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Current Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779348/treatment-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-focus-on-daptomycin
#1
REVIEW
Rose M Kohinke, Amy L Pakyz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) infections are problematic due to limited availability of anti-VRE agents and their potential for adverse effects and drug interactions. This review focuses on the role of daptomycin in treating VRE infections by summarizing key points of relevant clinical studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Higher doses of daptomycin (≥ 6 mg/kg), as compared to standard doses, were found to be safe in terms of creatinine phosphokinase elevation and associated with successful infection outcomes and microbiological clearance...
October 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770497/practical-approaches-for-assessment-of-daily-and-post-discharge-room-disinfection-in-healthcare-facilities
#2
REVIEW
Abhishek Deshpande, Curtis J Donskey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cleaning and disinfection in healthcare facilities is essential to ensure patient safety. This review examines practical strategies used to assess and improve the effectiveness of daily and post-discharge manual cleaning in healthcare facilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective implementation of cleaning interventions requires objective monitoring of staff performance with regular feedback on performance. Use of fluorescent markers to assess thoroughness of cleaning and measurement of residual ATP can provide rapid and objective feedback to personnel and have been associated with improved cleaning...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770496/serogroup-b-meningococcus-outbreaks-prevalence-and-the-case-for-standard-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
James Grogan, Karen Roos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores the history of serogroup B meningitis outbreaks in American universities and the rise of the monovalent serogroup B meningococcus vaccines (MenB). RECENT FINDINGS: Serogroup B meningitis represents 30% of American meningococcal infections and had no commercially available vaccine in the USA until 2013 when the FDA made an expanded allowance for importation of the MenB-4C vaccine for outbreaks at two American universities. Infections of Neisseria meningitidis, notably meningococcal meningitis represent a continued, lethal threat to the pediatric and adolescent populations and those with primary or acquired complement component deficiencies, largely mitigated by the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugated vaccine against serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY)...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770495/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#4
REVIEW
Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, Karen Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815459/a-roadmap-for-reducing-cardiac-device-infections-a-review-of-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-actionable-risk-factors-to-guide-the-development-of-an-infection-prevention-program-for-the-electrophysiology-laboratory
#5
REVIEW
Westyn Branch-Elliman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism)...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815404/neurological-presentation-of-zika-virus-infection-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#6
REVIEW
Thomas De Broucker, Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose was to summarize the current knowledge about the neurological presentation of Zika virus infection after the perinatal period. Other Flaviviruses infections, such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), can result in neuro-invasive disease such as myelitis, encephalitis, or meningitis. We aimed at describing the specificities of ZV neurological infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent outbreaks demonstrated clearly the neurotropism of ZV...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681315/management-of-lyme-disease-in-european-children-a-review-for-practical-purpose
#7
REVIEW
Matteo D'Alessandro, Anna Loy, Elio Castagnola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging to Borrelia species. In the last 20 years, the reported incidence of Lyme disease is increased by three times in Europe. Clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. The last stage (chronic Lyme disease) is mainly represented by arthritis or late neurological complications but nowadays is rarely seen due to precocious antibiotic use...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639081/clinical-impact-of-non-congenital-zika-virus-infection-in-infants-and-children
#8
REVIEW
Stefan H F Hagmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been noted for its distinct neurotropism and identified as a significant cause for a congenital infection syndrome, there has been increased recognition of the importance to better understand the clinical impact of non-congenital ZIKV infection in infants and children. This article reviews reports of perinatal and breast milk transmission of ZIKV and summarizes current clinical outcome data of pediatric non-congenital ZIKV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Perinatal transmission and presence of infective ZIKV particles in breast milk have been reported...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639080/the-use-of-statins-and-risk-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
REVIEW
Mohammed A Batais, Abdur Rahman Khan, Aref A Bin Abdulhak
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still associated with a large burden and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Besides universal vaccination and antibiotic treatment, statins as adjunctive therapy may also have a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of CAP. Our goal from this review is to discuss the epidemiology of CAP, and role of statins as adjunctive therapy in the development of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins are lipid-lowering medications characterized by their ability to control hypercholesterolemia in addition to other pleiotropic effects that could explain their role in the pathogenesis of CAP...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589330/triple-combination-therapy-and-drug-cycling-tangential-strategies-for-countering-artemisinin-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Bhattacharjee Dipanjan, G Shivaprakash, O Balaji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review attempts to understand the reasons for the successes and failures of the two novel strategies that have slowly begun to emerge as potential counters for anti-malarial drug resistance-"Triple Combination Therapy" and "Drug Cycling." RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have suggested that increasing the heterogeneity within the parasite's environment, both at an individual and the population level, may help raise the probabilistic barrier of development of resistance in the parasite...
