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Current Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959605/primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-current-controversies-and-future-tools
#1
REVIEW
Zachary A Rubin, Elise M Martin, Paul Allyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and rates in most places have not decreased significantly despite broad efforts by both hospitals and public health entities. This review aims to provide readers with a better understanding of the limitations of current prevention strategies. We also review potential future tools that may be available for the primary prevention of CDI in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last decade has expanded our appreciation of the role of asymptomatic shedding in the healthcare setting and in the community...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959591/acute-flaccid-paralysis-and-enteroviral-infections
#2
REVIEW
Ari Bitnun, E Ann Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus of this review is on enterovirus (EV)-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to spinal cord anterior horn cell disease. Emphasis is placed on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AFP caused by polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, EV-D68, and EV-A71. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the launch of The Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the worldwide incidence of polio has been reduced by 99...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959548/evolving-epidemiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-implications-for-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
John P Caldwell, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the present global burden of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in endemic populations, summarize published cases in travelers since 2009, examine current guidelines for vaccination for international travelers, and consider challenges in prevention of this vector-borne disease. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 11 JE cases in travelers that were published in peer-reviewed literature since 2009. JE incidence in endemic countries appears to be declining but the number of JE cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) varied from estimates derived from other published reports based on serosurveys or sentinel surveillance...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959546/ureaplasma-urealyticum-the-role-as-a-pathogen-in-women-s-health-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Hanna Hershko Kletzel, Reut Rotem, Moshe Barg, Jennia Michaeli, Orna Reichman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum as a genital pathogen in women's health. Three aspects were analyzed: (1) preterm delivery (PTD); (2) female infertility; and (3) lower genital tract pathology including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), cervicitis, and genital discomfort (discharge, burning). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review was performed. Searching PUBMED and EMBASE for published articles from January 2003 to September 2017 using the key word "Ureaplasma urealyticum" yielded 1835 manuscripts...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959545/the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-challenges-successes-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Emberger, Dan Tassone, Michael P Stevens, J Daniel Markley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to examine the current state of the field of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) by highlighting key challenges and successes, as well as exciting future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: AS mandates from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and the Joint Commission (TJC) will stimulate increased compliance with current AS standards, but overall compliance is currently poor. Key challenges to progress in the field of AS include insufficient workforce and monetary resources, poorly defined AS metrics, and much needed expansion beyond the inpatient hospital setting...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959541/travel-and-the-spread-of-drug-resistant-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Kevin L Schwartz, Shaun K Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in antimicrobial resistance is an urgent public health threat which, in the absence of intervention, may result in a post-antibiotic era limiting the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat both common and serious infections. Globalization and human migration have profoundly contributed to the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the importance of travelers in the spread of drug-resistant bacterial organisms...
June 29, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951848/correction-to-improving-dengue-diagnostics-and-management-through-innovative-technology
#7
Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Po Ying Chia, Tsin Wen Yeo, Alison Holmes, Pantelis Georgiou, Sophie Yacoub
In the original publication, the Table 2 contains an error. The original article has been corrected.
June 27, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882167/improving-dengue-diagnostics-and-management-through-innovative-technology
#8
REVIEW
Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Po Ying Chia, Tsin Wen Yeo, Alison Holmes, Pantelis Georgiou, Sophie Yacoub
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue continues to be a major global public health threat. Symptomatic infections can cause a spectrum of disease ranging from a mild febrile illness to severe and potentially life-threatening manifestations. Management relies on supportive treatment with careful fluid replacement. The purpose of this review is to define the unmet needs and challenges in current dengue diagnostics and patient monitoring and outline potential novel technologies to address these needs...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882094/antimicrobial-resistance-to-agents-used-for-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-is-there-a-reason-for-concern
#9
REVIEW
Gregory R Madden, Costi D Sifri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and mupirocin are increasingly used for Staphylococcus aureus decolonization to prevent healthcare-associated infections; however, increased use of these agents has led to concerns for growing resistance and reduced efficacy. In this review, we describe current understanding of reduced susceptibility to CHG and mupirocin in S. aureus and their potential clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: While emergence of S...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882079/the-intersection-between-colonization-resistance-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-clostridium-difficile
#10
REVIEW
Rossana Rosa, Curtis J Donskey, L Silvia Munoz-Price
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colonization resistance refers to the innate defense provided by the indigenous microbiota against colonization by pathogenic organisms. We aim to describe how this line of defense is deployed against Clostridium difficile and what the implications are for interventions directed by Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. RECENT FINDINGS: The indigenous microbiota provides colonization resistance through depletion of nutrients, prevention of access to adherence sites within the gut mucosa, production of inhibitory substances, and stimulation of the host's immune system...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882062/comparative-study-of-molecular-approaches-for-the-detection-of-influenza-virus-from-patient-samples-using-real-time-pcr-prospective-disease-burden-study-in-kerala-india-from-2010-to-2016
#11
REVIEW
Seetha Dayakar, Heera R Pillai, Vineetha P Thulasi, Devakikutty Jayalekshmi, Radhakrishnan R Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute respiratory infections caused by influenza virus are a major cause of viral respiratory diseases globally. Surveillance of circulating subtypes and estimation of disease burden is of utmost clinical importance. Molecular surveillance and proper disease burden estimates are scarce in India although clinical influenza infections are on the rise. Our study aims to delineate the prevalent influenza subtypes in a South Indian population from cases requiring hospital visits...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876674/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-infections-hard-to-treat-but-hope-on-the-horizon
#12
REVIEW
Lynn Nguyen, Joshua Garcia, Katherine Gruenberg, Conan MacDougall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the sixth most common nosocomial pathogen in the USA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a significant threat to patients within the healthcare system. Its intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms also significantly limit the choices for antimicrobial therapy, prompting an increase in the research and development of antibacterial agents with enhanced activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. While many approved and pipeline antibiotics have activity against wild-type P...
