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Current Psychiatry Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624866/update-on-psychological-trauma-other-severe-adverse-experiences-and-eating-disorders-state-of-the-research-and-future-research-directions
#1
REVIEW
Kathryn Trottier, Danielle E MacDonald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616860/insomnia-as-a-precipitating-factor-in-new-onset-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-of-recent-findings
#2
REVIEW
Wilfred R Pigeon, Todd M Bishop, Kelsey M Krueger
PURPOSE: We aimed to systematically review recent publications (01/2014-03/2017) with longitudinal designs allowing for the assessment of the prospective risk of insomnia on new onset mental illness in key conditions: anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature yielded 1859 unique articles meeting search criteria were identified; 16 articles met all selection criteria and reviewed with some studies reporting on more than one mental health outcome...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608123/genetics-of-depression-progress-at-last
#3
REVIEW
Niamh Mullins, Cathryn M Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will describe the success of recent genome-wide association studies that identify genetic variants associated with depression and outline the strategies used to reduce heterogeneity and increase sample size. RECENT FINDINGS: The CONVERGE consortium identified two genetic associations by focusing on a sample of Chinese women with recurrent severe depression. Three other loci have been found in Europeans by combining cohorts with clinical diagnosis and measures of depressive symptoms to increase sample size...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540594/recent-progress-in-virtual-reality-exposure-therapy-for-phobias-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Botella, Javier Fernández-Álvarez, Verónica Guillén, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa Baños
This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540593/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-updated-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Heather Westwood, Kate Tchanturia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing interest in the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review aimed to synthesise the most recent research on this topic to identify gaps in current knowledge, directions for future research and reflect on implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Eight studies assessing the presence of ASD in AN were identified in the literature along with three studies examining the impact of symptoms of ASD on treatment outcome...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536808/addressing-the-needs-of-preschool-children-in-the-context-of-disasters-and-terrorism-assessment-prevention-and-intervention
#6
REVIEW
Leo Wolmer, Daniel Hamiel, Lee Pardo-Aviv, Nathaniel Laor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. RECENT FINDINGS: We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534296/anticipating-the-ethical-challenges-of-psychiatric-genetic-testing
#7
REVIEW
Paul S Appelbaum, Shawna Benston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing for mental illness is likely to become increasingly prevalent as the science behind it is refined. This article identifies anticipated ethical challenges for patients, psychiatrists, and genetic counselors and makes recommendations for addressing them. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the ethical challenges of psychiatric genetic testing are likely to stem from failures to comprehend the nature and implications of test results. Recent studies have identified gaps in the knowledge base of psychiatrists and genetic counselors, which limit their abilities to provide patients with appropriate education...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534295/addressing-the-needs-of-preschool-children-in-the-context-of-disasters-and-terrorism-clinical-pictures-and-moderating-factors
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Hamiel, Leo Wolmer, Lee Pardo-Aviv, Nathaniel Laor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper surveys the existent theoretical and research literature regarding the needs of preschool children in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding (a) the consequences of such events for young children and (b) the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association to learn how to enhance their resilience. RECENT FINDINGS: Consequences include a variety of emotional, behavioral, and biological outcomes...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534294/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-aging-testing-the-accelerated-aging-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Farhana Islam, Benoit H Mulsant, Aristotle N Voineskos, Tarek K Rajji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534293/psychiatric-illness-and-parasomnias-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Flavie Waters, Umberto Moretto, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the presence of parasomnias such as nightmare disorder, sleep paralysis, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related eating disorders (SRED) in people with mental illness. A predominant view suggests that psychotropic medications might be contributing to parasomnias. This article summarizes knowledge regarding the relationships between psychiatric disorders and parasomnias, and possible confounds. A systematic search of the literature in the past 10 years identified 19 articles...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526967/update-on-barriers-to-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Anjalee Sharma, Sharon M Kelly, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Jan Gryczynski, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent heroin and prescription opioid misuse epidemic has led to a sharp increase in the number of opioid overdose deaths in the USA. Notwithstanding the availability of three FDA-approved medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) to treat opioid use disorder, these medications are underutilized. This paper provides an update from the recent peer-reviewed literature on barriers to the use of these medications. FINDINGS: These barriers are interrelated and can be categorized as financial, regulatory, geographic, attitudinal, and logistic...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502070/sleep-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Margaret C Souders, Stefanie Zavodny, Whitney Eriksen, Rebecca Sinko, James Connell, Connor Kerns, Roseann Schaaf, Jennifer Pinto-Martin
