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Current Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281083/whole-genome-sequencing-implications-for-infection-prevention-and-outbreak-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Kyle J Popovich, Evan S Snitkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a laboratory method that has emerged as a promising tool for epidemiologic investigations. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic epidemiology approaches have been utilized in outbreak settings, community settings, within acute care hospitals, and across healthcare facilities to better understand transmission and spread of potential pathogens. These studies have highlighted how essential robust epidemiologic data is in these analyses as well as how results can be translated into clinical practice and infection control and prevention...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281082/epidemiology-prevention-and-potential-future-treatments-of-sexually-transmitted-zika-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Davidson H Hamer, Mary E Wilson, Jenny Jean, Lin H Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While mosquitoes have been primarily responsible for outbreaks of Zika virus worldwide, most prominently in the Americas during 2015 and 2016, there has been increased recognition of the importance of sexual transmission. We review human reports and animal model studies of Zika sexual transmission and summarize potential therapeutic candidates. RECENT FINDINGS: Male-to-female, male-to-male, and female-to-male transmission has been reported, among unprotected sexual contacts of returning travelers...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275932/live-attenuated-yellow-fever-17d-vaccine-a-legacy-vaccine-still-controlling-outbreaks-in-modern-day
#3
REVIEW
Natalie D Collins, Alan D T Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Live attenuated 17D vaccine is considered one of the safest and efficacious vaccines developed to date. This review highlights what is known and the gaps in knowledge of vaccine-induced protective immunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the World Health Organization modifying its guidance from 10-year booster doses to one dose gives lifelong protection in most populations. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting immunity, though protective, may wane over time in certain populations and more research is needed to address this question...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#4
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#5
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251509/indications-of-surgery-in-infective-endocarditis
#6
REVIEW
Aref A Bin Abdulhak, Imad M Tleyjeh
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Valve surgery is fundamental in the standard of care of selected IE patients. Indeed, valve surgery can be a lifesaving procedure in critically ill endocarditis patients. Our goal from this review is to discuss the indications of surgery in IE population and international cardiac societies' guideline recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Though IE is an uncommon disease, its incidence is noted to be on rise in some parts of the world, and the disease is expected to continue to be a major health problem...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#7
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233191/antibiotic-prophylaxis-of-infective-endocarditis
#8
REVIEW
Martin H Thornhill, Mark Dayer, Peter B Lockhart, Bernard Prendergast
Links between infective endocarditis (IE) and dental and other invasive procedures were first identified in the 1920s, and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to prevent IE was first recommended by the American Heart Association in 1955. Recognising the weak evidence to support this practice and the wider risks of anaphylaxis and antibiotic resistance, guidelines in the USA and Europe have been rationalised in the last decade with restriction of AP to those patients perceived to be at the highest risk. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence controversially recommended the complete cessation of AP for all invasive procedures in 2008 and subsequent epidemiological studies have suggested a significant increase in cases above the baseline trend...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233190/infectious-complications-of-novel-multiple-sclerosis-therapies
#9
REVIEW
S N Levin, T B Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system most often characterized by clinical relapses and periods of remission. RECENT FINDINGS: The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in disease-modifying therapies for MS. Fourteen FDA-approved immunomodulatory drugs are currently available, and more medications are in development. A growing number of reported opportunistic infections, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), highlight the serious complications of these new drugs and the need for specific screening guidelines...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233189/cardiac-imaging-of-infective-endocarditis-echo-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Bernard Iung, François Rouzet, Eric Brochet, Xavier Duval
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The visualization of cardiac lesions is a major component of the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE). We review the usefulness of different cardiac imaging techniques for the diagnosis and management of IE. RECENT FINDINGS: Transthoracic echocardiography is indicated in all cases of suspected IE. Transesophageal echocardiography is used in most patients due to its higher sensitivity. When diagnosis remains doubtful, in particular for IE on foreign material, multislice computed tomography and nuclear medicine techniques, i...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233188/neurologic-manifestation-of-chikungunya-virus
#11
REVIEW
Kate Brizzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA arbovirus that typically causes fevers and arthralgias, but reports of neurologic findings have become increasingly common. This article reviews our current understanding of CHIKV-associated neurologic manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 5 years, CHIKV endemicity has spread to the Americas and the number of cases of CHIKV-related disease has dramatically increased. Evidence suggests increasing neurovirulence of the virus, particularly among the critically ill...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233187/the-viral-connection-to-glioblastoma
