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Current Oncology Reports

Patrick Sin-Chan, Bryan K Li, Ben Ho, Adriana Fonseca, Annie Huang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant embryonal brain tumors (EBTs) of childhood span a wide clinical spectrum but can share remarkably similar morphologic features. This overlap presents significant diagnostic challenges, particularly for tumor entities that are rarely encountered in clinical practice and for which diagnostic criteria were poorly defined. This review will provide an update on the evolving characterization and treatment of rare EBTs. RECENT FINDINGS: Rapid advances in genomic tools have led to the discovery of robust molecular markers, and identification of novel tumor types and subtypes for almost all major categories of pediatric brain tumors...
July 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Amol K Narang, Jeffrey Meyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant hypofractionated short-course radiation remains an underutilized regimen in the USA. We review the current clinical literature highlighting the relative merits of short-course radiation, along with modern neoadjuvant strategies that incorporate its use. RECENT FINDINGS: As compared to long-course chemoradiation with delayed surgery, short-course radiation with early surgery offers similar oncologic efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer patients...
July 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to provide updated guidelines for the management of children with acquired aplastic anemia (AA), particularly focusing on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). RECENT FINDINGS: Failure-free survival for children with aplastic anemia has been shown to be better after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from matched or one-locus mismatched related donors (MRD/1MMRD) than after immunosuppressive therapy (IST). A combination of the absence of minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones and short telomere length was identified as a strong predictor of a poor response to IST...
June 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Skyler B Johnson, James B Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we will review and summarize the current status and emerging data supporting the use of trimodality therapy as an alternative to cystectomy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There are no randomized-controlled data comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preserving trimodality therapy available for comparison. However, observational data suggests acceptable bladder preservation and functional outcomes in patients receiving bladder preserving trimodality therapy as well as similar oncologic outcomes in select patients compared to radical cystectomy...
June 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Megha Agarwal, Nidhi Thareja, Melody Benjamin, Andre Akhondi, George D Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to identify commonly used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are associated with hypertension, primarily, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway (VSP) inhibitors. We review the incidence, mechanism, and strategies for management of TKI-induced HTN. We hope to provide clinicians with guidance on how to manage similar clinical scenarios. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the newer VSP inhibitors are reviewed here, including cediranib, axitinib, pazopanib, and ponatinib...
June 21, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Olivia Le Saux, Claire Falandry
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In clinical practice, older patients are often undertreated due to underrepresentation in clinical trials and fear of toxicity. Our objective was therefore to review toxicities that are specific to older cancer patients, to review risk factors in order to help physicians guide their decisions, and to review interventions that can be implemented in routine clinical practice to prevent toxicity induced by cancer therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: On the whole, reviews report similar number and frequency as well as similar grade 3 or 4 adverse events between subjects older and younger than 65 years...
June 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Paul H Sugarbaker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peritoneal metastases may occur from a majority of cancers that occur within the abdomen or pelvis. When cancer spread to the peritoneal surfaces is documented, a decision regarding palliation vs. an aggressive approach using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy must be made. The perioperative chemotherapy may be hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) administered in the operating room or early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) administered in the first 4 or 5 postoperative days...
June 8, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Narjust Duma, Kelly C Gast, Grace M Choong, Roberto A Leon-Ferre, Ciara C O'Sullivan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the clinical development of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in breast cancer to date and to review existing challenges and future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize the clinical development of PARPi in breast cancer from bench to bedside, and discuss the results of recent phase 3 trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and germline mutations in BRCA1/2 (gBRCAm). We will also provide an update regarding mechanisms of action and resistance to PARPi, and review clinical trials of PARPi as monotherapy or in combination regimens...
June 8, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Kathryn S Nevel, Jessica A Wilcox, Lindsay J Robell, Yoshie Umemura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Liquid biopsy is a sampling of tumor cells or tumor nucleotides from biofluids. This review explores the roles of liquid biopsy for evaluation and management of patients with primary and metastatic CNS malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection has emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing leptomeningeal metastases. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection can effectively demonstrate genetic markup of CNS tumors in the cerebrospinal fluid, though its role in managing CNS malignancies is less well-defined...
June 6, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Jesse Caron, Anju Nohria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast cancer therapies, such as anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and chest irradiation, have well-established cardiotoxicities that lead to adverse outcomes. Here, we will review strategies to mitigate these cardiotoxicities. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent consensus guidelines have established criteria for the identification and surveillance of breast cancer patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Dose reduction, liposomal doxorubicin, and dexrazoxane may be considered in high-risk patients receiving anthracyclines...
