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Current Oncology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220450/the-potential-role-of-symptom-questionnaires-in-palliative-and-supportive-cancer-care-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Angela M Stover, Ethan M Basch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) palliative care recommendations have been updated into a full guideline. Symptom questionnaires-completed and reviewed with patients during care delivery-are poised to play a large role in this guideline because they provide a more comprehensive understanding of symptoms. This article provides an overview of the guideline and describes how symptom questionnaires can be used to satisfy the guideline. RECENT FINDINGS: Standardized symptom questionnaires can be used for three purposes in care delivery: symptom management, referral to specialty palliative and supportive care, and to assess high-quality care...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220449/current-management-strategy-for-active-surveillance-in-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jamil S Syed, Juan Javier-Desloges, Stephanie Tatzel, Ansh Bhagat, Kevin A Nguyen, Kevin Hwang, Sarah Kim, Preston C Sprenkle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220448/multidimensional-treatment-of-cancer-pain
#3
REVIEW
Weiyang Christopher Liu, Zhong Xi Zheng, Kian Hian Tan, Gregory J Meredith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Though numerous treatment options are available to address cancer pain, inadequate management continues to be an ongoing problem worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review of the recent scientific literature was conducted with attention to new therapies along with reports of general consensus that were analyzed. Pain research continues to be difficult and though numerous guidelines have been developed, adequate powered studies are not common...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220447/current-management-of-refractory-germ-cell-tumors-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
J Clayton Allen, Austin Kirschner, Kristen R Scarpato, Alicia K Morgans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current management strategies for patients with relapsed and refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs), defined as relapsed or persistent disease following at least one line of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Additionally, we discuss future directions in the management of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies involving targeted therapies have been disappointing. Nevertheless, studies of the management of refractory germ cell cancer are ongoing, with a focus on optimal utilization of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, as well as the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in refractory germ cell tumors...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220446/radionuclide-therapy-for-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Mauro Cives, Jonathan Strosberg
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared (177)Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213876/update-on-neoadjuvant-regimens-for-patients-with-operable-oesophageal-gastrooesophageal-junction-adenocarcinomas-and-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#6
REVIEW
Samantha J Cox, Sean M O'Cathail, Bernadette Coles, Tom Crosby, Somnath Mukherjee
Survival outcomes following multimodal treatment of operable oesophageal and gastrooesophageal cancer remain disappointingly poor. Although an appreciation of the impact of both tumour location and histological subtype is now shaping the design of clinical trials, there has been a lack of consensus of the optimal neoadjuvant treatment strategy. This update article will review recent advances in the use of both neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. The emerging role of PET imaging to direct appropriate neoadjuvant treatment regimens and the additive benefit of biological agents are also discussed...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205134/minimal-residual-disease-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-how-to-recognize-and-treat-it
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas J Short, Elias Jabbour
In recent years, the identification of minimal residual disease (MRD) that persists after chemotherapy has emerged as the most powerful tool in determining the prognosis of patients with ALL, often superseding historically relevant prognostic factors. Multiple methods to detect MRD exist, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Multiparameter flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction are the most commonly used methods of MRD detection in clinical practice, although there is promise in the use of more sensitive assays utilizing next-generation sequencing that may be able to further refine MRD-based risk stratification...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168606/strategies-for-translating-evidence-based-medicine-in-lung-cancer-into-community-practice
#8
REVIEW
Stephen A Rosenberg, Andrew M Baschnagel, Stephen J Bagley, Nadine Housri
The landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment has rapidly evolved over the past decade. This is exemplified by the use of molecular targeted agents, immunotherapies, and newer technologies such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). As the translation of preclinical discoveries into clinical practice continues, the effective dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatment of NSCLC will remain a foremost challenge for oncologists. To further extend evidence-based medicine into the community setting, community oncologists are being engaged on multiple fronts including leadership and participation in national clinical trials and utilization of internet-based resources...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138934/novel-egfr-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-current-status-of-afatinib
#9
REVIEW
Bin-Chi Liao, Chia-Chi Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang
Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved worldwide as a first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbors activating EGFR mutations. Here, we have reviewed the recent clinical developments in the treatment of lung cancer using afatinib. Emerging data have revealed the overall survival benefit of first-line afatinib therapy in patients with advanced EGFR (del19)-positive NSCLC. Phase III studies of afatinib have shown the effectiveness of afatinib as a second-line treatment for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, as well as the benefit of continuing afatinib therapy in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC after the occurrence of disease progression in patients who are receiving afatinib monotherapy...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138933/update-on-management-of-cancer-related-cachexia
#10
REVIEW
Lindsey J Anderson, Eliette D Albrecht, Jose M Garcia
Cachexia is a metabolic syndrome driven by inflammation and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. In cancer cachexia, the tumor burden and host response induce increased inflammation, decreased anabolic tone, and suppressed appetite leading to the clinical presentation of reduced body weight and quality of life (QOL). There is no approved treatment for cancer cachexia, and commonly used nutritional and anti-inflammatory strategies alone have proven ineffective for management of symptoms...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110462/endoluminal-and-interstitial-brachytherapy-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Sujana Gottumukkala, Vasu Tumati, Brian Hrycushko, Michael Folkert
Radiation therapy is an integral component in the multimodality management of many gastrointestinal (GI) cancers at all stages of clinical presentation. With recent advances in technology and radiation delivery, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can be delivered with reduced toxicity. However, despite these advances, EBRT doses are still limited by the presence of radiosensitive serial structures near clinical targets in the GI tract. Relative to EBRT techniques, brachytherapy techniques have a lower integral dose and more rapid fall-off, allowing for high-dose delivery with little normal tissue exposure...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110461/the-emerging-role-of-liquid-biopsies-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-identification-of-resistance-mutations
#12
REVIEW
Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
Therapeutic advances in the treatment of lung cancer are in part due to a more complete understanding of its genomic portrait. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes, which are instable and prone to changes under selective pressure, is becoming increasingly needed. Although tumor biopsies remain the reference standard for the diagnosis and genotyping of lung cancer, they are invasive and not always feasible. The "liquid biopsies" have the potential to overcome many of these hurdles, allowing a rapid and accurate identification of de novo and resistant genetic alterations and a real-time monitoring of treatment responses...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822695/the-treatment-of-melanoma-brain-metastases
#13
REVIEW
Nour Kibbi, Harriet Kluger
Melanoma is the malignancy with the highest rate of dissemination to the central nervous system once it metastasizes. Until recently, the prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) was poor. In recent years, however, the prognosis has improved due to high-resolution imaging that facilitates early detection of small asymptomatic brain metastases and early intervention with local modalities such as stereotactic radiosurgery. More recently, a number of systemic therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for metastatic melanoma, resulting in improved survival for many MBM patients...
