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Current Oncology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508938/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-uveal-melanoma-current-status-and-emerging-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Kimberly M Komatsubara, Richard D Carvajal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uveal melanoma is a distinct subset of melanoma with a biology and treatment approach that is unique from that of cutaneous melanoma. Here we will review the current data evaluating immunotherapies in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings in uveal melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: In the adjuvant setting, interferon demonstrated no survival benefit in uveal melanoma, and studies evaluating immune-based strategies such as vaccine therapy are ongoing...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501984/pediatric-gynecologic-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Lauren Pommert, William Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three primary categories of gynecologic cancer are found in pediatric and adolescent patients: stromal carcinomas including juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, rhabdomyosarcomas arising from the vagina and cervix (sarcoma botryoides), and ovarian germ cell tumors which comprise a wide range of histologies. These entities are rare and treatment approaches have focused on decreasing late effects of chemotherapy treatment. Here, we review presentation, histologic classifications, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations for pediatric gynecologic cancers...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466437/role-of-sox11-and-genetic-events-cooperating-with-cyclin-d1-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#3
REVIEW
Sílvia Beà, Virginia Amador
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm, incurable with current therapies. The t(11;14)(q13;q32) involving cyclin D1 is considered the first oncogenic hit found in virtually all MCLs. However, additional secondary genomic alterations are essential for complete transformation. MCLs are genetically very unstable with several genetic alterations associated with its high proliferative behavior involving several oncogenic pathways. Furthermore, SOX11 is overexpressed in the majority of conventional MCLs (cMCL), including cyclin D1-negative cases, but absent in non-nodal leukemic MCL with indolent clinical behavior (nnMCL)...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421484/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-detection-of-cardio-toxicity
#4
REVIEW
Kevin S Shah, Eric H Yang, Alan S Maisel, Gregg C Fonarow
The goal of this paper is to review the current literature on the role of biomarkers in the detection and management of patients with cardio-oncologic disease. The role of biomarker surveillance in patients with known cardiac disease, as a result of chemotherapy or with the potential to develop cardio-toxicity, will be discussed. In addition, the studies surrounding sub-clinical cardiac toxicity monitoring during therapy, identification of high-risk patients prior to therapy, and tailoring oncologic therapies to potential biomarker risk profiles are reviewed...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421483/update-on-embolization-therapies-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Sirish Kishore, Tamir Friedman, David C Madoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize the latest applications for embolotherapy in the management of patients with HCC according to BCLC stage. RECENT FINDINGS: While traditionally reserved for patients with unresectable HCC and stage B disease, there is an important role for embolization therapies in earlier stage patients as an adjunct to ablation, bridging, or downstaging therapy, as a means to improve safety of resection, and potentially as an arterial ablative option in the case of radioembolization...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421482/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, David J Sher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and appraise published cost-effectiveness studies on stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a Medline search of cost-effectiveness studies of SRS, SBRT, and other cancer treatment modalities such as surgery and systemic therapy from 2006 to 2016. We included studies that used both modeling and retrospective review techniques. We excluded studies of benign disease...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421481/cancer-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Dana Elena Giza, Gloria Iliescu, Saamir Hassan, Konstantinos Marmagkiolis, Cezar Iliescu
Improvements in early diagnosis and cancer treatments have contributed to high survival rates for many cancer patients. However, these patients often die of cardiovascular disease rather than recurrence of their cancer. Heart disease manifesting after cancer may be due to several mechanisms: shared cardiovascular risks between cancer and cardiovascular disease, inflammatory states associated with malignancies, and/or cardiotoxic effects of cancer therapy. Cancer treatment increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases directly by damaging critical structures of the heart or indirectly by promoting accelerated atherosclerosis...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417311/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-brain-metastases
#8
REVIEW
Aaron C Tan, Amy B Heimberger, Alexander M Menzies, Nick Pavlakis, Mustafa Khasraw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metastasis of cancer to the brain typically portends a poor prognosis and often results in significant morbidity, including from the side effects of treatment. More effective therapies for patients with brain metastases are needed. The current treatment paradigm uses multiple modalities, including surgery, radiation, and in some contexts, systemic chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used to treat extracranial disease, and their effectiveness in the management of brain metastases needs to be understood...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417310/telemedicine-and-palliative-care-an-increasing-role-in-supportive-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Brooke Worster, Kristine Swartz
With the emergence of telemedicine as a routine form of care in various venues, the opportunities to use technology to care for the most vulnerable, most ill cancer patients are extremely appealing. Increasingly, evidence supports early integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care, supported by recent NCCN guidelines to increase and improve access to palliative care. This review looks at the use of telemedicine to expand access to palliative care as well as provide better care for patients and families where travel is difficult, if not impossible...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417343/adjuvant-therapy-for-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Aya Agha, Ahmad A Tarhini
Systemic adjuvant therapy for surgically resected cutaneous melanoma that is at high risk for disease recurrence and death targets residual micrometastatic disease which is the source of future local or distant relapse. Interferon-alfa (IFNα) has been the most extensively studied in regimens that varied by dosage, route of administration, formulation, and duration of therapy. Most regimens have demonstrated improvements in relapse-free survival (RFS), while the regimen administered at high dosage (HDI) showed improvements in overall survival (OS) in two out of three RCTs...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374222/the-evolving-role-of-the-estrogen-receptor-mutations-in-endocrine-therapy-resistant-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Rinath Jeselsohn, Carmine De Angelis, Myles Brown, Rachel Schiff
