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Legal Medicine

Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
We report the quantification of immunohistochemical findings for a diagnosis of dementia in autopsy cases among older decedents. Autopsy cases were selected with the following requirements: >65yo; no head injuries, thermal injuries, or heat stroke; no intracranial lesions; and within 48h of death. Among cases that met all requirements, 10 had a clinical diagnosis of dementia were included in dementia group. Non-dementia group consisted of 38 cases without any record of dementia. To compare these groups, immunohistochemically, beta-amyloid, tau protein, gephyrin, and IL-33 were examined in five regions...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Rossana Cecchi
The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Daniele Gibelli, Federica Collini, Davide Porta, Matteo Zago, Claudia Dolci, Cristina Cattaneo, Chiarella Sforza
Facial approximation techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft-tissue thickness databases. However most of articles deal with adult populations, and very few studies were conducted on minors. This study aims at providing data concerning facial thickness for George reconstruction, preliminary to the 3D facial approximation. Diagnostic cephalometric X-ray films were obtained from 222 healthy Caucasoid children (91 boys and 131 girls), aged between 6 and 18years, treated in a Department of Orthodontics of Northern Italy...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Koji Fujii, Haruhiko Watahiki, Yusuke Mita, Yasuki Iwashima, Hajime Miyaguchi, Tetsushi Kitayama, Hiroaki Nakahara, Natsuko Mizuno, Kazumasa Sekiguchi
In short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, length polymorphisms are detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE). At most STR loci, mobility shift due to sequence variation in the repeat region was thought not to affect the typing results. In our recent population studies of 1501 Japanese individuals, off-ladder calls were observed at the D12S391 locus using PowerPlex Fusion in nine samples for allele 22, one sample for allele 25, and one sample for allele 26. However, these samples were typed as ordinary alleles within the bins using GlobalFiler...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Eriko Ochiai, Kiyoshi Minaguchi, Phrabhakaran Nambiar, Yu Kakimoto, Fumiko Satoh, Masato Nakatome, Keiko Miyashita, Motoki Osawa
The Y chromosomal haplogroup determined from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combinations is a valuable genetic marker to study ancestral male lineage and ethical distribution. Next-generation sequencing has been developed for widely diverse genetics fields. For this study, we demonstrate 34 Y-SNP typing employing the Ion PGM™ system to perform haplogrouping. DNA libraries were constructed using the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel. Emulsion PCR was performed, then DNA sequences were analyzed on the Ion 314 and 316 Chip Kit v2...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
L S Barrientos, J A Crespi, A Fameli, D M Posik, H Morales, P Peral García, G Giovambattista
Dog fecal samples were collected at the crime scene and from the shoes of the suspect to see whether they could be linked. DNA was genotyped using a 145bp fragment containing a 60bp hotspot region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Once the species origin was identified, sequences were aligned with the 23 canine haplotypes defined, showing that evidence and reference had 100% identity with haplotype 5. The frequency of haplotype 5 and the exclusion power of the reference population were 0.056 and 0...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu, Ayari Takamura, Koichi Sakurada
The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Meng Wei Tai, Zhen Feng Chong, Muhammad Khan Asif, Rabiah A Rahmat, Phrabhakaran Nambiar
This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Jessica Rothe, Marion Nagy
One of the most demanding DNA extractions is from bones and teeth due to the robustness of the material and the relatively low DNA content. The greatest challenge is due to the manifold nature of the material, which is defined by various factors, including age, storage, environmental conditions, and contamination with inhibitors. However, most published protocols do not distinguish between different types or qualities of bone material, but are described as being generally applicable. Our laboratory works with two different extraction methods based on silica membranes or the use of silica beads...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Kohei Morikawa, Hideki Hyodoh, Kotaro Matoba, Keisuke Mizuo, Shunichiro Okazaki, Satoshi Watanabe
PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) CT density at the lateral ventricle to compare the postmortem intervals in cadavers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of cadavers enrolled in this study was 189 (male 120, female 69). According to the estimated postmortem time, the cadavers were divided into 13 groups (postmortem day 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30), and were also re-grouped into 3 groups according to the postmortem time-width: group A (postmortem day 0...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Naoto Tani, Tomomi Michiue, Jian-Hua Chen, Shigeki Oritani, Takaki Ishikawa
A severely malnourished, Japanese female in her twenties was found dead in her apartment. On autopsy, most of the findings from the internal examination were suggestive of hypothermia. Postmortem biochemistry, however, showed severely increased levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood and urine glucose levels. Levels of acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate in various body fluids were also highly increased, indicating ketosis. The serum insulin and c-peptide levels were severely low, and subsequent testing was positive for anti-GAD antibodies...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Shigeki Jin, Hideki Hyodoh, Kotaro Matoba, Fei Feng, Akira Hayakawa, Katsuhiro Okuda, Keiko Shimizu, Sanae Haga, Michitaka Ozaki, Koichi Terazawa
