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Current Cardiology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353319/management-strategies-for-noncardiac-surgery-following-a-coronary-artery-event
#1
REVIEW
Thomas F Whayne, Sibu P Saha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery event includes acute coronary syndrome (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Following such an event, risk of noncardiac surgery is increased. Of major concern is what can make this surgery safer? RECENT FINDINGS: High functional capacity improves cardiovascular (CV) risk; at least 4.0 metabolic equivalents (METs) on stress test are favorable. Risk scores can suggest need for further evaluation...
January 20, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350305/percutaneous-mechanical-circulatory-support-devices-for-high-risk-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#2
REVIEW
Subrata Kar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices (PMCSD) consist of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), Impella (Abiomed Inc., Danvers, Massachusetts), Tandem Heart (Cardiac Assist, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), or extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO). They augment cardiac output, cardiac index, and cardiac power which allow the operator to mitigate hemodynamic perturbations during high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI). This review discusses PMCSD and their contemporary literature...
January 19, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349558/sglt2-inhibitors-and-mechanisms-of-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Alexandros Briasoulis, Omar Al Dhaybi, George L Bakris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to review currently available data on the safety and efficacy of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Inhibition of SGLT2 in the renal proximal tubule results in increased urinary glucose excretion and modest improvements of hemoglobin A1C. Treatment with any of the three currently FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) results in sustained systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction, in part via minimal natriuresis and possible reductions in sympathetic tone...
January 19, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103157/evaluation-of-a-heart-transplant-candidate
#4
REVIEW
Sook Jin Lee, Kyung Hee Kim, Suk Keun Hong, Shelley Hankins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart transplantation is the best option for irreversible and critically advanced heart failure. However, limited donor pool, the risk of rejection, infection, and right ventricular dysfunction in short-term post-transplant period, as well as, the development of coronary allograft vasculopathy and malignancy in the long-term post-transplant period limits the utility of heart transplantation for all comers with advanced heart failure. Therefore, selection of appropriate candidates is very important for the best short and long-term prognosis...
November 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103089/hdl-cholesterol-metabolism-and-the-risk-of-chd-new-insights-from-human-genetics
#5
REVIEW
Cecilia Vitali, Sumeet A Khetarpal, Daniel J Rader
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood (HDL-C) represent one of the strongest epidemiological surrogates for protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), but recent human genetic and pharmacological intervention studies have raised controversy about the causality of this relationship. Here, we review recent discoveries from human genome studies using new analytic tools as well as relevant animal studies that have both addressed, and in some cases, fueled this controversy...
November 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094207/peripheral-arterial-disease-genetics-progress-to-date-and-challenges-ahead
#6
REVIEW
Nathan Belkin, Scott M Damrauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this paper, we review the progress made thus far in research related to the genetics of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) by detailing efforts to date in heritability, linkage analyses, and candidate gene studies. We further summarize more contemporary genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epigenetic studies of PAD. Finally, we review current challenges and future avenues of advanced research in PAD genetics including whole genome sequencing studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have estimated the heritability of PAD to be moderate, though the contribution to this heritability that is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear...
November 1, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086035/challenges-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-low-flow-states-diagnosis-management-and-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#7
REVIEW
Matthew W Sherwood, Todd L Kiefer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will describe and define the current diagnosis, management, and potential therapy for low-flow aortic stenosis (AS) states, as well as summarize the available evidence underlying these recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-flow aortic stenosis syndromes have worse prognoses than traditionally defined normal flow severe aortic stenosis. In this setting, aortic valve replacement is the only therapy that improves outcomes. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has an ever-expanding role in the treatment of aortic stenosis, and there is growing evidence that TAVR may be a preferred therapy for low-flow AS states...
October 30, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081008/hypertension-in-african-americans
#8
REVIEW
Nomsa Musemwa, Crystal A Gadegbeku
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: African Americans are over-burdened with hypertension resulting in excess morbidity and mortality. We highlight the health impact of hypertension in this population, review important observations regarding disease pathogenesis, and outline evidence-based treatment, current treatment guidelines, and management approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypertension accounts for 50% of the racial differences in mortality between Blacks and Whites in the USA. Genome-wide association studies have not clearly identified distinct genetic causes for the excess burden in this population as yet...
October 28, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075913/role-of-echocardiography-in-transcatheter-valvular-heart-disease-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Omar K Khalique, Rebecca T Hahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcatheter valvular interventions have increased in importance and utility for surgical valve repair and replacement. Cardiac imaging is the most crucial aspect of procedural planning and guidance. Echocardiography is a widely used, portable, and dynamic imaging modality used for many of these interventions. This review will summarize the role echocardiography in structural heart valvular interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Intraprocedural echocardiographic guidance has been a mainstay of structural heart interventions...
October 27, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071430/functional-information-in-coronary-artery-disease-the-case-of-computed-tomography-myocardial-perfusion
#10
REVIEW
Klaus F Kofoed, Mathias H Sørgaard, Jesper J Linde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review methodological and logistical aspects of CT myocardial perfusion, current clinical evidence and possible future directions, with specific focus on use in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). RECENT FINDINGS: CT myocardial perfusion imaging may be performed as an add-on to standard coronary CT angiography (CCTA), to identify regions of myocardial hypoperfusion, at rest and during adenosine stress. The principle of measurement is well-validated in animal experimental models, and CT myocardial perfusion imaging has a high degree of concordance with already clinically available perfusion imaging methods...
