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Legal Medicine

Keishin Sunagawa, Masahiko Sugitani
AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of examining pairs of blood culture samples obtained from separate sites (both ventricles or the aorta and vena cava) for detecting bacteremia in the post-mortem setting. METHODS: Autopsy cases in which bacterial species were isolated from blood cultures were identified over a 4-year period. Ante-mortem and post-mortem records and the findings of pathological examinations were reviewed. RESULTS: Overall, 23 bacterial species were detected in 18 autopsy cases...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Hidemi Okuma, Wataru Gonoi, Masanori Ishida, Go Shirota, Shigeaki Kanno, Yukako Shintani, Hiroyuki Abe, Masashi Fukayama, Kuni Ohtomo
As postmortem imaging has gained prominence as a supplement to traditional autopsy, it is important to understand the normal postmortem changes to enable the accurate evaluation of postmortem imaging. No studies have evaluated the postmortem changes in cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) compared with antemortem images in the same subjects. We studied 147 consecutive subjects who underwent antemortem and postmortem CT, and autopsy. Postmortem CT was performed <23h after death and was followed by autopsy. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal heart, old myocardial infarction, and CPR-treated hearts...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
P Charlier, R Weil, R Deblock, A Augias, S Deo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Edilene S Andrade, Nádia C A Fracasso, Paulo S Strazza Júnior, Aguinaldo L Simões, Celso T Mendes-Junior
Panels composed of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to pigmentation, when associated with different phenotypes, may assist in predicting the physical appearance of an individual, being very useful in forensic caseworks. We evaluated the association of seven OCA2-HERC2 SNPs and haplotypes with pigmentation characteristics (eye, skin, hair and freckles) in the highly admixed and phenotypically heterogeneous Brazilian population. All the seven SNPs evaluated presented one allele associated with phenotypes from at least two pigmentation features and the alternative allele associated with the opposite phenotypes from the same trait...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Yoko Toukairin, Tomomi Arai, Tomoaki Hoshi, Juan Alejandro Oliva Trejo, Makoto Nogami
Identification of fly larvae species may offer valuable information as to the location, or the environment in which corpses were placed, but only if the geographical distribution of larva species is clarified. In this study, we investigated a total of 126 larvae on 42 corpses found in Saitama Prefecture in Japan between July and September. We identified the larva species by analyzing the sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I. Our results revealed that larvae belonged to 6 different species: Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya pinguis from the Calliphoridae family, and Parasarcophaga crassipalpis, Boettcherisca peregrina, Parasarcophaga harpax, and Parasarcophaga dux from the Sarcophagidae family...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Shiyuan Zhou, Haili Wang, Qing K Wang, Pengyun Wang, Fengyu Wang, Chengqi Xu
Short tandem repeat (STR) is widely used for DNA profiling in forensic sciences for its stable inheritance. Genomic variations in STR loci may affect the results of the genotyping. In this study, using STR profiling and genome-wide chromosomal microarray assay, we detected the incidence of uniparental disomy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a case of a parental testing, which altered the genotype of three commonly used STR markers including D2S1338, D2S441 and D2S1776. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time found that LOH affect the genotyping of STR markers commonly used for paternity testing...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Chikatoshi Maseda, Akira Hayakawa, Katsuhiro Okuda, Masaru Asari, Hiroki Tanaka, Hiromi Yamada, Shigeki Jin, Kie Horioka, Kotaro Matoba, Hiroshi Shiono, Kazuo Matsubara, Keiko Shimizu
Being a stable metabolite of hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate has been utilized as an index for hydrogen sulfide poisoning (HSP). Thiosulfate analysis is mainly performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) due to its high sensitivity and specificity. The GC-MS analysis requires two-step derivatizations of thiosulfate, and the derivative is not stable in solution as it has a disulfide moiety. To resolve this stability issue, we developed a novel analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring the pentafluorobenzyl derivative of thiosulfate (the first reaction product of the GC-MS method) in this study...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Eric Nerger, Ronny Bayer, Tobias Gärtner, Jan Dreßler, Benjamin Ondruschka
An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Liqin Zhai, Xiangjie Guo, Haoyue Zhang, Qianqian Jin, Qiang Zeng, Xiaoxian Tang, Cairong Gao
The underlying mechanism of non-ionic iodinated contrast media-related immediate reactions was evaluated in this study. Patients presenting at least grade II immediate reactions after non-ionic iodinated contrast media injection were enrolled. Basophil activation was evaluated by flow cytometry. The plasma concentration of human terminal complement complex SC5b-9, as well as concentrations of serum chymase, tryptase, human mast cell carboxypeptidase A3, human prostaglandin D2, and total IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Xiao-Pen Lee, Yukiko Shouji, Takeshi Kumazawa, Chika Hasegawa, Masaya Fujishiro, Junichi Sato, Iwao Hasegawa, Keizo Sato
A high-throughput method was developed for the detection of 31 benzodiazepine drugs and tandospirone in human plasma by on-line column-switching ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma samples (100μl) spiked with the 32 drugs and oxazepam-d5 (internal standard) were diluted with 300μl of 13.3mM ammonium acetate/acetonitrile (33:67, v/v). After centrifugation and filtration, the clear supernatant was injected directly onto the extraction column (Oasis HLB cartridge column). The following procedure was fully automated...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Paulo Dario, Ana Rita Oliveira, Teresa Ribeiro, Maria João Porto, Deodália Dias, Francisco Corte Real
