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Current Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754381/non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Mana Rao, Fernanda P Silveira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in thoracic transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous but are an uncommon cause of disease after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of infection is higher in thoracic transplant recipients than in abdominal transplant recipients, with most cases seen after lung transplantation...
May 12, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730830/the-epidemiology-evolution-and-treatment-of-kpc-producing-organisms
#2
REVIEW
Ann Marie Porreca, Kaede V Sullivan, Jason C Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to investigate the evolution and epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms and the current and future treatment options for infections caused by KPC-producing isolates. RECENT FINDINGS: The emergence of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases globally has increased the challenges in treating infections caused by these organisms. One of the prominent mechanisms of resistance is the production of KPC enzymes...
May 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704133/the-role-of-environmental-contamination-in-the-transmission-of-nosocomial-pathogens-and-healthcare-associated-infections
#3
REVIEW
Geehan Suleyman, George Alangaden, Ana Cecilia Bardossy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight the role of environmental contamination in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and to discuss the most commonly implicated nosocomial pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies suggest that environmental contamination plays a significant role in HAIs and in the unrecognized transmission of nosocomial pathogens during outbreaks, as well as ongoing sporadic transmission. Several pathogens can persist in the environment for extended periods and serve as vehicles of transmission and dissemination in the hospital setting...
April 27, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666937/biomedical-approaches-to-hiv-prevention-in-women
#4
REVIEW
Christine L Heumann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women. RECENT FINDINGS: In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. However, in studies of oral PrEP exclusively in women, adherence was low, and it was not efficacious...
April 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623443/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-of-antibiotics-of-last-resort-in-treating-gram-negative-infections-in-adult-critically-ill-patients
#5
REVIEW
Mojdeh S Heavner, Kimberly C Claeys, Anne M Masich, Jeffrey P Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of antimicrobials that are considered last resort for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections in adult critically ill patients. The role in therapy, pharmacodynamic (PD) goals, and pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in critical illness for aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered PK in septic patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is observed with many of our agents of last resort...
April 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619607/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-considerations-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-in-adult-critically-ill-patients
#6
REVIEW
Anne M Masich, Mojdeh S Heavner, Jeffrey P Gonzales, Kimberly C Claeys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Beta-lactam antibiotics are commonly prescribed in critically ill patients for a variety of infectious conditions. Our understanding of how critical illness alters beta-lactam pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) is rapidly evolving. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing body of literature in adult patients demonstrating that physiological alterations occurring in critically ill patients may limit our ability to optimally dose beta-lactam antibiotics to reach these PK/PD targets...
April 4, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572764/device-utilization-ratios-in-infection-prevention-process-or-outcome-measure
#7
REVIEW
Jessica I Abrantes-Figueiredo, Jack W Ross, David B Banach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role of device utilization as a component of surveillance for healthcare-associated infections and describe its potential role as a measurement of healthcare quality. RECENT FINDINGS: Device utilization, while primarily a process-based measure in the prevention of device-associated infections can also serve as an important outcome in the evaluation of an infection prevention program. Device utilization can be an important and resource-efficient measurement when coupled with measurements of risk-adjusted infection rates...
March 23, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572691/fluoroquinolone-restriction-as-an-effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention
#8
REVIEW
Kimberly C Claeys, Teri L Hopkins, Ana D Vega, Emily L Heil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fluoroquinolones are a commonly prescribed antibiotic class that has come under scrutiny in recent years due to mounting evidence of association between adverse drug events, C. difficile infection and isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RECENT FINDINGS: Inpatient antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs have a toolbox of potential interventions to curb inappropriate antibiotic use, prevent antibiotic-associated adverse drug events, and avoid unnecessary costs of care...
March 23, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556857/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-due-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth Ann Misch, Christopher Saddler, James Muse Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent trends in the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), emerging pathogens, new insights into NTM pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging pathogens include Mycobacterium chimaera and drug-resistant subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus. Important virulence mechanisms of pathogenic NTM include the ability to alter the macrophage's permissiveness to intracellular bacterial growth...
March 19, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551005/chikungunya-dengue-and-zika-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#10
REVIEW
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542023/immune-monitoring-for-cmv-in-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Michelle K Yong, Sharon R Lewin, Oriol Manuel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune monitoring to determine when and how the recovery of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells occurs post-transplantation may help clinicians to risk stratify individuals at risk of complications from CMV. We aimed to review all recent clinical studies using CMV immune monitoring in the pre- and post-transplant setting including the use of recently developed standardized assays (Quantiferon-CMV and the CMV ELISPOT) to better understand in whom, when, and how immune monitoring is best used...
