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Current Rheumatology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197884/therapies-of-early-advanced-and-late-onset-forms-of-axial-spondyloarthritis-and-the-need-for-treat-to-target-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Nurullah Akkoc, Gercek Can, Salvatore D'Angelo, Angela Padula, Ignazio Olivieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to provide an update on current status of pharmacological therapies in early and advanced stages of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), as well as its late onset forms, and to discuss the need for treat to target strategies in this entity. RECENT FINDINGS: Efficacy of TNF inhibitors has been assessed in randomized controlled trials in axSpA, which included patients who had non-radiographic axSpA according to the ASAS classification criteria...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164248/medication-risk-communication-in-rheumatology-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#2
REVIEW
Susan J Blalock
This paper reviews findings from recent research examining issues related to the risk communication process within the context of rheumatologic conditions. Five specific questions are addressed. First, to what extent do patients with rheumatic disorders exhibit adequate knowledge relevant to disease and medication risks and risk management? Second, what sources do patients use when attempting to find information about disease and medication risks and risk management? Third, what types of information about disease and medication risks and risk management do rheumatologists provide during routine office visits...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155022/rituximab-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#3
REVIEW
Romina I Hassan, Angelo L Gaffo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) as a remission induction and maintenance therapy in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). RECENT FINDINGS: A PubMed search was carried out to track down articles published between February 2006 and February 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that encompassed patients with AAV were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2014-2015 online abstracts were also reviewed whether they were RTCs or not...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144827/biomarkers-for-musculoskeletal-pain-conditions-use-of-brain-imaging-and-machine-learning
#4
REVIEW
Jeff Boissoneault, Landrew Sevel, Janelle Letzen, Michael Robinson, Roland Staud
Chronic musculoskeletal pain condition often shows poor correlations between tissue abnormalities and clinical pain. Therefore, classification of pain conditions like chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia depends mostly on self report and less on objective findings like X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. However, recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging have identified brain abnormalities in chronic pain conditions that can be used for illness classification...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138823/interfacial-adipose-tissue-in-systemic-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Ilja L Kruglikov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a summary of recent insights into the role of the local white adipose tissue (WAT) in systemic sclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Adipocytes located in an interfacial WAT area adjacent to fibrotic lesions have an intermediate phenotype and special properties implicated in fibrotic pathology in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The important role of these cells is recognized in different pathologies, such as wound healing, psoriasis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138822/drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-dress-syndrome-and-the-rheumatologist
#6
REVIEW
Marwan H Adwan
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarise the various drugs used in rheumatology practice implicated in the causation of DRESS syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The most commonly reported drugs are allopurinol, sulfasalazine and minocycline, which pose a very high risk for DRESS syndrome development, followed by strontium ranelate and dapsone. Other, less commonly reported, drugs include leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, febuxostat, bosentan and solcitinib...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116578/innate-immunity-in-systemic-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Christopher Dowson, Nathan Simpson, Laura Duffy, Steven O'Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease which has defined three hallmarks: Small vessel vasculopathy, production of autoantibodies and fibroblast dysfunction. The exact aetiology of the disease remains unknown, due to the complex nature of the cellular signalling pathways involved. However, there is strong and consistent evidence that the innate system, in particular toll-like receptor signalling, is contributing to the progression and perhaps onset of systemic sclerosis...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116577/mechanisms-explaining-muscle-fatigue-and-muscle-pain-in-patients-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs-a-review-of-recent-findings
#8
REVIEW
Morris Gerwyn, Michael Maes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review potential causes of muscle dysfunction seen in many patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) such as the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and mitochondrial impairments together with reduced heat shock protein production and a range of metabolic abnormalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies published in the last few years have highlighted the existence of chronic O&NS, inflammation, impaired mitochondrial function and reduced heat shock protein production in many patients with ME/CFS...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832442/cannabinoids-in-the-management-of-musculoskeletal-or-rheumatic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Winfried Häuser
The endocannabinoid system impacts pain and inflammation with potential for therapeutic effect on patients with rheumatic diseases. The current treatment options include the herbal product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa, as well as pharmaceutical preparations. The legalization of medicinal cannabis (marijuana) in many jurisdictions and widespread public advocacy has propelled an interest in use either by prescription or self-medication. In this review, we examine current evidence for efficacy and adverse effects of any cannabinoid product in rheumatic conditions...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822769/imaging-in-juvenile-spondyloarthritis
#10
REVIEW
Pamela F Weiss, Nancy A Chauvin, Johannes Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an update on the use of imaging in the assessment of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) disease manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated superior reliability and specificity of MRI for assessment of sacroiliac joint inflammation compared with radiography. The use of gadolinium contrast may not add incremental value to the assessment of inflammatory sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis is common at diagnosis of spondyloarthritis...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812956/direct-oral-anticoagulants-use-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-are-these-drugs-an-effective-and-safe-alternative-to-warfarin-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Virginie Dufrost, Jessie Risse, Stéphane Zuily, Denis Wahl
