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Current Oncology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755314/checkpoint-inhibitors-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-among-older-adults
#1
REVIEW
Rawad Elias, Joshua Morales, Carolyn Presley
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is mostly a disease of older adults, with its incidence and mortality rates increasing exponentially after the age of 65 years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have changed the scene of NSCLC treatment after a long and relatively stagnant period of standard treatment regimens. However, little is known about the specific impact of these agents in older adults for whom care is often complicated by a variety of syndromes. This underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of new cancer treatments in an older patient population...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755313/targeting-b-cell-signaling-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Jon E Arnason, Jennifer R Brown
In recent years, a revolution in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has centered on the targeting of the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Our improved understanding of the biology of cell signaling in CLL and the development of oral kinase inhibitors directed at the BCR pathway has led to the approval of two new agents and has the potential to radically change the treatment of CLL in both the relapsed/refractory and upfront settings. In this review, we will describe the underlying biology of the BCR signaling pathway...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748522/mindfulness-based-interventions-and-sleep-among-cancer-survivors-a-critical-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
Georgia Christodoulou, David S Black
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of our critical examination is to present results and provide a synthesis of this body of work. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep problems among cancer survivors are gaining research attention. To our knowledge, there have been six randomized control trials published from 2013 to 2015 that test the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on sleep as a primary or secondary outcome. Our examination of the literature highlights important methodological issues and variability among trials...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735441/pathology-of-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-female-genital-tract
#4
REVIEW
Brooke E Howitt, Paul Kelly, W Glenn McCluggage
Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735440/new-hypofractionation-radiation-strategies-for-glioblastoma
#5
REVIEW
Melissa Azoulay, Jennifer Shah, Erqi Pollom, Scott G Soltys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of less than 2 years despite the standard of care treatment of 6 weeks of chemoradiotherapy. We review the data investigating hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) in the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. RECENT FINDINGS: Investigators have explored alternative radiotherapy strategies that shorten treatment duration with the goal of similar or improved survival while minimizing toxicity...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735439/surgical-management-of-periocular-cancers-high-and-low-risk-features-drive-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Richard C Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in the treatment of eyelid tumors have centered on the excision, evaluation of margins, role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, and adjunctive/adjuvant systemic and radiation therapy. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on these advances. RECENT FINDINGS: Mohs excision of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma continues to provide the greatest success in complete excision of the cancer, especially in those cases of high-risk disease including medial canthal location and recurrent disease...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822063/mind-body-therapies-in-cancer-what-is-the-latest-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Linda E Carlson, Erin Zelinski, Kirsti Toivonen, Michelle Flynn, Maryam Qureshi, Katherine-Ann Piedalue, Rachel Grant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many people living with cancer use complementary therapies, and some of the most popular are mind-body therapies (MBTs), including relaxation and imagery, hypnosis, yoga, meditation, tai chi and qigong, and art therapies. The efficacy of these modalities was reviewed by assessing recent findings in the context of cancer care. RECENT FINDINGS: These therapies show efficacy in treating common cancer-related side effects, including nausea and vomiting, pain, fatigue, anxiety, depressive symptoms and improving overall quality of life...
August 18, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803390/cancer-clonal-theory-immune-escape-and-their-evolving-roles-in-cancer-multi-agent-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Prianka Bhattacharya, Gerald L Messerschmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The knowledge base of malignant cell growth and resulting targets is rapidly increasing every day. Clonal theory is essential to understand the changes required for a cell to become malignant. These changes are then clues to therapeutic intervention strategies. Immune system optimization is a critical piece to find, recognize, and eliminate all cancer cells from the host. Only by administering (1) multiple therapies that counteract the cancer cell's mutational and externally induced survival traits and (2) by augmenting the immune system to combat immune suppression processes and by enhancing specific tumor trait recognition can cancer begin to be treated with a truly targeted focus...
August 12, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799122/prognostic-stratification-of-patients-with-advanced-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Dante De Paz, Huang-Kai Kao, Yenlin Huang, Kai-Ping Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prognosis of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma remains a challenge for clinicians despite progress in its diagnosis and treatment over the past decades. In this review, we assessed clinicopathological factors and potential biomarkers along with their prognostic relevance in an attempt to develop optimal treatment strategies for these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to several pathologic factors that have been proposed to improve prognostic stratification and treatment planning in the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee staging manual on cancer, we reviewed some other imaging and clinicopathological parameters demonstrated to be closely associated with patient prognosis, along with the biomarkers related to novel target or immune therapy...
August 10, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799073/immunotherapy-in-breast-cancer-the-emerging-role-of-pd-1-and-pd-l1
#10
REVIEW
François Bertucci, Anthony Gonçalves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize the data regarding PD-L1 expression in breast cancer and the results of first clinical trials with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with metastatic breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous across primary breast cancers, and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the presence of poor-prognosis features such as high grade, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple-negative (TN), basal, HER2-enriched)...
