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Current Rheumatology Reports

Jorge Plutzky, Katherine P Liao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lipid levels are dynamic and can fluctuate along with changes in inflammation. A reduction in inflammation, most commonly as a result of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, is associated with increases in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In this review, we discuss new evidence shedding light on the potential mechanism underlying changes in lipid levels observed with changes in inflammation...
February 21, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Guo-Min Deng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The second most common clinical expression in lupus patients is skin damage that the pathogenesis remains unclear. We discuss the role of pathological factors in the development of skin damage in SLE. RECENT FINDINGS: Skin deposited IgG is a crucial pathologic factor in the development of skin damage in SLE. Macrophages and signaling of TNFα/TNFR1 and IFN/IFNR play an important role in the skin injury of SLE. The intracellular molecules including Syk and calcium/calmodulin 4 and NFAT are involved in the manifestation of skin damage in lupus-prone mice...
February 21, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Antonio La Cava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been great interest in understanding why T regulatory cells (Tregs) are reduced in number and/or in function in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although research has provided some answers, there is still much to learn. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations on the mechanisms responsible for the impairment of the Tregs in SLE have identified relevant abnormalities in cellular and molecular pathways that have been instrumental in the design of studies in animal models and in the development of pilot immunotherapeutic studies in lupus patients...
February 21, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
A I Stavrakis, A Khoshbin, A S McLawhorn, M L Parks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between obesity, osteoarthritis, arthroplasty outcomes, and the potential use of bariatric surgery to improve these outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Unfortunately, the findings in the currently available literature evaluating the role of bariatric surgery prior to arthroplasty surgery largely rely on retrospective data and their results are somewhat conflicting. Future prospective studies are needed to further evaluate whether or not bariatric surgery prior to arthroplasty surgery may be of benefit for patients...
February 21, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Eugene Genga, Omondi Oyoo, Adewale Adebajo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic vasculitides are characterized by inflammation of blood vessel walls leading to a myriad of organ disorders depending on the size, site, and location of the affected blood vessel. The epidemiology of vasculitis in the developing world has been inadequately documented. The description of the vasculitides in Africa, both from hospital series as well as taking into consideration, previous epidemiological studies in the community, indicates that these conditions have been rare until relatively recently...
February 21, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Marissa J Schafer, Andrew J Haak, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Nathan K LeBrasseur
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Senescent cells have the capacity to both effect and limit fibrosis. Senotherapeutics target senescent cells to improve aging conditions. Here, we review the contexts in which senescent cells mediate wound healing and fibrotic pathology and the potential utility of senotherapeutic drugs for treatment of fibrotic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Multi-action and temporal considerations influence deleterious versus beneficial actions of senescent cells...
January 26, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Alba Santos, David Lagares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ fibrosis is a lethal component of scleroderma. The hallmark of scleroderma fibrosis is extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by activated myofibroblasts, specialized hyper-contractile cells that promote ECM remodeling and matrix stiffening. The purpose of this review is to discuss novel mechanistic insight into myofibroblast activation in scleroderma. RECENT FINDINGS: Matrix stiffness, traditionally viewed as an end point of organ fibrosis, is now recognized as a critical regulator of tissue fibrogenesis that hijacks the normal physiologic wound-healing program to promote organ fibrosis...
January 19, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Teo Soleymani, Soumya M Reddy, Jeffrey M Cohen, Andrea L Neimann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis and treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can be challenging and require a multidisciplinary approach. This review provides an overview of combined dermatology-rheumatology clinics. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined dermatology-rheumatology clinics have emerged to optimize integrated care for patients with psoriasis and PsA. There are over 20 such clinics across the USA. These clinics facilitate multidisciplinary care for patients with psoriasis and PsA and have been found to improve outcomes and enhance both patient and physician satisfaction and knowledge...
November 20, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Naomi I Maria, Anne Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study was to review the characteristics of renal macrophages and dendritic cells during homeostasis and disease, with a particular focus on lupus nephritis. RECENT FINDINGS: Resident renal macrophages derive from embryonic sources and are long-lived and self-renewing; they are also replaced from the bone marrow with age. The unique characteristics of macrophages in each tissue are imposed by the microenvironment and reinforced by epigenetic modifications...
