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Current Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421422/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-update-on-current-and-emergent-therapeutic-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Steven W Johnson, Dorothea K Thompson, Brianne Raccor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the prognosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotype 3 (GT3), a highly prevalent infection worldwide. However, in patients with hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), GT3 infection presents a treatment challenge compared with other genotypes. The dependence of the HCV life cycle on host lipid metabolism suggests the possible utility of targeting host cellular factors for combination anti-HCV therapy...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401448/the-changing-epidemiology-of-infective-endocarditis-in-the-twenty-first-century
#3
REVIEW
J Ambrosioni, M Hernandez-Meneses, A Téllez, J Pericàs, C Falces, J M Tolosana, B Vidal, M Almela, E Quintana, J Llopis, A Moreno, José M Miro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively infrequent infectious disease. It does, however, causes serious morbidity, and its mortality rate has remained unchanged at approximately 25%. Changes in IE risk factors have deeply impacted its epidemiology during recent decades but literature from low-income countries is very scarce. Moreover, prophylaxis guidelines have recently changed and the impact on IE incidence is still unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries, the proportion of IE related to prior rheumatic disease has decreased significantly and has been replaced proportionally by cases related to degenerative valvulopathies, prosthetic valves, and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401447/infection-control-in-limited-resources-countries-challenges-and-priorities
#4
Diana Vilar-Compte, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Samuel Ponce-de-León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the current status of health care-related infections (HCRI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). RECENT FINDINGS: HCRI in LMIC are being recognized as an important health problem globally. Despite important efforts, complex medical and non-medical problems prevail. The HCRI burden in LMIC is bigger than in developed countries, with prevalence between 5.7 and 19.1%. The impact on patients, their families, and the hospital systems is high, but has been largely underestimated...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391498/neurological-complications-and-sequelae-of-ebola-virus-disease
#5
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382547/challenges-and-strategies-for-prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-transmission-in-nursing-homes
#6
REVIEW
Ghinwa Dumyati, Nimalie D Stone, David A Nace, Christopher J Crnich, Robin L P Jump
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. RECENT FINDINGS: Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365884/de-escalating-antibiotic-use-in-the-inpatient-setting-strategies-controversies-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
J Daniel Markley, Shaina Bernard, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael P Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotic de-escalation (ADE) is widely accepted as an integral strategy to curtail the global antibiotic resistance crisis. However, there is significant uncertainty regarding the ideal ADE strategy and its true impact on antibiotic resistance. Rapid diagnostic testing has the potential to enhance ADE strategies. Herein, we aim to discuss the current strategies, controversies, and challenges of ADE in the inpatient setting. RECENT FINDINGS: A consensus definition of ADE remains elusive at this time...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281083/whole-genome-sequencing-implications-for-infection-prevention-and-outbreak-investigations
#8
REVIEW
Kyle J Popovich, Evan S Snitkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a laboratory method that has emerged as a promising tool for epidemiologic investigations. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic epidemiology approaches have been utilized in outbreak settings, community settings, within acute care hospitals, and across healthcare facilities to better understand transmission and spread of potential pathogens. These studies have highlighted how essential robust epidemiologic data is in these analyses as well as how results can be translated into clinical practice and infection control and prevention...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281082/epidemiology-prevention-and-potential-future-treatments-of-sexually-transmitted-zika-virus-infection
#9
REVIEW
Davidson H Hamer, Mary E Wilson, Jenny Jean, Lin H Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While mosquitoes have been primarily responsible for outbreaks of Zika virus worldwide, most prominently in the Americas during 2015 and 2016, there has been increased recognition of the importance of sexual transmission. We review human reports and animal model studies of Zika sexual transmission and summarize potential therapeutic candidates. RECENT FINDINGS: Male-to-female, male-to-male, and female-to-male transmission has been reported, among unprotected sexual contacts of returning travelers...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275932/live-attenuated-yellow-fever-17d-vaccine-a-legacy-vaccine-still-controlling-outbreaks-in-modern-day
#10
REVIEW
Natalie D Collins, Alan D T Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Live attenuated 17D vaccine is considered one of the safest and efficacious vaccines developed to date. This review highlights what is known and the gaps in knowledge of vaccine-induced protective immunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the World Health Organization modifying its guidance from 10-year booster doses to one dose gives lifelong protection in most populations. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting immunity, though protective, may wane over time in certain populations and more research is needed to address this question...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#11
