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Legal Medicine

Caiyong Yin, Chuwei Deng, Xiaoqin Qian, Huijie Huang, Yanfang Yu, Li Hu, Peng Chen, Feng Chen
The population-specific FST in STR loci of Chinese populations has not been focused on. Here, we genotyped 19 STRs in 530 unrelated healthy individuals of Xuzhou Han population, and collected data of 30,308 samples from 32 Hans and 50 minorities nationwide. The population-specific βi and locus-specific βil were calculated to evaluate the applicable value of STRs. Next, we generated the genetic structure of various ethnic populations by Neighbor-Joining tree and Multidimensional Scaling plot based on pairwise Nei's distances...
January 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Zhigui Wu, Xiang Lu, Fan Chen, Xinhua Dai, Yi Ye, Youyi Yan, Linchuan Liao
Accurately predicting the early postmortem interval (PMI) is of great significance in forensic practice. This study aimed to establish a novel method for estimating the early PMI by analyzing endogenous substances in the cardiac blood of male and female rats and compare different model for estimating early PMI using these data. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (50% male) were sacrificed by suffocation. Then, cardiac blood was collected at various time intervals (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h) after death, and the collected samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
December 30, 2017: Legal Medicine
C Mariscal Ramos, G Martínez-Cortes, B Ramos-González, H Rangel-Villalobos
We studied the X-STR decaplex system in 529 DNA female samples of Mexican populations from five geographic regions. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated in each region and in the pooled Mexican population. Genotype distribution by locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in each Mexican population sample. Similarly, linkage equilibrium was demonstrated between pair of loci. Pairwise comparisons and genetic distances between Mexican, Iberoamerican and one African populations were estimated and graphically represented...
December 29, 2017: Legal Medicine
Daniele Gibelli, Valentina Pucciarelli, Pasquale Poppa, Danilo De Angelis, Marco Cummaudo, Luca Pisoni, Marina Codari, Cristina Cattaneo, Chiarella Sforza
Distinction of one twin with respect to the other, based on external appearance, is challenging; nevertheless, facial morphology may provide individualizing features that may help distinguish twin siblings. This study aims at exposing an innovative method for the facial assessment in monozygotic twins for personal identification, based on the registration and comparison of 3D models of faces. Ten couples of monozygotic twins aged between 25 and 69 years were acquired twice by a stereophotogrammetric system (VECTRA-3D® M3: Canfield Scientific, Inc...
December 27, 2017: Legal Medicine
Jason Besecker, Gianluca Peri, Michael Davis, Josu Zubizarreta, Greg Hampikian
Individuals with Basque ancestry form a historically and culturally important minority of the population of the western United States. Allele frequencies for the 15 autosomal STRs in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) from 156 unrelated self-identified Basque individuals born in the United States are presented. Allele frequencies were used to calculate parameters commonly used in genetics and forensics including power of discrimination (PD), power of exclusion (PE), polymorphic information content (PIC), and expected heterozygosity (He)...
December 12, 2017: Legal Medicine
Ye Li, Hepei Li, Guanglin He, Weibo Liang, Haibo Luo, Miao Liao, Ji Zhang, Jing Yan, Yingbi Li, Yiping Hou, Jin Wu
AGCU 21+1 STR kit contains 21 non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) short tandem repeats (STR) loci and a sex-determining locus amelogenin. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and forensically relevant population statistics of 21 non-CODIS loci in 210 Chinese Han individuals from Chengdu city, Sichuan province, Southwest China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed within the 21 non-CODIS STR loci. The combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined power of exclusion (CPE) were 0...
December 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
Naoko Tanaka, Ayaka Takakura, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Mostofa Jamal, Asuka Ito, Mitsuru Kumihashi, Kunihiko Tsutsui, Kiyoshi Ameno, Hiroshi Kinoshita
The findings of histological examination and the results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis were compared to identify skin metallization in experimental electrical injury. Rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 5, each group): control, current exposure for five seconds, and current exposure for ten seconds. A relatively high peak of copper, which was used as an electrical conductor, was detected in formalin-fixed skin samples of the two current exposure groups by EDX. There was a significant increase of the specific X-ray intensity in the two current exposure groups compared to the control group...
December 6, 2017: Legal Medicine
Alexandra Muñoz, Nuvia Maestro, María Benito, José Antonio Sánchez, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Daniel Trejo, Luis Ríos
The fourth rib has been used commonly in order to estimate age at death and even sex in skeletal remains but many often, Iscan's estimates do not adjust to the real age of the individual. Population specific references for sex and age-at-death estimation from the sternal end of the fourth rib are presented for a contemporary Mexican sample. A total of 504 ribs with known sex and age from a morgue sample were studied (444 males, 60 females, 17 to 92 years old). The height and breadth of the sternal end of the rib were sexually dimorphic (p = ...
