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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154002/forensic-evaluation-of-str-typing-reliability-in-lung-cancer
#1
Peng Zhang, Ying Zhu, Yongguo Li, Shisheng Zhu, Ruoxiang Ma, Minzhu Zhao, Jianbo Li
Short tandem repeats (STR) analysis is the gold standard method in the forensics field for personal identification and paternity testing. In cancerous tissues, STR markers are gaining attention, with some studies showing increased instability. Lung cancer, which is one of the most commonmalignancies, has become the most lethal among all cancers. In certain situations, lung cancer tissues may be the only resource available for forensic analysis. Therefore, evaluating the reliability of STR markers in lung cancer tissues is required to avoid false exclusions...
November 11, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145003/the-importance-of-saprinus-semistriatus-coleoptera-histeridae-for-estimating-the-minimum-post-mortem-interval
#2
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149619/association-of-snps-in-genes-encoding-zinc-transporters-on-blood-zinc-levels-in-humans
#3
Junko Fujihara, Toshihiro Yasuda, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Yoshikazu Takinami, Masataka Nagao, Haruo Takeshita
Zinc homeostasis in cells depends on zinc transporters, which are divided into 2 families: ZnT (SLC30A) and ZIP (SLC39A). In this study, we examined the effect of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes encoding zinc transporters on blood zinc concentration in Japanese subjects (n = 102). Blood zinc levels were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and SNPs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Among the 20 SNPs examined, 3 SNPs (SLC30A3 rs11126936, SLC39A8 rs233804, and SLC39A14 rs4872479) were significantly associated with blood zinc concentration...
November 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127845/highly-sensitive-determination-of-alendronate-in-human-plasma-and-dialysate-using-metal-free-hplc-ms-ms
#4
Miho Yamada, Xiao-Pen Lee, Masaya Fujishiro, Ken Iseri, Makoto Watanabe, Hiroshi Sakamaki, Naoki Uchida, Takaaki Matsuyama, Takeshi Kumazawa, Haruo Takahashi, Akira Ishii, Keizo Sato
A highly sensitive method was developed for the analysis of alendronate in human plasma and dialysate using MonoSpin™ SAX(®) extraction and metal-free high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane. The chromatographic separation of the derivatives for alendronate and alendronate-d6 was achieved on an L-column2 ODS metal-free column (50 mm  ×  2 mm i.d., particle size 3 µm) with a linear gradient elution system composed of 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6...
November 6, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125965/death-by-self-mutilation-after-oral-cannabis-consumption
#5
Clemence Delteil, Caroline Sastre, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi, Catherine Faget-Agius, Marc Deveaux, Pascal Kintz, Marc-Antoine Devooght, George Leonetti, Christophe Bartoli, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Major self-mutilation (amputation, castration, self-inflicted eye injuries) is frequently associated with psychiatric disorders and/or substance abuse. A 35-year-old man presented with behavioral disturbances of sudden onset after oral cannabis consumption and major self-mutilation (attempted amputation of the right arm, self-enucleation of both eyes and impalement) which resulted in death. During the enquiry, four fragments of a substance resembling cannabis resin were seized at the victim's home. Autopsy confirmed that death was related to hemorrhage following the mutilations...
November 2, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102834/establishment-of-an-alternative-efficiently-genotyping-strategy-for-human-abo-gene
#6
Enzhu Jiang, Peifu Yu, Siyi Zhang, Chunmei Li, Mei Ding, Baojie Wang, Hao Pang
ABO genotyping is used in several disciplines, including transfusion, transplantation, human evolution, and forensic medicine. Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a locus is a common way to identify different genotypes. In this study we developed a strategy for ABO genotyping, which can rapidly and efficiently detect SNPs. DNA fragments containing 4 SNPs in the ABO gene (c.261delG, c.297A > G, c.1009A > G, and c.1061delC) were amplified using individually and multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and subsequently genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis...
November 1, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125963/a-capillary-electrophoresis-method-for-identifying-forensically-relevant-body-fluids-using-mirnas
#7
Carrie Mayes, Sarah Seashols-Williams, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Body fluid identification (BFID) can provide crucial information during the course of an investigation. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have shown considerable body fluid specificity, are able to be co-extracted with DNA, and their small size (18-25 nucleotides) make them ideal for analyzing highly degraded forensic samples. In this study, we designed a preliminary 8-marker system for BFID including an endogenous reference gene (let-7g) to differentiate between venous blood (miR-451a and miR-142-3p), menstrual blood (miR-141-3p and miR-412-3p), semen (miR-891a and miR-10b), and saliva (miR-205) using a capillary electrophoresis approach...
