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Current Hypertension Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717886/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-driver-or-an-innocent-bystander-in-endothelial-dysfunction-associated-with-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
Robyn Cunard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (htn) is a polygenic disorder that effects up to one third of the US population. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a homeostatic pathway that regulates membrane structure, protein folding, and secretory function. Emerging evidence suggests that ER stress may induce endothelial dysfunction; however, it is unclear whether ER stress-associated endothelial dysfunction modulates htn. RECENT FINDINGS: Exogenous and endogenous molecules activate ER stress in the endothelium, and ER stress mediates some forms of neurogenic htn, such as angiotensin II-dependent htn...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707234/the-elusive-search-for-optimal-blood-pressure-targets
#2
REVIEW
Alan H Gradman
BP treatment thresholds/targets determine when to initiate treatment and to what level BP should be reduced. The Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7) recommended a target of <140/90 for most patients and a target <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Subsequently, meta-analyses, retrospective studies relating on-treatment BP to clinical outcomes and two large, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have re-evaluated BP targets...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695400/role-of-collecting-duct-renin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Alexis A Gonzalez, Lucienne S Lara, Minolfa C Prieto
The presence of renin production by the principal cells of the collecting duct has opened new perspectives for the regulation of intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are present in the tubular fluid coming from the proximal tubule and collecting duct. All the components needed for Ang II formation are present along the nephron, and much is known about the mechanisms regulating renin in juxtaglomerular cells (JG); however, those in the collecting duct remain unclear...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689331/pathophysiology-and-current-clinical-management-of-preeclampsia
#4
REVIEW
Lorena M Amaral, Kedra Wallace, Michelle Owens, Babbette LaMarca
Preeclampsia is characterized by blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg in the second half of pregnancy. This disease is a major contributor to preterm and low birth weight babies. The early delivery of the baby, which becomes necessary for maintaining maternal well-being, makes preeclampsia the leading cause for preterm labor and infant mortality and morbidity. Currently, there is no cure for this pregnancy disorder. The current clinical management of PE is hydralazine with labetalol and magnesium sulfate to slow disease progression and prevent maternal seizure, and hopefully prolong the pregnancy...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676941/molecular-mechanisms-of-sodium-sensitive-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan M Nizar, Vivek Bhalla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the known mechanisms of sodium-sensitive hypertension in the metabolic syndrome with a focus on preclinical models, differences between these models, and methodological limitations. We also identify future directions for a better understanding and treatment of this common condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Rigorous methodologies to measure blood pressure in preclinical models may clarify some of the inconsistencies in the literature. Renal, neural, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems are dysregulated and contribute to elevated blood pressure...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620841/device-based-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-arterial-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Jens Jordan
Device-based antihypertensive treatments have primarily been developed and clinically tested for patients with hypertension refractory to pharmacological treatment. Most but not all device-based treatments target the sympathetic nervous system and provided important new insight in the mechanisms of human hypertension. This review provides an overview on the scientific rational and clinical data on recent device-based antihypertensive treatment approaches. Device-based treatments targeting the sympathetic nervous system include catheter-based renal nerve ablation, electrical carotid sinus stimulation, modulation of baroreflex transduction through a dedicated carotid stent, carotid body denervation, and deep brain stimulation...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597405/hyperbilirubinemia-hypertension-and-ckd-the-links
#7
REVIEW
Ibrahim Mortada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to highlight recent advances on the role of hyperbilirubinemia in hypertension and chronic kidney disease, with a focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the protective effects of bilirubin. An overview of pharmacologic induction of hyperbilirubinemia will also be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The findings depict a protective role of bilirubin in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperbilirubinemia is also negatively correlated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597404/relevance-of-microrna-21-in-different-types-of-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Durairaj Sekar, B R Shilpa, Anupam J Das
Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic medical condition that commonly affects the aging population worldwide. The prevalence of HTN is increasing in developing countries and is one of the leading causes of death in older individuals. HTN results from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Besides, HTN can result in various other health complications such as stroke and chronic kidney diseases, if not treated. Although various studies have explained the underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HTN, limited information is available on their biomarkers...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597403/resistant-hypertension-mechanisms-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Y Hwang, Eric Dietrich, Carl J Pepine, Steven M Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the development of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). This review aims to summarize recent data on potential mechanisms of resistance and discuss current pharmacotherapeutic options available in the management of TRH. RECENT FINDINGS: Excess sodium and fluid retention, increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system appear to play an important role in development of TRH...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593612/an-obesity-paradox-increased-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-decreased-aortic-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Rolf F Barth, L Maximilian Buja, Lei Cao, Sergey V Brodsky