December 5, 2017: Legal Medicine
Vishwajit Kishor Wankhade, B G Chikhalkar
Drug trafficking is an international problem. The prevalence of drug trafficking and newer concealing methods has been ever increasing. Body packing is described as using the abdominal or pelvic cavity for concealing illegal drugs. Body pushers smuggle illicit drugs by inserting them into rectum or vagina. These cases are either presented to the emergency departments as Body Packer Syndrome or as asymptomatic cases for observation, detained for alleged possession of contraband substances. We report a unique case of an asymptomatic white female who was detained at Mumbai International Airport under suspicion and brought to hospital for observation...
December 5, 2017: Legal Medicine
Maria De Matteis, Giovanni Cecchetto, Giada Munari, Laura Balsamo, Marina Paola Gardiman, Renzo Giordano, Guido Viel, Matteo Fassan
Sudden and unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most challenging fields for clinical, forensic and preventative pathology. Several authors have emphasized the search of innovative biomarkers related to drug-resistance for an appropriate risk stratification in these patients. However, no reliable biomarker has been implemented into clinical practice, so far. Herein, we present a case of SUDEP due to drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in which we performed miRNA expression profiling (miR-301a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-30b-5p, mIR-342-5p, and miR-4446-3p) from both the plasma and the temporal lobe in comparison to ten autopsies for traumatic or asphyxia deaths...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luzia Michelle Santos, Alysson Vinicius Porto Ferreira, Tomás Lucio Marques de Almeida Lima, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
Natsumi Ishida, Makoto Sakurada, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Yasuhiro Ueno
We developed a simple and rapid method for animal species identification in the forensic science field based on mitochondrial DNA using two multiplex real-time PCRs and analysis of the resultant SYBR Green I melting curves. This method was designed to identify nine domestic animals simultaneously (dog, cat, rabbit, cattle, pig, chicken, goat, sheep and horse) and four wild animals (deer, raccoon-dog, monkey and bear) by comparing the different melting temperatures of the amplicons produced from samples originating from each species...
November 26, 2017: Legal Medicine
Laura Peddle, Michael Otto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Legal Medicine
Hiroyuki Takei, Rie Sano, Yoichiro Takahashi, Keiko Takahashi, Yoshihiko Kominato, Hiroyuki Tokue, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Satoshi Hirasawa, Naoya Ohta
Coronary postmortem computed tomography angiography (coronary PMCTA) has been introduced as a routine examination procedure for autopsy at our department. Here, we reviewed eight autopsy cases in which apparent histopathological changes including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA), hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and acute myocarditis were involved in the cause of death. For investigation of the coronary artery and shape of the heart, coronary PMCTA was valuable in detecting narrowing or obstruction of coronary artery in AMI, indicating an anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery in AAOCA, and demonstrating septal hypertrophy and intracavitary obstruction in HOCM...
November 16, 2017: Legal Medicine
S Zerbo, A Di Piazza, G Lo Re, G L Aronica, S Salerno, R Lagalla
Clivus fractures are usually associated with head blunt trauma due to traffic accident and falls. A 23 - year-old man died immediately after a smash-up while he was stopping on his motorcycle. Post-mortem Computed tomography (PMCT), performed before autopsy, revealed a complex basilar skull base fractures associated with brainstem and cranio-vertebral junction injuries, improving the diagnostic performance of conventional autopsy. Imaging data were re-assessable and PMCT offers the possibility to perform multiplanar and volume rendered reconstructions, increasing forensic medicine knowledge related to traumatic injuries...
November 16, 2017: Legal Medicine
Peng Zhang, Ying Zhu, Yongguo Li, Shisheng Zhu, Ruoxiang Ma, Minzhu Zhao, Jianbo Li
Short tandem repeats (STR) analysis is the gold standard method in the forensics field for personal identification and paternity testing. In cancerous tissues, STR markers are gaining attention, with some studies showing increased instability. Lung cancer, which is one of the most commonmalignancies, has become the most lethal among all cancers. In certain situations, lung cancer tissues may be the only resource available for forensic analysis. Therefore, evaluating the reliability of STR markers in lung cancer tissues is required to avoid false exclusions...
November 11, 2017: Legal Medicine
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
Jillian Ng, Robert F Oldt, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy
In forensic statistics, the random match probability (RMP) is the probability that a "match" would occur by coincidence while the likelihood ratio (LR) describes the strength of DNA evidence. Using these statistics to assess the weight of DNA evidence requires an appropriate and well-characterized population-specific short tandem repeat (STR) database to reliably estimate allele frequencies. This study compared several Native American-specific STR datasets, including those not represented in the CODIS Native American database, and revealed that increasing the number of STR markers resulted in lower RMP values while a θ adjustment from 0...
November 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
Junko Fujihara, Toshihiro Yasuda, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Yoshikazu Takinami, Masataka Nagao, Haruo Takeshita
Zinc homeostasis in cells depends on zinc transporters, which are divided into 2 families: ZnT (SLC30A) and ZIP (SLC39A). In this study, we examined the effect of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes encoding zinc transporters on blood zinc concentration in Japanese subjects (n = 102). Blood zinc levels were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and SNPs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Among the 20 SNPs examined, 3 SNPs (SLC30A3 rs11126936, SLC39A8 rs233804, and SLC39A14 rs4872479) were significantly associated with blood zinc concentration...
November 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
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