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Current Hypertension Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343357/gut-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
R G Armani, A Ramezani, A Yasir, S Sharama, M E F Canziani, D S Raj
With over 100 trillion microbial cells, the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. Gut microbiome dysbiosis, resulted from alteration of composition and function of the gut microbiome and disruption of gut barrier function, is commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The dysbiotic gut microbiome generates excessive amounts of uremic toxins, and the impaired intestinal barrier permits translocation of these toxins into the systemic circulation...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#4
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315048/microbial-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer L Pluznick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are byproducts of microbial metabolism which can be absorbed into the bloodstream of the host, where they exert effects on host physiology. SCFAs have been known to influence several aspects of host physiology, including the regulation of blood pressure. In this review, we will consider recent studies linking SCFAs to blood pressure regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have found that changes in blood pressure often coordinate with expected changes in SCFAS...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283927/a-review-of-the-genetics-of-hypertension-with-a-focus-on-gene-environment-interactions
#7
REVIEW
R J Waken, Lisa de Las Fuentes, D C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we discuss the interpretation and modeling of gene-environment interactions in hypertension-related phenotypes, with a focus on the necessary assumptions and possible challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, small cohort studies have discovered several novel genetic variants associated with hypertension-related phenotypes through modeling gene-environment interactions. Several consortia-based meta-analytic efforts have uncovered many novel genetic variants in hypertension without modeling interaction terms, giving promise to future meta-analytic efforts that incorporate gene-environment interactions...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283926/differential-metabolic-effects-of-beta-blockers-an-updated-systematic-review-of-nebivolol
#8
REVIEW
Maria Marketou, Yashaswi Gupta, Shashank Jain, Panos Vardas
Blood pressure management in hypertensive patients with metabolic abnormalities is challenging, since many of the antihypertensive drugs adversely affect metabolism. Besides effective control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension, third-generation beta-blockers such as nebivolol offer additional benefits for central hemodynamics and neutral or beneficial effects on metabolism. Emerging clinical data suggest that nebivolol also has similar effects on metabolism in obese hypertensive and hypertensive diabetic patients...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271419/pre-eclampsia-the-potential-of-gsno-reductase-inhibitors
#9
REVIEW
Thomas R Everett, Ian B Wilkinson, Christoph C Lees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pre-eclampsia remains a leading worldwide cause of maternal death and of perinatal morbidity. There remains no definitive treatment except delivery of the fetus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent insights into the cardiovascular changes that are evident prior to, during, and persist after pre-eclampsia have improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology-disruption of normal endothelial function and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is an endogenous S-nitrosothiol that acts as a NO pool and, by replenishing or preventing the breakdown of GSNO, endothelial dysfunction can be ameliorated...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271418/blood-pressure-and-the-renal-actions-of-at2-receptors
#10
REVIEW
Robert M Carey
Angiotensin type-2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the renal proximal tubule inhibit sodium (Na+) reabsorption by inducing renal cyclic GMP formation and internalizing and inhibiting major Na+ transporters Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE-3) and Na+/K+ATPase (NKA). Instead of angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III) is the predominant endogenous agonist for this response. Exogenous non-peptide AT2R agonist Compound-21 induces natriuresis and lowers blood pressure (BP) in normal and Ang II-infused hypertensive rodents...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271417/method-of-blood-pressure-measurement-interpretation-of-sprint-and-the-atlantic-divide
#11
REVIEW
John M Flack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197835/selenium-vanadium-and-chromium-as-micronutrients-to-improve-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Stephen Wanyonyi, Lindsay Brown
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243928/pathophysiology-and-potential-non-pharmacologic-treatments-of-obesity-or-kidney-disease-associated-refractory-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Thierry H Le Jemtel, William Richardson, Rohan Samson, Abhishek Jaiswal, Suzanne Oparil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review assesses the role of non-pharmacologic therapy for obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated refractory hypertension (rf HTN). RECENT FINDINGS: Hypertensive patients with markedly heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are prone to develop refractory hypertension (rfHTN). Patients with obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated HTN have particularly heightened SNS activity and are at high risk of rfHTN...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233242/ambiguities-in-the-guidelines-for-the-management-of-arterial-hypertension-indian-perspective-with-a-call-for-global-harmonization