Thiosulfate measurement is crucial to diagnosis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning in forensic toxicology. Although GC-MS method is currently regarded as a standard thiosulfate measurement, it requires complicated sample preparation prior to analysis. This study presents a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for the quantitative analysis of serum thiosulfate by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method is based on selected reaction monitoring and has high sensitivity with a lower quantification limit of 0...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Yoichiro Takahashi, Rie Sano, Yoshihiko Kominato, Rieko Kubo, Keiko Takahashi, Tamiko Nakajima, Haruo Takeshita, Takashi Ishige
We investigated a case of sudden unexpected death involving a 22-month-old male homozygotic twin infant. After both of the twins had suffered from gastroenteritis, one was found dead in his bed, but his brother survived and has since been healthy. Notably, only the deceased had been treated with an antibiotic containing pivalic acid, which may sometimes cause hypocarnitinemia. Postmortem computed tomography and medicolegal autopsy demonstrated severe liver steatosis, and subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the twin had the thermolabile variant of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT2)...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Namiko Ishii, Ayaka Sakuma, Yohsuke Makino, Suguru Torimitsu, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Yumi Hoshioka, Hirotaro Iwase, Hisako Saitoh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a contemporary Japanese population using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and examine whether this characteristic root form may be useful for identification purposes. METHODS: Prior to their forensic autopsies, we obtained MDCT scans of 365 cadavers (255 males, 110 females) with mandibular first molars on both sides. Altogether, 730 mandibular first molars were examined morphologically on reconstructed CT images, and the incidence of three-rooted molars was recorded...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Naoko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Ayaka Takakura, Mostofa Jamal, Asuka Ito, Mitsuru Kumihashi, Kunihiko Tsutsui, Shoji Kimura, Kiyoshi Ameno
We investigated gunshot wounds in two autopsy cases using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Lead and copper were detected in the entrance wound of one case and lead, antimony, and copper were detected in that of the other case. In the exit wounds of both cases, lead, antimony, and copper were below detection limits. These findings indicate that the detection of metallic elements, such as lead, antimony, and copper, which are found in bullets, may be useful for differentiating entrance from exit wounds using EDX...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Rie Nishikata, Naho Kato, Miwako Suto, Mami Rinnou, Ikubumi Mizusawa, Naohito Kuroda
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) has a relatively non-aggressive clinical course; either spontaneous closure or causing congestive heart failure treatable with surgical intervention. We present two autopsy cases of sudden infant deaths from clinically undiagnosed VSDs. Case 1 was an 18-day-old boy. As the deceased coughed and became limp after feeding, he was carried to a hospital. Heart murmur was not auscultated there, so he was brought back to home. He presented severe dyspnea and then he was pronounced dead the next day...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Kenji Hara, Brian Waters, Natsuki Ikematsu, Tomoko Tokuyasu, Hiroshi Fujii, Mio Takayama, Aya Matsusue, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Simple and efficient extraction methods have been developed for the screening of a wide array of drugs in postmortem autopsy specimens. Acidic and basic compounds were targeted with two extraction methods that can be applied to both GC-MS and LC-MS/MS instrumentation. The extractions were achieved by utilizing lipid-removal and solid-phase extraction cartridges while carefully monitoring the pH of the samples to ensure the adequate removal of interfering substances like lipids and amino acid derivatives. These methods were applied to actual autopsy cases, with 94 and 124 compounds detected by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
Josip Crnjac, Petar Ozretić, Siniša Merkaš, Martina Ratko, Mateja Lozančić, Sara Rožić, Daniel Špoljarić, Marina Korolija, Maja Popović, Gordan Mršić
Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit is a commercially available set that allows simultaneous PCR amplification of 12 X-STR markers belonging to four linkage groups (LG). To assess the forensic efficiency of these markers for the population of central Croatia and consequent applicability in routine forensic casework, DNA from 200 blood samples of unrelated donors (100 female and 100 male) was amplified by Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Statistical computations based on allele and haplotype frequencies for LG1 - LG4 were performed using Arlequin 3...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
Takako Sato, Aya Kashiwai, Chisato Ota, Masakatsu Nomura, Kento Tsuboi, Misa Kitagawa, Shuntaro Abe, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Koichi Suzuki
The incidence of pancreatic injury after blunt abdominal trauma is extremely low. A timely and accurate diagnosis is important, as a delay could be life-threatening. In this case, a 70-year-old driver crashed a car into a concrete wall at low speed. He was transported to the emergency hospital but died about 9.5h later with the cause of death unknown. An autopsy revealed that his pancreas was lacerated in the coronal plane and there was mesenteric contusion. Cause of death was determined to be blood loss resulting from pancreatic and mesenteric contusion...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
Sebastian Rojek, Filip Bolechała, Karol Kula, Martyna Maciów-Głąb, Małgorzata Kłys
Unlike amphetamine, amphetamine-like substances accessible on the drug market are less expensive and more easily available; they also produce hallucinogenic effects expected by the users. Such properties render them more attractive as compared to amphetamine. On the other hand, the knowledge of the toxicity of these compounds is very limited, what in consequence generates problems that create ever-expanding research areas, including analytical, clinical and medicolegal issues, thus leading to development of systemic databases...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
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