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Current Oncology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456634/treatment-of-rectal-cancer-in-older-adults
#1
REVIEW
Ayesha R Sheikh, Hassan Yameen, Kevan Hartshorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rectal cancer is predominantly a disease of older adults but current guidelines do not incorporate the associated specific challenges leading to wide variation in the delivery of cancer care to this subset of population. Here, we will review the current data available regarding the management of rectal cancer in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The greatest challenge arises in the management of stage II/III disease as it involves tri-modality treatment that can be harder to tolerate by frail older patients...
November 20, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426304/correction-to-the-role-of-oncolytic-viruses-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma
#2
Claire-Audrey Y Bayan, Adriana T Lopez, Robyn D Gartrell, Kimberly M Komatsubara, Margaret Bogardus, Nisha Rao, Cynthia Chen, Thomas D Hart, Thomas Enzler, Emanuelle M Rizk, Jaya Sarin Pradhan, Douglas K Marks, Larisa J Geskin, Yvonne M Saenger
A correction was made to a sentence in the original article to provide additional clarification in the "Other Oncolytic Viruses" section.
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426278/prevention-strategies-in-endometrial-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Michelle L MacKintosh, Emma J Crosbie
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To assess the most recent high-quality evidence for endometrial cancer prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer. Weight cycling and weight gain in middle age are risk factors for endometrial cancer. Bariatric surgery reduces the risk of endometrial cancer by up to 81% in obese women who attain and maintain a normal weight. Combined oral contraceptives provide durable protection against endometrial cancer for 30 years or more...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426245/management-of-locally-advanced-and-metastatic-esophageal-cancer-in-the-older-population
#4
REVIEW
Dara Bracken-Clarke, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Anne M Horgan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesise the current literature on the management of early-stage and metastatic esophageal cancers, focusing on the older population. In particular, we aim to dissect out the elderly-specific data from the relevant trials and to discuss the issues unique to this population. RECENT FINDINGS: While surgery is the curative modality in esophageal malignancies, the CROSS, MAGIC and FLOT trials demonstrate a clear advantage to neoadjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy)...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421307/the-role-of-hypnosis-in-cancer-care
#5
REVIEW
Linda E Carlson, Kirsti Toivonen, Michelle Flynn, Julie Deleemans, Katherine-Anne Piedalue, Emma Tolsdorf, Utkarsh Subnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the current evidence-base for the use of hypnosis as an adjunct treatment for common cancer-related symptoms and side effects, including those experienced during treatment, as well as long-term and late effects. First, a general description and history of medical hypnosis in cancer care is provided, followed by a review of the latest evidence across a range of common symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence suggests that hypnosis may help treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients, manage pain in a variety of contexts, and also reduce levels of anxiety and overall distress around surgical and medical procedures, both in children and adults...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421260/surgical-management-of-lung-cancer-history-evolution-and-modern-advances
#6
REVIEW
Abbas E Abbas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although surgery for lung cancer was not common before the early twentieth century, it has enjoyed remarkable progress since then both in type of resection and technical approach. This has been coupled with significant technological advances. Here, we will review the history and evolution of this relatively new field of surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The gold standard of the extent of resection for lung cancer evolved from pneumonectomy to lobectomy to even sublobar resection for select situations...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421217/palliative-care-in-patients-with-leukemia-when-and-how
#7
REVIEW
Marieberta Vidal, David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with hematologic malignancies get more aggressive treatment and the end-of-life, more ICU deaths, and prolonged hospital stays. In comparison to solid tumors, their access to palliative care and hospice is less. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple factors seem to play a role including curative goals, different treatment options, stronger relationship between patients and oncologist, symptom burden, and limitations of hospice care. Improving the perception of palliative care in these patients, characterizing their needs, and more education can help to increase referrals and access to palliative care...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421161/practical-strategies-for-optimizing-and-integrating-palliative-care-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Michael Burt, Arif H Kamal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent reforms in medical payment coupled with a rapidly evolving pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium is creating a transition in the field of oncology. This transition represents a key period for conceptual reevaluation, providing an opportunity for furthered strategic integration of palliative care within the realm of oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, oncologists have relied upon prognostic assessments to gauge appropriateness for referrals to specialty palliative care...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421035/where-are-we-going-with-sentinel-lymph-node-mapping-in-gynecologic-cancers
#9
REVIEW
C Reneé Franklin, Edward J Tanner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a standard of care for lymphatic assessment of many early-stage gynecologic malignancies. We review the current data, emphasizing the utility of SLN mapping in the management of gynecologic cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Endometrial cancer: recent studies have focused on confirming the safety and efficacy of SLN mapping for high-risk patients. Cervical cancer: the LACC Trial demonstrated reduced survival with minimally invasive surgery, calling into question the validity of prior studies evaluating SLN mapping with a minimally invasive approach...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421009/combination-immune-checkpoint-blockade-strategies-to-maximize-immune-response-in-gynecological-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Ying L Liu, Dmitriy Zamarin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 improves immune recognition of tumor cells but had only modest success in gynecological cancers as monotherapy. Growing focus has been placed on combination immunotherapy strategies to overcome this resistance, and this review serves to discuss some of the most promising studies in gynecological cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: PD-1- and PD-L1-targeting antibodies are being combined with many novel agents including anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, PARP inhibitors, targeted agents, and traditional chemotherapy in promising studies with the hopes of increasing the immune response and overcoming resistance by targeting other pathways...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415318/updates-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paraneoplastic-neurologic-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Ronnyson Susano Grativvol, Wagner Cid Palmeira Cavalcante, Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Ricardo Nitrini, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro
The disorders of the central nervous system associated with cancer by remote immune-mediated mechanisms are a heterogeneous group. These disorders encompass the classic paraneoplastic disorders and the recently recognized autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins that occur with or without cancer association. In the last decade, the new surge of interest in neuronal diseases associated with anti-neuronal antibodies led to the rapid discovery of new forms of disease that have different manifestations and were not previously suspected to be immune mediated...
