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Trauma, Violence & Abuse

Nicola Henry, Anastasia Powell
Technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) refers to a range of behaviors where digital technologies are used to facilitate both virtual and face-to-face sexually based harms. Such behaviors include online sexual harassment, gender- and sexuality-based harassment, cyberstalking, image-based sexual exploitation, and the use of a carriage service to coerce a victim into an unwanted sexual act. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on these different dimensions, drawing on existing empirical studies...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Wilson J Brown, Daniel Dewey, Brian E Bunnell, Stephen J Boyd, Allison K Wilkerson, Melissa A Mitchell, Steven E Bruce
Forms of cognitive and behavioral therapies (CBTs), including prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy, have been empirically validated as efficacious treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the assumption that PTSD develops from dysregulated fear circuitry possesses limitations that detract from the potential efficacy of CBT approaches. An analysis of these limitations may provide insight into improvements to the CBT approach to PTSD, beginning with an examination of negative affect as an essential component to the conceptualization of PTSD and a barrier to the implementation of CBT for PTSD...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Boye Fang, Elsie Yan
In view of the rapidly aging population, increasing attention has been paid to studying persons with dementia. Factors associated with its onset, prognosis, and treatment as well as ways to support caregivers in the community have been extensively studied. Despite the fact that older persons with dementia are at higher risk of abuse compared to their cognitively unimpaired counterparts in institutions and the community, however, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding such abuse. This review summarizes the available literature on abuse of older persons with dementia...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Sinead Lambe, Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Emily Garner, Julian Walker
It has long been hypothesized that feelings of inferiority or low self-esteem lead individuals to aggress against those they view as being threatening. However, recent studies suggest that it is not just the level of self-esteem but stability that is relevant to understanding this process. As such, researchers have looked to related constructs, such as narcissism, in trying to understand aggressive behaviors. Narcissism is characterized by a dissociation between an unconscious sense of inadequacy and a conscious feeling of superiority...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Karen Admon Livny, Carmit Katz
Child maltreatment is a worldwide social problem that receives considerable attention. However, prevention efforts remain rare, allowing the phenomenon to continue and spread. The aim of the current article is to systematically review evidence-based prevention efforts that address schools and families as key stakeholders for preventing child maltreatment. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a thorough literature review revealed that only five programs matched the inclusion criteria for the current article...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Erin Casey, Juliana Carlson, Sierra Two Bulls, Aurora Yager
Engaging men and boys as participants and stakeholders in gender-based violence (GBV) prevention initiatives is an increasingly institutionalized component of global efforts to end GBV. Accordingly, evidence of the impact of men's engagement endeavors is beginning to emerge, particularly regarding interventions aimed at fostering gender equitable and nonviolent attitudes and behaviors among men. This developing evidence base suggests that prevention programs with a "gender transformative" approach, or an explicit focus on questioning gender norms and expectations, show particular promise in achieving GBV prevention outcomes...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Abby C Cannon, Jennet Arcara, Laurie M Graham, Rebecca J Macy
Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research...
April 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Alan Carr, Hollie Duff, Fiona Craddock
The aim of the systematic review described in this article was to determine the outcomes for individuals exposed to severe neglect in congregate care institutions such as orphanages. In this context, severe neglect refers to failure to meet children's basic physical, developmental, and emotional needs due to inadequate resources. In this systematic review of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses, searches of 10 databases were conducted, 18 papers that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for review, their quality was assessed, and data were extracted and synthesized...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Fiona Campbell, Andrew Booth, Simon Hackett, Anthea Sutton
It is estimated that 30-50% of all childhood sexual abuse involves other young people as perpetrators. The treatment of harmful sexual behavior (HSB) in young people has evolved from interventions developed for use with adult perpetrators of sexual offenses. Increasingly, these approaches were not seen as appropriate for use with young people. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to establish what intervention components are viewed as acceptable or useful by young people and their families in order to inform the development of interventions for young people with HSB...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Ruth McGovern, Eilish Gilvarry, Michelle Addison, Hayley Alderson, Emma Geijer-Simpson, Raghu Lingam, Debbie Smart, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND: Between 5% and 30% of children in high-income countries live with a substance misusing parent, the majority of which is below dependent levels. However, little is understood about the impact of nondependent parental substance misuse upon children. METHODS: We searched the international literature using rigorous systematic methods to identify studies examining parental substance misuse and adverse outcomes in children. The inclusion criteria were cross-sectional, longitudinal, case-control, and cohort studies; of children aged 0-18 years whose parents are high-risk substance misusers; reporting on their health, psychological, substance use, educational, and social outcomes...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Madeline Schneider, Jennifer S Hirsch
Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Lynn Murphy Michalopoulos, Melissa Meinhart, Justina Yung, Samuel Monroe Barton, Xinyi Wang, Urmi Chakrabarti, Megan Ritchey, Emily Haroz, Nakita Joseph, Judith Bass, Paul Bolton
Exposure to potentially traumatic events is a global health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Assessments for symptoms resulting from trauma exposure rely heavily on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which may not be relevant in all regions of the globe. We examined posttrauma symptoms that were not limited to Western constructs of mental health (i.e., PTSD). In a systematic review, we searched nine databases to identify posttrauma symptoms arising in qualitative literature published before July 17, 2017...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Dafna Tener
Relations between minors under the age of consent and older persons are legally prohibited in many countries. However, the nature of these relationships, their impact on the lives of minors involved, and how they should be dealt by law enforcement and welfare systems are highly controversial. The differences between the way these relations are perceived by the minors involved and the public are also unclear. This literature review examines them as perceived by youths or young adults who had experienced sexual relations with a person at least 2 years older during their adolescence as well as by students and other adult members of the public...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Debbie Scott
Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Joakim Petersson, Susanne J M Strand
This article presents the first systematic review of family-only intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators (as originally proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe & Stuart). The aims of the present review were to summarize and describe the prevalence of the family-only perpetrator subtype, as well as to investigate what characteristics were associated with perpetrators within this subtype. Electronic literature searches in several databases (e.g., PsychINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed) were carried out. Of the 3,434 studies identified, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria as well as the methodological quality criteria...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Kerrie Bundock, Carmen Chan, Olivia Hewitt
The review aimed to systematically identify and summarize empirical work examining adolescent victims' help-seeking behaviors and intentions in relation to their own experience of adolescent dating violence (ADV) and to critically evaluate the literature. Three main objectives were addressed: identify factors associated with help seeking, identify help-seeking source (who adolescents disclose to), and explore the barriers and facilitators for help seeking. Results were separated into actual help seeking and help-seeking intentions...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Marie E Karlsson, Melissa J Zielinski
Incarcerated women evidence high rates of both interpersonal trauma and mental illness. In particular, the rates of sexual violence victimization are so high that some researchers have suggested that sexual abuse may be a pathway to prison for women, likely through the development of mental illness, including substance abuse. This review article summarizes the literature on sexual victimization ( n = 32 articles; 28 independent studies) and mental illness ( n = 11 articles; 8 independent studies) prevalence among samples of incarcerated women ( Ns ≥ 100) in context of methodological choices within included articles...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Nicole Trabold, James McMahon, Shannon Alsobrooks, Staci Whitney, Mona Mittal
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is a global public health issue and has serious consequences of women's health. While scholars and researchers have made some progress in addressing IPV and its impact across different levels of care, there is a paucity of intervention research in this area. For example, we know little about which intervention models work best for particular groups of IPV survivors. Previous reviews have concluded there is insufficient evidence to recommend specific treatment options for victims, but they have also been limited in scope of target populations or have employed narrow eligibility criteria...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Charlotte Hannah Parfitt, Emma Alleyne
The MacDonald triad posits that animal cruelty, fire setting, and bed wetting in childhood is indicative of later aggressive and violent behavior in adults. Researchers refer to this phenomenon as a precursor to later antisocial behaviors including serial and sexual murder; while practitioners cite the triad in clinical formulations and risk assessments. However, there is yet to be a critical review and consolidation of the literature that establishes whether there is empirical support. This article explores the validity of the triad...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Lauren Rumble, Ryan Fajar Febrianto, Melania Niken Larasati, Carolyn Hamilton, Ben Mathews, Michael P Dunne
There has been relatively little research into the prevalence of childhood sexual violence (CSV) as well as the risk and protective factors for CSV in low- and middle-income countries including Indonesia. Systematic searches conducted in English and Bahasa Indonesia in this review identified 594 records published between 2006 and 2016 in peer-reviewed journals and other literature including 299 Indonesian records. Fifteen studies, including nine prevalence studies, met the quality appraisal criteria developed for this review...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
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