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Current Oncology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324286/prolymphocytic-leukemia-new-insights-in-diagnosis-and-in-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Aude Collignon, Anne Wanquet, Elsa Maitre, Edouard Cornet, Xavier Troussard, Thérèse Aurran-Schleinitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to produce a comprehensive update on clinical and biological data regarding two rare lymphoid neoplasms, B and T prolymphocytic leukemias, and assess therapeutic management in the light of new molecular insights and the advent of targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: B cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) diagnosis remains challenging in the absence of clear immunophenotypic or cytogenetic signature and overlap with mantle cell lymphoma...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303495/genetic-landscape-and-classification-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphomas
#2
REVIEW
Rosalind F Sandell, Rebecca L Boddicker, Andrew L Feldman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are markedly heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, and molecular levels. This review will discuss genetic findings in PTCL with special emphasis on how they impact lymphoma classification. RECENT FINDINGS: Sequencing studies have identified recurrent genetic alterations in nearly every PTCL subtype. In anaplastic large cell lymphoma, these studies have revealed novel chromosomal rearrangements and mutations that have prognostic significance and may suggest new therapeutic approaches...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303494/current-management-strategy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Hussein Merza, Marijo Bilusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Major strides have been made in the treatment of kidney cancer in the last several years with checkpoint immunotherapies and novel targeted agents. This manuscript will review current treatment strategies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recently, several new drugs including nivolumab, cabozantinib, and a combination of lenvatinib and everolimus have demonstrated acceptable toxicity and significantly improved overall survival, but evidence-based guidelines for sequencing of the approved treatment options and treatment selection based on biomarkers are still missing...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303493/the-effect-of-molecular-diagnostics-on-the-treatment-of-glioma
#4
REVIEW
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Nicholas Butowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the use of molecular diagnostics in glioma and its effect on the development of novel therapeutics and management decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has provided significant expansion of our understanding of oncogenesis, characterization, and prognostication of brain tumors. Molecular markers such as MGMT, EGFR, IDH, 1p19q, ATRX, TERT, FGFR-TACC, and BRAF are now being used to classify brain tumors as well as influence management decisions...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303492/contributions-of-the-japanese-gynecologic-oncology-group-jgog-in-improving-the-quality-of-life-in-women-with-gynecological-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Masayuki Futagami, Yoshihito Yokoyama, Muneaki Shimada, Shinya Sato, Etsuko Miyagi, Akiko Tozawa-Ono, Nao Suzuki, Masaki Fujimura, Yoichi Aoki, Satoru Sagae, Toru Sugiyama
The Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) is leading Japan in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. The JGOG consists of three treatment committees focusing on uterine cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. Each committee makes efforts to improve treatment and diagnosis. In addition, the Supportive and Palliative Care Committee was established in 2015. Novel studies of supportive care and palliative care have been initiated by this committee. Furthermore, surveys about not only treatment results such as overall survival rates but also quality of life (QOL) and cost-effectiveness assessments are performed by the ovarian cancer committee...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303491/changing-the-therapeutic-landscape-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-the-evolution-of-comprehensive-molecular-profiling-improves-access-to-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Joshua K Sabari, Fernando Santini, Isabella Bergagnini, W Victoria Lai, Kathryn C Arbour, Alexander Drilon
Targeting genomic alterations has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. In an effort to better identify potentially actionable alterations that may predict response to FDA-approved and or investigational therapies, many centers have migrated towards performing targeted exome sequencing in patients with stage IV disease. The implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the evaluation of tumor tissue from patients with NSCLC has led to the discovery of targetable alterations in tumors that previously had no known actionable targets by less comprehensive profiling...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303490/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gliomas
#7
REVIEW
Aaron C Tan, Amy B Heimberger, Mustafa Khasraw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant gliomas result in disproportionately high morbidity and mortality compared with other primary tumors, and progression of disease is inevitable. Novel therapies to improve outcomes are needed and immune checkpoint inhibitors hold significant promise. RECENT FINDINGS: A limited body of preclinical evidence suggests that checkpoint inhibitors may be effective treatment for gliomas. Biomarkers to identify characteristics of gliomas responsive to these therapies will be essential...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293870/erratum-to-update-on-management-of-cancer-related-cachexia
#8
Lindsey J Anderson, Eliette D Albrecht, Jose M Garcia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283965/treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-the-flt3-gene-mutation
#9
REVIEW
Carlos Best-Aguilera, O Rodrigo Gómez-Vázquez, A Elizabeth Guzmán-Hernández, R Monserrat Rojas-Sotelo
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mutations of the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3) and its overexpression are related with hyperleukocytosis, higher risk of relapse, and decrease of both disease-free survival and overall survival. It has been suggested that this phenomenon confers proliferative and survival advantages to the malignant blast cells. As a consequence, it is an attractive therapeutic target. As the best treatment strategy for mutated FLT3 AML remains to be defined, the addition of FLT3 inhibitor drugs to chemotherapy or to the bone marrow transplant approach has become a growing strategy...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271398/optimizing-symptoms-and-management-of-febrile-neutropenia-among-cancer-patients-current-status-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Xiao Jun Wang, Alexandre Chan
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common and serious complication among cancer patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. FN should be treated as a medical emergency because it can lead to life-threatening complications if appropriate treatment is not initiated immediately. This study provides a critical review on the current management of FN and identifies possible directions to optimize FN management.