October 31, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121618/estimating-normal-lung-weight-measurement-using-postmortem-ct-in-forensic-cases
#8
Kotaro Matoba, Hideki Hyodoh, Manabu Murakami, Atsuko Saito, Tomoko Matoba, Lisa Ishida, Emi Fujita, Mayumi Yamase, Shigeki Jin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to estimate the lung weight using postmortem CT in well aerated lung autopsy cases. The correlation coefficients to the lung weight were also evaluated for the cadavers' height, weight, whole body surface area (WBSA), body mass index, and estimated lung volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2015 to July 2016, 31 cadavers (male 12, female 19, age 20-98 (mean 66.9) y.o., postmortem interval 0.3-75.0 (5.7) days) were compared as regards body weight, height, whole body surface area (WBSA), body mass index (BMI), lung volume on CT, and total lung volume classified into several CT number categories, with their lung weight in autopsy...
October 31, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154001/tri-allelic-patterns-of-strs-and-partially-homologous-non-sister-chromatid-crossover-observed-in-a-parentage-test
#9
Huiyong Jiao, He Ren, Yaran Yang, Bin Ni, Haiyan Zhou, Wei Chen, Yunwang Cao, Chuguang Chen, Yanmei Huang, Jiangwei Yan
A maternity testing case is reported, in which the child showed tri-allelic patterns in two short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The genotypes of Penta D of the mother and the child were 9,13 and 9,10,13, respectively. Those of D21S11 were 32.2,35 and 29,35, respectively, but intensity ratio of alleles 29 and 35 of the child was 1:2. These results suggested the copy number variations (CNVs) or trisomy of chromosome 21. By further examination using STR-based chromosome aneuploidy detection kit, three alleles were detected in D21S1411, LFG21 and Penta D, and 2 alleles with intensity ratio of 1:2 were observed in D21S2502, D21S1435, D21S11 and D21S1246...
October 28, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125964/null-alleles-and-sequence-variations-at-primer-binding-sites-of-str-loci-within-multiplex-typing-systems
#10
Yining Yao, Qinrui Yang, Chengchen Shao, Baonian Liu, Yuxiang Zhou, Hongmei Xu, Yueqin Zhou, Qiqun Tang, Jianhui Xie
Rare variants are widely observed in human genome and sequence variations at primer binding sites might impair the process of PCR amplification resulting in dropouts of alleles, named as null alleles. In this study, 5 cases from routine paternity testing using PowerPlex(®)21 System for STR genotyping were considered to harbor null alleles at TH01, FGA, D5S818, D8S1179, and D16S539, respectively. The dropout of alleles was confirmed by using alternative commercial kits AGCU Expressmarker 22 PCR amplification kit and AmpFℓSTR(®)...
October 28, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102833/touch-dna-sampling-with-scenesafe-fast%C3%A2-minitapes
#11
Britta Stoop, Priscille Merciani Defaux, Silvia Utz, Martin Zieger
To achieve optimal results in the forensic analysis of trace DNA, choosing the right collection technique is crucial. Three common approaches are currently well-established for DNA retrieval from items of clothing, notably cutting, swabbing and tape-lifting. The latter two are non-destructive and therefore preferable on items of value. Even though the most recently established technique of DNA retrieval by adhesive tapes is widely used since quite some years now, little information has been published so far on how well it performs compared to other methods...
October 27, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073533/planned-and-unplanned-complex-suicides-casuistry-of-the-institute-of-legal-medicine-of-parma-italy
#12
Antonio Banchini, Maria Laura Schirripa, Luca Anzillotti, Rossana Cecchi
Complex suicide is performed using more harmful methods, simultaneously or consecutively. In these cases, the distinction between suicide and homicide represents a challenge for forensic pathologists. In literature, complex suicide is divided in two subgroups: "planned complex suicide" or "unplanned complex suicide" depending from forensic features and often related to psychiatric variables. Aim of this study was to show the casuistry of complex suicide in Parma's Forensic service analyzing, for each case, the forensic medical problems (type and site of lesions on the body), and the supplementary data [Police's inspection report, toxicological analysis and psychiatric anamnesis (when available)], trying, through a multidisciplinary approach, to determine a possible correlation between the victim's mood and suicide's method chosen, whether planned or unplanned...
October 13, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065367/a-healed-incomplete-rupture-of-a-small-artery-jutting-to-the-lateral-ventricle-a-possible-cause-of-primary-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#13
LETTER
Aya Takada, Kazuyuki Saito, Yoshie Hayashizaki, Naotaka Nozawa, Izumi Funakoshi, Shinjiro Mori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031107/accuracy-precision-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-micro-ct-analysis-of-false-starts-on-bones-a-preliminary-validation-study
#14
Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Paolo Fais, Michael Weber, Diego Miotto, Massimo Montisci, Guido Viel, Chiara Giraudo
Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) has already been proposed as a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of false starts (FS) produced on human bones, although the reliability and the error rate of this technique have not been tested yet, neither for qualitative nor for quantitative assessments. The aim of the present study was to test the morphological agreement, accuracy, precision and inter-rater reliability of micro-CT analysis of FS on bones. The morphological agreement was assessed through the degree of concordance among the 3 independent blind raters in the identification of the shape of 24 FS manually produced on bones by 3 different saws (8 FS for each saw)...
