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Current Psychiatry Reports

Laura Colino, Javier Herranz-Herrer, Elena Gil-Benito, Teresa Ponte-Lopez, Pablo Del Sol-Calderon, Maria Rodrigo-Yanguas, María Gil-Ligero, Antonio J Sánchez-López, Jose de Leon, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current serotonin-based biological model of suicidal behavior (SB) may be too simplistic. There is emerging evidence that other biomarkers and biological systems may be involved in SB pathophysiology. The literature on the endocannabinoid (EC) systems and SB is limited. The objective of the present article is to review all available information on the relationship between cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors), and SB and/or psychological pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review is limited by the small number and heterogeneity of studies identified: (1) an autopsy study describing elevated levels of CB1 receptor activity in the prefrontal cortex and suicide in both depression and alcoholism and (2) studies supporting the involvement of both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain and stress-induced analgesia...
March 15, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Veronica Harsh, Anita H Clayton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex differences in the treatment of sexual dysfunction are partly due to neurobiological differences, as well as, the central and peripheral physiological effects of hormones and neurotransmitter actions on reproductive systems in men and women. Differences in epidemiology of complaints and diagnostic considerations, variance in medical comorbidities, and interference from related medications also contribute to the need for different strategies for treatments of sexual dysfunction according to gender...
March 14, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mark J Rapoport, Justin N Chee, David B Carr, Frank Molnar, Gary Naglie, Jamie Dow, Richard Marottoli, Sara Mitchell, Mark Tant, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, John-Paul Taylor, Paul C Donaghy, Sherrilene Classen, Desmond O'Neill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to update a national guideline on assessing drivers with dementia, addressing limitations of previous versions which included a lack of developmental rigor and stakeholder involvement. METHODS: An international multidisciplinary team reviewed 104 different recommendations from 12 previous guidelines on assessing drivers with dementia in light of a recent review of the literature. Revised guideline recommendations were drafted by consensus...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Donald M Hilty, Carolyn Turvey, Tiffany Hwang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychiatric practice continues to evolve and play an important role in patients' lives, the field of medicine, and health care delivery. Clinicians must learn a variety of clinical care systems and lifelong learning (LLL) is crucial to apply knowledge, develop skills, and adjust attitudes. Technology is rapidly becoming a key player-in delivery, lifelong learning, and education/training. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence base for telepsychiatry/telemental health via videoconferencing has been growing for three decades, but a greater array of technologies have emerged in the last decade (e...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jose de Leon, Edoardo Spina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with bipolar disorder are frequently treated with polypharmacy. This article should provide clinicians with an understanding of how polypharmacy can contribute to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). RECENT FINDINGS: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lithium and other mood stabilizers (valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and eslicarbazepine), antipsychotics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were reviewed and summarized in the first four tables describing their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet, Jorge Lopez-Castroman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since psychotherapies for suicide prevention are receiving increasing attention, our purpose was to evaluate the related literature [meta-analyses and reviews on their effect on suicidal outcomes (A), perspective reviews concerning specific socio-demographic and clinical features (B), original studies with particular interest (C)] published over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: (A) Across different diagnoses, particularly, efficacious psychotherapies were cognitive behavioral therapy-based ones and interventions directly addressing suicidal thoughts and behaviors during the treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sakina J Rizvi, Clare Lambert, Sidney Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To focus on the clinical and behavioral presentation of anhedonia in mood disorders, as well as the differences and commonalities in the underlying neurocircuitry. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence suggests that depression is characterized by hypofunction of the reward system, while bipolar disorder manifests dysregulation of the behavioral activation system that increases goal-directed reward behavior. Importantly, strong evidence does not exist to suggest significant differences in anhedonia severity between depressed unipolar and bipolar patients, suggesting that there are more nuanced fluctuations in reward processing deficits in bipolar patients depending on their state...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jenna Goesling, Lewei A Lin, Daniel J Clauw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain impacts millions of people in the USA. At the heart of the problem of chronic pain remains the complex psychosocial aspects associated with living with chronic pain. Given the overlap between chronic pain and mental health, a promising treatment approach is to improve how we integrate psychiatry into pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment of chronic pain and comorbid mental health issues requires a multidisciplinary approach...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Betty Pfefferbaum, Phebe Tucker, Rose L Pfefferbaum, Summer D Nelson, Pascal Nitiéma, Elana Newman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the evidence on the relationship between contact with media coverage of terrorist incidents and psychological outcomes in children and adolescents while tracing the evolution in research methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of recent events in the USA have moved from correlational cross-sectional studies examining primarily television coverage and posttraumatic stress reactions to longitudinal studies that address multiple media forms and a range of psychological outcomes including depression and anxiety...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sarah L Ferri, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurodevelopmental disorders disproportionately affect males. The mechanisms underlying male vulnerability or female protection are not known and remain understudied. Determining the processes involved is crucial to understanding the etiology and advancing treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the biological basis of the male preponderance of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders includes discussion of a higher genetic burden in females and sex-specific gene mutations or epigenetic changes that differentially confer risk to males or protection to females...