December 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812861/metastatic-bladder-cancer-second-line-treatment-and-recommendations-of-the-genitourinary-tumor-division-of-the-galician-oncologic-society-sog-gu
#14
REVIEW
Jorge García, Lucia Santomé, Urbano Anido, Ovidio Fernández-Calvo, Javier Afonso-Afonso, Martín Lázaro, Ana Medina, Sergio Vázquez Estévez
Once metastatic bladder cancer has progressed to first-line treatment, the number of therapeutic options is scarce. Among chemotherapeutic agents showing activity in phase II trials, including taxanes, vinflunine (VFL) is the only one shown to increase overall survival in a phase III trial. In addition to its efficacy, VFL is safe in special population groups. Despite this, the prognosis for these patients remains poor, and more effective therapies need to be developed. Agents acting on new therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers to aid matching patients to specific treatments are currently under evaluation...
December 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812860/opioids-and-chronic-pain-where-is-the-balance
#15
REVIEW
Mellar P Davis, Zankhana Mehta
Chronic opioid therapy (defined as greater than 3 months on opioids) is a common practice for those with non-cancer pain, cancer survivors with treatment-related pain, and individuals with cancer undergoing disease-modifying therapy with a survival that can be for a year or more. Recent studies have found unique long-term toxicities with opioids which reduce the utility of opioid therapy in chronic pain. The risk of addiction, depression, central hypogonadism, sleep-disordered breathing, impaired wound healing, infections, cognitive impairment, falls, non-vertebral fractures, and mortality are increased in populations on long-term opioids...
December 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812859/palliative-care-of-cancer-in-the-older-patient
#16
REVIEW
Lodovico Balducci, Dawn Dolan
The scope of palliative care includes goal setting, symptom management, and care of the care giver. Palliative care is essential for patient-centered care of the older cancer patients. The diversity of this population in terms of life expectancy, treatment tolerance, function, disability, and social support mandates personalized treatment plans. The assessment of physiologic age is currently based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). A number of biologic markers of aging including the inflammatory index, the genomic clock, the expression of p16INKa4, and the circulating levels of vitamin D may complement the CGA and fine-tune the determination of physiologic age...
December 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807821/age-related-disparity-breast-cancer-in-the-elderly
#17
REVIEW
Rahul Gosain, YaoYao Pollock, Dharamvir Jain
Aging poses an unique opportunity to study cancer biology and treatment in older adults. Breast cancer is often studied in young women; however, much investigation remains to be done on breast cancer in our expanding elderly population. Diagnostic and management strategies applicable to younger patients cannot be empirically used to manage older breast cancer patients. Lack of evidence-based data continues to be the major impediment toward delivery of personalized cancer care to elderly breast cancer patients...
November 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718181/uterine-adenosarcoma-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Nathenson, Vinod Ravi, Nicole Fleming, Wei-Lien Wang, Anthony Conley
Adenosarcomas are rare malignancies of the female genital tract, accounting for approximately 5 % of uterine sarcomas. Occasionally, adenosarcoma occurs in the ovaries or in extra-uterine tissue, which may be related to endometriosis. These tumors are characterized by benign epithelial elements and a malignant mesenchymal component. Pathologic diagnosis is dependent on the identification of the characteristic morphologic features. The most common immunohistochemical markers for adenosarcoma are CD10 and WT1, but these are not specific...
November 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613168/optimal-use-of-braf-targeting-therapy-in-the-immunotherapy-era
#19
REVIEW
Kevin Wood, Jason J Luke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The therapeutic landscape for metastatic melanoma has been revolutionized in recent years. This review will discuss existing evidence for therapeutic approaches for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials involving combined BRAF/MEK inhibition with either vemurafenib plus cobimetinib or dabrafenib plus trametinib have shown improved overall survival compared to monotherapy with BRAF inhibitors alone. In a subset of patients with good prognostic factors, long-term clinical benefit has been noted...
November 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613167/the-wide-experience-of-the-sequential-therapy-for-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Julio Lambea, Urbano Anido, Olatz Etxániz, Luis Flores, Álvaro Montesa, Juan Manuel Sepúlveda, Emilio Esteban
Sequential targeted therapies are the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Several drugs are available for patients whose disease progresses while they receive initial tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy; these include nivolumab (an inhibitor of PD-1 receptor), everolimus (an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin) or additional TKIs. Until now, there has been no clinical evidence to support the use of one strategy versus another, so investigators and physicians rely on experience, judgement and findings from molecular analyses to select the appropriate treatment...
November 2016: Current Oncology Reports
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