October 25, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071426/echocardiography-in-infective-endocarditis-state-of-the-art
#11
REVIEW
Luis Afonso, Anupama Kottam, Vivek Reddy, Anirudh Penumetcha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine the central role of echocardiography in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of infective endocarditis (IE). RECENT FINDINGS: 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography TEE have complementary roles and are unequivocally the mainstay of diagnostic imaging in IE. The advent of 3D and multiplanar imaging have greatly enhanced the ability of the imager to evaluate cardiac structure and function...
October 25, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064044/management-of-elective-surgery-and-emergent-bleeding-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#12
REVIEW
Scott Kaatz, Charles E Mahan, Asaad Nakhle, Kulothungan Gunasekaran, Mahmoud Ali, Robert Lavender, David G Paje
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to offer practical management strategies for when patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants require elective surgery or present with bleeding complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical practice guidelines are now available on the timing of periprocedural interruption of treatment with the newer direct oral anticoagulants based on their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and based on findings from cohort studies and clinical trials...
October 24, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064041/does-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-benefit-patients-with-non-left-bundle-branch-block-prolonged-qrs-patterns
#13
REVIEW
Mark N Belkin, Gaurav A Upadhyay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to assess the utility of CRT in patients with non-LBBB. RECENT FINDINGS: CRT has an established role as a device-based therapy for patients with HF with systolic dysfunction and intraventricular conduction disease, specifically LBBB. In modern practice, the use of CRT in non-LBBB patients remains controversial, with high rates of non-response for CRT in patients with RBBB, in particular. Recent studies have identified sub-populations of non-LBBB patients that respond to resynchronization, such as those with prolonged PR intervals (≥ 230 ms), with RBBB and concomitant left-sided delay and those with significant burden of right ventricular pacing...
October 24, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046977/carotid-angioplasty-and-stenting-and-embolic-protection
#14
REVIEW
Enrico Giordan, Giuseppe Lanzino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the evidence on the safety and efficacy of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) compared to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and also summarizes emerging technical issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized trials have demonstrated a progressive decrease of periprocedural strokes after CAS. Overall, in symptomatic patients, CAS is associated with a slightly higher risk of periprocedural strokes when compared to CEA. This is especially true after the age of 70 and immediately after a presenting symptomatic event...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046975/the-genetics-of-physical-activity
#15
REVIEW
Xiaochen Lin, Charles B Eaton, JoAnn E Manson, Simin Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical activity (PA) is a well-established modifiable lifestyle determinant for multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes. While many psychosocial and environmental correlates of PA have been identified, current understanding of the genetic architecture that contributes to PA is still very limited, especially when compared to other phenotypes such as obesity and diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: This review systematically and comprehensively assesses available evidence from animal experiments, family studies, population-based candidate gene analyses, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) studying the genetics of physical activity patterns...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046974/stress-echocardiography-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#16
REVIEW
Sothinathan Gurunathan, Roxy Senior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress echocardiography (SE) is a well-established technique for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This review article summarizes the status of SE in CAD, including testing protocols, clinical efficacy and current use of newer technologies: myocardial perfusion, strain imaging, three-dimensional echocardiography and adjunctive carotid ultrasonography. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent major findings in SE include the clinical value of myocardial perfusion imaging in multicentre studies, as well as when added to left ventricular (LV) wall motion assessment in clinical service...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046973/clinical-management-of-cavernous-malformations
#17
REVIEW
Kelly D Flemming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to review the current epidemiology and clinical management of patients with cavernous malformations (CM). RECENT FINDINGS: Hemorrhage is the most feared complication and leads to morbidity in patients with CM. Multiple studies including three meta-analyses have provided useful estimates of hemorrhage risk, but have failed to identify a modifiable risk factor for prevention of cavernous malformation related hemorrhage. In treating the CM itself, surgical risk is weighed against the natural history...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046971/training-and-service-provision-in-cardiovascular-ct-international-challenges-and-solutions
#18
REVIEW
E D Nicol, J Shambrook, E Shaw, J Leipsic, L Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript identifies international challenges in cardiovascular CT that may prevent it from becoming a mainstream cardiovascular investigation. It offers potential solutions and a vision to overcome these barriers. RECENT FINDINGS: The acceptance of cardiovascular CT as a mainstream investigation now mandates a root and branch review of how we deliver a technology that is no longer emerging but recommended for mainstream clinical practice...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030720/molecular-diagnostic-testing-in-cardiac-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Kiran Khush, Shirin Zarafshar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute rejection is one of the most feared complications of cardiac transplantation. Developing non-invasive methods for detection and surveillance of acute rejection have long been a goal for post-transplant care. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we will review molecular diagnostic tests that are currently in use or under development to diagnose acute cellular rejection after cardiac transplantation. Gene expression, microRNA, molecular microscope, and cell-free DNA assays offer non-invasive alternatives to the endomyocardial biopsy for acute rejection surveillance...
October 13, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027096/new-innovations-in-drug-eluting-stents-for-peripheral-arterial-disease
#20
REVIEW
Roi Altit, William A Gray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to provide a review of the burden of peripheral arterial disease; to examine older therapies and their limitations; and especially to highlight new treatment innovations as well as the data supporting their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Building on the success of paclitaxel in the prevention of restenosis in the peripheral circulation, the newest generation drug-eluting stent is presented, which combines paclitaxel with a polymer-allowing the drug to be eluted slowly over 12 months...
October 12, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
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