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Legal Medicine

Malou Guérant, Marie-Aude Vaz, Michel Peoc'h, Yvan Gaillard, Baptiste Boyer
Rubber bullets weapons can have tragic consequences when used at short range and on vulnerable body areas. A man in his forties was found deceased at his house, covered in blood. A "non-lethal" firearm was found near the bed: the «SAPL GC27». This is a single shot handgun with mini Gomm Cogne ammunition: 12 rubber spherical pellets, 7.4 mm in diameter. The findings were consistent with an intra buccal shot, and an ingestion-inhalation of blood and projectiles. Cause of the death was linked to both the hemorrhage due to mouth and aero digestive crossroad trauma, responsible of a mechanical asphyxia, and blood absorption in lungs...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Satoko Mishima-Kimura, Kosei Yonemitsu, Yuki Ohtsu, Ako Sasao, Hiroshi Tsutsumi, Shota Furukawa, Yoko Nishitani
We report a forensic autopsy case of an elderly man who ingested unknown amount of germicidal disinfectant containing 50% benzalkonium chloride (BZK). He survived for 18 days after BZK ingestion and then died because of pneumonia. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used to detect three BZK compounds (C12 -BZK, C14 -BZK and C16 -BZK) in the blood. Extraction of BZK was carried out according to a modified QuEChERS method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS column and detection was performed in selected reaction monitoring mode...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Mio Takayama, Brian Waters, Hiroshi Fujii, Kenji Hara, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Byung-Yoon Roh, Won-Joon Lee, Jeong-Uk Seo, U-Young Lee, Sang-Seob Lee
The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Lan Yao, Zhen Xu, Hemiao Zhao, Zheng Tu, Zhifang Liu, Wanshui Li, Lan Hu, Lihua Wan
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) of six samples from three forensic cases was sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The analyzed samples from forensic cases included bloodstains from several materials, such as gauze, Flinder's Technology Associates (FTA) cards and swabs. The age of the samples ranged from two months to twelve years. The complete mtGenomes were amplified using the tiling sequencing strategy which divided the whole mtGenome into 162 amplicons...
February 27, 2018: Legal Medicine
Kyleen Elwick, Carrie Mayes, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
In cases such as mass disasters or missing persons, human remains are challenging to identify as they may be fragmented, burnt, been buried, decomposed, and/or contain inhibitory substances. This study compares the performance of a relatively new STR kit in the US market (Investigator® 24plex QS kit; Qiagen) with the GlobalFiler® PCR Amplification kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) when genotyping highly inhibited and low level DNA samples. In this study, DNA samples ranging from 1 ng to 7.8 pg were amplified to define the sensitivity of two systems...
February 17, 2018: Legal Medicine
Nozomi Idota, Mami Nakamura, Misa Tojo, Hiroaki Ichioka, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
An 11-month-old boy with marked abdominal distension was found dead in the prone position at home. Since there were many bruises in the non-protruding regions of the head, face, and abdomen, a medicolegal autopsy was performed the following day. The boy was smaller than average (height: 68.5 cm; weight: 7.8 kg); his extremities were thin; and his abdomen was remarkably bulging. Chylous ascites (1600 mL) was observed in the peritoneal cavity and chylous pleural effusion (left: 5 mL; right: 10 mL) in the thoracic cavity...
February 16, 2018: Legal Medicine
Hideaki Kato, Sanae Kanno, Jun Ohtaki, Yoshimi Nakamura, Katsumasa Kobayashi, Yasuhiro Aoki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
Mamiko Fukuta, Mohammed Hassan Gaballah, Hideaki Kato, Yasuhiro Aoki
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are useful for personal identification and kinship tests. However, it has not yet been fully established how to incorporate linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) into the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR). In this paper, we describe a simple calculation method of LR for X-STRs that incorporated linkage, LD, and mutations. Initially, Japanese population data of 27 X-STRs (DXS6807, DXS9902, DXS6795, DXS6810, DXS10076, DXS10077, DXS10078, DXS10162, DXS10163, DXS10164, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS10103, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS8377, DXS10147, and DXS7423) were collected from 748 unrelated individuals to estimate the influence of LD...
February 12, 2018: Legal Medicine
Sarah Norsworthy, Desmond S Lun, Catherine M Grgicak
The interpretation of DNA evidence may rely upon the assumption that the forensic short tandem repeat (STR) profile is composed of multiple genotypes, or partial genotypes, originating from n contributors. In cases where the number of contributors (NOC) is in dispute, it may be justifiable to compute likelihood ratios that utilize different NOC parameters in the numerator and denominator, or present different likelihoods separately. Therefore, in this work, we evaluate the impact of allele dropout on estimating the NOC for simulated mixtures with up to six contributors in the presence or absence of a major contributor...
February 8, 2018: Legal Medicine
Shun Mizuno, Xiao-Pen Lee, Masaya Fujishiro, Takaaki Matsuyama, Miho Yamada, Yuki Sakamoto, Maiko Kusano, Kei Zaitsu, Chika Hasegawa, Iwao Hasegawa, Takeshi Kumazawa, Akira Ishii, Keizo Sato
A new high-throughput method was developed for analysis of valproate in human plasma samples by QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Plasma samples (0.2 ml) spiked with valproate and secobarbital-d5 (internal standard) were diluted with 1.3 ml of distilled water. Acetonitrile (1 ml) was added followed by 0.4 g MgSO4 and 0.1 g NaOAC. After a centrifugation step (2000 g for 10 min), 1 ml of the supernatant was transferred to a dispersive-solid phase extraction (dSPE) tube containing 150 mg MgSO4 and 50 mg C18...
