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Current Rheumatology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488228/pneumocystis-pneumonia-and-the-rheumatologist-which-patients-are-at-risk-and-how-can-pcp-be-prevented
#1
REVIEW
Rachel M Wolfe, James E Peacock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunosuppressive therapy for connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is steadily becoming more intense. The resultant impairment in cell-mediated immunity has been accompanied by an increasing risk for opportunistic infection (OI). Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has been recognized as an OI in patients with CTDs, but specific risk factors and precise indications for PCP prophylaxis remain poorly defined. This review was undertaken to update information on the risk of PCP in patients with CTDs and to examine current guidelines for PCP prophylaxis in this population...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484944/prolotherapy-for-osteoarthritis-and-tendinopathy-a-descriptive-review
#2
REVIEW
David Rabago, Bobby Nourani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis and overuse tendinopathy are common chronic conditions of high societal and patient burden. The precise etiology of pain and disability in both conditions is multifactorial and not well understood. Patients are often refractory to conservative therapy. The development of new therapeutic options in both conditions is a public health priority. Prolotherapy is an injection-based outpatient regenerative therapy for chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis and tendinopathy...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470479/epigenetic-variability-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-what-we-learned-from-genome-wide-dna-methylation-studies
#3
REVIEW
Maria Teruel, Amr H Sawalha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA methylation has emerged as an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe the DNA methylation patterns identified in SLE and how these epigenetic changes can influence disease susceptibility, clinical heterogeneity, and disease flares. RECENT FINDINGS: Several genome-wide DNA methylation studies have been recently completed in SLE. Important observations include robust demethylation of interferon-regulated genes, which is consistent across all cell types studied to date, and is independent of disease activity...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470478/does-aps-impact-women-s-fertility
#4
REVIEW
Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Pier Luigi Meroni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the relationship between anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) and female infertility by addressing three key questions: (i) how can aPL induce women's infertility?; (ii) are aPL more prevalent among infertile than fertile women?; (iii) do aPL-positive women display reduced fertility? RECENT FINDINGS: According to experimental data, aPL impair female fertility interfering with endometrial decidualization thus with implantation...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466383/photopheresis-advances-and-use-in-systemic-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Xiaolong Alan Zhou, Jaehyuk Choi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (photopheresis, ECP) is a cell-based immunomodulatory treatment that separates leukocytes from peripheral blood, exposes them to a photosensitizing agent followed by ultraviolet A light, and then reinfuses them back into the patient. ECP has been found to be effective for graft versus host disease, transplant rejection, and various autoimmune diseases. The mechanism is not well understood but studies have shown clinical benefit in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc)...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456906/the-epigenomic-landscape-in-osteoarthritis
#6
REVIEW
Tommie C Simon, Matlock A Jeffries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenomics has emerged as a key player in our rapidly evolving understanding of osteoarthritis. Historical studies implicated epigenetic alterations, particularly DNA methylation, in OA pathogenesis; however, recent technological advances have resulted in numerous epigenome-wide studies examining in detail epigenetic modifications in OA. The purpose of this article is to introduce basic concepts in epigenetics and their recent applications to the study of osteoarthritis development and progression...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401384/bone-involvement-in-rosai-dorfman-disease-rdd-a-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Birgit A Mosheimer, Bastian Oppl, Shahin Zandieh, Michael Fillitz, Felix Keil, Klaus Klaushofer, Günter Weiss, Jochen Zwerina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytic disorder typically presenting as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal involvement is common and may also affect bones. Here, we present a patient with typical nodal disease and multifocal bone manifestations. Further, a systematic literature review was performed to better understand the phenotype, clinical course and treatment options of such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: RDD is a nonmalignant, classically sporadic histiocytosis...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397126/protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-in-systemic-sclerosis-potential-pathogenic-players-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Cristiano Sacchetti, Nunzio Bottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis depends on a complex interplay between autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis. Reversible phosphorylation on tyrosine residues, in response to growth factors and other stimuli, critically regulates each one of these three key pathogenic processes. Protein tyrosine kinases, the enzymes that catalyze addition of phosphate to tyrosine residues, are known players in systemic sclerosis, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials for treatment of this disease...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397125/diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-in-autoimmune-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Marco Ulises Martínez-Martínez, David Alejandro Herrera-van Oostdam, Carlos Abud-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present paper establishes a narrative and analytical review of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in ANCA-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies found a frequent association between DAH and infections and systemic lupus erythematosus and its associated factors. Biological therapies like rituximab have demonstrated benefit mainly in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386763/ankylosing-spondylitis-hla-b-27-positive-versus-hla-b-27-negative-disease
#10
REVIEW
Nurullah Akkoç, Handan Yarkan, Gökçe Kenar, Muhammad A Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review our current knowledge about the clinical features of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who possess HLA-B*27 versus those who lack this gene. RECENT FINDINGS: ERAP1 association is present only in HLA-B*27+ patients, but other genetic associations are similar between the two groups. A genetic study supports the existence of an HLA-B27-independent common link between gut inflammation and AS. It is unusual to observe familial occurrence of primary AS among families of northern European extraction that show no segregation of HLA-B*27, psoriasis, or IBD...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386762/fatigue-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
REVIEW
