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Legal Medicine

Dina Ali Shokry, Maged Nabil Hussein, Fatma Mohamed Hassan, Axel Heinemann, Hermann Vogel, Klaus Pueschel
OBJECTIVES: Recently, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) has been proven as a reliable tool in the diagnosis of vascular pathology, while its potential efficiency in the detection of soft tissue lesions is ignored. In this study, we have evaluated the overall diagnostic value of MPMCTA in the diagnosis of blunt traumatic deaths in selected cases to determine its additional advantages and limitations in order to identify its potential applications. METHODS: This prospective study examined 14 decedents presented to the Department of Legal Medicine of Hamburg University that alleged death due to blunt trauma...
July 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Rie Nishikata, Naho Kato, Miwako Suto, Mami Rinno, Naohito Kuroda, Yuko Hashimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Legal Medicine
Atsushi Iwawaki, Yusei Otaka, Ruri Asami, Tomonori Ozawa, Maki Izawa, Hideki Saka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Legal Medicine
Francisca Duijs, Linda van de Merwe, Titia Sijen, Corina C G Benschop
Advances in autosomal DNA profiling systems enable analyzing increased numbers of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in one reaction. Increasing the number of STR loci increases the amount of information that may be obtained from a (crime scene) sample. In this study, we examined whether even more allelic information can be obtained by applying low-template methods. To this aim, the performance of the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C STR typing system was assessed when increasing the number of PCR cycles or enhancing the capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings...
June 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Marija Antunovic, Ivan Galic, Ksenija Zelic, Nenad Nedeljkovic, Emira Lazic, Marija Djuric, Roberto Cameriere
AIM: From a medico-legal and penalty point of view, it is essential to conclude if an individual is a minor or an adult (18 years of age). Methods based on the third molar development have been used for this purpose. The present article aims to verify the Nolla's stages of mineralization of the third molars and a third molar maturity index (I3M ) which is based on the measures of the projections of open apices normalized by their height in the sample of Montenegrins. METHOD AND SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 683 panoramic radiographs (324 males and 359 females) between 13 and 24 years of age...
May 28, 2018: Legal Medicine
Petra Urbanová, Tomáš Vojtíšek, Jan Frišhons, Ondřej Šandor, Mikoláš Jurda, Jan Krajsa
Postmortem facial identification is one of the most common techniques for establishing a deceased person's identity. In victims suffering from devastating cranial injuries, the feasibility of facial identification tasks can be compromised by damage to or disfigurement of the identifying cranial features. Although there are several reconstructive approaches, which help experts to restore the essence of person's physical appearance, thus enhancing the chances of recognition, only a few of them involve restoring the fractured cranial bones as the foundation for the reconstructed soft tissues...
May 22, 2018: Legal Medicine
Tatsushi Mizutani, Takashi Yoshimoto, Akira Ishii
We examined postmortem β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels in the body fluids obtained from 253 forensic autopsy cases whose causes of death were determined. Postmortem changes of BHB levels according to postmortem intervals (PMI) in various body fluids (plasma, urine, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluids) were investigated to determine appropriate alternative specimens as plasma samples. Our study has indicated the following points: 1) the BHB levels in plasma specimens from three sampling sites showed no significant differences, 2) postmortem changes of BHB levels in plasma and pericardial fluids could be negligible within 96 h PMI, while urine and vitreous humor BHB levels showed postmortem changes, and 3) pericardial fluid would thus be most suitable as an alternative to plasma in postmortem BHB level...
May 21, 2018: Legal Medicine
Ewelina Pieprzyca, Rafał Skowronek, Małgorzata Korczyńska, Joanna Kulikowska, Małgorzata Chowaniec
α-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (PV8) is a representative of α-pyrrolidinophenone derivatives, a new group of synthetic cathinones. PV8 was first detected in illegal products in Japan in 2013. It is closely related to α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), which was one of the most popular novel psychoactive substance (NPS) in Poland in years 2013-2015. The article presents two cases of fatal poisonings of 36-year-old man and 37-year-old woman, where a new cathinone derivative - PV8 was detected in biological material collected during medicolegal autopsies...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
Tomoko Akutsu, Ken Watanabe, Ayari Takamura, Koichi Sakurada
The source of small amounts of touch DNA, which is transferred from the skin to an object when it is handled or touched, could be an issue in the forensic analysis of criminal cases. Here, we performed an extended evaluation of skin- or sweat-characteristic mRNAs to investigate their usability to infer whether an object has been handled or touched by someone. First, we compared the expression levels of candidate genes between skin swabs and other body fluids by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Among the analyzed genes, corneodesmosin (CDSN), late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C), filaggrin (FLG), desmocollin 1, and dermcidin were selected for further analysis on the basis of their specificities and sensitivities...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
Jesús Sarabia, Cristina Pérez-Martínez, Juan Pedro Hernández Del Rincón, Aurelio Luna
A substantial challenge faced by forensic medicine is determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of skeletonized remains. Currently, the luminol method is of limited forensic usefulness, since it uses qualitative and subjective methods to estimate PMI by the naked eye assessing the degree of chemiluminescence (CL) emitted by bone remains, a technique which is not sensitive enough to distinguish between historical or forensically significant time intervals. The aim of the present study was to use a direct and accurate measurement of the CL by luminol technique in relative light units (RLU) using a luminometer to establish this method as a possible complementary and low cost tool for the determination of the PMI for distinguishing between remains of medical-legal (<20 years) and historical (≥20 years) interest in 102 femur remains with a range of PMI between 15 and 64 years...