February 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
The accuracies of the original Demirjian, modified Demirjian and Willems dental age estimation methods were compared for a Black Southern African population to determine their usefulness for forensic and anthropological purposes. Data were collected using a community-based prospective study design. Panoramic radiographs of seven left mandibular teeth from 540 children aged 5-15.99 years were scored using the three methods. Obtained estimates were compared to the chronological ages and mean absolute errors were calculated...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Patrizia Gualniera, Serena Serena
Retained surgical sponge events continue to occur despite the implementation of preventive surgical count policies, procedures, and adjunct technologies to manual counting. Such intraoperative mistakes can cause chronic nonspecific symptoms during the early postoperative period. When discovered years after surgery, they raise thorny medicolegal questions. We describe two cases from our practice that illustrate the need to identify the responsibility of the surgical team, as delineated in ministerial directives and the current legal framework, as well as the difficulty in evaluating clinical actions taken at different times and in different settings, with regard to the permanent health damage incurred by sponge retention...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Jee Won Lee, Chong Min Choung, Ju Yeon Jung, Hwan Young Lee, Si-Keun Lim
Previously, an age-predictive method based on DNA-methylation patterns in semen was developed, using three CpG sites (cg06304190 in the TTC7B gene, cg12837463, and cg06979108 in the NOX4 gene). Before considering the routine use of a new method in forensics, validation studies such as concordance and sensitivity tests are essential for obtaining expanded and more reliable forensic information. Here, we evaluated a previously described age-predictive method for semen for routine forensic use. Concordance testing showed a high correlation between the predicted and chronological age, with a mean absolute deviation from the chronological age of 4...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko, Agnieszka Dąbkowska
Evaluation of two suicidal helium inhalation cases is presented, comprising both conventional autopsy methods and postmortem computed tomography. Conventional postmortem examinations reveal no characteristic changes. Modern diagnostic techniques enabled to disclosethe presence of a very large amount of accumulated gas in all examined areas, including veins and arteries of the head, torso, lower extremities, heart chambers, and between muscle fibers in both cases. The changes due to possible putrefaction were taken into consideration - radiological alteration index was calculated...
January 10, 2018: Legal Medicine
Caiyong Yin, Chuwei Deng, Xiaoqin Qian, Huijie Huang, Yanfang Yu, Li Hu, Peng Chen, Feng Chen
The population-specific FST in STR loci of Chinese populations has not been focused on. Here, we genotyped 19 STRs in 530 unrelated healthy individuals of Xuzhou Han population, and collected data of 30,308 samples from 32 Hans and 50 minorities nationwide. The population-specific βi and locus-specific βil were calculated to evaluate the applicable value of STRs. Next, we generated the genetic structure of various ethnic populations by Neighbor-Joining tree and Multidimensional Scaling plot based on pairwise Nei's distances...
January 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Zhigui Wu, Xiang Lu, Fan Chen, Xinhua Dai, Yi Ye, Youyi Yan, Linchuan Liao
Accurately predicting the early postmortem interval (PMI) is of great significance in forensic practice. This study aimed to establish a novel method for estimating the early PMI by analyzing endogenous substances in the cardiac blood of male and female rats and compare different model for estimating early PMI using these data. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (50% male) were sacrificed by suffocation. Then, cardiac blood was collected at various time intervals (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h) after death, and the collected samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
December 30, 2017: Legal Medicine
C Mariscal Ramos, G Martínez-Cortes, B Ramos-González, H Rangel-Villalobos
We studied the X-STR decaplex system in 529 DNA female samples of Mexican populations from five geographic regions. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated in each region and in the pooled Mexican population. Genotype distribution by locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in each Mexican population sample. Similarly, linkage equilibrium was demonstrated between pair of loci. Pairwise comparisons and genetic distances between Mexican, Iberoamerican and one African populations were estimated and graphically represented...
December 29, 2017: Legal Medicine
Daniele Gibelli, Valentina Pucciarelli, Pasquale Poppa, Danilo De Angelis, Marco Cummaudo, Luca Pisoni, Marina Codari, Cristina Cattaneo, Chiarella Sforza
Distinction of one twin with respect to the other, based on external appearance, is challenging; nevertheless, facial morphology may provide individualizing features that may help distinguish twin siblings. This study aims at exposing an innovative method for the facial assessment in monozygotic twins for personal identification, based on the registration and comparison of 3D models of faces. Ten couples of monozygotic twins aged between 25 and 69 years were acquired twice by a stereophotogrammetric system (VECTRA-3D® M3: Canfield Scientific, Inc...
December 27, 2017: Legal Medicine
Natsumi Ishida, Makoto Sakurada, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Yasuhiro Ueno
We developed a simple and rapid method for animal species identification in the forensic science field based on mitochondrial DNA using two multiplex real-time PCRs and analysis of the resultant SYBR Green I melting curves. This method was designed to identify nine domestic animals simultaneously (dog, cat, rabbit, cattle, pig, chicken, goat, sheep and horse) and four wild animals (deer, raccoon-dog, monkey and bear) by comparing the different melting temperatures of the amplicons produced from samples originating from each species...
January 2018: Legal Medicine
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