#14
REVIEW
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Abhinav Grover, A P S Hungin
Many medical professional societies have formulated guidelines to treat hypertension, but there existed differences with respect to diagnosis, blood pressure (BP) targets, pharmacotherapy of hypertension, and grades of evidence. A MEDLINE search for hypertension guidelines was performed to compare Indian guidelines for hypertension (IGH) with these guidelines. A majority of the guidelines had consensus on the cutoff value (140/90 mmHg, recorded twice) to diagnose hypertension. The Joint National Committee 8 (JNC 8), IGH, Japanese Society of hypertension (JSH), Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), and American Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension (ASH/ISH) guidelines provide a higher BP target for the elderly hypertensive populations, while the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and European Society of Hypertension (ESH) guidelines provided a lower BP target for the elderly patients...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233241/preeclampsia-a-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
Andrew Smyth, Claudio Ronco, Vesna D Garovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233240/effects-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-female-sex-on-future-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Gwendolyn K Davis, Ashley D Newsome, Norma B Ojeda, Barbara T Alexander
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: It is well-established that the age-related increase in blood pressure is augmented after menopause. Yet, the prevalence of hypertension is enhanced in low birth weight women relative to normal birth weight counterparts by 60 years of age suggesting that adverse influences during fetal life heighten cardiovascular risk in later life. RECENT FINDINGS: A changing hormonal milieu may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk that occurs after the menopausal transition...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233239/novel-cardiac-intracrine-mechanisms-based-on-ang-1-12-chymase-axis-require-a-revision-of-therapeutic-approaches-in-human-heart-disease
#17
REVIEW
Santiago Reyes, Jasmina Varagic, Sarfaraz Ahmad, Jessica VonCannon, Neal D Kon, Hao Wang, Leanne Groban, Che Ping Cheng, Louis J Dell'Italia, Carlos M Ferrario
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, are the most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with or at risk for cardiovascular events. However, new treatment strategies aimed at mitigating the rise of the heart failure pandemic are warranted because clinical trials show that RAS blockers have limited benefits in halting disease progression. The main goal of this review is to put forward the concept of an intracrine RAS signaling through the novel angiotensin-(1-12)/chymase axis as the main source of deleterious angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiac maladaptive remodeling leading to heart failure (HF)...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233238/plasticity-of-renin-cells-in-the-kidney-vasculature
#18
REVIEW
R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira Lopez
During development, renin cells are precursors for arteriolar smooth muscle, mesangial cells, and interstitial pericytes. Those seemingly differentiated descendants retain the memory to re-express renin when there is a threat to homeostasis. Understanding how such molecular memory is constructed and regulated would be crucial to comprehend cell identity which is, in turn, intimately linked to homeostasis.
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233237/current-perspectives-on-systemic-hypertension-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#19
REVIEW
Marty C Tam, Ran Lee, Thomas M Cascino, Matthew C Konerman, Scott L Hummel
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a prevalent but incompletely understood syndrome. Traditional models of HFpEF pathophysiology revolve around systemic HTN and other causes of increased left ventricular afterload leading to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction. However, emerging models attribute the development of HFpEF to systemic proinflammatory changes secondary to common comorbidities which include HTN. Alterations in passive ventricular stiffness, ventricular-arterial coupling, peripheral microvascular function, systolic reserve, and chronotropic response occur...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233236/role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hypertension-and-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Vicente Lahera, Natalia de Las Heras, Antonio López-Farré, Walter Manucha, León Ferder
Mitochondria are essential for the maintenance of normal physiological function of tissue cells. Mitochondria are subject to dynamic processes in order to establish a control system related to survival or cell death and adaptation to changes in the metabolic environment of cells. Mitochondrial dynamics includes fusion and fission processes, biogenesis, and mitophagy. Modifications of mitochondrial dynamics in organs involved in energy metabolism such as the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue could be of relevance for the development of insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes...
February 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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