In recent years, autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been comprehensively investigated in forensic research due to their usefulness in certain circumstances in complementing short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis, or even for use on their own when analysis of STRs fails. However, as with STRs, in order to properly use SNP markers in forensic casuistic we need to understand the population and forensic parameters in question. As a result of Portugal's colonial history during the time of empire, and the subsequent process of decolonization, some African individuals migrated to Portugal, giving rise to large African and African-descendent communities...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Takahito Hayashi, Takuma Nakamae, Eri Higo, Kazuya Ikematsu, Mamoru Ogata
Physical abuse of the elderly induces a massive primed neutrophil infiltration into the lung and liver through chemotaxis by interleukin (IL)-8, similar to cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Here, we used immunohistochemical analyses to investigate this infiltration in cases of physically abused children. In addition, we examined the expression of neutrophil elastase (NE) as the inflammatory mediator and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) as the elastase inhibitor. The number of neutrophils in the abuse cases was increased significantly in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, compared with that of control cases...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Hideki Hyodoh, Kotaro Matoba, Manabu Murakami, Tomoko Matoba, Atsuko Saito, Fei Feng, Shigeki Jin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of freezing preparation for macroscopic investigation in advanced putrefied brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After sealing in individual plastic bags, 10 pig heads were stored at 20°C for 5days allow postmortem change (putrefaction) to progress. After an observation period, they were divided into 2 groups to evaluate the usefulness of the freezing effect in macroscopic investigation. The process over the postmortem period and the freezing process were examined...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Hiroki Yamamoto, Tatsunori Takayasu, Mizuho Nosaka, Akihiko Kimura, Yuko Ishida, Takashi Kawaguchi, Mie Fukami, Misato Okada, Toshikazu Kondo
A fatal case of acute nifedipine intoxication in a two-year-old boy is presented. The boy accidentally orally ingested an unknown amount of his grandfather's nifedipine (40mg/tablet), mistaking it for a ramune confectionery. Despite intensive medical treatment, his death was confirmed at 31h after the accidental ingestion. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither pathological alterations or injuries in all of the organs. Toxicologically, nifedipine could be detected at the concentrations of 0.463, 0...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
Erdinç Özdemir, Hüseyin Eş, Muhammet Demir, İbrahim Üzün
Voluntary inhalation/abuse of volatile substances is an important public health problem which especially affects adolescent and young populations worldwide and may be encountered in all socioeconomic and cultural levels. Lighter gas abuse-related death is still an important health problem in Turkey. In this study, 25,265 case files and final reports submitted to the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the First Specialization Board between January 2011 and December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. In 56 of these cases, lighter gas inhalation (n-butane, propane, isobutane) was recorded as the cause of death...
January 2017: Legal Medicine
O Ibáñez, R Vicente, D Navega, C Campomanes-Álvarez, C Cattaneo, R Jankauskas, M I Huete, F Navarro, R Hardiman, E Ruiz, K Imaizumi, F Cavalli, E Veselovskaya, D Humpire, J Cardoso, F Collini, D Mazzarelli, D Gibelli, S Damas
Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante-mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. The lack of unified working protocols and the absence of commonly accepted standards, led to contradictory consensus regarding its reliability. One of the more important aims of 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project was to propose a common framework for CFS, what can be considered the first international standard in the field...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
Kazuhisa Funayama, Junko Fujihara, Haruo Takeshita, Hisakazu Takatsuka
A foreign body impacted in the esophagus is not a rare incident among adults or children. In adults, a dental prosthesis is prone to become impacted in the esophagus. The diagnostic difficulty of this often causes a delay in its removal, which can lead to serious complications, including death. This report describes the autopsy case of a man who died of prolonged asphyxiation induced by the delayed removal of an impacted denture, which was misdiagnosed on his first visit notwithstanding that a part of the denture could be seen on X-rays...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ali Er, Mustafa Bozdag, Mustafa Akcaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Julieta G García-Donas, Elena F Kranioti
The utilization of computed tomography is beneficial for the analysis of skeletal remains and it has important advantages for anthropometric studies. The present study investigated morphometry of left tibia using CT images of a contemporary Turkish population. Seven parameters were measured on 203 individuals (124 males and 79 females) within the 19-92-years age group. The first objective of this study was to provide population-specific sex estimation equations for the contemporary Turkish population based on CT images...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli, Simona Zaami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Legal Medicine
Haeyong Lee, Myung Jin Park, Seol Hee Sun, Dong-Ho Choi, Yang-Han Lee, Ki-Won Park, Byung Won Chun
The leucomalachite green (LMG) test is one of catalytic tests for the detection of latent bloodstains and generally used in forensic field because of convenience and cost/time-effectiveness. However, contamination of latent bloodstains at crime scenes can interfere with the LMG reaction, resulting in false-negative or false-positive decisions. Herein, we examined if ascorbic acid and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid or ascorbate)-containing beverages affect the LMG reaction. Ascorbic acid showed the inhibitory activities on the LMG reaction in a dose-dependent manner...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
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