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Current Psychiatry Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714048/avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-a-three-dimensional-model-of-neurobiology-with-implications-for-etiology-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer J Thomas, Elizabeth A Lawson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra, Thilo Deckersbach, Kamryn T Eddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DSM-5 defined avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as a failure to meet nutritional needs leading to low weight, nutritional deficiency, dependence on supplemental feedings, and/or psychosocial impairment. We summarize what is known about ARFID and introduce a three-dimensional model to inform research. RECENT FINDINGS: Because ARFID prevalence, risk factors, and maintaining mechanisms are not known, prevailing treatment approaches are based on clinical experience rather than data...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681356/the-impact-of-natural-disasters-on-youth-a-focus-on-emerging-research-beyond-internalizing-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Shannon Self-Brown, Betty Lai, Alexandria Patterson, Theresa Glasheen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681355/impaired-redox-control-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-could-it-be-the-x-in-gxe
#3
REVIEW
Vanja Mandic-Maravic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija Mitkovic-Voncina, Ana Savic-Radojevic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Tatjana Simic, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a brief description of the complex etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with special emphasis on the recent findings of impaired redox control in ASD, and to suggest a possible model of oxidative stress-specific gene-environment interaction in this group of disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings point out to the significance of environmental, prenatal, and perinatal factors in ASD but, at the same time, are in favor of the potentially significant oxidative stress-specific gene-environment interaction in ASD...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676966/eating-disorders-and-the-intestinal-microbiota-mechanisms-of-energy-homeostasis-and-behavioral-influence
#4
REVIEW
Elaine M Glenny, Emily C Bulik-Sullivan, Quyen Tang, Cynthia M Bulik, Ian M Carroll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and evaluated recently published scientific studies that explored the role of the intestinal microbiota in eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is a contributing factor to both host energy homeostasis and behavior-two traits commonly disrupted in patients with eating disorders. To date, intestinal microbiota research in eating disorders has focused solely on anorexia nervosa (AN)...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664328/timeline-of-intergenerational-child-maltreatment-the-mind-brain-body-interplay
#5
REVIEW
Marija Mitkovic Voncina, Milica Pejovic Milovancevic, Vanja Mandic Maravic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Still obscure mechanisms of intergenerational child maltreatment (ITCM) have been investigated partially, from various psychological and biological perspectives and from various time perspectives. This review is aimed at integrating the findings on different temporal ITCM pathways, emphasizing the mind-brain-body interplay. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychological mediators of ITCM involve attachment, mentalization, dissociation, social information processing, personality traits, and psychiatric disorders...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660475/eating-disorders-and-disordered-weight-and-shape-control-behaviors-in-sexual-minority-populations
#6
REVIEW
Jerel P Calzo, Aaron J Blashill, Tiffany A Brown, Russell L Argenal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011 and 2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653117/treating-eating-disorders-at-higher-levels-of-care-overview-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Leslie K Anderson, Erin E Reilly, Laura Berner, Christina E Wierenga, Michelle D Jones, Tiffany A Brown, Walter H Kaye, Anne Cusack
Higher levels of care (HLC)-including inpatient hospitalization, residential treatment, partial hospitalization, and intensive outpatient treatment-are frequently utilized within routine care for eating disorders. Despite widespread use, there is limited research evaluating the efficacy of HLC, as well as clinical issues related to care in these settings. This review describes the different levels of care for eating disorders and briefly reviews the most up-to-date guidelines and research regarding how to choose a level of care...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653116/sleep-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-persons-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) frequently challenges the integrity of sleep function by affecting multiple brain areas implicated in controlling the switch between wakefulness and sleep and those involved in circadian and homeostatic processes; the malfunction of each causes a variety of disorders. In this review, we discuss recent data on the dynamics between disorders of sleep and mental/psychiatric disorders in persons with mTBI. This analysis sets the stage for understanding how a variety of physiological, emotional and environmental influences affect sleep and mental activities after injury to the brain...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647815/update-on-the-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mania-in-older-age-bipolar-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Peijun Chen, Annemiek Dols, Soham Rej, Martha Sajatovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The population over age 60 is growing more rapidly than the general population. Given the projected increase and need for data that can inform treatment, this review provides a brief description of newer publications focused on mania in older-age bipolar disorder (OABD), including epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Age cutoffs to define OABD range from 50 to 65 years. OABD clinical presentation and course of illness is highly variable, often characterized by mood episode recurrence, medical comorbidity, cognitive deficits, and impaired functioning...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624866/update-on-psychological-trauma-other-severe-adverse-experiences-and-eating-disorders-state-of-the-research-and-future-research-directions
