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Current Hypertension Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444579/the-gut-its-microbiome-and-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada, Seungbum Kim
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Evidence is rapidly accumulating implicating gut dysbiosis in hypertension (HTN). However, we are far from understanding whether this is a cause or consequence of HTN, and how to best translate this fundamental knowledge to advance the management of HTN. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the field, illustrate the connections between the gut and hypertension, and establish that the gut microbiota (GM)-gut interaction is centrally positioned for consideration as an innovative approach for HTN therapeutics...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365886/obstructive-sleep-apnea-induced-hypertension-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#2
REVIEW
David J Durgan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a significant risk factor for systemic hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. While this relationship has been firmly established, a detailed understanding of how OSA leads to hypertension is lacking. This review will examine the emerging idea that the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of hypertension, including that associated with OSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Disruption of the normal composition of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, has been identified in a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353077/role-of-orexin-a-in-hypertension-and-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Imperatore Roberta, Palomba Letizia, Cristino Luigia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is one of the most challenging health problems inducing cerebrovascular disease and high percentage of death when associated with diabetes, dyslipidemias, and obesity. Orexin/hypocretin is a peptide expressed by a small number of neurons of the dorsolateral hypothalamus, a brain feeding and autonomic "fight-or-flight" regulatory center. According to this function, orexin has been demonstrated to evoke cardiovascular responses, heart rate, hypertension, hyperarousal, hyperphagia, and obesity...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353076/doca-salt-hypertension-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Tyler Basting, Eric Lazartigues
Hypertension is a multifaceted disease that is involved in ∼40% of cardiovascular mortalities and is the result of both genetic and environmental factors. Because of its complexity, hypertension has been studied by using various models and approaches, each of which tends to focus on individual organs or tissues to isolate the most critical and treatable causes of hypertension and the related damage to end-organs. Animal models of hypertension have ranged from Goldblatt's kidney clip models in which the origin of the disease is clearly renal to animals that spontaneously develop hypertension either through targeted genetic manipulations, such as the TGR(mRen2)27, or selective breeding resulting in more enigmatic origins, as exemplified by the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353075/oral-microbiome-and-nitric-oxide-the-missing-link-in-the-management-of-blood-pressure
#5
REVIEW
Nathan S Bryan, Gena Tribble, Nikola Angelov
Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the USA and worldwide. One out of every three Americans has hypertension, and it is estimated that despite aggressive treatment with medications, only about half of those medicated have managed blood pressure. Recent discoveries of the oral microbiome that reduces inorganic nitrate to nitrite and nitric oxide provide a new therapeutic target for the management of hypertension. The presence or absence of select and specific bacteria may determine steady-state blood pressure levels...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349378/gastrointestinal-tract-a-promising-target-for-the-management-of-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Shiqiang Xiong, Qiang Li, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
The pathogenesis of hypertension remains elusive. Current treatments on hypertension have only achieved modest reductions. Facilitating theoretical research and looking for new therapeutic strategy are urgently needed. Besides food digestion and nutrients absorption, the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has been shown to influence the status of the central nervous system, immune system, metabolism, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Emerging findings demonstrate that endogenous factors derived from GI including gut hormones, autonomic nerve, and gut microbiota play important roles in the regulation of vascular function and/or blood pressure...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349377/preferred-fourth-line-pharmacotherapy-for-resistant-hypertension-are-we-there-yet
#7
REVIEW
Hamish Cg Prosser, Cynthia Gregory, Dagmara Hering, Graham S Hillis, Greg Perry, Johan Rosman, Carl Schultz, Mark Thomas, Gerald F Watts, Markus P Schlaich
Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above target levels despite adherence to at least three different antihypertensive medications, typically including a diuretic. Epidemiological studies estimate that RH is increasing in prevalence, and is associated with detrimental health outcomes. The pathophysiology underlying RH is complex, involving multiple, overlapping contributors including activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system, volume overload, endothelial dysfunction, behavioural and lifestyle factors...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343357/gut-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
