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Current Oncology Reports

Giuseppe Palmieri, Maria Colombino, Milena Casula, Antonella Manca, Mario Mandalà, Antonio Cossu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Conventional clinico-pathological features in melanoma patients should be integrated with new molecular diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic factors coming from the expanding genomic profiles. Cutaneous melanoma (CM), even differing in biological behavior according to sun-exposure levels on the skin areas where it arises, is molecularly heterogeneous. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are providing data on mutation landscapes in driver genes that may account for distinct pathogenetic mechanisms and pathways...
September 14, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Elizabeth J Cathcart-Rake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current literature regarding the cancer care of sexual and gender minority patients and to identify significant knowledge gaps that hinder our understanding of the unique needs of sexual and gender minority patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Sexual and gender minorities suffer from cancer-related disparities, including lower rates of cancer screening, higher incidence of certain cancers, and higher cancer mortality rates. Sexual side effects, depression, and social isolation are especially common among sexual minority individuals with cancer...
September 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Lynn Buckley, Sarah Robertson, Tamara Wilson, Jean Sharpless, Sarah Bolton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the role of the specialist nurse within gynaecological cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many different job titles associated with the role of the specialist nurse. Nursing roles are evolving not only to meet the increasing demands on services but also within the ever changing landscape of cancer treatments and improvement in survival. Women and their families need specialist nurses to guide and support them on their cancer journey, along the treatment trajectory and into survivorship...
September 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Rohit Gosain, Jonathan S Alexander, Amitoj Gill, Cesar Perez
Most common thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) and have papillary, follicular, or Hürthle cell morphology. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. The incidence of DTC increases with age. While most of the patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, the outcome can be poor when diagnosed in elderly patients. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current treatment approach for DTC includes surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression, radioactive iodine, external beam radiotherapy, or systemic treatments such as kinase inhibitors...
September 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Ashleigh Kerr, Nicholas Reed, Rosie Harrand, Kathryn Graham, Azmat H Sadozye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the evidence for the use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoyglucose (18F-FDG) PET CT in external beam radiotherapy planning for treatment of gynaecological malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review confirms that the incorporation of 18F-FDG PET CT during radiotherapy planning may decrease inter-observer variability during target delineation. It can also provide useful functional information regarding the tumour, which may facilitate the development of techniques for dose escalation and 'dose painting' not only for primary disease, especially in cervical cancer, but also nodal metastasis...
September 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Joerg Herrmann, Charles Loprinzi, Kathryn Ruddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to outline the general principles of how to build a cardio-onco-hematology clinic, acknowledging that there are diverse practices ranging from private community settings to academic hospitals and each practice environment has to build its own program. RECENT FINDINGS: The refinement of regimens and introduction of molecularly directed therapies have substantially increased survival rates for patients with cancer. In fact, a number of previous imminently fatal malignant disease processes have been turned into chronic diseases, such that patients now live with certain incurable cancers as they do, for instance, with rheumatoid arthritis...
September 10, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Claire-Audrey Y Bayan, Adriana T Lopez, Robyn D Gartrell, Kimberly M Komatsubara, Margaret Bogardus, Nisha Rao, Cynthia Chen, Thomas D Hart, Thomas Enzler, Emanuelle M Rizk, Jaya Sarin Pradhan, Douglas K Marks, Larisa J Geskin, Yvonne M Saenger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oncolytic virotherapy is a new approach to the treatment of cancer and its success in the treatment of melanoma represents a breakthrough in cancer therapeutics. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) in the treatment of melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is the first OV approved for the treatment of melanoma and presents new challenges as it enters the clinical setting...
August 25, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Malek Al-Hawwas, Despina Tsitlakidou, Neha Gupta, Cezar Iliescu, Mehmet Cilingiroglu, Konstantinos Marmagkiolis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery disease and cancer often co-exist. Patients with cancer have been excluded by most major cardiology trials and registries and their management remains largely empiric. Cancer patients experience an approximately 10-times increased mortality compared to the general population. Conservative therapy of ACS in cancer therapy results in 1-year mortality of 74%. This review article aims to describe the mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in cancer patients, their clinical presentation, and their management...
August 22, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Adalgisa Condoluci, Davide Rossi, Emanuele Zucca, Franco Cavalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) prognosis is strictly related to the characteristics of the disease, which can range from very indolent cases to highly aggressive and refractory ones. Here we will review the current knowledge on MCL biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Biomarker-informed diagnosis is essential for differentiating MCL from other mature B cell tumors. Diagnosis of MCL relies on the identification of the t(11;14) translocation by FISH or the consequently aberrant expression of cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry...