Patricia Katz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review the current information on fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RECENT FINDINGS: Severe fatigue is common among individuals with RA and has a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). RA-related factors (e.g., inflammation, pain) are associated with greater fatigue, but other factors, such as obesity, physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, and depression, explain the majority of variation in fatigue...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386761/platelet-rich-plasma-for-the-management-of-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis
#12
REVIEW
Kim L Bennell, David J Hunter, Kade L Paterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) are major public health problems worldwide causing pain, disability and impaired quality of life. This narrative paper discusses platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a treatment for hip and knee OA, with a focus on evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Since the first RCT of PRP in 2012, there has been 15 RCTs in knee OA and three in hip OA, mostly comparing PRP to another intra-articular injection therapy, hyaluronic acid...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386760/lung-transplantation-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Rupal J Shah, Francesco Boin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to highlight recent findings on evaluation for lung transplantation and outcomes after transplantation in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). RECENT FINDINGS: The recognition that extra-pulmonary disease manifestations can seriously compromise post-transplant outcomes has changed the way patients are screened for lung transplant candidacy. Reluctance to transplant subjects affected by scleroderma has been driven by the complexity and multisystem nature of this disease...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386759/treat-to-target-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-what-are-the-issues
#14
REVIEW
Abhijeet Danve, Atul Deodhar
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Treat to Target (T2T) strategy has been widely used in the management of chronic medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypothyroidism, as well as rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The purpose of this review is to discuss the importance, feasibility, and challenges in adopting the T2T strategy for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). RECENT FINDINGS: In 2014, a panel of international experts published recommendations for T2T in axSpA...
May 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365920/the-changing-face-of-clinical-trials-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
Alexis Ogdie, Laura Coates
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We will address current treatment and unmet needs in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), examine existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and consider options for new trial designs and challenges in their implementation. RECENT FINDINGS: While therapeutic options for PsA have rapidly increased, there continues to be a need for clinical trials to test new therapies and establish optimal treatment strategies in order to improve the care for patients with PsA...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361335/endosomal-redox-signaling-in-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Karl J Lackner, Davit Manukyan, Nadine Müller-Calleja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well established that the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is caused by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). While several underlying mechanisms have been described in the past, many open questions remain. Here, we will review data on endosomal signaling and, in particular, redox signaling in APS. RECENT FINDINGS: Endosomal redox signaling has been implicated in several cellular processes including signaling of proinflammatory cytokines. We have shown that certain aPL can activate endosomal NADPH-oxidase (NOX) in several cell types followed by induction of proinflammatory and procoagulant cellular responses in vitro...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361334/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-and-related-diseases-update-on-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Allison J Cox, Yongdong Zhao, Polly J Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on recent advances in the understanding of the genetic, molecular, immunologic, and environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory bone diseases including the syndromic and non-syndromic forms of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence implicating the IL-1 pathway in the pathogenesis of the Mendelian forms of CRMO is growing. LIPIN2 can regulate the NLRP3 inflammasome by affecting P2X7 receptor activation, and intracellular cholesterol can modulate P2X7R currents...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361333/in-the-pursuit-of-methotrexate-treatment-response-biomarker-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-are-we-getting-closer-to-personalised-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Justyna Roszkiewicz, Elzbieta Smolewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methotrexate (MTX) is the most widely used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in paediatric rheumatology and the mainstay in the therapy of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Despite its common use, about 30% of children fail to respond to this medicine that results in potentially irreversible joint damage. RECENT FINDINGS: No clinical biomarker that would predict the outcome of MTX therapy exists. Results of several studies focused on gene polymorphisms and outcome of this DMARD therapy have been published, but no reliable genetic marker useful to tailor the therapy has been discovered so far...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361332/managing-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-clinical-updates-and-three-strategic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Ann M Chodara, Aimée Wattiaux, Christie M Bartels
ᅟ: The increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well known; however, appropriate management of this elevated risk in rheumatology clinics is less clear. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: By critically reviewing literature published within the past 5 years, we aim to clarify current knowledge and gaps regarding CVD risk management in RA. RECENT FINDINGS: We examine recent guidelines, recommendations, and evidence and discuss three approaches: (1) RA-specific management including treat-to-target and medication management, (2) assessment of comprehensive individual risk, and (3) targeting traditional CVD risk factors (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity) at a population level...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361331/anca-associated-vasculitis-pathogenesis-a-commentary
#20
REVIEW
Eric J Gapud, Philip Seo, Brendan Antiochos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ANCA-associated vasculitides are a group of small vessel vasculitides characterized by autoantibodies recognizing the neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens PR3 and MPO. We examine the current clinical and molecular immunology understanding of ANCA-associated vasculitides and discuss the current needs in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these rare diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of efforts to understand the pathogenesis of these diseases have focused on dissecting neutrophil biology because the neutrophil is the primary expressor of ANCA autoantigens...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
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