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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186440/britanin-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inducing-the-nrf2-protective-pathway
#1
Guozhen Wu, Lili Zhu, Xing Yuan, Hao Chen, Rui Xiong, Shoude Zhang, Hao Cheng, Yunheng Shen, Huazhang An, Tiejun Li, Honglin Li, Weidong Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress is considered the major cause of tissue injury after cerebral ischemia. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative stresses and has been confirmed as a target for stroke treatment. Thus, we desired to find new Nrf2 activators and test their neuronal protective activity both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: The herb-derived compound Britanin is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 system...
February 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173719/exo-mir-15a-transfer-from-the-pancreas-augments-diabetic-complications-by-inducing-oxidative-stress
#2
Tengku Ain Kamalden, Anne M Macgregor-Das, Sangeetha M Kannan, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Nurliza Khaliddin, Zhenhua Xu, Anthony P Fusco, Syatirah Abu Yazib, Rhuen Chiou Chow, Elia J Duh, Marc K Halushka, Charles Steenbergen, Samarjit DAS
AIMS: Mi(cro)RNAs, one type of non-coding RNA, modulate post-transcriptional gene expression in various pathogenic pathways in type-2-diabetes (T2D). Currently, little is known about how miRNAs influence disease pathogenesis by targeting cells at a distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal miRNAs during T2D. RESULTS: We show that miR-15a is increased in the plasma of diabetic patients, correlating with disease severity. miR-15 plays an important role in insulin production in pancreatic-β-cells...
February 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073290/intra-and-interorgan-communication-in-the-cardiovascular-system-a-special-view-on-redox-regulation
#3
Axel Gödecke, Judith Haendeler
Intraorgan communication in the cardiovascular system is exerted not only by direct cell-cell contacts but also by locally released factors, which modulate neighboring cells by paracrine signals (e.g., NO, vascular endothelial growth factor, adenosine, reactive oxygen species). Moreover, cells in close proximity to the typical cardiovascular cells such as fibroblasts, red blood cells, as well as resident and invading immune cells must be considered in attempts to understand cardiovascular function in physiology and pathology...
February 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006950/augmentation-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-controls-cigarette-smoke-induced-inflammatory-oxidative-stress-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-emphysema-pathogenesis-by-restoring-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-function
#4
Manish Bodas, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Kathryn Brucia, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dysfunction, autophagy-impairment, and resulting inflammatory-oxidative/nitrosative stress leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-emphysema pathogenesis. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) signaling regulates lung function decline, and low serum NO levels that correlates with COPD severity. Hence, we aim to evaluate here the effects and mechanism(s) of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) augmentation in regulating inflammatory-oxidative stress and COPD-emphysema pathogenesis...
February 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158956/cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-induces-runx-2-sulhydration-thereby-increasing-osteoblast-activity-to-promote-bone-fracture-healing
#5
Yang Zheng, Feng Liao, Xianjuan Lin, Fengjiao Zhen, Jinghui Fan, Qinghua Cui, Jichun Yang, Bin Geng, Jun Cai
AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an essential role in bone formation in part by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, maintaining mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis ability or reducing osteoblast injury. We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in osteoblast function and its possible molecular target. RESULTS: Here, we found that cystathionine γ lyase (CSE) majorly contributed to endogenous H2S production in the primary osteoblast. Overexpressed CSE increased osteoblast differentiation and maturation with higher bone morphogenetic protein 2 and osteopontin expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium nodule formation; in contrast, knockdown of CSE had opposite effects...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158955/rapid-antidepressant-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-evidence-for-activation-of-mtorc1-trkb-ampa-receptor-pathways
#6
Xiao-Yi Hou, Zhuang-Li Hu, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Wei Lu, Jun Zhou, Pei-Fei Wu, Xin-Lei Guan, Qian-Qian Han, Si-Long Deng, Hai Zhang, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang
AIMS: We asked whether Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as the third gaseous mediator, provided fast antidepressant effect on major depressive disorders and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The decreased level of H2S was detected in the hippocampus of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats. Acute administration of H2S either by H2S inhalation or by the donor NaHS produced a rapid antidepressant-like behavioral effect. Further investigation demonstrated that this effect of H2S was mediated by reversing the CUMS-induced decrease in dendritic spine density and required the activation of mTORC1 and neurotrophic TrkB receptors, proceeded to increase synaptic protein expression including PSD95, synaptophysin, and AMPA receptor GluR1/2 subunit...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158949/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-deficiency-exacerbates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-increased-mitochondrial-damage-and-renal-cell-death
#7
Mi Ra Noh, Ki Young Kim, Sang Jun Han, Jee In Kim, Hwa-Young Kim, Kwon Moo Park
AIMS: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which is abundantly localized in the mitochondria, reduces methionine-S-sulfoxide scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, accumulates at high levels in the mitochondria of renal cells, causing mitochondrial impairment that ultimately leads to nephrotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of MsrA in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial damage and kidney cell death using MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA-/-) mice. RESULTS: Cisplatin injection resulted in increases of ROS production, methionine oxidation, and oxidative damage in the kidneys...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835930/master-autophagy-regulator-transcription-factor-eb-regulates-cigarette-smoke-induced-autophagy-impairment-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-emphysema-pathogenesis
#8
Manish Bodas, Neel Patel, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced oxidative stress impairs autophagy, resulting in aggresome-formation that correlates with severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-emphysema, although the specific step in autophagy pathway that is impaired is unknown. Hence, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of master autophagy transcription factor EB (TFEB) in CS-induced COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. RESULTS: We first observed that TFEB accumulates in perinuclear spaces as aggresome-bodies in COPD lung tissues of tobacco smokers and severe emphysema subjects, compared with non-emphysema or nonsmoker controls...
February 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030955/reno-cerebral-reflex-activates-the-renin-angiotensin-system-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-renal-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Wei Cao, Aiqing Li, Jiawen Li, Chunyi Wu, Shuang Cui, Zhanmei Zhou, Youhua Liu, Christopher S Wilcox, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury, but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. RESULTS: Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury...
January 31, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958762/cd47-and-nox1-mediate-dynamic-fluid-phase-macropinocytosis-of-native-ldl
#10
Gábor Csányi, Douglas M Feck, Pushpankur Ghoshal, Bhupesh Singla, Huiping Lin, Shanmugam Nagarajan, Daniel N Meijles, Imad Al Ghouleh, Nadiezhda Cantu-Medellin, Eric E Kelley, Lukasz Mateuszuk, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Simon Watkins, Patrick J Pagano
AIMS: Macropinocytosis has been implicated in cardiovascular and other disorders, yet physiological factors that initiate fluid-phase internalization and the signaling mechanisms involved remain poorly identified. The present study was designed to examine whether matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) stimulates macrophage macropinocytosis and, if so, to investigate the potential signaling mechanism involved. RESULTS: TSP1 treatment of human and murine macrophages stimulated membrane ruffle formation and pericellular solute internalization by macropinocytosis...
January 31, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135838/novel-role-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-fus1-in-protection-from-premature-hearing-loss-via-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-nutrient-and-energy-sensing-pathways-in-the-inner-ear
#11
Winston Tan, Lei Song, Morven Graham, Amy Schettino, Dhasakumar Navaratnam, Wendell G Yarbrough, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Alla V Ivanova
AIMS: Acquired hearing loss is a worldwide epidemic that affects all ages. It is multifactorial in etiology with poorly characterized molecular mechanisms. Mitochondria are critical components in hearing. Here, we aimed to identify the mechanisms of mitochondria-dependent hearing loss using Fus1 KO mice, our novel model of mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress. RESULTS: Using Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) we characterized the Fus1 KO mouse as a novel, clinically relevant model of Age-Related Hearing Loss (ARHL) of metabolic etiology...