The purposes of this paper are to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), present hypotheses for the high prevalence of insomnia in children with ASD, and present a practice pathway for promoting optimal sleep. Approximately two thirds of children with ASD have chronic insomnia, and to date, the strongest evidence on promoting sleep is for sleep education, environmental changes, behavioral interventions, and exogenous melatonin. The Sleep Committee of the Autism Treatment Network (ATN) developed a practice pathway, based on expert consensus, to capture best practices for screening, identification, and treatment for sleep problems in ASD in 2012...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488207/depressive-spectrum-disorders-in-cancer-diagnostic-issues-and-intervention-a-critical-review
#13
REVIEW
Rosangela Caruso, Maria GiuliaNanni, Michelle B Riba, Silvana Sabato, Luigi Grassi
Depressive spectrum disorders, including major depression, persistent depression, minor and sub-syndromal depression, and other forms of depressive conditions, such as demoralization, are among the most common psychiatric consequences of cancer patients, affecting up to 60% of patients. In spite of the negative effects and the burden for cancer patients and their families, these disorders often remain under-recognized and undertreated. The present review aims at summarizing the relevant data concerning the diagnostic challenges within the depressive spectrum disorders among cancer patients...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470486/men-muscles-and-eating-disorders-an-overview-of-traditional-and-muscularity-oriented-disordered-eating
#14
REVIEW
Jason M Lavender, Tiffany A Brown, Stuart B Murray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing recognition that eating disorder (ED) symptoms, particularly those of a muscularity-oriented nature, are more common in men than previously understood. The purpose of the current review is to describe contemporary directions and implications of research on traditional and muscularity-oriented ED symptoms among males. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that ED symptoms occur in a substantial minority of men. Importantly, recent research has focused on muscularity-oriented body image and disordered eating in males, demonstrating the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of maladaptive muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviors...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470485/biomarkers-of-suicide-attempt-behavior-towards-a-biological-model-of-risk
#15
REVIEW
Katherin Sudol, J John Mann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising suicide rate in the USA will not be reversed without improved risk assessment and prevention practices. To date, the best method for clinicians to assess a patient's risk for suicide is screening for past suicide attempts in the patient and their family. However, neuroimaging, genomic, and biochemical studies have generated a body of findings that allow description of an initial heuristic biological model for suicidal behavior that may have predictive value...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447296/addressing-the-needs-of-children-and-youth-in-the-context-of-war-and-terrorism-the-technological-frontier
#16
REVIEW
Leia Y Saltzman, Levi Solomyak, Ruth Pat-Horenczyk
This paper reviews recent literature on the mental health needs of youth in the context of war and terrorism. A human rights lens is used to explore issues of accessibility and sustainability in service utilization during times of crisis. The authors present the evolution of services over the last several decades, progressing through individual, school-based, and community-wide interventions by exploring models that focus on symptom reduction and building resilience. This paper highlights the benefits and limitations of traditional intervention methods and proposes a new frontier of intervention development and research...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439762/sex-differences-in-obesity-and-mental-health
#17
REVIEW
Jena Shaw Tronieri, Courtney McCuen Wurst, Rebecca L Pearl, Kelly C Allison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity and a wide range of mental health issues and to identify where sex differences exist and may vary across disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on sex differences in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders is more abundant in some areas, such as depression and eating disorders, than others, such as anxiety, trauma, and substance use. However, for most of the disorders, their relationships with obesity and sex are complex and are usually moderated by additional variables...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425023/challenges-and-opportunities-in-global-mental-health-a-research-to-practice-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Milton L Wainberg, Pamela Scorza, James M Shultz, Liat Helpman, Jennifer J Mootz, Karen A Johnson, Yuval Neria, Jean-Marie E Bradford, Maria A Oquendo, Melissa R Arbuckle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research...
May 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417270/current-reports-on-perinatal-intimate-partner-violence
#19
REVIEW
Donna E Stewart, Simone N Vigod, Harriet L MacMillan, Prabha S Chandra, Alice Han, Marta B Rondon, Jennifer C D MacGregor, Ekaterina Riazantseva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review the literature on perinatal intimate partner violence, focusing on recent knowledge to guide mental health professionals on the best approaches to identify and treat women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors have been broadened from individual victim and perpetrator factors to include relationship, community, and societal factors which interact together. Better information is now available on how to identify, document, and treat women exposed to violence around the time of conception, pregnancy, and the postpartum period...
May 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417269/anxiety-disorders-and-temperament-an-update-review
#20
REVIEW
Olli Kampman, Merja Viikki, Esa Leinonen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review focused on associations between temperament dimensions and clinical features in different anxiety disorders, likewise in obsessive-compulsive disorder in clinical samples of adults. A literature search was conducted in the Medline and PsycINFO databases covering the years 2010-2016. A systematic review and grading of the level of evidence for an association between temperament dimension scores and clinical features in each disorder were performed. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty papers reporting 18 different studies were included...
May 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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