Brodsky et al. (Cardiovasc Pathol 25(6), 515-520, 2016) recently have reported that there was an unexpected and highly significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and atherosclerosis of the aortas of morbidly obese decedents (BMI >40 kg/m(2)). In a series of 304 decedents, 65 of whom were morbidly obese, minimal or no atherosclerosis was seen in 46 of them (70%) versus 20 (30%) who had severe atherosclerosis (P = 0.008). This obesity paradox was unexpected and raises important questions about the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which will be the subject of this commentary...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551831/clinical-implications-of-different-blood-pressure-measurement-techniques
#11
REVIEW
Paul Drawz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The appropriate treatment targets for individuals with elevated blood pressure (BP) have received increased attention in light of recent clinical trial results. However, it is well known that the method used to measure BP can have a significant impact on the observed BP. In this review, we summarize the existing literature on the impact of BP measurement technique on observed BP readings. RECENT FINDINGS: Manual BPs obtained in-clinic routinely differ from those obtained using automated devices...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551830/factors-responsible-for-obesity-related-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Kyungjoon Lim, Kristy L Jackson, Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The major health issue of being overweight or obese relates to the development of hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetic complications. One of the major underlying factors influencing the elevated blood pressure in obesity is increased activity of the sympathetic nerves to particular organs such as the kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now convincing evidence from animal studies that major signals such as leptin and insulin have a sympathoexcitatory action in the hypothalamus to cause hypertension...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540644/the-epigenetic-machinery-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Emile Levy, Schohraya Spahis, Jean-Luc Bigras, Edgard Delvin, Jean-Michel Borys
Hypertension (HT) is among the major components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance. It represents a significant health problem with foremost risks for chronic cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is not surprising that this disorder constitutes a serious public health concern. Although multiple studies have stressed the multifactorial nature of HT, the pathogenesis remains largely unknown...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528376/isometric-handgrip-as-an-adjunct-for-blood-pressure-control-a-primer-for-clinicians
#14
REVIEW
Cheri L McGowan, David N Proctor, Ian Swaine, Robert D Brook, Elizabeth A Jackson, Phillip D Levy
Considered a global health crisis by the World Health Organization, hypertension (HTN) is the leading risk factor for death and disability. The majority of treated patients do not attain evidence-based clinical targets, which increases the risk of potentially fatal complications. HTN is the most common chronic condition seen in primary care; thus, implementing therapies that lower and maintain BP to within-target ranges is of tremendous public health importance. Isometric handgrip (IHG) training is a simple intervention endorsed by the American Heart Association as a potential adjuvant BP-lowering treatment...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501983/understanding-the-two-faces-of-low-salt-intake
#16
REVIEW
Branko Braam, Xiaohua Huang, William A Cupples, Shereen M Hamza
Fierce debate has developed whether low-sodium intake, like high-sodium intake, could be associated with adverse outcome. The debate originates in earlier epidemiological studies associating high-sodium intake with high blood pressure and more recent studies demonstrating a higher cardiovascular event rate with both low- and high-sodium intake. This brings into question whether we entirely understand the consequences of high- and (very) low-sodium intake for the systemic hemodynamics, the kidney function, the vascular wall, the immune system, and the brain...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501982/smartphone-applications-for-hypertension-management-a-potential-game-changer-that-needs-more-control
#17
REVIEW
Gianfranco Parati, Camilla Torlasco, Stefano Omboni, Dario Pellegrini
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review article will summarize available data on mobile applications for the management of hypertension, by highlighting their potential for clinical use, the current limitations and the yet pending issues to be addressed in future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of available applications related to arterial hypertension and their usage by smartphone owners is constantly increasing. However, most applications lack standardization and scientific validation, and security flaws could be an important, yet still underrated, issue...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500575/salt-and-blood-pressure-cutting-through-the-scientific-fog
#18
REVIEW
Emrush Rexhaj, Franz H Messerli, David Cerny, Juergen Bohlender
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488048/protective-angiotensin-type-2-receptors-in-the-brain-and-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Annette D de Kloet, Ulrike M Steckelings, Colin Sumners
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to assess the evidence that activation of angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R) in the brain can lower blood pressure and possibly constitute an endogenous anti-hypertensive mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies that detail the location of AT2R in the brain, particularly within or near cardiovascular control centers, mesh well with findings from pharmacological and gene transfer studies which demonstrate that activation of central AT2R can influence cardiovascular regulation...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470470/role-of-paced-breathing-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Relu Cernes, Reuven Zimlichman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension remains to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Despite a plethora of pharmacological options available, an abundance of patients have uncontrolled blood pressure thus creating the need for additional strategies, including non-pharmacologic approaches. In this review, we discuss the antihypertensive effect of slow and deep respiration by increasing baroreflex sensitivity. RECENT FINDINGS: Asking patients to carry out paced breathing sessions unaccompanied by a personal coach or unaided by a device may be unfeasible...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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