November 10, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414010/palliative-care-in-lung-cancer-when-to-start
#12
REVIEW
Prianka Bhattacharya, Scott K Dessain, Tracey L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite recent advances in the care of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), significant morbidity and mortality remains. Symptoms caused by the cancer and its treatments can be profoundly debilitating. Palliative care aims to reduce this burden. In this review, we discuss the definition, purpose, benefits, and optimal timing of palliative care in advanced NSCLC. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies evaluating the value of early palliative care for patients with advanced NSCLC and other advanced malignancies have identified benefits for patients, caregivers, and health systems...
November 9, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413981/pseudoprogression-of-melanoma-brain-metastases
#13
REVIEW
Jillian L Simard, Melanie Smith, Sunandana Chandra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used to treat melanoma brain metastases. One potential complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors is a phenomenon called pseudoprogression, in which a tumor transiently increases in size due to lymphocyte infiltration. This article reviews the characteristics of pseudoprogression and their clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Pseudoprogression can be challenging to differentiate from true progression noted clinically or radiographically, thereby complicating management decisions and potentially confusing patients and their families...
November 9, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259297/molecular-mechanisms-of-cisplatin-chemoresistance-and-its-circumventing-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#14
REVIEW
Silvia Schmidtova, Katarina Kalavska, Lucia Kucerova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common solid tumors affecting young men. Majority of TGCTs respond well to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, patients with refractory disease have limited treatment modalities associated with poor prognosis. Here, we discuss the main molecular mechanisms associated with acquired cisplatin resistance in TGCTs and how their understanding might help in the development of new approaches to tackle this clinically relevant problem...
September 26, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259202/how-intraoperative-tools-and-techniques-have-changed-the-approach-to-brain-tumor-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Parastou Fatemi, Michael Zhang, Kai J Miller, Pierre Robe, Gordon Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgical treatment of brain tumors remains an integral part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Here, we review technological advances that have enhanced what surgeons are capable of doing within and outside the traditional operating room. RECENT FINDINGS: Extent of surgical resection has improved with the use of MRI and fluorescent dyes intraoperatively. Neurological injury during brain tumor surgery has decreased with appropriate use of neurophysiological monitoring...
September 26, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250984/the-world-of-melanoma-epidemiologic-genetic-and-anatomic-differences-of-melanoma-across-the-globe
#16
REVIEW
Florentia Dimitriou, Regina Krattinger, Egle Ramelyte, Marjam J Barysch, Sara Micaletto, Reinhard Dummer, Simone M Goldinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As cancer remains an increasing problem in industrial countries, the incidence of melanoma has risen rapidly in many populations during the last decades and still continues to rise. Current strategies aiming to control the disease have largely focused on improving the understanding of the interplay of causal factors for this cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Cutaneous melanoma shows clear differences in incidence, mortality, genomic profile, and anatomic presentation, depending on the country of residence, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status...
September 24, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218391/molecular-pathways-in-melanomagenesis-what-we-learned-from-next-generation-sequencing-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Giuseppe Palmieri, Maria Colombino, Milena Casula, Antonella Manca, Mario Mandalà, Antonio Cossu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Conventional clinico-pathological features in melanoma patients should be integrated with new molecular diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic factors coming from the expanding genomic profiles. Cutaneous melanoma (CM), even differing in biological behavior according to sun-exposure levels on the skin areas where it arises, is molecularly heterogeneous. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are providing data on mutation landscapes in driver genes that may account for distinct pathogenetic mechanisms and pathways...
September 14, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209629/cancer-in-sexual-and-gender-minority-patients-are-we-addressing-their-needs
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Cathcart-Rake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current literature regarding the cancer care of sexual and gender minority patients and to identify significant knowledge gaps that hinder our understanding of the unique needs of sexual and gender minority patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Sexual and gender minorities suffer from cancer-related disparities, including lower rates of cancer screening, higher incidence of certain cancers, and higher cancer mortality rates. Sexual side effects, depression, and social isolation are especially common among sexual minority individuals with cancer...
September 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206722/the-role-of-the-specialist-nurse-in-gynaecological-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Lynn Buckley, Sarah Robertson, Tamara Wilson, Jean Sharpless, Sarah Bolton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the role of the specialist nurse within gynaecological cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many different job titles associated with the role of the specialist nurse. Nursing roles are evolving not only to meet the increasing demands on services but also within the ever changing landscape of cancer treatments and improvement in survival. Women and their families need specialist nurses to guide and support them on their cancer journey, along the treatment trajectory and into survivorship...
September 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206719/radioactive-iodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-in-the-elderly
#20
REVIEW
Rohit Gosain, Jonathan S Alexander, Amitoj Gill, Cesar Perez
Most common thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) and have papillary, follicular, or Hürthle cell morphology. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. The incidence of DTC increases with age. While most of the patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, the outcome can be poor when diagnosed in elderly patients. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current treatment approach for DTC includes surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression, radioactive iodine, external beam radiotherapy, or systemic treatments such as kinase inhibitors...
September 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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