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Legal Medicine

Yukiko Hata, Shin Ishizawa, Naoki Nishida
An 82-year-old man was found dead on the road near his home with unwitnessed interval of 3 h from final witness. He had been diagnosed with hypertension and mild aortic stenosis (AS) 13 years before death, and was continuously followed up with medication. Although a recent medical check-up related to cardiac function was stable and consistent with moderate AS, he sometimes complained of general fatigue, anorexia associated with intermittent mild fever and rare vomiting in the weeks before death. At autopsy, no lethal injury or drug intoxication was found, but congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with central rache was found...
September 12, 2018: Legal Medicine
Dong-Ho Kim, So-Hyun Lee, Sang-Seob Lee, Yi-Suk Kim, Dae-Kyoon Park, Seung-Ho Han, U-Young Lee
The greater sciatic notch is an effective indicator for sexual estimation, which is the initial process to identify unknown skeleton. Visual assessment is the mainstream of analysis methods; however, the subjectivity of researchers is also questioned. Metric method using three-dimensional models reconstructed from radiographic images can ensure reproducible and stable measurement of the greater sciatic notch. In this study, the greater sciatic notch was analyzed in various manners, including distances, angles, and dimensions, with the aid of an automatic measurement program and a landmark verification system...
September 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Li Tao, Jianlong Ma, Liujun Han, Hongmei Xu, Yan Zeng, Lyu Yehui, Wencan Li, Kaijun Ma, Bi Xiao, Long Chen
PURPOSE: The postmortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time that has elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many approaches have been developed to assess PMI, but their time frame of applicability has been only days to weeks. Our present pilot study aimed to find the sensitive mRNA marker if the degradation of mRNA could be used to estimate the early postmortem interval (up to 24 h). METHODS: In our study, we use the microarray to screen 217 mRNAs markers of rat cardiac tissue...
September 10, 2018: Legal Medicine
Mariano Paternoster, Emanuele Capasso, Pierpaolo Di Lorenzo, Gelsomina Mansueto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Legal Medicine
Akira Hayakawa, Rie Sano, Hiroyuki Takei, Yoichiro Takahashi, Rieko Kubo, Hiroyuki Tokue, Satoshi Hirasawa, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Masahiro Yuasa, Shinji Uetake, Hisashi Akuzawa, Yoshihiko Kominato
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is becoming used more commonly in routine forensic investigation. CT is sensitive for detection of metal foreign bodies. Here we report a case of suicide due to self-ignition of kerosene that the victim had poured over herself. Prior to autopsy, PMCT detected tiny radiopaque particles arranged in a row in the surface of the back and either thigh, together with a series of similar particles under the skin lateral to the breasts or the bilateral inguinal region. At autopsy, external examination revealed third-degree burns involving charred tissues all over the body except for the head...
September 10, 2018: Legal Medicine
Takayoshi Suzuki, Tadashi Ogawa, Jun Ueyama, Masae Iwai, Fumio Kondo, Hiroshi Seno
A method for simultaneous quantification of fosphenytoin (F-PHT), phenytoin (PHT) and its main metabolite 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (HPPH) in whole blood was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Whole blood samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed using a CORTECS™ UPLC® C18 (2.1 × 50 mm i.d., particle size 1.6 μm) analytical column, and water containing 10 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile as the mobile phase...
August 25, 2018: Legal Medicine
Koji Fujii, Takashi Fukagawa, Haruhiko Watahiki, Yusuke Mita, Tetsushi Kitayama, Natsuko Mizuno
Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is widely used for forensic examinations with a capillary electrophoresis instrument such as the 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. This instrument adapts multi-locus STR kits to examine up to 27 loci using a 6-fluorescent dye system and corrects the spectral overlap between each dye. However, inaccurate spectral correction can cause pull-up peaks. Here, we examined the pull-up peaks observed in GlobalFiler kit data in terms of their peak height ratios and distances from their parent allele peaks when using the 3500xL and the 3130xl Genetic Analyzers...
August 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
Guido Pelletti, Francesca Rossi, Marco Garagnani, Rossella Barone, Raffaella Roffi, Susi Pelotti
Toluene, a liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, is one of the most widely used industrial solvents, and is present in numerous paints, paint thinners, glues and other industrial and household products. It has become the most abused solvent in the world due to its rapid effects following inhalation. However, the numerous cases of fatal and non-fatal toluene-related intoxication reported in the literature have not yet been collected and discussed in the forensic setting. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the cases of toluene abuse and intoxication and the state of the art of the forensic toxicological analysis of toluene intoxications in the living and in the dead subject, from the early identification to the medico-legal interpretation of the toxicological result...
August 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
Ji Hyun Lee, Sohee Cho, Moon-Young Kim, Dong Hoon Shin, Allah Rakha, Vasant Shinde, Soong Deok Lee
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers additional information in cases that lack reference samples for comparison. The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel is a forensic multiplex platform consisting of 165 autosomal markers designed to provide biogeographic ancestry information. We analyzed seven different population groups from Asia to assess the accuracy and reliability of analysis, using this panel. In this study, we have designated 750 unrelated Asians, from southern China (n = 99), Beijing (n = 100), Japan (n = 101), Korea (n = 100), Vietnam (n = 100), Nepal (n = 100), India (n = 51), and Pakistan (n = 99)...
