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Current Rheumatology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265849/structural-disease-progression-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-still-a-cause-for-concern
#1
REVIEW
Barbara Neerinckx, Rik J Lories
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Progressive ankylosis is a feared consequence of long-standing axial spondyloarthritis. We aim to critically review current insights into the effect of therapy, the molecular pathways involved in this process, and to present a model explaining the sequence of events. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up data suggest that successful control of inflammation may slow down radiographic progression of disease in axial spondyloarthritis. Structural effects of new therapies such as interleukin-17 targeting need to be further studied...
March 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265848/apol1-and-the-immune-response-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
REVIEW
Ashira D Blazer, Robert M Clancy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) confers up to a 50-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and African Americans with SLE experience accelerated damage accrual and doubled cardiovascular risk when compared to their European American counterparts. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies have identified a substantial signal at 22q13, now assigned to variation at apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), which has associated with progressive nondiabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and many immune-associated renal diseases, including lupus nephritis...
March 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265847/can-rheumatologists-predict-eventual-need-for-orthopaedic-intervention-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-of-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-two-uk-inception-cohorts
#3
REVIEW
Elena Nikiphorou, Lewis Carpenter, Sam Norton, Stephen Morris, Alex MacGregor, Josh Dixey, Peter Williams, Patrick Kiely, David Andrew Walsh, Adam Young
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The structural damage caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can often be mitigated by orthopaedic surgery in late disease. This study evaluates the value of predictive factors for orthopaedic intervention. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was undertaken to identify papers describing predictive factors for orthopaedic surgery in RA. Manuscripts were selected if they met inclusion criteria of cohort study design, diagnosis of RA, follow-up duration/disease duration ≥3 years, any orthopaedic surgical interventions recorded, and then summarised for predictive factors...
March 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265846/the-multifunctional-role-of-the-chemokine-system-in-arthritogenic-processes
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Bernardini, Giorgia Benigni, Rossana Scrivo, Guido Valesini, Angela Santoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the genesis and perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, and osteoarthritis has been clearly recognized for a long time. Nevertheless, the complexity of their contribution to these diseases is now becoming evident and this review focuses on published evidence on their mechanism of action. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies performed on patients and in vivo models have identified a number of chemokine-mediated pathways involved in various aspects of arthritogenic processes...
March 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265845/novel-treatments-in-lupus
#5
REVIEW
Vasileios C Kyttaris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) still depends on non-specific immunosuppression. Herein, we review promising targeted therapies that have the potential to change this therapeutic paradigm. RECENT FINDINGS: Besides the FDA-approved B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) inhibitor, belimumab, interferon-α represents a promising treatment target, albeit with modest effectiveness primarily in non-renal SLE. Preclinical and early-phase clinical trials using biologics and small molecules targeting B and T cell activation as well as the cross-talk between these cells also show promise...
March 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247302/an-update-on-the-genetic-polymorphism-of-hla-b-27-with-213-alleles-encompassing-160-subtypes-and-still-counting
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad A Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This publication updates an earlier review on the ever increasing knowledge about genetic polymorphism of HLA-B*27 and discusses its clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS: As of January 1, 2017, there are 213 known alleles of HLA-B*27 at nucleotide sequence level, while at the translated protein level, there are 160 known subtypes based on one or more amino acid sequence differences. Some of these subtypes exhibit differential association with ankylosing spondylitis, and there may even be some level of hierarchy in this regard...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197884/therapies-of-early-advanced-and-late-onset-forms-of-axial-spondyloarthritis-and-the-need-for-treat-to-target-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Nurullah Akkoc, Gercek Can, Salvatore D'Angelo, Angela Padula, Ignazio Olivieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to provide an update on current status of pharmacological therapies in early and advanced stages of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), as well as its late onset forms, and to discuss the need for treat to target strategies in this entity. RECENT FINDINGS: Efficacy of TNF inhibitors has been assessed in randomized controlled trials in axSpA, which included patients who had non-radiographic axSpA according to the ASAS classification criteria...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164248/medication-risk-communication-in-rheumatology-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#8
REVIEW
Susan J Blalock
This paper reviews findings from recent research examining issues related to the risk communication process within the context of rheumatologic conditions. Five specific questions are addressed. First, to what extent do patients with rheumatic disorders exhibit adequate knowledge relevant to disease and medication risks and risk management? Second, what sources do patients use when attempting to find information about disease and medication risks and risk management? Third, what types of information about disease and medication risks and risk management do rheumatologists provide during routine office visits...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155022/rituximab-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#9
REVIEW
Romina I Hassan, Angelo L Gaffo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) as a remission induction and maintenance therapy in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). RECENT FINDINGS: A PubMed search was carried out to track down articles published between February 2006 and February 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that encompassed patients with AAV were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2014-2015 online abstracts were also reviewed whether they were RTCs or not...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144827/biomarkers-for-musculoskeletal-pain-conditions-use-of-brain-imaging-and-machine-learning
#10
REVIEW
Jeff Boissoneault, Landrew Sevel, Janelle Letzen, Michael Robinson, Roland Staud