November 9, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Marjolein M Hanssen, Madelon L Peters, Jantine J Boselie, Ann Meulders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain is an intense experience that can place a heavy burden on peoples' lives. The identification of psychosocial risk factors led to the development of effective pain treatments. However, effect sizes are modest. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhancing protective factors might also impact on (well-being despite) pain. Recent findings on positive affect (interventions) towards pain-related outcomes will be reviewed, and new avenues for treatment of persistent pain will be discussed...
November 9, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Yoel Brito, Marilyn K Glassberg, Dana P Ascherman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Among the many extra-articular complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), interstitial lung disease (ILD) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Prevalence estimates for RA-ILD vary widely depending on the specific clinical, radiographic, and functional criteria used to establish the diagnosis. A key unresolved issue is whether early, subclinical forms of RA-ILD represent a precursor to end stage, fibrotic lung disease. Based on uncertainties surrounding the natural history of RA-ILD, incomplete understanding of underlying disease pathogenesis, and lack of controlled clinical trials, evidence-based therapeutic strategies remain largely undefined...
November 9, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Mia Glerup, T Herlin, M Twilt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assesses the long-term remission and predictors of clinical outcome in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A comprehensive literature search was performed including articles published between January 1, 2004 and February 28, 2017. Studies, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months, were selected independently by two reviewers based on in- and exclusion criteria. The objective outcome was inactive disease/clinical remission as defined by the Wallace criteria at last follow-up...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Brittany Taylor, Adnan Cheema, Louis Soslowsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypercholesterolemia (HC), or high cholesterol, is usually caused by diet, other health conditions, or inherited diseases, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC). Studies have shown patients with hypercholesterolemia are more prone to tendon injury and impaired healing. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which high cholesterol alters the biochemical and biomechanical properties of tendon and the healing environment is not well defined. This review highlights scientific findings on the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and treatments and tendon pathology at the cellular and tissue level...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Christopher J Hernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Changes in the constituents and activity of the microbiome have been associated with a number of conditions linked to bone and joint disease. This review concentrates on ways in which the microbiome is known to influence osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies have demonstrated that changes in the microbiome can mediate the effects of obesity on cartilage degeneration. Additionally, the microbiome influences the amount of the bone (bone quantity), as well as bone tissue material properties (bone quality)...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Daniel R Mazori, Alisa N Femia, Ruth Ann Vleugels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First recognized in 1974, eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a fibrosing disorder of the fascia with characteristic cutaneous and hematologic manifestations. This review discusses recent trends in the diagnosis and treatment of EF. RECENT FINDINGS: Although fascial biopsy has classically been considered the gold standard for making a diagnosis of EF, radiologic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, has been increasingly used for both diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Stamatis-Nick C Liossis, Chrysanthi Staveri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: B cells have been targeted recently by novel therapeutic approaches in patients with SLE. In this review, we discuss recent data that have emerged on this issue placing special emphasis in studies published during the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the negative results stemming from double-blind placebo-controlled studies, B cell depletion with rituximab is indeed employed worldwide, particularly in standard treatment refractory lupus, with promising results...
November 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Annemarie Schorpion, Sharon L Kolasinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to frame the discussion of the potential use of probiotics for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the historical and scientific context linking the human microbiota to the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of RA. Given this context, the review then details the clinical trials that have been carried out so far that have tried to address the question. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of laboratory and clinical observations link the flora of the oral cavity and lower gastrointestinal tract with citrullination, as well as immunological alterations that may contribute to the risk of developing RA...
November 2, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Natalie McCormick, Carlo A Marra, J Antonio Aviña-Zubieta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We synthesised the literature on productivity losses and costs in the less-common systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: Sjogren's syndrome (SjS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and systemic vasculitides (SV). RECENT FINDINGS: Of 29 studies located, 12 were published 2012 onwards (SSc = 6, SjS = 2, PM/DM = 2, SV = 2). In these, 25% of PM/DM, and 21-26% of SV, were work disabled, 22% of SSc stopped work within 3 years of diagnosis, and annual costs of absenteeism in SSc averaged $12,024 2017 USD...
October 30, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Hamza Jawad, Sebastian R McWilliams, Sanjeev Bhalla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study aimed to illustrate the cardiopulmonary findings of the following collagen vascular diseases on cross-sectional imaging: rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, the inflammatory myopathies (polymyositis/dermatomyositis), and Sjögren's syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Although collagen vascular diseases can affect any part of the body, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are the two most important cardiopulmonary complications and are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality in this patient population...
October 9, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval, Ashley L Kolano, P Abigail Alvarado-Vázquez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. RECENT FINDINGS: We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
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