October 6, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073532/sexual-dimorphism-and-regional-variation-in-human-frontal-bone-inclination-measured-via-digital-3d-models
#15
Anja Petaros, Heather M Garvin, Sabrina B Sholts, Stefan Schlager, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U...
October 5, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054069/postmortem-distribution-of-chlorpyrifos-methyl-fenitrothion-and-their-metabolites-in-body-fluids-and-organ-tissues-of-an-intoxication-case
#16
Tatsunori Takayasu, Hiroki Yamamoto, Yuko Ishida, Mizuho Nosaka, Mariko Kawaguchi, Yumi Kuninaka, Akihiko Kimura, Toshikazu Kondo
We herein report a fatal intoxication case caused by the ingestion of the insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM) and fenitrothion (MEP). A 70-year-old man was found dead in his house and a cup containing a small amount of agricultural chemicals was on the table near his body. External and internal examinations revealed no injuries. In a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening test, CPFM, MEP, and their metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (3MNP), respectively, were qualitatively detected in his stomach contents...
October 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017087/detection-of-butane-gas-inhalation-at-16days-after-hypoxic-encephalopathy-a-case-report
#17
Takako Sato, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kento Tsuboi, Munehiro Katagi, Akihiro Miki, Takashi Saito, Shuntaro Abe, Masakatsu Nomura, Misa Kitagawa, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Koichi Suzuki
In Japan, there are increasing reports of death by poisoning following butane abuse. To determine the specific cause of death in such cases, it is important to confirm the presence of fuel gas components in the body, although careful analysis is required because of their volatile properties. In most reported cases, the subject died suddenly during or immediately after butane aspiration. Thus, the butane concentration in the samples from the deceased should be relatively high. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man found with cardiopulmonary arrest, who then exhibited hypoxic encephalopathy for 16days in a hospital...
October 3, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017086/dose-dependent-mortality-involving-convulsions-due-to-subarachnoid-urografin%C3%A2-injection-in-rats
#18
Ryo Shimada, Jiro Ezaki, Kazuhiko Kibayashi
An ionically hypertonic contrast medium Urografin® was inadvertently administered into the subarachnoid space of an individual and this resulted in convulsions and acute respiratory failure. We examined the effects of subarachnoid Urografin® injections on the rat central nervous system. The onset and frequency of the convulsions, as well as fatality, were dependent on the amount of Urografin® administered. No convulsions were observed in rats receiving injections of hypertonic NaCl solution or saline. The results confirmed that subarachnoid injections of Urografin® cause convulsions and death, as previously reported in human cases, and our study ascertained the causal relationship between the above malpractice and fatal outcomes...
September 30, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964983/death-due-to-non-traumatic-hemoperitoneum-in-milan-2002-2016-with-focus-on-two-cases-of-abdominal-apoplexy-idiopathic-spontaneous-hemoperitoneum-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Alessio Battistini, Matteo Marchesi, Alberto Amadasi, Alessandra Rancati, Guendalina Gentile, Riccardo Zoja
Abdominal apoplexy, also known as idiopathic spontaneous hemoperitoneum, is a rare event related to sudden death, whose diagnosis and treatment is extremely challenging and whose pathologic mechanisms are still mainly unknown. It is frequently associated with vascular disorders (alterations in the vascular structures) and mainly linked to liver cirrhosis. However, the presence of hemoperitoneum may in such cases pose many challenges to forensic post-mortem examinations since the source of bleeding remains often unknown even after a careful and thorough dissection...
September 23, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964984/post-mortem-ct-of-intrahepatic-gas-distribution-in-twenty-seven-victims-of-a-flood-patterns-and-timing
#20
Daniela Sapienza, Antonio Bottari, Patrizia Gualniera, Alessio Asmundo, Fabrizio Perri, Michele Gaeta
We reported the results of post mortem computed tomography of the liver in 27 subjects dead simultaneously during a flood. The aim of our work was to identify the different patterns of post mortem intrahepatic gas distribution and the timing of its appearance. Although post mortem CT is the method of choice for the evaluation of gas distribution, controversies exist about the first site of appearance of intrahepatic gas (portal veins versus hepatic veins) as well as the timing and steps of intrahepatic gas spreading...
September 21, 2017: Legal Medicine
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