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Current Hypertension Reports

Louis Kuritzky, Scott Lang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite substantive evidence documenting the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet to reduce cardiovascular events, underutilization is common. An overview of the data set supporting the role of the Mediterranean diet as confirmed in both observational and interventional trials should stimulate greater clinician interest in the diet. Additionally, the availability of patient-friendly tools that enable prompt and easy adoption of the Mediterranean diet, that are able to be used by clinicians who claim no special expertise in diet knowledge, should simplify the path to successful dietary change...
November 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Xiaohan Lu, Steven D Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-grade inflammation drives elevations in blood pressure (BP) and consequent target organ damage in diverse experimental models of hypertension. Here, we discuss recent advances elucidating immune-mediated mechanisms of BP elevation and associated target organ damage. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammatory mediators produced by immune cells or target organs act on the kidney, vasculature, skin, and nervous system to modulate hypertension. For example, cells of the innate immune system, including monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs), can all promote BP elevation via actions in the vasculature and kidney...
October 30, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Natalie A Bello, Eliza Miller, Kirsten Cleary, Ronald Wapner, Daichi Shimbo, Alan T Tita
PURPOSE: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are increasing in prevalence and associated with significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased emphasis has been placed recently on the use of out-of-office (i.e., home and ambulatory) blood pressure (BP) monitoring to diagnose and manage hypertension in the general population. Current guidelines offer limited recommendations on the use of out-of-office BP monitoring during pregnancy and postpartum...
October 25, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Ștefania Matei, Stephen J Cutler, Marian Preda, Maria Dorobanțu, Corina Ilinca, Oana Gheorghe-Fronea, Luminița Rădulescu, Nicoleta Oprescu, Alexandru Deaconu, Corina Zorilă, Bogdan Dorobanțu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the paper is to test the influence of social status and psychological well-being (independent variables) on hypertensive condition (dependent variable), when adjusting for traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (control variables). The analysis is based on data collected from SEPHAR III, a nationally representative epidemiologic study of the Romanian adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding the social roots of health issues is of considerable importance in developing effective strategies and policies...
October 25, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Ryousuke Satou, Harrison Penrose, L Gabriel Navar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanisms facilitating progression of hypertension via cross stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and inflammation have been proposed. Accordingly, we review and update evidence for regulation of RAS components by pro-inflammatory factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II), which is produced by RAS, induces vasoconstriction and consequent blood pressure elevation. In addition to this direct action, chronically elevated Ang II stimulates several pathophysiological mechanisms including generation of oxidative stress, stimulation of the nervous system, alterations in renal hemodynamics, and activation of the immune system...
October 5, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Karnika Ayinapudi, Twinkle Singh, Ayush Motwani, Thierry H Le Jemtel, Suzanne Oparil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whether the present obesity epidemic will increase the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension over the next decades is unclear. We review the obesity-related mechanisms that may further the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic and local inflammation, insulin resistance and oxidative stress contribute to the pathobiology of obesity and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Preliminary data suggest that expansion of adipose tissue surrounding the pulmonary artery may hasten the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension in obese persons...
October 5, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Mohammad Sadegh Mirenayat, Sajjad Moradi, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several interventional studies assessed the impact of dietary supplements on blood pressure. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure. RECENT FINDING: Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Science were comprehensively searched until May 2018 to assess whether L-citrulline reduces blood pressure. Human clinical trials which reported the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on aortic and brachial blood pressure were included...
October 3, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
N P Bowles, S S Thosar, M X Herzig, S A Shea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the emerging knowledge that circadian rhythmicity exists in every cell and all organ systems, there is increasing interest in the possible benefits of chronotherapy for many diseases. There is a well-documented 24-h pattern of blood pressure with a morning surge that may contribute to the observed morning increase in adverse cardiovascular events. Historically, antihypertensive therapy involves morning doses, usually aimed at reducing daytime blood pressure surges, but an absence of nocturnal dipping blood pressure is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk...
September 28, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Eashita Das, Joon Ho Moon, Ju Hee Lee, Nikita Thakkar, Zdenka Pausova, Hoon-Ki Sung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension (HTN), a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Growing body of research suggests that adipose tissue function is directly associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related HTN. In this review, we will discuss recent research on the role of adipose tissue in blood pressure (BP) regulation and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a potentially new therapeutic means for obesity-related HTN...
September 18, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Racquel Wells, Mahboob Rahman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the impact of the Systolic Blood Pressure Interventional Trial (SPRINT) on renal function and chronic kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of intensive blood pressure lowering in the CKD population in previous studies are unclear. The SPRINT compared standard (< 140 mmHg) and intensive (< 120 mmHg) blood pressure management in nondiabetic patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease...