July 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551712/extracardiac-imaging-of-infective-endocarditis
#12
REVIEW
Xavier Duval, Bernard Iung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review analyzes recent studies evaluating the diagnostic and therapeutic impacts of systematic extracardiac imaging techniques in patients with suspected or proven infective endocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Extracardiac imaging techniques are more and more frequently used to establish infective endocarditis (IE) diagnosis in doubtful situations. They also help in evaluating the risk-benefit balance of therapeutic strategies and particularly valvular surgery which is performed in approximately 50% of patients...
July 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421422/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-update-on-current-and-emergent-therapeutic-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Steven W Johnson, Dorothea K Thompson, Brianne Raccor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the prognosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotype 3 (GT3), a highly prevalent infection worldwide. However, in patients with hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), GT3 infection presents a treatment challenge compared with other genotypes. The dependence of the HCV life cycle on host lipid metabolism suggests the possible utility of targeting host cellular factors for combination anti-HCV therapy...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401448/the-changing-epidemiology-of-infective-endocarditis-in-the-twenty-first-century
#15
REVIEW
J Ambrosioni, M Hernandez-Meneses, A Téllez, J Pericàs, C Falces, J M Tolosana, B Vidal, M Almela, E Quintana, J Llopis, A Moreno, José M Miro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively infrequent infectious disease. It does, however, causes serious morbidity, and its mortality rate has remained unchanged at approximately 25%. Changes in IE risk factors have deeply impacted its epidemiology during recent decades but literature from low-income countries is very scarce. Moreover, prophylaxis guidelines have recently changed and the impact on IE incidence is still unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries, the proportion of IE related to prior rheumatic disease has decreased significantly and has been replaced proportionally by cases related to degenerative valvulopathies, prosthetic valves, and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401447/infection-control-in-limited-resources-countries-challenges-and-priorities
#16
Diana Vilar-Compte, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Samuel Ponce-de-León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the current status of health care-related infections (HCRI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). RECENT FINDINGS: HCRI in LMIC are being recognized as an important health problem globally. Despite important efforts, complex medical and non-medical problems prevail. The HCRI burden in LMIC is bigger than in developed countries, with prevalence between 5.7 and 19.1%. The impact on patients, their families, and the hospital systems is high, but has been largely underestimated...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391498/neurological-complications-and-sequelae-of-ebola-virus-disease
#17
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382547/challenges-and-strategies-for-prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-transmission-in-nursing-homes
#18
REVIEW
Ghinwa Dumyati, Nimalie D Stone, David A Nace, Christopher J Crnich, Robin L P Jump
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. RECENT FINDINGS: Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365884/de-escalating-antibiotic-use-in-the-inpatient-setting-strategies-controversies-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
J Daniel Markley, Shaina Bernard, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael P Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotic de-escalation (ADE) is widely accepted as an integral strategy to curtail the global antibiotic resistance crisis. However, there is significant uncertainty regarding the ideal ADE strategy and its true impact on antibiotic resistance. Rapid diagnostic testing has the potential to enhance ADE strategies. Herein, we aim to discuss the current strategies, controversies, and challenges of ADE in the inpatient setting. RECENT FINDINGS: A consensus definition of ADE remains elusive at this time...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281083/whole-genome-sequencing-implications-for-infection-prevention-and-outbreak-investigations
#20
REVIEW
Kyle J Popovich, Evan S Snitkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a laboratory method that has emerged as a promising tool for epidemiologic investigations. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic epidemiology approaches have been utilized in outbreak settings, community settings, within acute care hospitals, and across healthcare facilities to better understand transmission and spread of potential pathogens. These studies have highlighted how essential robust epidemiologic data is in these analyses as well as how results can be translated into clinical practice and infection control and prevention...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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