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Current Psychiatry Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830449/understanding-early-age-of-onset-a-review-of-the-last-5%C3%A2-years
#1
REVIEW
Gabrielle A Carlson, Caroly Pataki
The age at onset of bipolar disorder ranging from childhood to adolescent to adult has significant implications for frequency, severity and duration of mood episodes, comorbid psychopathology, heritability, response to treatment, and opportunity for early intervention. There is increasing evidence that recognition of prodromal symptoms in at-risk populations and mood type at onset are important variables in understanding the course of this illness in youth. Very early childhood onset of symptoms including anxiety/depression, mood lability, and subthreshold manic symptoms, along with family history of a parent with early onset bipolar disorder, appears to predict the highest risk of early onset disorder with the most severe course...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807701/using-physical-activity-to-manage-adhd-symptoms-the-state-of-the-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Betsy Hoza, Caroline P Martin, Anna Pirog, Erin K Shoulberg
This article summarizes the evidence for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using chronic aerobic physical activity (PA). Known studies comparing chronic aerobic PA to at least one control group are listed; uncontrolled studies and studies of non-aerobic PA are not considered. Key challenges to conducting chronic PA studies with children and youth with ADHD are summarized. After condensing information from widely varying studies, measures, and research designs, conclusions are stated in broad brush stroke terms...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783340/life-span-studies-of-adhd-conceptual-challenges-and-predictors-of-persistence-and-outcome
#3
REVIEW
Arthur Caye, James Swanson, Anita Thapar, Margaret Sibley, Louise Arseneault, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Janni Niclasen, Terrie Moffitt, Luis Augusto Rohde
There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783339/automated-decision-making-and-big-data-concerns-for-people-with-mental-illness
#4
REVIEW
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783338/coaching-for-college-students-with-adhd
#5
REVIEW
Frances Prevatt
Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778233/schools-and-disasters-safety-and-mental-health-assessment-and-interventions-for-children
#6
Betty S Lai, Ann-Margaret Esnard, Sarah R Lowe, Lori Peek
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771824/treating-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-diverse-settings-recent-advances-and-challenges-for-the-future
#7
Louise E Dixon, Emily Ahles, Luana Marques
Racial and ethnic minorities are at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing a traumatic event and are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment for their symptoms. There is a growing body of literature showing that culturally appropriate interventions result in greater uptake, symptom reduction, and sustained treatment gains. This article review explores new findings in the cultural understanding of PTSD among racial and ethnic minorities. We first review recent advances in the understanding of PTSD symptomotology...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766533/integrated-behavioral-health-in-pediatric-primary-care
#8
Wanjiku F M Njoroge, Cody A Hostutler, Billie S Schwartz, Jennifer A Mautone
There are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the multiple benefits of children receiving initial behavioral health screening, assessment, and evidence-based behavioral health treatments in the medical home...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766532/ehealth-intervention-for-problematic-internet-use-piu
#9
Lawrence T Lam, Mary K Lam
Excessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752984/identifying-and-managing-malingering-and-factitious-disorder-in-the-military
#10
Sebastian Schnellbacher, Heather O'Mara
Malingering is the intentional fabrication of medical symptoms for the purpose of external gain. Along similar lines as malingering, factitious disorder is the intentional creation or exaggeration of symptoms, but without intent for a concrete benefit. The incidence of malingering and factitious disorder in the military is unclear, but likely under reported for a variety of reasons. One should be aware of potential red flags suggesting malingering or factitious disorder and consider further evaluation to look for these conditions...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739026/the-role-of-fear-related-behaviors-in-the-2013-2016-west-africa-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#11
James M Shultz, Janice L Cooper, Florence Baingana, Maria A Oquendo, Zelde Espinel, Benjamin M Althouse, Louis Herns Marcelin, Sherry Towers, Maria Espinola, Clyde B McCoy, Laurie Mazurik, Milton L Wainberg, Yuval Neria, Andreas Rechkemmer
The 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease pandemic was the largest, longest, deadliest, and most geographically expansive outbreak in the 40-year interval since Ebola was first identified. Fear-related behaviors played an important role in shaping the outbreak. Fear-related behaviors are defined as "individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. FRBs modify the future risk of harm...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726067/apathy-in-dementia-systematic-review-of-recent-evidence-on-pharmacological-treatments
#12
Fleur Harrison, Liesbeth Aerts, Henry Brodaty
