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Current Hypertension Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080925/the-role-of-sympatho-inhibition-in-combination-treatment-of-obesity-related-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
Revathy Carnagarin, Cynthia Gregory, Omar Azzam, Graham S Hillis, Carl Schultz, Gerald F Watts, Damon Bell, Vance Matthews, Markus P Schlaich
Obesity-related hypertension is commonly characterized by increased sympathetic nerve activity and is therefore acknowledged as a predominantly neurogenic form of hypertension. The sustained sympatho-excitation not only contributes to the rise in blood pressure but also elicits a vicious cycle which facilitates further weight gain and progression of associated co-morbidities. While weight loss and exercise remain at the forefront of therapy for obesity and obesity-related hypertension, the difficulties in achieving and maintaining long-term weight loss with lifestyle measures and the variable blood pressure response to weight loss often necessitate prescription of antihypertensive drug therapy...
October 28, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075864/the-use-of-electronic-health-records-to-identify-children-with-elevated-blood-pressure-and-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Michael G Semanik
Elevated blood pressures often go unrecognized in pediatric patients, potentially putting children and adolescents at risk for the sequelae of untreated hypertension. This may be partially due to the complexity involved in diagnosing elevated pediatric blood pressures, which demands a high cognitive workload from providers. Tools built into electronic health records have the potential to alleviate this workload, and studies investigating these tools confirm they show promise in improving elevated blood pressure recognition...
October 26, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071520/an-update-on-masked-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
D Edmund Anstey, Daniel Pugliese, Marwah Abdalla, Natalie A Bello, Raymond Givens, Daichi Shimbo
Masked hypertension refers to the phenomenon of having a non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) despite having an elevated out-of-clinic BP. Masked hypertension is a common phenotype with a cardiovascular risk profile similar to that of sustained hypertension, defined as elevated clinic and out-of-clinic BP. Current guidelines offer little guidance on the best practices for detecting and treating masked hypertension. This is in part due to insufficient evidence upon which to base recommendations as many questions remain regarding the optimal clinical management of masked hypertension...
October 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071489/ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-of-recent-literature-and-new-guidelines
#5
REVIEW
Ian Macumber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a review of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) use in pediatrics, focusing on research published in the last 3 to 4 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data has shown that ABPM is more strongly associated with end-organ damage than casual BP, and that obesity and secondary causes of hypertension are strongly associated with nocturnal hypertension. There is evidence that ABPM is useful in management of a larger variety of diagnoses than previously thought...
October 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071454/what-is-the-role-of-oral-prostacyclin-pathway-medications-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-management
#6
REVIEW
Rama El Yafawi, Joel A Wirth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostacyclin pathway medications have been shown to be highly efficacious in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) through multiple prospective clinical trials and more than two decades of clinical experience. The strongest support for prostacyclin use in PAH management is with parenteral administration. Numerous risks and limitations of parenteral delivery systems as well as significant patient burdens restrict widespread parenteral use. Highly effective and tolerable oral prostacyclin preparations to manage PAH have long been sought...
October 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071435/the-effect-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure-and-renal-function
#7
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo F G Cicero, Claudio Borghi
Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the existence of a correlation between high serum uric acid (SUA) levels, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Xantine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are the most powerful uric acid lowering drugs, with presumed beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal system. The multifactorial mechanism linking hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and renal diseases involves both the SUA level and the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. In this context, the clinical research has been recently focused at assessing the efficacy of urate-lowering drugs active on XO in patients with abnormal blood pressure values and renal dysfunction...
October 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063290/elucidating-the-pathogenesis-of-pre-eclampsia-using-in-vitro-models-of-spiral-uterine-artery-remodelling
#8
REVIEW
Ross McNally, Abdelrahim Alqudah, Danilo Obradovic, Lana McClements
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study is to perform a critical assessment of in vitro models of pre-eclampsia using complementary human and cell line-based studies. Molecular mechanisms involved in spiral uterine artery (SUA) remodelling and trophoblast functionality will also be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of proteins and microRNAs have been implicated as key in SUA remodelling, which could be explored as early biomarkers or therapeutic targets for prevention of pre-eclampsia...