BACKGROUND: The cornerstone of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients' management is to prevent recurrent thrombosis by long-term anticoagulation. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize available literature on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use in APS patients through a systematic review and to determine factors associated with thrombosis recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent RAPS trial demonstrated that APS patients treated with rivaroxaban had a significant twofold-increased thrombin potential, suggesting a higher thrombotic risk, in comparison with warfarin users...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812955/differential-effects-of-inflammation-on-bone-and-response-to-biologics-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-spondyloarthritis
#12
REVIEW
Zheni Stavre, Katherine Upchurch, Jonathan Kay, Ellen M Gravallese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the pathways, cytokines, and concepts important to the pathogenesis of bone resorption and formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA). RECENT FINDINGS: Research in bone biology has shed light on the pathogenesis of the joint destruction that occurs in RA and in peripheral SpA. However, understanding the mechanisms behind the bone formation seen in peripheral and axial SpA has been challenging. Mouse models have been used to gain an understanding of key signaling pathways, cytokines and cells regulating inflammation in these diseases...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812954/activation-of-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-sle-explosion-of-evidence-in-the-last-five-years
#13
REVIEW
Zachary Oaks, Thomas Winans, Nick Huang, Katalin Banki, Andras Perl
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator in cell growth, activation, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the mTOR pathway underlies the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While mTOR activation and its therapeutic reversal were originally discovered in T cells, recent investigations have also uncovered roles in other cell subsets including B cells, macrophages, and "non-immune" organs such as the liver and the kidney. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) precedes the onset of SLE and associated co-morbidities, such as anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and may act as an early marker of disease pathogenesis...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812953/monogenic-lupus
#14
REVIEW
Mindy S Lo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease known for its clinical heterogeneity. Over time, new insights into the complex genetic origin of SLE have started to explain some of this clinical variability. These findings, reviewed here, have also yielded important understanding in the immune mechanisms behind SLE pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new monogenic disorders with lupus-like phenotype have been described...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812952/predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-aav
#15
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
It is important to recognize factors that might predict poor outcome and prognosis in patients with AAV. The predictors reported in the literature encompass genetic, histopathological, and clinical ones. Genetic studies (genetic predictors) have found genes that are associated with prediction of poor response to treatment, deterioration of renal function, and risk of mortality. Histopathological studies (histopathological predictors) have shown that sclerotic renal lesions are associated with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and death...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796844/the-complex-role-of-the-lung-in-the-pathogenesis-and-clinical-outcomes-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Lindsay B Kelmenson, M Kristen Demoruelle, Kevin D Deane
While the primary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is articular disease, extra-articular disease may also occur. In particular, pulmonary disease is a frequent extra-articular manifestation of seropositive RA and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. This review will highlight studies published in the last several years and will, in particular, discuss the relationship of antibodies to citrullinated protein/peptide antigens (ACPA) and lung disease in patients with RA. We will also review the data regarding the potential role of the lung and generation of RA-related autoantibodies in a period of disease development termed "preclinical RA...
November 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734211/low-dose-il-2-in-the-treatment-of-lupus
#17
REVIEW
Masayuki Mizui, George C Tsokos
Recent extensive research on interleukin-2 (IL-2)/IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) biology has revealed its critical role in the regulation of immune tolerance by influencing regulatory T (Treg) cell functions and survival. Since in vivo low-dose IL-2 administration in humans has been confirmed to be safe and effective in expanding Treg, it is likely that it may be considered for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematousus (SLE). A recent clinical trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of low-dose IL-2 treatment on SLE...
November 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709413/immune-cell-metabolism-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
REVIEW
Seung-Chul Choi, Anton A Titov, Ramya Sivakumar, Wei Li, Laurence Morel
Cellular metabolism represents a newly identified checkpoint of effector functions in the immune system. A solid body of work has characterized the metabolic requirements of normal T cells during activation and differentiation into polarized effector subsets. Similar studies have been initiated to characterize the metabolic requirements for B cells and myeloid cells. Only a few studies though have characterized the metabolism of immune cells in the context of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review what is known on the altered metabolic patterns of CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells in lupus patients and lupus-prone mice and how they contribute to lupus pathogenesis...
November 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704250/regulatory-t-cells-in-sle-biology-and-use-in-treatment
#19
Sophia Giang, Antonio La Cava
T regulatory cells (Tregs) represent a phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous group of lymphocytes that exert immunosuppressive activities on effector immune responses. Tregs play a key role in maintaining immune tolerance and homeostasis through diverse mechanisms which involve interactions with components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. As in many autoimmune diseases, Tregs have been proposed to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive breakdown of tolerance to self-antigens and the presence of concomitant hyperactive immune responses...
November 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686950/gout-and-osteoarthritis-associations-pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#20
REVIEW
Chio Yokose, Meng Chen, Adey Berhanu, Michael H Pillinger, Svetlana Krasnokutsky
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common type of arthritis worldwide, is a degenerative disease of diarthrodial joints resulting in pain, reduced quality of life, and socioeconomic burden. Gout, the most common form of inflammatory arthritis, is a consequence of persistently elevated levels of urate and the formation of proinflammatory monosodium urate crystals in joints. Clinicians have long noted a predilection for both diseases to occur in the same joints. In this review, we provide an overview into research elucidating possible biochemical, mechanical, and immunological relationships between gout and OA...
October 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
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