Increasing recognition that apathy is one of the most prevalent behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and causes substantial caregiver distress has led to trials evaluating psychosocial and pharmacological treatments of apathy in dementia. We evaluated evidence of the efficacy of pharmacotherapies for apathy in dementia from studies since 2013. Previously reported benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine were not replicated in recent studies. Antidepressants had mixed results with positive effects for apathy shown only for agomelatine, while stimulants, analgesics, and oxytocin study results were inconclusive...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726066/cognitive-emotional-temperament-and-personality-trait-correlates-of-suicidal-behavior
#13
Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671918/anxiety-disorders-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Christopher M Celano, Daniel J Daunis, Hermioni N Lokko, Kirsti A Campbell, Jeff C Huffman
Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671917/emergency-department-screening-for-suicide-and-mental-health-risk
#15
REVIEW
Kalina Babeva, Jennifer L Hughes, Joan Asarnow
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth ages 10-24. An estimated 1.5 million US adolescents receive their primary health care in the emergency department (ED); this is particularly true for low-income and minority youths who often lack a regular source of care. ED visits can provide a window of opportunity to screen and identify youths with suicide and mental health risk, triage youths based on need, and facilitate effective follow-up care. Recently developed brief therapeutic assessment approaches have demonstrated success in improving rates of follow-up care after discharge from the ED...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671916/psychological-mechanisms-of-ptsd-and-its-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca K Sripada, Sheila A M Rauch, Israel Liberzon
Psychological mechanisms can be defined as processes or events that are responsible for specific changes in psychological outcomes. In psychotherapy research, mechanisms are the factors through which interventions produce change. In this article, we explain the importance of identifying psychological mechanisms, describe methods for identifying them, and analyze recent literature on the psychological mechanisms underlying the development and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the findings of recent investigations (from 2013 to present), we focus on four putative mechanisms: emotional engagement, extinction and contextualization, distress tolerance, and negative posttraumatic cognitions...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671915/a-slice-of-the-suicidal-brain-what-have-postmortem-molecular-studies-taught-us
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Almeida, Gustavo Turecki
Suicide ranks amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. Contemporary models of suicide risk posit that suicide results from the interaction of distal and proximal factors, including neurobiological, psychological/clinical, and social factors. While a wealth of neurobiological studies aimed at identifying biological processes associated with suicidal behaviour have been conducted over the last decades, the more recent development of arrays and high-throughput sequencing methods have led to an increased capacity and interest in the study of genomic factors...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629356/current-understanding-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Oluwadamilola O Ojo, Hubert H Fernandez
Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the greatest determinants of nursing home placement and caregiver stress. Traditionally associated with medications with dopaminergic effect, it has now been linked to other medications and other stressors e.g. systemic illnesses. The development of hallucinations in a PD patient can herald the onset of dementia and usually predicts increased mortality risk. Medication reduction in PD psychosis usually reduces the symptoms; however, this comes at the cost of worsening motor function...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629355/recent-advances-in-means-safety-as-a-suicide-prevention-strategy
#19
REVIEW
Hyejin M Jin, Lauren R Khazem, Michael D Anestis
Despite advances in theory and the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments, the United States suicide rate has been rising continuously for over a decade. Although this does not indicate that traditional treatment approaches should be abandoned, it does highlight the need to supplement such approaches with alternatives. One seemingly highly valuable option is means safety, defined as the reduced access to and/or increased safe storage of potentially lethal methods for suicide. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the prevalence of six methods for suicide and preventative efforts aimed to reduce suicide rates...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604362/emergence-of-transdiagnostic-treatments-for-ptsd-and-posttraumatic-distress
#20
REVIEW
Cassidy A Gutner, Tara Galovski, Michelle J Bovin, Paula P Schnurr
Both theoretical and empirical findings have demonstrated similarities across diagnoses, leading to a growing interest in transdiagnostic interventions. Most of the evidence supporting transdiagnostic treatment has accumulated for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders, with minimal attention given to posttraumatic stress disorder and other reactions to traumatic stressors. Although single-diagnosis protocols are effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related disorders, in principle, transdiagnostic approaches may have beneficial applications within a traumatized population...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
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