Recurrent ligand-binding domain ESR1 mutations have recently been detected in a substantial number of patients with metastatic ER+ breast cancer and evolve under the selective pressure of endocrine treatments. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the biological and clinical significance of these mutations. The preclinical studies revealed that these mutations lead to constitutive ligand-independent activity, indicating resistance to aromatase inhibitors and decreased sensitivity to tamoxifen and fulvestrant...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365830/optimal-therapy-for-early-stage-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-risk-adapting-response-adapting-and-role-of-radiotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Riccardo Filippi, Mario Levis, Rahul Parikh, Bradford Hoppe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in the context of risk-adapted and response-adapted treatment strategy, and describe changes in RT technical approach. RECENT FINDINGS: In low-risk patients, RT could be omitted but, at the price of a lower progression-free survival, and its role is still debated. Ongoing trials are combining new agents with chemotherapy alone or response-adapted combined modality therapy, and results are awaited...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361224/immunotherapy-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Takashi Kojima, Toshihiko Doi
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have been frustrating to treat, with slow progress made on extending survival. Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints, T cells, and infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promise in early studies. The efficacy of pembrolizumab and nivolumab is encouraging. Anti-chemokine receptors and oncolytic viruses are also making headway against these stubborn tumors; improved results when immune checkpoint inhibitors are combined with radiation therapy are eagerly anticipated. Adoptive T cell therapy and vaccines are also under development...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361223/emerging-variants-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Loredana Puca, Himisha Beltran
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with substantial clinical, pathologic, and molecular heterogeneity. Most tumors remain driven by androgen receptor (AR) signaling, which has clinical implications for patient selection for AR-directed approaches. However, histologic and clinical resistance phenotypes can emerge after AR inhibition, in which the tumors become less dependent on the AR. In this review, we discuss prostate cancer variants including neuroendocrine (NEPC) and aggressive variant (AVPC) prostate cancers and their clinical implications...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361222/philadelphia-like-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Tobias Herold, Nicola Gökbuget
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to provide an overview of the classification, incidence, genomic alterations, and clinical implications of Philadelphia-like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Ph-like ALL) in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Ph-like ALL is a high-risk subtype of B cell precursor ALL with characteristic genomic alterations in children and adults. A standard approach for diagnosis is missing and currently mainly based on gene expression analysis. The incidence is age depended and highest in adolescents and younger adults (age 16-39) where 19-28% of patients belong to this subtype...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343352/the-role-of-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Linus C Benjamin, Alison C Tree, David P Dearnaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is now accepted that prostate cancer has a low alpha/beta ratio, establishing a strong basis for hypofractionation of prostate radiotherapy. This review focuses on the rationale for hypofractionation and presents the evidence base for establishing moderate hypofractionation for localised disease as the new standard of care. The emerging evidence for extreme hypofractionation in managing localized and oligometastatic prostate cancer is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The 5-year efficacy and toxicity outcomes from four phase III studies have been published within the last 12 months...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324286/prolymphocytic-leukemia-new-insights-in-diagnosis-and-in-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Aude Collignon, Anne Wanquet, Elsa Maitre, Edouard Cornet, Xavier Troussard, Thérèse Aurran-Schleinitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to produce a comprehensive update on clinical and biological data regarding two rare lymphoid neoplasms, B and T prolymphocytic leukemias, and assess therapeutic management in the light of new molecular insights and the advent of targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: B cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) diagnosis remains challenging in the absence of clear immunophenotypic or cytogenetic signature and overlap with mantle cell lymphoma...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303495/genetic-landscape-and-classification-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphomas
#18
REVIEW
Rosalind F Sandell, Rebecca L Boddicker, Andrew L Feldman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are markedly heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, and molecular levels. This review will discuss genetic findings in PTCL with special emphasis on how they impact lymphoma classification. RECENT FINDINGS: Sequencing studies have identified recurrent genetic alterations in nearly every PTCL subtype. In anaplastic large cell lymphoma, these studies have revealed novel chromosomal rearrangements and mutations that have prognostic significance and may suggest new therapeutic approaches...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303494/current-management-strategy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Hussein Merza, Marijo Bilusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Major strides have been made in the treatment of kidney cancer in the last several years with checkpoint immunotherapies and novel targeted agents. This manuscript will review current treatment strategies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recently, several new drugs including nivolumab, cabozantinib, and a combination of lenvatinib and everolimus have demonstrated acceptable toxicity and significantly improved overall survival, but evidence-based guidelines for sequencing of the approved treatment options and treatment selection based on biomarkers are still missing...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303493/the-effect-of-molecular-diagnostics-on-the-treatment-of-glioma
#20
REVIEW
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Nicholas Butowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the use of molecular diagnostics in glioma and its effect on the development of novel therapeutics and management decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has provided significant expansion of our understanding of oncogenesis, characterization, and prognostication of brain tumors. Molecular markers such as MGMT, EGFR, IDH, 1p19q, ATRX, TERT, FGFR-TACC, and BRAF are now being used to classify brain tumors as well as influence management decisions...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
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