June 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804272/current-evidence-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-using-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Seong Ran Jeon, Jocelyn Chai, Christiana Kim, Christine H Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review examines current evidence around the efficacy and safety of FMT for patients with IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have suggested that FMT may facilitate clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the evidence for FMT in Crohn's disease (CD) is more limited, positive outcomes have been observed in small cohort studies...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804238/are-non-hiv-malignancies-increased-in-the-hiv-infected-population
#14
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift, Elizabeth Y Chiao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized HIV infection management, resulting in improved outcomes and survival for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, as PLWH are living longer and aging, non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Here, we review the epidemiology of NADCs in PLWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer mortality among PLWH is much higher than that among the general population...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804227/benefits-and-risks-of-statin-therapy-in-the-hiv-infected-population
#15
REVIEW
Mosepele Mosepele, Onkabetse J Molefe-Baikai, Steven K Grinspoon, Virginia A Triant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected patients face an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), estimated at 1.5- to 2-fold as compared to HIV-uninfected persons. This review provides a recent (within preceding 5 years) summary of the role of statin therapy and associated role in CVD risk reduction among HIV-infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins remain the preferred agents for reducing risk for CVD among HIV-infected populations based on guidance extrapolated from general population (HIV-uninfected) cholesterol treatment guidelines across different settings globally...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789961/illnesses-associated-with-freshwater-recreation-during-international-travel
#16
REVIEW
Daniel L Bourque, Joseph M Vinetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: International travel, adventure travel, and eco-tourism are increasing over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize the spectrum of infections associated with recreational freshwater activities and international travel. RECENT FINDINGS: Recreational water activities can be associated with a wide range of infections. Acute febrile illnesses due to leptospirosis and schistosomiasis are not uncommon in travelers following extensive freshwater exposure...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789960/cutaneous-manifestations-of-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#17
REVIEW
Cory J Pettit, Katherine Mazurek, Benjamin Kaffenberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant infections present a formidable challenge to the physician due to their varied presentation. Many of these infections begin by inoculation following skin compromise or disseminate to the skin hematogenously, making cutaneous manifestations of infection an important diagnostic clue in the immunocompromised. Quality research in this field is lacking, and this articles seeks to review the literature and present a guide to physicians in order for them to suspect certain infections by their cutaneous presentation...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789958/prosthetic-joint-infections-an-update
#18
REVIEW
C L Abad, A Haleem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare but serious complication that is frequently misdiagnosed. We aimed to highlight the nuances of PJI diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies and provide clarity in key areas of management. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research in PJI centers on a potential role for diagnostic biomarkers, molecular techniques, and implant sonication to reduce culture-negativity rates. The optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy remains controversial...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789956/hepatitis-c-current-controversies-and-future-potential-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Lucy Somerville, Karen Doucette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the changing landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the context of organ transplantation. This focuses on areas of controversy and future potential in the era of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of safe and highly effective DAA therapy, HCV infection is now curable in virtually all cases, including organ transplant recipients. Excellent drug tolerability and safety combined with high cure rates across all organ groups means that HCV is no longer a barrier to transplantation or its outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789953/update-on-tick-borne-bacterial-diseases-in-travelers
#20
REVIEW
Carole Eldin, Philippe Parola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ticks are the second most important vectors of infectious diseases after mosquitoes worldwide. The growth of international tourism including in rural and remote places increasingly exposes travelers to tick bite. Our aim was to review the main tick-borne infectious diseases reported in travelers in the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, tick-borne bacterial diseases have emerged in travelers including spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses, borrelioses, and diseases caused by bacteria of the Anaplasmataceae family...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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