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251494/the-role-of-surgery-for-melanoma-in-an-era-of-effective-systemic-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Siavash Raigani, Sonia Cohen, Genevieve M Boland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent discovery of effective systemic treatments for melanoma has dramatically improved the prognosis for patients with advanced disease. As a result, the multidisciplinary management of melanoma has evolved significantly. In the past decades surgery was reserved for symptomatic palliation in patients with metastatic melanoma. Today surgical treatment of patients responding to systemic therapies has become an integral part of disease control. RECENT FINDINGS: Current efforts are focused on minimizing the morbidity of surgery (laparoscopic inguinal lymph node dissection, selective completion lymphadenectomy) as well as combining surgery with systemic therapy in novel ways (neoadjuvant targeted and/or immunotherapy, isolated limb infusion/perfusion with systemic immunotherapy)...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251493/bone-modifier-use-as-adjuvant-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Josee-Lyne Ethier, Rebecca M Prince, Eitan Amir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many studies have examined the effects of adjuvant bisphosphonates on long-term breast cancer outcomes. However, results have been inconsistent. Here, we review the evidence for their role in early breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: In a recent meta-analysis, no significant decreases in recurrence or breast cancer mortality were observed in the overall population. In postmenopausal women, statistically significant, but modest, reductions in distant recurrence were observed, driven by decreased bone recurrence...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251492/key-roles-of-axl-and-mer-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-resistance-to-multiple-anticancer-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Marie Schoumacher, Mike Burbridge
A major challenge in anticancer treatment is the pre-existence or emergence of resistance to therapy. AXL and MER are two members of the TAM (TYRO3-AXL-MER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which, when activated, can regulate tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor-host interactions. An increasing body of evidence strongly suggests that these receptors play major roles in resistance to targeted therapies and conventional cytotoxic agents. Multiple resistance mechanisms exist, including the direct and indirect crosstalk of AXL and MER with other receptors and the activation of feedback loops regulating AXL and MER expression and activity...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251491/extended-endocrine-therapy-is-5%C3%A2-years-enough
#14
REVIEW
Manali A Bhave, N Lynn Henry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer remain at risk for cancer recurrence for decades. In this review, we address recent data regarding the benefits and risks of extended endocrine therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Ten years of treatment with either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor resulted in superior disease-free survival compared to 5 years of treatment. However, there are risks associated with extended therapy with either class of medication...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251490/prophylactic-measures-during-induction-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
REVIEW
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improved management of infectious complications of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has contributed substantially to the success of care over the past half century. An important approach to reducing infectious complications during the induction period of chemotherapy involves the use of prophylactic antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agents targeting likely pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: There is not a one-size-fits-all approach to prophylaxis; every patient undergoing induction therapy should be evaluated individually and within the context of local microbiologic epidemiology and host risk factors...
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247252/cabozantinib-an-active-novel-multikinase-inhibitor-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Nizar M Tannir, Gisela Schwab, Viktor Grünwald
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. VHL loss drives tumor angiogenesis and accounts for the clinical activity of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the first-line standard of care for advanced RCC. Within the last year, three new second-line treatments have received FDA approval for use after anti-angiogenic therapy: the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, the TKI cabozantinib, and the combination of the TKI lenvatinib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229393/mechanisms-of-therapeutic-resistance-in-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Mary Nakazawa, Channing Paller, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. The challenge in managing castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) stems not from the lack of therapeutic options but from the limited duration of clinical and survival benefit offered by treatments in this setting due to primary and acquired resistance. The remarkable molecular heterogeneity and tumor adaptability in advanced prostate cancer necessitate optimization of such treatment strategies. While the future of CRPC management will involve newer targeted therapies in deliberately biomarker-selected patients, interventions using current approaches may exhibit improved clinical benefit if employed in the context of optimal sequencing and combinations...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220450/the-potential-role-of-symptom-questionnaires-in-palliative-and-supportive-cancer-care-delivery
#18
REVIEW
Angela M Stover, Ethan M Basch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) palliative care recommendations have been updated into a full guideline. Symptom questionnaires-completed and reviewed with patients during care delivery-are poised to play a large role in this guideline because they provide a more comprehensive understanding of symptoms. This article provides an overview of the guideline and describes how symptom questionnaires can be used to satisfy the guideline. RECENT FINDINGS: Standardized symptom questionnaires can be used for three purposes in care delivery: symptom management, referral to specialty palliative and supportive care, and to assess high-quality care...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220449/current-management-strategy-for-active-surveillance-in-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Jamil S Syed, Juan Javier-Desloges, Stephanie Tatzel, Ansh Bhagat, Kevin A Nguyen, Kevin Hwang, Sarah Kim, Preston C Sprenkle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220448/multidimensional-treatment-of-cancer-pain
#20
REVIEW
Weiyang Christopher Liu, Zhong Xi Zheng, Kian Hian Tan, Gregory J Meredith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Though numerous treatment options are available to address cancer pain, inadequate management continues to be an ongoing problem worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review of the recent scientific literature was conducted with attention to new therapies along with reports of general consensus that were analyzed. Pain research continues to be difficult and though numerous guidelines have been developed, adequate powered studies are not common...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
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