March 14, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511909/resistance-trends-and-treatment-options-in-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#12
REVIEW
Nathaniel J Rhodes, Caroline E Cruce, J Nicholas O'Donnell, Richard G Wunderink, Alan R Hauser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are frequent causes of infection among critically ill patients. VAP is the most common hospital-acquired bacterial infection among mechanically ventilated patients. Unfortunately, many of the nosocomial Gram-negative bacteria that cause VAP are increasingly difficult to treat. Additionally, the evolution and dissemination of multi- and pan-drug resistant strains leave clinicians with few treatment options. VAP patients represent a dynamic population at risk for antibiotic failure and under-dosing due to altered antibiotic pharmacokinetic parameters...
March 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404711/the-emerging-threat-of-antifungal-resistance-in-transplant-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ilan S Schwartz, Thomas F Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. will disproportionately affect transplantation recipients, who are prone to invasive fungal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly caused by non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to first-line antifungals. Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is increasing in some settings. Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a global concern due to multidrug resistance and efficient nosocomial spread in healthcare settings...
February 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368250/prevention-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-problems-emerged-after-some-years-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Giuseppe Di Cara, Ilaria Bizzarri, Chiara Isidori, Paola Borgia, Costanza Mignini, Marco Saponara, Alberto Argentiero, Susanna Esposito
Starting from 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in several countries. This paper discusses some of the problems recently emerged after PCV13 use and their clinical impact. The impact of PCV13 has been relevant and has saved millions of children and adults by severe infectious diseases. However, it seems likely that in the future, effectiveness of the vaccine might be even higher than that presently evidenced. This is because long-term administration of PCV13 to the pediatric population can favor a more extensive reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization with vaccine serotypes of both vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects and further reduce invasive pneumococcal disease in all the individuals (herd immunity)...
January 24, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164407/neurological-complications-of-hiv-infection
#15
REVIEW
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110105/recent-issues-in-pediatric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
REVIEW
Jason A Clayton, Philip Toltzis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on two recent aspects of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children, namely the emergence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and the incidence and prevention of recurrent CDI. RECENT FINDINGS: Current surveys suggest that a large proportion of all pediatric CDI is acquired in the community. Risk factors and frequency estimates of pediatric CA-CDI, however, are confounded in babies and toddlers by a high rate of asymptomatic excretion, whose detection likely is exaggerated by the wide use of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests...
November 7, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101576/trends-in-community-versus-health-care-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#17
REVIEW
David P Calfee
Since the first clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was described in 1961, this pathogen has established itself as a leading cause of health care-associated infections. More recently, MRSA has become a relatively common cause of infection among persons without typical health care-associated risk factors and is now the most common cause of community-onset purulent skin and soft-tissue infections in many regions of the USA. The appearance of "community-associated" MRSA is not due to the expansion of health care-associated MRSA into the community but rather the result of the independent emergence of a novel clone of MRSA...
November 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046981/ophthalmologic-disease-in-hiv-infection-recent-changes-in-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Michael W Stewart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ophthalmologic conditions were among the earliest described findings in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent changes in the pathophysiology and management of ophthalmologic conditions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 changed ophthalmologic findings from predominantly acute infectious diseases to chronic, slowly progressive, debilitating conditions...
October 19, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983867/mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-infections-in-children-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Arick P Sabin, Patricia Ferrieri, Susan Kline
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections in children with Mycobacterium abscessus complex represent a particular challenge for clinicians. Increasing incidence of these infections worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Published medical literature was reviewed, with emphasis on material published in the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing availability of new diagnostic tools, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and custom PCRs, has provided unique insights into the subspecies within the complex and improved diagnostic certainty...
October 5, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975470/infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-returning-travelers-and-immigrants
#20
REVIEW
Haley Thompson, Kiran Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights current knowledge in travel-related neuroinfectious diseases, providing insight on approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in travelers and immigrants. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates on travel vaccine recommendations including vaccine-specific interactions with immunosuppressive agents, advances in Zika virus and dengue virus vaccine development, new diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, updates on treatment approaches for tuberculosis meningitis...
October 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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