#10
REVIEW
Kathryn Trottier, Danielle E MacDonald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616860/insomnia-as-a-precipitating-factor-in-new-onset-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-of-recent-findings
#11
REVIEW
Wilfred R Pigeon, Todd M Bishop, Kelsey M Krueger
PURPOSE: We aimed to systematically review recent publications (01/2014-03/2017) with longitudinal designs allowing for the assessment of the prospective risk of insomnia on new onset mental illness in key conditions: anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature yielded 1859 unique articles meeting search criteria were identified; 16 articles met all selection criteria and reviewed with some studies reporting on more than one mental health outcome...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608123/genetics-of-depression-progress-at-last
#12
REVIEW
Niamh Mullins, Cathryn M Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will describe the success of recent genome-wide association studies that identify genetic variants associated with depression and outline the strategies used to reduce heterogeneity and increase sample size. RECENT FINDINGS: The CONVERGE consortium identified two genetic associations by focusing on a sample of Chinese women with recurrent severe depression. Three other loci have been found in Europeans by combining cohorts with clinical diagnosis and measures of depressive symptoms to increase sample size...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540594/recent-progress-in-virtual-reality-exposure-therapy-for-phobias-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Botella, Javier Fernández-Álvarez, Verónica Guillén, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa Baños
This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540593/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-updated-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Heather Westwood, Kate Tchanturia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing interest in the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review aimed to synthesise the most recent research on this topic to identify gaps in current knowledge, directions for future research and reflect on implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Eight studies assessing the presence of ASD in AN were identified in the literature along with three studies examining the impact of symptoms of ASD on treatment outcome...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536808/addressing-the-needs-of-preschool-children-in-the-context-of-disasters-and-terrorism-assessment-prevention-and-intervention
#15
REVIEW
Leo Wolmer, Daniel Hamiel, Lee Pardo-Aviv, Nathaniel Laor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. RECENT FINDINGS: We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534296/anticipating-the-ethical-challenges-of-psychiatric-genetic-testing
#16
REVIEW
Paul S Appelbaum, Shawna Benston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing for mental illness is likely to become increasingly prevalent as the science behind it is refined. This article identifies anticipated ethical challenges for patients, psychiatrists, and genetic counselors and makes recommendations for addressing them. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the ethical challenges of psychiatric genetic testing are likely to stem from failures to comprehend the nature and implications of test results. Recent studies have identified gaps in the knowledge base of psychiatrists and genetic counselors, which limit their abilities to provide patients with appropriate education...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534295/addressing-the-needs-of-preschool-children-in-the-context-of-disasters-and-terrorism-clinical-pictures-and-moderating-factors
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Hamiel, Leo Wolmer, Lee Pardo-Aviv, Nathaniel Laor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper surveys the existent theoretical and research literature regarding the needs of preschool children in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding (a) the consequences of such events for young children and (b) the main moderating variables influencing the event-consequence association to learn how to enhance their resilience. RECENT FINDINGS: Consequences include a variety of emotional, behavioral, and biological outcomes...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534294/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-aging-testing-the-accelerated-aging-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Farhana Islam, Benoit H Mulsant, Aristotle N Voineskos, Tarek K Rajji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534293/psychiatric-illness-and-parasomnias-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Flavie Waters, Umberto Moretto, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the presence of parasomnias such as nightmare disorder, sleep paralysis, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related eating disorders (SRED) in people with mental illness. A predominant view suggests that psychotropic medications might be contributing to parasomnias. This article summarizes knowledge regarding the relationships between psychiatric disorders and parasomnias, and possible confounds. A systematic search of the literature in the past 10 years identified 19 articles...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526967/update-on-barriers-to-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Anjalee Sharma, Sharon M Kelly, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Jan Gryczynski, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent heroin and prescription opioid misuse epidemic has led to a sharp increase in the number of opioid overdose deaths in the USA. Notwithstanding the availability of three FDA-approved medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) to treat opioid use disorder, these medications are underutilized. This paper provides an update from the recent peer-reviewed literature on barriers to the use of these medications. FINDINGS: These barriers are interrelated and can be categorized as financial, regulatory, geographic, attitudinal, and logistic...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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