September 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Viknesh Selvarajah, Kathleen Connolly, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary sodium is an important trigger for hypertension and humans show a heterogeneous blood pressure response to salt intake. The precise mechanisms for this have not been fully explained although renal sodium handling has traditionally been considered to play a central role. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies have shown that dietary salt loading results in non-osmotic sodium accumulation via glycosaminoglycans and lymphangiogenesis in skin mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-C, both processes attenuating the rise in BP...
September 13, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Raymond R Townsend, Paul A Sobotka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review was undertaken to update readers on the field of therapeutic renal denervation for hypertension during the 2016 through 2018 period. RECENT FINDINGS: After the failure of Symplicity HTN-3 to meet its top line objective, intense scrutiny revealed several possible concerns addressed by the newer investigations into the area of renal denervation. These included better device technology, more intense subject monitoring for off-protocol antihypertensive drug usage, and deeper penetration into the renal vasculature by the interventionist...
September 10, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Raven Voora, Alan L Hinderliter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the role and evidence for sympathetic overactivity in resistant hypertension and review the therapies that have been studied to modulate the sympathetic nervous system to treat resistant hypertension, with a focus on non-pharmacologic therapies such as renal denervation, baroreflex activation therapy, and carotid body ablation. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on the two best current techniques available for assessing sympathetic nerve activity, resistant hypertension is characterized by increased sympathetic nerve activity...
September 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Semone Thakoordeen, Jagidesa Moodley, Thajasvarie Naicker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regardless of the familial linkage reported in pre-eclampsia development, understanding the polymorphic genes associated with pre-eclampsia remains limited. Hence, this review aims to outline the main genetic factors that have been investigated in respect to pre-eclampsia development. RECENT FINDINGS: It is apparent that different genes show significance in varying populations. Notably, it is reported that apolipoprotein-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with pre-eclampsia development in an African-American population, which may be worthwhile to investigate in a Black South African cohort...
August 29, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Jared Davis, Suzanne Oparil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent data available on advances in development of novel medical treatments for hypertension and related comorbidities. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately half of all hypertensive patients have not achieved goal blood pressure with current available antihypertensive medications. Recent landmark studies and new hypertension guidelines have called for stricter blood pressure control, creating a need for better strategies for lowering blood pressure...
August 25, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Alfonso Eirin, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes literature pertaining to the dawning field of therapeutic targeting of mitochondria in hypertension and discusses the potential of these interventions to ameliorate hypertension-induced organ damage. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension-related renal, cardiac, and vascular disease. This in turn prompted development of novel mitochondria-targeted compounds, some of which have shown promising efficacy in experimental studies and safety in clinical trials...
August 17, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Manav Nayyar, Guido Lastra, Camila Manrique Acevedo
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In the present review, we will discuss the evidence and the mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between obesity, mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and cardiovascular dysfunction with special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in obese and insulin-resistant females. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial isolation of aldosterone in 1953 and the cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decades later, our understanding has expanded tremendously regarding their involvement in the pathogenesis of CVD...
August 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Linda G Kahn, Leonardo Trasande
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the strength of evidence for associations between environmental toxicants and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, suggest potential biological mechanisms based on animal and in vitro studies, and highlight avenues for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is strongest for links between persistent chemicals, including lead, cadmium, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic biphenyls, and preeclampsia, although associations are sometimes not detectable at low-exposure levels...
August 8, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Shangzhi Xiong, Hudson Berkhouse, Mary Schooler, William Pu, Anli Sun, Enying Gong, Lijing L Yan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to systematically review existing evidence on the effectiveness of mobile health technology (mHealth) interventions in addressing medication adherence among people with hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-one studies of mHealth interventions were included in the final review after systematic searching and screening of publications from 2000 to 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Key features of the mHealth interventions include high intervention intensity, multifactorial components, and patient-centered approaches with tailored content and interaction...
August 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Yi Chen, Dong-Yan Zhang, Yan Li, Ji-Guang Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One of the possible strategies for preventing hypertension is identifying high-risk people and then implementing lifestyle modifications or therapeutic interventions. Out-of-clinic blood pressure measurements, either home or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, may identify people with early blood pressure elevation or white-coat or masked hypertension and potentially help prevent hypertension. In this review, we will summarize the evidence on the role of out-of-clinic blood pressure measurements in preventing hypertension either from prehypertension or high normal or elevated blood pressure, or from white-coat or masked hypertension...
July 30, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
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