August 22, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Anna Diana, Elisena Franzese, Sara Centonze, Francesca Carlino, Carminia Maria Della Corte, Jole Ventriglia, Angelica Petrillo, Ferdinando De Vita, Roberto Alfano, Fortunato Ciardiello, Michele Orditura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15-20% of diagnosed breast tumours, with higher incidence in young and African-American women, and it is frequently associated with BRCA germline mutations. Chemotherapy is the only well-established therapeutic option in both early- and advanced-stages of the disease. TNBC tumours relapse earlier after standard anthracycline- and/or taxane-based chemotherapy treatments, generally within 1-3 years after the diagnosis, and often develop visceral metastases, representing the subtype with a worse prognosis among all breast cancers...
August 20, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
David J McConkey, Woonyoung Choi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent whole genome characterizations of primary human bladder cancers revealed that they can be grouped into "intrinsic" basal and luminal molecular subtypes. Here, we provide an overview of the subtypes and discuss their biological and clinical properties. RECENT FINDINGS: Basal cancers are characterized by advanced stage and metastatic disease at presentation. They tend to be enriched with squamous and small cell/neuroendocrine features and inactivating mutations and deletions of TP53 and RB1...
August 20, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Michael C Comiskey, Matthew C Dallos, Charles G Drake
Immunotherapy is rapidly transforming cancer care across a range of tumor types. Although Sipuleucel-T represented the first successful vaccine for the treatment of established cancer, other immunotherapeutic approaches for prostate cancer such as checkpoint inhibitors have been relatively disappointing to date. However, significant promise is on the horizon as there is a wide array trials evaluating immunotherapy in prostate cancer patients. These include both immune checkpoint inhibitors and antigen-specific approaches including vaccines, antibody-drug conjugates, and antitumor antibodies...
August 18, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Anita Lawitschka, Christina Peters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for children and adolescents with high-risk leukemia. Although acute complications were reduced during the last decade, considerable late effects are still limiting the overall success rate. This article emphasizes the specific pediatric aspects of long-term aftercare following myeloablative HSCT and provides an organ-based overview that covers main clinical patterns, incidence, and risk factors enhanced by current references and screening guidelines...
August 3, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Mekdem Tesfaye, Barbara Savoldo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss the challenges facing adoptive cell techniques in the treatment of solid tumors and examine the therapies that are in development for specifically pediatric solid tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: Targeting solid tumors with adoptive cell therapy has been limited by the inhibitory tumor microenvironment and heterogeneous expression of targetable antigens. Many creative strategies to overcome these limitations are being developed but still need to be tested clinically...
August 1, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
David J Palmieri, Matteo S Carlino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionised the treatment of multiple malignancies and have a growing list of indications. As our familiarity with these agents grows, so does our understanding of their unique spectrum of toxicities. Here, we will review the literature regarding the toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors and address challenges encountered in day-to-day clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Inhibitors of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are considerably less toxic than the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab...
July 31, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Mariam Naveed, Nisa Kubiliun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal cancer is a leading cause of global cancer-related mortality. Here, we discuss the major endoscopic treatment modalities for management of early esophageal cancer (EEC). RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in endoscopic imaging and therapy have shifted the paradigm of managing early esophageal cancers. Though esophagectomy remains the preferred management for advanced cancers, guidelines now recommend endoscopic resection followed by ablative therapy for early (Tis and T1a) cancers...
July 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Jillian Wilhelmina Paulina Bracht, Clara Mayo-de-Las-Casas, Jordi Berenguer, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Liquid biopsies have potential as tools for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Herein, we will extensively review four liquid biosources, tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and extracellular vesicles (EVs) and we will clarify their optimal application in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis and therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Liquid biopsies are a minimally invasive alternative to tissue biopsies-especially important in NSCLC patients-since tumor tissue is often unavailable or insufficient for complete genetic analysis...
July 20, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Patrick Sin-Chan, Bryan K Li, Ben Ho, Adriana Fonseca, Annie Huang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant embryonal brain tumors (EBTs) of childhood span a wide clinical spectrum but can share remarkably similar morphologic features. This overlap presents significant diagnostic challenges, particularly for tumor entities that are rarely encountered in clinical practice and for which diagnostic criteria were poorly defined. This review will provide an update on the evolving characterization and treatment of rare EBTs. RECENT FINDINGS: Rapid advances in genomic tools have led to the discovery of robust molecular markers, and identification of novel tumor types and subtypes for almost all major categories of pediatric brain tumors...
July 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Amol K Narang, Jeffrey Meyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant hypofractionated short-course radiation remains an underutilized regimen in the USA. We review the current clinical literature highlighting the relative merits of short-course radiation, along with modern neoadjuvant strategies that incorporate its use. RECENT FINDINGS: As compared to long-course chemoradiation with delayed surgery, short-course radiation with early surgery offers similar oncologic efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer patients...
July 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to provide updated guidelines for the management of children with acquired aplastic anemia (AA), particularly focusing on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). RECENT FINDINGS: Failure-free survival for children with aplastic anemia has been shown to be better after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from matched or one-locus mismatched related donors (MRD/1MMRD) than after immunosuppressive therapy (IST). A combination of the absence of minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones and short telomere length was identified as a strong predictor of a poor response to IST...
June 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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