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251509/indications-of-surgery-in-infective-endocarditis
#13
REVIEW
Aref A Bin Abdulhak, Imad M Tleyjeh
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Valve surgery is fundamental in the standard of care of selected IE patients. Indeed, valve surgery can be a lifesaving procedure in critically ill endocarditis patients. Our goal from this review is to discuss the indications of surgery in IE population and international cardiac societies' guideline recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Though IE is an uncommon disease, its incidence is noted to be on rise in some parts of the world, and the disease is expected to continue to be a major health problem...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#14
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233191/antibiotic-prophylaxis-of-infective-endocarditis
#15
REVIEW
Martin H Thornhill, Mark Dayer, Peter B Lockhart, Bernard Prendergast
Links between infective endocarditis (IE) and dental and other invasive procedures were first identified in the 1920s, and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to prevent IE was first recommended by the American Heart Association in 1955. Recognising the weak evidence to support this practice and the wider risks of anaphylaxis and antibiotic resistance, guidelines in the USA and Europe have been rationalised in the last decade with restriction of AP to those patients perceived to be at the highest risk. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence controversially recommended the complete cessation of AP for all invasive procedures in 2008 and subsequent epidemiological studies have suggested a significant increase in cases above the baseline trend...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233190/infectious-complications-of-novel-multiple-sclerosis-therapies
#16
REVIEW
S N Levin, T B Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system most often characterized by clinical relapses and periods of remission. RECENT FINDINGS: The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in disease-modifying therapies for MS. Fourteen FDA-approved immunomodulatory drugs are currently available, and more medications are in development. A growing number of reported opportunistic infections, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), highlight the serious complications of these new drugs and the need for specific screening guidelines...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233189/cardiac-imaging-of-infective-endocarditis-echo-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Bernard Iung, François Rouzet, Eric Brochet, Xavier Duval
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The visualization of cardiac lesions is a major component of the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE). We review the usefulness of different cardiac imaging techniques for the diagnosis and management of IE. RECENT FINDINGS: Transthoracic echocardiography is indicated in all cases of suspected IE. Transesophageal echocardiography is used in most patients due to its higher sensitivity. When diagnosis remains doubtful, in particular for IE on foreign material, multislice computed tomography and nuclear medicine techniques, i...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233188/neurologic-manifestation-of-chikungunya-virus
#18
REVIEW
Kate Brizzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA arbovirus that typically causes fevers and arthralgias, but reports of neurologic findings have become increasingly common. This article reviews our current understanding of CHIKV-associated neurologic manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 5 years, CHIKV endemicity has spread to the Americas and the number of cases of CHIKV-related disease has dramatically increased. Evidence suggests increasing neurovirulence of the virus, particularly among the critically ill...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233187/the-viral-connection-to-glioblastoma
#19
REVIEW
J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The high incidence of and mortality from glioblastoma are matched by a lack of effective therapies. Previous research suggests an association between viral infection and glioma formation. In this manuscript, we review the available evidence for this association and the efficacy of treatment strategies targeted against viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: We find that while a wide array of viruses can drive glioma tumor formation in vitro and in xenograft models, the most convincing association is with the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220392/zika-virus-disease-and-associated-neurologic-complications
#20
REVIEW
Lindsey M Duca, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Daniel M Pastula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review what is currently known about Zika virus (ZIKV) disease and associated neurologic complications. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV is a mosquito-borne or sexually transmitted flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the Americas. While ZIKV infection is usually asymptomatic, it may cause a non-specific illness with fever, rash, myalgia, headache, and/or non-purulent conjunctivitis. Additionally, ZIKV has been associated with a number of neurologic complications including microcephaly and other birth defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and various ophthalmologic abnormalities...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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