June 6, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Jennifer A A DeLuca, Erika L Garcia-Villatoro, Clinton D Allred
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flaxseed and its bioactive components have been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer incidence and progression. This review aims to summarize recent research regarding the role of flaxseed and each of its major dietary bioactive components in reducing colorectal cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: In both human and animal model experiments, flaxseed consumption had beneficial effects on colon physiology associated with reduction in colorectal cancer risk or occurrence...
June 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Kaveri Arora, Christopher E Barbieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will examine the taxonomy of PCa subclasses across disease states, explore the relationship among specific alterations, and highlight current clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS: Prostate cancer (PCa) is driven by multiple genomic alterations, with distinct patterns and clinical implications. Alterations occurring early in the timeline of the disease define core subtypes of localized, treatment-naive PCa. With time, an increase in number and severity of genomic alterations adds molecular complexity and is associated with progression to metastasis...
June 1, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Arwa A Alzaghal, Pamela J DiPiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced mammographic imaging modalities have been implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA. The most notable and widely used has been the three-dimensional derivative of digital mammography, known as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this article, we review the screening and diagnostic applications of DBT, along with its limitations. We also briefly address several supplemental breast imaging modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: The accumulating evidence from both small and large-scale trials has shown a significant reduction in recall rates and slight increase in cancer detection rates when using DBT...
May 29, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Abdel Nasser Hosein, Muhammad Shaalan Beg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer mortality in western countries with a uniformly poor prognosis. Unfortunately, there has been little in the way of novel therapeutics for this malignancy over the last several decades. Derangements in metabolic circuitry favoring excess glycolysis are increasingly recognized as a key hallmark of cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of alterations in glutamine metabolism in pancreatic tumor progression has been elucidated in animal models and human cells lines, and there has been considerable interest in exploiting these aberrations for the treatment of pancreatic cancer...
May 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Melina E Marmarelis, Charu Aggarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Checkpoint blockade has changed the treatment landscape in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but single-agent approaches are effective for only a select subset of patients. Here, we will review the evidence for combination immunotherapies in NSCLC and the clinical data evaluating the efficacy of this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials evaluating combination PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade as well as PD-1 in combination with agents targeting IDO1, B7-H3, VEGF, and EGFR show promising results...
May 8, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Thomas M Churilla, Stephanie E Weiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current approaches in the management of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RECENT FINDINGS: Local treatment has evolved from whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for patients with limited (1-4) brain metastases. Trials have established post-operative SRS as an alternative to adjuvant WBRT following resection of brain metastases. Second-generation TKIs for ALK rearranged NSCLC have demonstrated improved CNS penetration and activity...
May 7, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Francesco Sclafani, Sheela Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarise the available evidence on systemic therapies for advanced anal cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There is no universal consensus on the management of this condition and the prognosis remains poor. Nevertheless, significant progress has been recently made including completion of the first, ever-conducted, randomised trial in the first-line setting, investigation of immunotherapy in the refractory setting and use of comprehensive genomic profiling for a better molecular characterisation of this disease and the identification of novel potential targets...
May 4, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Vivian Y Chang, Jessica J Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to summarize current understanding of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the studies rely on in vitro cytotoxic assays. There have been several smaller scale candidate gene approaches and a handful of genome-wide studies linking genetic variation to susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. Currently, pharmacogenomic testing of all childhood cancer patients with an indication for doxorubicin or daunorubicin therapy for RARG rs2229774, SLC28A3 rs7853758, and UGT1A6*4 rs17863783 variants is recommended...
April 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Lindsay L Peterson, Jennifer A Ligibel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current data regarding physical activity and breast cancer including cancer risk, cancer prognosis, treatment-related side effects, and patient-reported outcomes. We will summarize current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors and discuss opportunities to study and implement physical activity programs in cancer survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational evidence suggests that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer, a reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence, and improved breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality...
April 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Tomas G Lyons, Maura N Dickler, Elizabeth E Comen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape for many cancers has dramatically changed with the development of checkpoint inhibitors. This article will review the literature concerning the use of checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: The histological subtype of BC with the strongest signal of efficacy has been triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Early trials of single-agent checkpoint inhibitors did not demonstrate a uniformly positive signal...
April 30, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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