May 5, 2018: Legal Medicine
Jeta Kelmendi, Marin Vodanović, Ferit Koçani, Venera Bimbashi, Blerim Mehmeti, Ivan Galić
BACKGROUND: Tooth formation was recognized as useful body system to assess maturity and predict age. Tooth mineralization is much less affected by the endocrine and different nutritional status than bone mineralization, and teeth formation provides a more reliable indication of chronological age. Demirjian et al. in 1973 presented a scoring system and method for dental age estimation on a sample of French-Canadian children. Chaillet et al. and Willems et al. modified original Demirjian method...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Isao Yuasa, Atsushi Akane, Toshimichi Yamamoto, Aya Matsusue, Minoru Endoh, Mayumi Nakagawa, Kazuo Umetsu, Takaki Ishikawa, Morio Iino
It is sometimes necessary to determine whether a forensic biological sample came from a Japanese person. In this study, we developed a 60-locus SNP assay designed for the differentiation of Japanese people from other East Asians using entirely and nearly Japanese-specific alleles. This multiplex assay consisted of 6 independent PCR reactions followed by single nucleotide extension. The average number and standard deviation of Japanese-specific alleles possessed by an individual were 0.81 ± 0.93 in 108 Koreans from Seoul, 8...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Antonio Cabrini, Danilo De Angelis, Cristina Cattaneo
With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, the study of HIV/AIDS on bones has become of pivotal interest for research in bone pathologies, forensic applications (especially in the matter of identification when confronted to antemortem data) and medical purposes. In this paper, we document and discuss the macroscopic lesions found on the skeletons of nine individuals with known HIV, including four with known AIDS, coming from the identified CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Shusaku Matsumura, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Kenji Hara, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Detection of body fluid-specific mRNAs, such as those specific for blood, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a useful tool in forensic science. Blood stains often contain PCR inhibitors that may be co-extracted with RNA and adversely affect PCR. The effects of inhibitors on the detection of mRNA markers for blood identification, namely, hemoglobin beta (HBB) and actin beta, were examined herein. Inhibitors were added to a real-time PCR mix, reverse transcription mix, and blood samples before RNA extraction, and the following parameters: Ct, delta Ct (dCt), and melting temperature (Tm) values, were monitored...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
Martin Janík, Petr Hejna, Ľubomír Straka, Jozef Krajčovič, František Novomeský
Strangulation of the heart appears to be an exceedingly rare mechanical phenomenon that can develop with epicardial pacing wires in individuals undergoing somatic growth. Over the passage of time, owing to size mismatch between a fixed wire length and dynamically growing heart, the epicardial wire may embed around the heart resulting in the progressive over-pressurizing of involved cardiac structures. Depending on the location of the peak constriction pressures, cardiac strangulation may damagingly affect coronary circulation, heart valves function, or physiologic filling of the heart chambers, with risk of myocardial ischemia, decreased cardiac output, acute cardiac failure, ventricular arrhythmias and death...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
G J Locia-Aguilar, B López-Saucedo, S Deheza-Bautista, O V Salado-Beltrán, V M Martínez-Sevilla, H Rangel-Villalobos
Allele distribution and forensic parameters were estimated for 15 STR loci (AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit) in 251 Mexican-Mestizos from the state of Guerrero (South, Mexico). Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all 15 STRs. Similarly, linkage disequilibrium test demonstrated no association between pair of loci. The power of exclusion and power of discrimination values were 99.999634444% and >99.99999999%, respectively. Genetic relationship analysis regarding Mestizo populations from the main geographic regions of Mexico suggests that the Center and the present South regions conform one population cluster, separated from the Southeast and Northwest regions...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
Shanshan Zhang, Shuyi Han, Maoxiu Zhang, Yunshan Wang
Invasive prenatal paternity tests can result in miscarriage and congenital malformations; therefore, a non-invasive method of testing is preferable. However, little progress could be made in this field until the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in 2009. In this review, two aspects regarding the history and development of non-invasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) are summarized: (1) extraction and enrichment of cffDNA and (2) genetic marker-based studies. Although column-based kits are used widely for NIPAT, some researchers have suggested that an automated method, such as magnetic extraction, generally has a higher cffDNA yield than that of manual column-based extraction; therefore, its popularity might increase in the near future...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
Cheng Xiao, Zhiyong Peng, Feilong Chen, Hui Yan, Bofeng Zhu, Yunchun Tai, Pingming Qiu, Chao Liu, Xuheng Song, Zihao Wu, Ling Chen
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most widely used genetic markers in current forensic practice. However, STR mutations have troubled paternity test all the time. To ensure the accuracy in parentage testing, it is important to obtain population mutation data and identify factors that affect STR mutation rates. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on 322 mutation events in 19 autosomal STR loci from 12,752 meiotic events in 9,626 parentage test cases. The average mutation rate for the 19 STR loci was estimated at 1...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
Simone Cappelletti, Daria Piacentino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Legal Medicine
Rie Sano, Yoichiro Takahashi, Akira Hayakawa, Masayuki Murayama, Rieko Kubo, Satoshi Hirasawa, Hiroyuki Tokue, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Hiroyuki Takei, Masahiro Yuasa, Shinji Uetake, Hisashi Akuzawa, Yoshihiko Kominato
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is becoming a commonly used modality in routine forensic investigation. Mechanical injuries including lacerations, incisions, stab wounds and gunshot wounds frequently contain foreign bodies that may have significant value as clues in criminal investigations. CT is a sensitive modality for detection of metal foreign bodies that may be associated with injuries to the victim in cases of homicide or traffic accidents. Here we report two cases in which PMCT was able to act as a guide to forensic pathologists for retrieval of metal fragments in the corpses of the victims, the retrieved fragments then being used to validate the confessions of the assailants through comparison with the knife and the crowbar, respectively, that had been used in the crimes...
May 2018: Legal Medicine
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