August 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
Natsuki Ikematsu, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Kenji Hara, Brian Waters, Aya Matsusue, Mio Takayama, Shin-Ichi Kubo
In some forensic autopsy cases there are high concentrations of p-cresol in the blood. In vivo, p-cresol is the only isomer yielded by intestinal bacteria and is excreted into urine. We investigated the diagnostic meaning of p-cresol in the blood of forensic autopsy cases. Blood samples from 110 autopsy cases within 48 h of the postmortem interval (PMI) and 10 healthy adults were examined. Blood with p-cresol-d8 as an internal standard was analyzed using a GC-MS/MS method. Using acid and heat deproteinization, free (F) and conjugated (non-protein bound: C; protein bound: PC) p-cresol were individually analyzed...
August 6, 2018: Legal Medicine
Zdenko Červenák, Milan Mikula, Ján Matúšek, Vladimír Ferák, Andrej Choma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Legal Medicine
Allah Rakha, Yu Na Oh, Hwan Young Lee, Safdar Hussain, Ali Muhammad Waryah, Atif Adnan, Kyoung-Jin Shin
Rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) have been paid much attention in recent years. The 13 RM Y-STRs (DYF387S1, DYF399S1, DYF403S1a/b, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS518, DYS526I/II, DYS547, DYS570, DYS576, DYS612, DYS626, and DYS627) have been proved to have substantially higher haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity than conventionally used Y-STRs indicating the considerable power in paternal lineage differentiation in endogamous populations, separation of which is usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. In current study, we analyzed the RM Y-STRs and PowerPlex® Y23 System in 216 male relatives from 18 deep rooted endogamous Sindhi families from Pakistan...
August 4, 2018: Legal Medicine
Meng-Jun Zhan, Fei Fan, Li-Rong Qiu, Zhao Peng, Kui Zhang, Zhen-Hua Deng
The present study is an attempt to estimation of stature and sex from sacrum and coccyx measurements by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a contemporary Chinese population. Nine measurements for every sacrum and coccyx were taken from CT image of 350 Chinese. The sample is composed of 190 males and 160 females with an average age of 55 and 50 years, respectively. Discriminant function was used in sex estimation and regression analysis was used in stature estimation from these two bones. The stepwise analysis of all measurements yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 84...
July 26, 2018: Legal Medicine
Zuzana Caplova, Petra Švábová, Mária Fuchsová, Soňa Masnicová, Eva Neščáková, Silvia Bodoriková, Michaela Dörnhöferová, Radoslav Beňuš
The stature and the body weight as part of the biological profile can aid the personal identification. The dimensions of the human foot, as well as the footprint, can be used for the prediction due to the existence of its positive correlation with the stature and body weight. Five diagonal axes and ball breadth of bilateral static footprints of 132 young Slovak adults were obtained. All diameters were larger in a male group than female group. No bilateral differences were found except the first diagonal axis and ball breadth...
July 25, 2018: Legal Medicine
Dina Ali Shokry, Maged Nabil Hussein, Fatma Mohamed Hassan, Axel Heinemann, Hermann Vogel, Klaus Pueschel
OBJECTIVES: Recently, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) has been proven as a reliable tool in the diagnosis of vascular pathology, while its potential efficiency in the detection of soft tissue lesions is ignored. In this study, we have evaluated the overall diagnostic value of MPMCTA in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic deaths in selected cases to determine its additional advantages and limitations in order to identify its potential applications. METHODS: This prospective study examined 14 decedents presented to the Department of Legal Medicine of Hamburg University that alleged death due to blunt trauma...
July 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Rie Nishikata, Naho Kato, Miwako Suto, Mami Rinno, Naohito Kuroda, Yuko Hashimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Legal Medicine
Atsushi Iwawaki, Yusei Otaka, Ruri Asami, Tomonori Ozawa, Maki Izawa, Hideki Saka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Francisca Duijs, Linda van de Merwe, Titia Sijen, Corina C G Benschop
Advances in autosomal DNA profiling systems enable analyzing increased numbers of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in one reaction. Increasing the number of STR loci increases the amount of information that may be obtained from a (crime scene) sample. In this study, we examined whether even more allelic information can be obtained by applying low-template methods. To this aim, the performance of the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C STR typing system was assessed when increasing the number of PCR cycles or enhancing the capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings...
June 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Marija Antunovic, Ivan Galic, Ksenija Zelic, Nenad Nedeljkovic, Emira Lazic, Marija Djuric, Roberto Cameriere
AIM: From a medico-legal and penalty point of view, it is essential to conclude if an individual is a minor or an adult (18 years of age). Methods based on the third molar development have been used for this purpose. The present article aims to verify the Nolla's stages of mineralization of the third molars and a third molar maturity index (I3M ) which is based on the measures of the projections of open apices normalized by their height in the sample of Montenegrins. METHOD AND SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 683 panoramic radiographs (324 males and 359 females) between 13 and 24 years of age...
May 28, 2018: Legal Medicine
Petra Urbanová, Tomáš Vojtíšek, Jan Frišhons, Ondřej Šandor, Mikoláš Jurda, Jan Krajsa
Postmortem facial identification is one of the most common techniques for establishing a deceased person's identity. In victims suffering from devastating cranial injuries, the feasibility of facial identification tasks can be compromised by damage to or disfigurement of the identifying cranial features. Although there are several reconstructive approaches, which help experts to restore the essence of person's physical appearance, thus enhancing the chances of recognition, only a few of them involve restoring the fractured cranial bones as the foundation for the reconstructed soft tissues...
May 22, 2018: Legal Medicine
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