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Alexander C Conley, Paul A Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent advances in drug discovery and development for geriatric psychiatry. Drug discovery for disorders of the central nervous system is a long and challenging process, with a high attrition rate from the preclinical stages through to marketing a compound. Developing drugs for geriatric neuropsychiatric conditions presents additional challenges, due to the complexity of the symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, and the variability of the population. Despite there being limited success over the past two decades, a number of new approaches have identified potential targets for preclinical development and ultimately clinical testing...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Dana B Hancock, Christina A Markunas, Laura J Bierut, Eric O Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the advent of the genome-wide association study (GWAS), our understanding of the genetics of addiction has made significant strides forward. Here, we summarize genetic loci containing variants identified at genome-wide statistical significance (P < 5 × 10-8 ) and independently replicated, review evidence of functional or regulatory effects for GWAS-identified variants, and outline multi-omics approaches to enhance discovery and characterize addiction loci...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Maria Ly, Carmen Andreescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mood and anxiety disorders are very commonly experienced by older adults and are becoming a growing concern due to the rapidly aging global population. Recent advances in neuroimaging may help in improving outcomes in late-life mood and anxiety disorders. The elucidation of mechanisms contributing to late-life mental health disorders may ultimately lead to the identification of novel therapeutic interventions. Alternatively, clinically validated imaging biomarkers may allow for the prediction of treatment response and identification of better therapeutic approaches in late-life mood and anxiety disorders...
March 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Ilva G Iriarte, Mark S George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to review select applications of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) that have significant relevance in geriatric psychiatry. RECENT FINDINGS: Small study sizes and parameter variability limit the generalizability of many TMS studies in geriatric patients. Additionally, geriatric patients have unique characteristics that can moderate the efficacy of TMS. Nonetheless, several promising experimental applications in addition to the FDA-approved indication for major depression have emerged...
February 10, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Laura Duque-Serrano, Liliana Patarroyo-Rodriguez, Dorothy Gotlib, Juan C Molano-Eslava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review psychiatric manifestations, comorbidities, and psychopharmacological management in individuals with acute porphyria (AP). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature begins to clarify associations between AP, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychopathology. Broad psychiatric symptoms have been associated to acute porphyria (AP) and correspond to a spectrum of heterogeneous manifestations such as anxiety, affective alterations, behavioral changes, personality, and psychotic symptoms...
February 2, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Tia Powell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The anticipated number of persons with dementia continues to grow, and the US has insufficiently planned to provide and pay for care for this large population. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of significant clinical trials aiming to prevent or cure dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have not demonstrated success. Because of the lack of efficacious treatments, and the fact that brain changes associated with dementia may begin decades before symptoms, we can predict that efforts to cure or prevent dementia will not succeed in time for millions of people in the baby boomer generation...
February 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Shyam C Panchal, William G Ondo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss features of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) including symptomology and pathophysiology. Treatment options, including non-pharmacologic strategies, dose reduction of offending agents, and the addition of non-dopaminergic antipsychotics, are addressed. The efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics and novel agents is examined. RECENT FINDINGS: Pimavanserin, a 5-HT2A/C receptor inverse agonist with no other receptor activity, has shown efficacy and tolerability and is now FDA approved for PDP treatment...
January 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Kelsey T Laird, Pattharee Paholpak, Michael Roman, Berna Rahi, Helen Lavretsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing body of research supports the use of mind-body therapies (MBTs) as minimally invasive and effective approaches for the management of late-life mood and cognitive disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses indicate that MBTs are effective for enhancing well-being, mood, sleep, and cognition in older adults. Evidence suggests that mindful movement (e.g., yoga, tai chi, walking meditation) may even outperform conventional physical exercise with regard to effects on quality of life, mood, and cognitive functioning...
January 25, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rajesh R Tampi, Juan Young, Silpa Balachandran, Dhweeja Dasarathy, Deena Tampi
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To evaluate the ethical, legal and forensic issues that is faced by the older adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Many older individuals will face a host of ethical, medical and legal issues associated with their care. Most prominent among these issues are the maintenance of autonomy while ensuring their safety and the safety of individuals who care for them. Decisions regarding end of life including the formulation of advance directives add to the complexity of care for these older adults...
January 25, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Christina B Rumayor, Amy M Thrasher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review was threefold: to address the current state of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) within the military; to summarize recent literature (within the past three years) in the field of AAI; and to discuss trends in AAI research since 2014. RECENT FINDINGS: With regard to AAI within the military, several canine interaction programs have been utilized to assist service members in coping with various issues. Therapy dogs have been deployed with Combat-Operational Stress Control units; they have been integrated into medical clinics and behavioral health treatment programs in garrison; and policy has been developed to address the use of therapy animals in military treatment facilities...
November 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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