Chronic musculoskeletal pain condition often shows poor correlations between tissue abnormalities and clinical pain. Therefore, classification of pain conditions like chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia depends mostly on self report and less on objective findings like X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. However, recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging have identified brain abnormalities in chronic pain conditions that can be used for illness classification...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138823/interfacial-adipose-tissue-in-systemic-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Ilja L Kruglikov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a summary of recent insights into the role of the local white adipose tissue (WAT) in systemic sclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Adipocytes located in an interfacial WAT area adjacent to fibrotic lesions have an intermediate phenotype and special properties implicated in fibrotic pathology in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The important role of these cells is recognized in different pathologies, such as wound healing, psoriasis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138822/drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-dress-syndrome-and-the-rheumatologist
#12
REVIEW
Marwan H Adwan
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarise the various drugs used in rheumatology practice implicated in the causation of DRESS syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The most commonly reported drugs are allopurinol, sulfasalazine and minocycline, which pose a very high risk for DRESS syndrome development, followed by strontium ranelate and dapsone. Other, less commonly reported, drugs include leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, febuxostat, bosentan and solcitinib...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116578/innate-immunity-in-systemic-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Dowson, Nathan Simpson, Laura Duffy, Steven O'Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease which has defined three hallmarks: Small vessel vasculopathy, production of autoantibodies and fibroblast dysfunction. The exact aetiology of the disease remains unknown, due to the complex nature of the cellular signalling pathways involved. However, there is strong and consistent evidence that the innate system, in particular toll-like receptor signalling, is contributing to the progression and perhaps onset of systemic sclerosis...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116577/mechanisms-explaining-muscle-fatigue-and-muscle-pain-in-patients-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs-a-review-of-recent-findings
#14
REVIEW
Morris Gerwyn, Michael Maes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review potential causes of muscle dysfunction seen in many patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) such as the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and mitochondrial impairments together with reduced heat shock protein production and a range of metabolic abnormalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies published in the last few years have highlighted the existence of chronic O&NS, inflammation, impaired mitochondrial function and reduced heat shock protein production in many patients with ME/CFS...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832442/cannabinoids-in-the-management-of-musculoskeletal-or-rheumatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Winfried Häuser
The endocannabinoid system impacts pain and inflammation with potential for therapeutic effect on patients with rheumatic diseases. The current treatment options include the herbal product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa, as well as pharmaceutical preparations. The legalization of medicinal cannabis (marijuana) in many jurisdictions and widespread public advocacy has propelled an interest in use either by prescription or self-medication. In this review, we examine current evidence for efficacy and adverse effects of any cannabinoid product in rheumatic conditions...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822769/imaging-in-juvenile-spondyloarthritis
#16
REVIEW
Pamela F Weiss, Nancy A Chauvin, Johannes Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an update on the use of imaging in the assessment of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) disease manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated superior reliability and specificity of MRI for assessment of sacroiliac joint inflammation compared with radiography. The use of gadolinium contrast may not add incremental value to the assessment of inflammatory sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis is common at diagnosis of spondyloarthritis...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812956/direct-oral-anticoagulants-use-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-are-these-drugs-an-effective-and-safe-alternative-to-warfarin-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Virginie Dufrost, Jessie Risse, Stéphane Zuily, Denis Wahl
BACKGROUND: The cornerstone of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients' management is to prevent recurrent thrombosis by long-term anticoagulation. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize available literature on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use in APS patients through a systematic review and to determine factors associated with thrombosis recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent RAPS trial demonstrated that APS patients treated with rivaroxaban had a significant twofold-increased thrombin potential, suggesting a higher thrombotic risk, in comparison with warfarin users...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812955/differential-effects-of-inflammation-on-bone-and-response-to-biologics-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-spondyloarthritis
#18
REVIEW
Zheni Stavre, Katherine Upchurch, Jonathan Kay, Ellen M Gravallese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the pathways, cytokines, and concepts important to the pathogenesis of bone resorption and formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA). RECENT FINDINGS: Research in bone biology has shed light on the pathogenesis of the joint destruction that occurs in RA and in peripheral SpA. However, understanding the mechanisms behind the bone formation seen in peripheral and axial SpA has been challenging. Mouse models have been used to gain an understanding of key signaling pathways, cytokines and cells regulating inflammation in these diseases...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812954/activation-of-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-sle-explosion-of-evidence-in-the-last-five-years
#19
REVIEW
Zachary Oaks, Thomas Winans, Nick Huang, Katalin Banki, Andras Perl
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator in cell growth, activation, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the mTOR pathway underlies the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While mTOR activation and its therapeutic reversal were originally discovered in T cells, recent investigations have also uncovered roles in other cell subsets including B cells, macrophages, and "non-immune" organs such as the liver and the kidney. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) precedes the onset of SLE and associated co-morbidities, such as anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and may act as an early marker of disease pathogenesis...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812953/monogenic-lupus
#20
REVIEW
Mindy S Lo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease known for its clinical heterogeneity. Over time, new insights into the complex genetic origin of SLE have started to explain some of this clinical variability. These findings, reviewed here, have also yielded important understanding in the immune mechanisms behind SLE pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new monogenic disorders with lupus-like phenotype have been described...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
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