematic review of mental health outcomes for refugee/displaced youth residing in refugee camps. Twenty studies were included in the present review. Among these studies, the prevalence of mental health disorders varied greatly with some studies reporting null effects for disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and others reporting prevalence as high as 87%...
October 11, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Deborah Daro
Much of the fabric in today's society is at odds with planning a robust and generative public health response to child maltreatment prevention. A critical component of this problem is the absence of a public policy framework and related infrastructure that can create common ownership of the problem while recognizing the vast differences in individual willingness and capacity to alter their parenting behaviors. To address this challenge, it seems prudent to begin building a universal system of assessment and support that will touch all children and all families at multiple points in the developmental process...
October 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Debbie Scott, Bob Lonne, Daryl Higgins
Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse...
October 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
John A Pickering, Matthew R Sanders
Preventing the maltreatment of children is a major public health challenge. Using the Triple P-Positive Parenting program as an example, this article makes the case that strengthening parenting and family relationships at a population level is a potentially powerful means of taking on this challenge. We focus on the value of making parenting programs available to all parents in the community. We conclude by examining the key ingredients required to make a population-level parenting approach to reducing child maltreatment work...
October 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Beth E Molnar, Elizabeth D Beatriz, William R Beardslee
Often the focus of the field of child maltreatment has concentrated on identifying and intervening on risk and protective factors at the individual and family levels; however, since the 1970s, the important roles that communities play in both exacerbating and preventing child maltreatment have received attention as well. This article outlines the development of this area of scientific inquiry, describes the theoretical frameworks utilized by existing programs, and describes several community-level programs aimed at preventing child maltreatment that show promise as scalable strategies to enhance individual and family strengths and reduce caregiver stress...
October 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Brenda Jones Harden, Andrea Buhler, Laura Jimenez Parra
Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting...
October 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
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