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Legal Medicine

Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Chiara Stassi, Cristina Mondello, Stefania Zerbo, Livio Milone, Antonina Argo
According to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), a healthy human body contains ten times more microbes than human cells. Microbial communities colonize different organs of the body, playing fundamental roles both in human health and disease. Despite the vast scientific knowledge of the role of microbial communities in a living body, little is known at present about microbial changes occurring after death, thus leading many authors to investigate the composition of the thanatomicrobiome and its potential applications in the forensic field...
November 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Caren A R da Fonseca, Jaini Paltian, Angélica S Dos Reis, Cristiani F Bortolatto, Ethel A Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese
Determining precisely the postmortem interval (PMI) is a key parameter for forensic researches, given that various physical, biochemical and metabolic changes begin to occur in the body after death. In the present study, the Na+ /K+ -ATPase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were evaluated. For this, male adult Swiss mice were killed by isoflurane inhalation anesthesia and divided into four groups according to time of death (0, 6, 24 and 48 h). The brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle tissues were removed...
November 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Salina Hisham, Nurliza Abdullah, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor, Daniel Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Muhammad Khan Asif, Phrabhakaran Nambiar, Shani Ann Mani, Norliza Binti Ibrahim, Iqra Muhammad Khan, Najihah Binti Lokman
Forensic odontology plays an important role in human identification and dental age estimation is an integral part of this process. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between chronological age and pulp/tooth volume ratio in a Malaysian population (Malays and Chinese) from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, enhanced with Mimics software. Three hundred CBCT scans of 153 males and 147 females, aged between 16 and 65 years were divided into 5 age groups. Volumetric analysis of the pulp/tooth ratio was performed in maxillary left canines, maxillary right canines and maxillary right central incisors...
October 21, 2018: Legal Medicine
A Delbreil, A Gambier, T Lefrancq, M Taris, P Saint-Martin, M Sapanet
In forensic practice, laryngeal lesions are of particular interest for the pathologist, as they may sign foul play. We report the case of a decedent, whose body was found in an advanced state of putrefaction, at the bottom of a ledge, after a one-month disappearance. The face and neck were skeletised. The autopsy found multiple traumatic injuries. The hyoid bone was separated from the other laryngeal structures and seemed to be macroscopically normal. However, the thyroid cartilage had a thin notch at the base of the right upper horn...
October 19, 2018: Legal Medicine
I Sinicina, D Inthorn, H Pankratz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Legal Medicine
Xinhua Dai, Fei Fan, Yi Ye, Xiang Lu, Fan Chen, Zhigui Wu, Linchuan Liao
The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is always a key issue in forensic science. Although many attempts based on metabolomics approaches have been proven to be feasible and accurate for PMI estimation, there have been no reports regarding the determination of the PMI in acute dichlorvos (DDVP) poisoning. In this study, all rats were killed by acute DDVP poisoning at a dose three fold the oral LD50 (240 mg/kg). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the metabolic profiling of blood samples at various times after death up to 72 h...
October 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Takeshi Kondo, Yo Niida, Masashi Mizuguchi, Yasushi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Ueno, Akiyoshi Nishimura
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumor diagnosed in fetuses, neonates and infants, and is closely linked to TSC. Here we describe an autopsy case of right ventricular rhabdomyoma in TSC. The deceased was a 3-month-old male infant, and TSC with a cardiac tumor had been diagnosed before his death. Since the cardiac tumor had not been physically blocking the blood flow, he had not undergone surgical intervention...
October 9, 2018: Legal Medicine
Junko Fujihara, Toshihiro Yasuda, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Haruo Takeshita
Iron is bound to mobile transferrin (TF) and ferritin in blood. TF receptors (TFRC and TFR2) regulate intracellular iron by delivering iron from TF into the cytoplasm. In this study, we examined the effects of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of the genes for TF and TF receptors on blood iron concentrations in Japanese subjects. Blood iron levels were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and the SNPs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
October 4, 2018: Legal Medicine
Yoshimasa Kanawaku, Takanobu Tanifuji, Youkichi Ohno
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected deaths in bathtubs among elderly Japanese adults occur predominantly during the cold season. This study investigated the relationship between these deaths and bathing day temperature among elderly adults in Tokyo. METHODS: Data for 1408 cases of bath-related deaths from January 1 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office. We excluded 409 cases for the following reasons: criminal death, injury-related death, suicide, intoxication, non-sudden death, not bathtub-related death, out-of-bathroom death, subject aged under 65 years, undetermined bathing date, institutional housing, and bathing not at subject's home...
October 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Korunya Saenguthai, Sirinart Chomean, Chollanot Kaset
Investigation of sexual assault cases from the evidence involving vaginal swab, clothing and others is examined by a forensic scientist. The explanation of trace findings on spermatozoa on clothing is often problematic due to the use of different staining methods. Conventional staining method used either Papanicolaou (PAP) or Dip quick® stain as synthetic dyes which are expensive imported material and harmful to human health. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the ability of Oryza sativa L (black rice) extract as a natural dye to detect spermatozoa on the clothing and vaginal swab casework samples for routine forensic examination...