R G Armani, A Ramezani, A Yasir, S Sharama, M E F Canziani, D S Raj
With over 100 trillion microbial cells, the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. Gut microbiome dysbiosis, resulted from alteration of composition and function of the gut microbiome and disruption of gut barrier function, is commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The dysbiotic gut microbiome generates excessive amounts of uremic toxins, and the impaired intestinal barrier permits translocation of these toxins into the systemic circulation...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#11
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315048/microbial-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer L Pluznick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are byproducts of microbial metabolism which can be absorbed into the bloodstream of the host, where they exert effects on host physiology. SCFAs have been known to influence several aspects of host physiology, including the regulation of blood pressure. In this review, we will consider recent studies linking SCFAs to blood pressure regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have found that changes in blood pressure often coordinate with expected changes in SCFAS...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283927/a-review-of-the-genetics-of-hypertension-with-a-focus-on-gene-environment-interactions
#14
REVIEW
R J Waken, Lisa de Las Fuentes, D C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we discuss the interpretation and modeling of gene-environment interactions in hypertension-related phenotypes, with a focus on the necessary assumptions and possible challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, small cohort studies have discovered several novel genetic variants associated with hypertension-related phenotypes through modeling gene-environment interactions. Several consortia-based meta-analytic efforts have uncovered many novel genetic variants in hypertension without modeling interaction terms, giving promise to future meta-analytic efforts that incorporate gene-environment interactions...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283926/differential-metabolic-effects-of-beta-blockers-an-updated-systematic-review-of-nebivolol
#15
REVIEW
Maria Marketou, Yashaswi Gupta, Shashank Jain, Panos Vardas
Blood pressure management in hypertensive patients with metabolic abnormalities is challenging, since many of the antihypertensive drugs adversely affect metabolism. Besides effective control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension, third-generation beta-blockers such as nebivolol offer additional benefits for central hemodynamics and neutral or beneficial effects on metabolism. Emerging clinical data suggest that nebivolol also has similar effects on metabolism in obese hypertensive and hypertensive diabetic patients...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271419/pre-eclampsia-the-potential-of-gsno-reductase-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Thomas R Everett, Ian B Wilkinson, Christoph C Lees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pre-eclampsia remains a leading worldwide cause of maternal death and of perinatal morbidity. There remains no definitive treatment except delivery of the fetus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent insights into the cardiovascular changes that are evident prior to, during, and persist after pre-eclampsia have improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology-disruption of normal endothelial function and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is an endogenous S-nitrosothiol that acts as a NO pool and, by replenishing or preventing the breakdown of GSNO, endothelial dysfunction can be ameliorated...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271418/blood-pressure-and-the-renal-actions-of-at2-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Robert M Carey
Angiotensin type-2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the renal proximal tubule inhibit sodium (Na+) reabsorption by inducing renal cyclic GMP formation and internalizing and inhibiting major Na+ transporters Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE-3) and Na+/K+ATPase (NKA). Instead of angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III) is the predominant endogenous agonist for this response. Exogenous non-peptide AT2R agonist Compound-21 induces natriuresis and lowers blood pressure (BP) in normal and Ang II-infused hypertensive rodents...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271417/method-of-blood-pressure-measurement-interpretation-of-sprint-and-the-atlantic-divide
#18
REVIEW
John M Flack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197835/selenium-vanadium-and-chromium-as-micronutrients-to-improve-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Stephen Wanyonyi, Lindsay Brown
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243928/pathophysiology-and-potential-non-pharmacologic-treatments-of-obesity-or-kidney-disease-associated-refractory-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Thierry H Le Jemtel, William Richardson, Rohan Samson, Abhishek Jaiswal, Suzanne Oparil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review assesses the role of non-pharmacologic therapy for obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated refractory hypertension (rf HTN). RECENT FINDINGS: Hypertensive patients with markedly heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are prone to develop refractory hypertension (rfHTN). Patients with obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated HTN have particularly heightened SNS activity and are at high risk of rfHTN...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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