#12
REVIEW
J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The high incidence of and mortality from glioblastoma are matched by a lack of effective therapies. Previous research suggests an association between viral infection and glioma formation. In this manuscript, we review the available evidence for this association and the efficacy of treatment strategies targeted against viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: We find that while a wide array of viruses can drive glioma tumor formation in vitro and in xenograft models, the most convincing association is with the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220392/zika-virus-disease-and-associated-neurologic-complications
#13
REVIEW
Lindsey M Duca, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Daniel M Pastula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review what is currently known about Zika virus (ZIKV) disease and associated neurologic complications. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV is a mosquito-borne or sexually transmitted flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the Americas. While ZIKV infection is usually asymptomatic, it may cause a non-specific illness with fever, rash, myalgia, headache, and/or non-purulent conjunctivitis. Additionally, ZIKV has been associated with a number of neurologic complications including microcephaly and other birth defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and various ophthalmologic abnormalities...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210940/syndromic-diagnosis-in-evaluation-of-women-with-symptoms-of-vaginitis
#14
REVIEW
Theophilus Ogochukwu Nwankwo, Uzochukwu Uzoma Aniebue, Uchenna Anthony Umeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of syndrome diagnosis in the evaluation of vaginitis and to make suggestions based on the review findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Vaginal discharge as the main symptom of vaginitis is unspecific. A randomized study of symptom-based diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis in the USA favored symptoms used for treatment; however, this was only a pilot study. Hence, a population-based study is necessary to validate these findings...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160220/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hiv-positive-patients-an-update-on-etiologies-epidemiology-and-management
#15
REVIEW
André Almeida, Matteo Boattini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the cause of a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to review recent literature for epidemiological trends and management of CAP in HIV patients. RECENT FINDINGS: While the specific infectious etiologies are very diverse, bacterial infection and tuberculosis are the main causes of CAP in this population. Bacterial CAP mostly affects high-income countries, while tuberculosis is mostly in low-/middle-income countries...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102519/nmdar-encephalitis-following-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan Galli, Stacey L Clardy, Amanda L Piquet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and despite appropriate treatment with antivirals, worsening of neurological symptoms or relapse occurs in a subset of patients. Recent data suggests that many relapses are likely caused by a secondary immune response, with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody being the most commonly associated autoantibody. We provide a review of the relevant literature, examining the relationship between HSVE and development of autoimmunity...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924470/emerging-issues-and-treatment-strategies-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre
#17
REVIEW
Dana R Bowers, Vanthida Huang
Carbapenems are the broadest spectrum antimicrobials utilized in the treatment of serious infections since the 1980s. Soon after their introduction, the discovery of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was reported in the 1990s. Invasive CRE infections are associated with high mortality and limited treatment options making care for patients with these infections challenging for clinicians. Current practice has reverted back to the use of "older" antimicrobials, such as the polymyxins, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, to combat invasive CRE infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873126/resistance-to-non-glycopeptide-agents-in-serious-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#18
REVIEW
Kyle C Molina, Vanthida Huang
The role of vancomycin in the treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections, both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant, is becoming increasingly ineffective due to increasing MIC and failure. The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility by S. aureus to glycopeptides highlights the need for clinicians to reexamine the roles of non-glycopeptide therapy. As the use of these alternative non-glycopeptides antimicrobials increases, it will become pertinent to monitor the rates of resistance...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832453/thoughts-around-the-zika-virus-crisis
#19
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Marion C Lanteri
As a lot of reviews are available on Zika virus (ZIKV), in this short commentary, we will focus on the recent advances and gaps in knowledge regarding our understanding of ZIKV infections and on the reaction to the "ZIKV crisis."
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796776/hepatic-and-intra-abdominal-tuberculosis-2016-update
#20
REVIEW
Richard P T Evans, Moustafa Mabrouk Mourad, Lee Dvorkin, Simon R Bramhall
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection affects nearly 10 million people a year and causes 1.5 million deaths. TB is common in the immunosuppressed population with 12 % of all new diagnoses occurring in human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Extra-pulmonary TB occurs in 12 % of patients with active TB infection of which 3.5 % is hepatobiliary and 6-38 % is intra-abdominal. Hepatobiliary and intra-abdominal TB can present with a myriad of non-specific symptoms, and therefore, diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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