October 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Enping Huang, Tianshan Guan, Li Li, Pingping Xia, Zhiyong Peng, Chunlei Feng, Ling Chen
We obtained allelic frequencies and forensic parameters of 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, FGA, D5S818, D7S820, CSF1PO, D16S539, D19S433, vWA, D8S1179, D18S51, D13S317, TPOX, TH01, D2S1338, D12S391, D1S1656, D21S11, D6S1043, Penta D, Penta E) from 529 unrelated individuals in Jieyang Han population using PowerPlex® 21 (Promega, Madison, Wi, USA). The relationship between the Jieyang Han group and other Han populations was studied and the results showed that the Jieyang Han population had the closest genetic relationship with the Fujian Han population...
October 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Yohsuke Makino, Nobutaka Arai, Yumi Hoshioka, Maiko Yoshida, Masatoshi Kojima, Takuro Horikoshi, Hiroki Mukai, Hirotaro Iwase
In forensic investigations, it is important to detect traumatic axonal injuries (TAIs) to reveal head trauma that might otherwise remain occult. These lesions are subtle and frequently ambiguous on macroscopic evaluations. We present a case of TAI revealed by pre-autopsy postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR). A man in his sixties was rendered unconscious in a motor vehicle accident. CT scans revealed traumatic mild subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two weeks after the accident he regained consciousness, but displayed an altered mental state...
October 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Hitoshi Biwasaka, Yasuhiro Aoki, Yusuke Takahashi, Mamiko Fukuta, Akihito Usui, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Haruo Saito, Masato Funayama, Sachiko Fujita, Masataka Takamiya, Koji Dewa
Sexual dimorphisms and age-dependent morphological features of the human coxal bone were quantitatively analyzed using homologous models created from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography images of the pelvis (male: 514 samples, female: 388 samples, age 16-100). Bilateral average coxal images of each sex and age decade were generated separately through principle component analyses (PCA). By measuring average point-to-point distances of 8472 corresponding points (average corresponding point differences [ACPDs]) between each homologous coxal image and the average images, the sex of more than 93% of the samples was correctly assigned...
October 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Vladimir Živković, Danica Cvetković, Slobodan Nikolić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Kyoka Kiryu, Toshiaki Takeichi, Osamu Kitamura
We present a 23-year-old married couple who died by accidental burial in a beach sand hole. The victims fell into a hole that had been covered with a plastic sheet, and were buried suddenly by sand that had been piled on the top of the sheet. At autopsy, facial congestion; petechial hemorrhages in the conjunctivae and the oral mucosa; skin petechiae at the face, neck and upper chest; congestion and hemorrhages in the cervical lymph nodes; and some minor hemorrhages in the cervical muscles were found in both victims...
September 27, 2018: Legal Medicine
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hajime Tsuboi, Hiroaki Ichioka, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Fatal accidents during butane abuse frequently occur in Japan and in many countries around the world. Although analytical data about butane concentration in postmortem samples is being accumulated, when using the data to determine the cause of death, careful interpretation is required because the gas is easily diffused. Two fatal butane poisoning cases were encountered, and butane quantification of autopsy samples obtained from left and right heart blood, femoral blood, kidney, liver, lung, brain and fatty tissues was performed...
September 26, 2018: Legal Medicine
Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Yu Zang, Kai-Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu
Two loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion paternity case were reported based on 19 STR loci available from Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A (Peoplespot, Beijing, China). When 9508 family trios with Paternity index (PI) threshold of >10,000 was analyzed, 14 families show mutations at two loci. The paternity was confirmed by using an additional 19 STR markers. When the probability of occurrence of two mutations was compared with the expected probability deduced from binomial model, the observed mutational probability was significantly larger than the expectation...
September 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Julius Tikka, Maria Gardberg, Riitta Rautio, Philippe Lunetta
Hydrophilic polymer embolism (HPE) is a rare, likely under-recognized iatrogenic complication, caused by fragmentation of surface materials used on endovascular medical devices. The organs most often involved in HPE are the brain and lungs, resulting in both local and systemic reactions. We present the case of a cerebral HPE associated with WEB treatment of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, and involving diffusely the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient developed pneumonia and status epilepticus, and died 24 days after the endovascular procedure, most likely as a result of the sequelae of the aneurysm rupture...
September 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Saverio Giampaoli, Federica Alessandrini, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Giovanni Guglielmi, Adriano Tagliabracci, Andrea Berti
The analysis of microorganism population is crucial in several medical fields. This is especially true in legal and occupational medicine, where the specialist can be asked to perform an evaluation of several environmental matrices. In these two medical fields an accurate microbiological analysis is part of a wide process aimed to the definition of the interactions between human beings and environment. In legal medicine it is important to deserve attention to the identification of microbiological traces in order to better understand past events, while in occupational and preventive medicine the microbiological evaluation of environmental samples is crucial for an effective risk management and the definition of safety procedures...
September 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
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