August 10, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791609/cardiac-imaging-multimodality-advances-and-surveillance-strategies-in-detection-of-cardiotoxicity
#11
REVIEW
Marie Moonen, Cécile Oury, Patrizio Lancellotti
Contemporary cancer management has increased the overall number of cancer survivors, but cardiotoxicity remains a subject of concern, which is a major cause of noncancer mortality among survivors. Among the potential cardiovascular complications, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is a poor prognostic factor. The importance of its early detection is based on the principle that the likelihood of response to heart failure (HF) treatment is temporally related to the initiation of HF treatment. For these reasons, cardiac monitoring is commonly applied in general practice, based on serial measurements of LV ejection fraction (LVEF); transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is generally used...
August 8, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733827/adding-adjuvant-systemic-treatment-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-breast-cancer-review-of-the-data
#12
REVIEW
Shetal A Patel, Angela DeMichele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a poor prognostic factor; however, proven strategies to reduce recurrence risk and improve overall survival in this patient population are limited. Previous studies of residual disease have illustrated the importance of tumor intrinsic subtypes in treatment response and mechanisms of resistance. This review summarizes the rationale for various therapeutic approaches as well as completed and ongoing clinical trials for this high-risk group of patients...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707189/cardio-oncology-gaps-in-knowledge-goals-advances-and-educational-efforts
#13
REVIEW
Gina Biasillo, Carlo M Cipolla, Daniela Cardinale
Over the past 20 years, cancer treatments have become more effective, leading to significant improvements in survival rates. However, anticancer drugs can have several possible cardiovascular side effects; in particular, the development of left ventricular dysfunction with chemoradiation therapy can negatively affect patients' cardiac outcome, and can limit anticancer treatments. This is an ongoing issue that will continue to persist, due to the ongoing development of new antitumor agents with potential cardiotoxic effects, and the prolonged life expectancy of long-term cancer survivors...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664471/current-management-strategy-for-penile-cancer-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Tanya B Dorff, Leslie K Ballas, Anne K Schuckman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to evaluate the trends in multidisciplinary management of localized penile cancer and systemic therapy for advanced disease in the evolving era of targeted and immune checkpoint therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Organ preservation (surgical or incorporating radiation) and reconstructive techniques are important considerations for quality of life in penile cancer survivors. Although local recurrence may be higher with organ preservation, salvage therapy appears successful...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664470/early-cervical-cancer-current-dilemmas-of-staging-and-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Tiffany Zigras, Genevieve Lennox, Karla Willows, Allan Covens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in cervical cancer screening and treatment have resulted in high cure rates in developed countries for early-stage disease. Current research focuses on minimizing morbidity and maximizing quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging has been disappointing in identifying small volume metastases. Sentinel lymph node biopsy represents a significant advantage with high sensitivity, low false negative rates, reduced morbidity, and equivalent survival in recent studies compared to pelvic lymphadenectomy...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664469/the-role-of-telemedicine-in-providing-thoracic-oncology-care-to-remote-areas-of-british-columbia
#16
REVIEW
Michael F Humer, Barbara G Campling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to review the role of telemedicine in providing oncology care; we describe our long-standing, high-volume telemedicine experience. RECENT FINDINGS: The Interior Health Thoracic Surgical Group (IHTSG) uses telemedicine, through Virtual Thoracic Surgical Clinics (VTSC), to provide service to remote patients. The IHTSG serves a population of 1.01 million people over an area of 807,538 km(2) (1.3 persons/km(2)) in the Interior and North of British Columbia, Canada...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664468/tumor-treating-fields-in-neuro-oncological-practice
#17
REVIEW
Maciej M Mrugala, Jacob Ruzevick, Piotr Zlomanczuk, Rimas V Lukas
Electric fields are known to produce biological effects. Depending on specific frequency, they can stimulate healing, directly damage tissues, or produce anti-mitotic activity. Frequencies of 100-300 KHz have been shown to disrupt mitosis and lead to cellular death. Growth of cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, was shown to be inhibited by application of the electric fields. In the clinical setting, electric fields are available for treatment of brain tumors, specifically glioblastoma (GBM), through a portable device producing so-called tumor treating fields (TTF)...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656502/update-on-treatment-options-for-advanced-bile-duct-tumours-radioembolisation-for-advanced-cholangiocarcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Pavan Najran, Angela Lamarca, Damian Mullan, Mairéad G McNamara, Thomas Westwood, Richard A Hubner, Jeremy Lawrence, Prakash Manoharan, Jon Bell, Juan W Valle
Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare form of gastrointestinal cancer with a poor prognosis. Patients often present with biliary obstruction or non-specific abdominal pain, and a high proportion of patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The goal of this review is to discuss treatment options for patients with advanced bile duct tumours focusing on radioembolisation (RE) and its impact on overall survival. RE provides a therapeutic option for patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. However, although systemic chemotherapy has demonstrated a survival benefit in randomised controlled trials, there is limited supporting evidence for the use of RE in this setting...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643173/immunotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-there-is-hope
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan M Lehman, Mary E Gwin, Pierre P Massion
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. It accounts for ~15% of lung cancer mortality and has had no improvement in standard treatment options for nearly 30 years. However, there is now hope for change with new therapies and modalities of therapy. Immunotherapies and checkpoint inhibitors are entering clinical practice, selected targeted therapies show promise, and "smart bomb"-based drug/radioconjugates have led to good response in early clinical trials...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597105/role-of-aspirin-in-breast-cancer-survival
#20
REVIEW
Wendy Y Chen, Michelle D Holmes
Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
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