October 23, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046992/managing-hypertension-in-patients-aged-75%C3%A2-years-and-older
#9
REVIEW
Yogita Rochlani, Mohammed Hasan Khan, Wilbert S Aronow
On the basis of the available data, we would diagnose a normal blood pressure in elderly persons including those 75 years of age and older if the blood pressure was below 120/80 mmHg. We would diagnose hypertension in elderly persons including those aged 75 years and older if the systolic blood pressure was 130 mmHg and higher or if the diastolic blood pressure was 80 mmHg and higher. We would treat these elderly patients with hypertension to a blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mmHg if the blood pressure was obtained by automated blood pressure monitoring in a quiet room...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046988/should-pre-hypertension-be-treated
#10
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kanegae, Takamitsu Oikawa, Kazuomi Kario
Hypertension is an important preventable risk factor for disease and death worldwide. In light of the world's population growth and aging, hypertension is a global public health issue. Many studies have shown associations between pre-hypertension and a higher risk of the future development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in general populations. However, pre-hypertension per se is not a disease with an immediate high risk, and the clinical value of the identification of pre-hypertension is the potential detection of the early stage of the risk of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease over an individual's lifespan...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046987/blood-pressure-parameters-and-their-associations-with-death-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Samaya Qureshi, Robert Lorch, Sankar D Navaneethan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal blood pressure (BP) parameters among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been a matter of debate. This review critically evaluates recent literature to better define the associations of BP parameters and death among individuals with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational studies report a "U- or J-shaped" association between BP and all-cause mortality in CKD and caution-intensive BP lowering in the elderly...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046980/aortic-stiffness-in-aging-and-hypertension-prevention-and-treatment-with-habitual-aerobic-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Gary L Pierce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual aerobic exercise is associated with lower aortic stiffness, as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), in middle-aged/older adults without hypertension, but beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on CFPWV in hypertension remain contraversial. Therefore, the focus of this review is to discuss the evidence for and against the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults with hypertension, possible limitations in these studies, and highlight novel directions for future research...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046979/medical-management-of-pulmonary-hypertension-with-unclear-and-or-multifactorial-mechanisms-group-5-is-there-a-role-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-medications
#13
REVIEW
Jason Weatherald, Laurent Savale, Marc Humbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to outline the mechanisms and to review recent literature on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) medications in group 5 pulmonary hypertension (PH). RECENT FINDINGS: The first steps in management are to understand the mechanisms and hemodynamic profile and to exclude chronic thromboembolic disease. Recent studies in the past 5 years have found that PAH medications may improve hemodynamics in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension due to sarcoidosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and myeloproliferative disorders with dasatinib-induced PH...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046978/blood-pressure-response-to-exercise-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Martin G Schultz, Andre La Gerche, James E Sharman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to provide a clinical update on exercise blood pressure (BP) and its relationship to cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining key determinants of abnormal exercise BP responses. We also highlight current evidence gaps that need addressing in order to optimise the relevance of exercise BP as clinical CVD risk factor. RECENT FINDINGS: Abnormal exercise BP manifests as either exercise hypotension (low BP response) or as exaggerated exercise BP (high BP response)...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046976/the-complement-system-and-preeclampsia
#15
REVIEW
Jean F Regal, Richard M Burwick, Sherry D Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preeclampsia affects 3-4% of pregnancies with few treatment options to reduce maternal and fetal harm. Recent evidence that targeting the complement system may be an effective therapeutic strategy in prevention or treatment of preeclampsia will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in humans confirm the safety and efficacy of C5 blockade in complement-mediated disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Animal models mimic the placental abnormalities and/or the maternal symptoms which characterize preeclampsia...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043581/the-unique-blood-pressures-and-pulsatility-of-lvad-patients-current-challenges-and-future-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Castagna, Eric J Stöhr, Alberto Pinsino, John R Cockcroft, Joshua Willey, A Reshad Garan, Veli K Topkara, Paolo C Colombo, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Barry J McDonnell
An increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients are now implanted with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Although this therapeutic approach is associated with improved clinical outcomes, continuous flow physiology reduces arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility to an extent that is unique to this population. Recent data suggest that high blood pressure (BP) contributes to life-threatening complications such as pump thrombosis and stroke of CF-LVAD patients. However, limited understanding of the distinct hemodynamics of these pumps makes measurement and, consequently, medical management of BP quite challenging...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035421/updated-guideline-may-improve-the-recognition-and-diagnosis-of-hypertension-in-children-and-adolescents-review-of-the-2017-aap-blood-pressure-clinical-practice-guideline
#17
REVIEW
Janis M Dionne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension in children and adolescents is under-recognized and under-diagnosed in clinical practice. The 2017 AAP Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents provides updated recommendations that may improve hypertension identification and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The AAP blood pressure guideline recommends annual screening for hypertension in children at preventive care visits and targeted routine screening in high-risk populations...
October 16, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986756/vascular-dysfunction-in-mother-and-offspring-during-preeclampsia-contributions-from-latin-american-countries
#18
REVIEW
Fernanda Regina Giachini, Carlos Galaviz-Hernandez, Alicia E Damiano, Marta Viana, Angela Cadavid, Patricia Asturizaga, Enrique Teran, Sonia Clapes, Martin Alcala, Julio Bueno, María Calderón-Domínguez, María P Ramos, Victor Vitorino Lima, Martha Sosa-Macias, Nora Martinez, James M Roberts, Carlos Escudero
Pregnancy is a physiologically stressful condition that generates a series of functional adaptations by the cardiovascular system. The impact of pregnancy on this system persists from conception beyond birth. Recent evidence suggests that vascular changes associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, affect the function of the maternal and offspring vascular systems, after delivery and into adult life. Since the vascular system contributes to systemic homeostasis, defective development or function of blood vessels predisposes both mother and infant to future risk for chronic disease...
October 6, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942512/altered-endothelial-nitric-oxide-signaling-as-a-paradigm-for-maternal-vascular-maladaptation-in-preeclampsia
#19
REVIEW
George Osol, Nga Ling Ko, Maurizio Mandalà
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to present the newest insights into what we view as a central failure of cardiovascular adaptation in preeclampsia (PE) by focusing on one clinically significant manifestation of maternal endothelial dysfunction: nitric oxide signaling. The etiology, symptoms, and current theories of the PE syndrome are described first, followed by a review of the available evidence, and underlying causes of reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling in PE...
September 23, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929454/antihypertensive-therapies-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#20
REVIEW
Elsayed Z Soliman, Ronald J Prineas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is widely accepted that successful lowering of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension leads to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, whether differences exist among pharmacological BP-lowering therapies is debated. In this report, we discuss these differences in light of recent literature and the position of extant practice guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies comparing the effects of antihypertensive classes on LVH regression reached different conclusions, but the overall direction which is reflected in current society guidelines is that successful lowering of BP is more important than selection of an individual antihypertensive class...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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