January 30, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010122/lysyl-oxidase-induces-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-contributes-to-arterial-stiffness-and-abnormal-elastin-structure-in-hypertension-role-of-p38mapk
#12
Sonia Martínez-Revelles, Ana B García-Redondo, María S Avendaño, Saray Varona, Teresa Palao, Mar Orriols, Fernanda R Roque, Ana Fortuño, Rhian M Touyz, Jose Martínez-González, Mercedes Salaices, Cristina Rodríguez, Ana M Briones
AIMS: Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H2O2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. RESULTS: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure...
January 30, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132522/inhibition-of-nfe2l2-are-pathway-by-mitochondrial-ros-contributes-to-development-of-cardiomyopathy-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-chagas-disease
#13
Jian-Jun Wen, Craig Porter, Nisha Jain Garg
AIMS: We investigated the effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) on NFE2L2 transcription factor activity during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection, and determined if enhancing the mtROS scavenging capacity preserved the heart function in Chagas disease. RESULTS: C57BL/6 wild type (WT, female) mice infected with Tc exhibited myocardial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, complex-II driven coupled respiration, and 9-fold increase in mtROS production...
January 28, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132512/cardiac-light-chain-amyloidosis-the-role-of-metal-ions-in-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage
#14
Luisa Diomede, Margherita Romeo, Paola Rognoni, Marten Beeg, Claudia Foray, Elena Ghibaudi, Giovanni Palladini, Robert Alan Cherny, Laura Verga, Gian Luca Capello, Vittorio Perfetti, Fabio Fiordaliso, G Merlini, Mario Salmona
<b>Aims: </b>The knowledge of the mechanism underlying the cardiac damage in immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) is essential to develop novel therapies and improve patients' outcome. Although an active role of radical oxygen species (ROS) in LC-induced cardiotoxicity has already been envisaged, the actual mechanisms behind their generation remain elusive. This study was aimed at further dissecting the action of ROS generated by cardiotoxic LC in vivo and investigating whether transition metal ions are involved in this process...
January 28, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129719/differences-in-reperfusion-induced-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-between-hippocampal-ca1-and-ca3-subfields-is-due-to-the-mitochondrial-thioredoxin-system
#15
Bocheng Yin, German Barrionuevo, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Mats Sandberg, Stephen Weber
AIMS: The susceptibility of CA1 over CA3 to damage from cerebral ischemia may be related to the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production/removal between the two hippocampal subfields. We aimed to measure CA1/CA3 differences in net ROS production in real time in the first thirty minutes of reperfusion in pyramidal cells. We aimed to determine the underlying cause of the differential vulnerability of CA1 and CA3. RESULTS: Real-time determinations of mitochondrial H2O2 and, independently, glutathione (GSH) redox status from roGFP-based probes in individual pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal cultures during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-reperfusion (RP) demonstrate a significantly more oxidizing environment during reperfusion in CA1 than CA3 mitochondria...
January 27, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129698/regulation-of-calcium-fluxes-by-gpx8-a-type-ii-transmembrane-peroxidase-enriched-at-the-mitochondria-associated-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane
#16
Edgar Djaha Yoboue, Alessandro Rimessi, Tiziana Anelli, Paolo Pinton, Roberto Sitia
: Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are enzymes present in almost all organisms with the primary function of limiting peroxides accumulation. In mammals, two of the eight members (GPX7 and GPX8) reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A peculiar feature of GPX8 is the concomitant presence of a conserved N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) and a C-terminal KDEL-like motif for ER localization. AIMS: Investigating whether and how GPX8 impacts Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling...
January 27, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006954/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-an-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nuclear-transcription-factor-related-to-nf-e2
#17
Michela Campolo, Giovanna Casili, Flavia Biundo, Rosalia Crupi, Marika Cordaro, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
AIM: Oxidative stress plays a key role in Parkinson disease (PD), and nuclear transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf-2) is involved in neuroprotection against PD. The aim of the present study was to investigate a role for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/Nrf-2 in the neurotherapeutic action of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in a mouse model of PD and in vitro in SHSY-5Y cells. RESULTS: Daily oral gavage of DMF (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced neuronal cell degeneration of the dopaminergic tract and behavioral impairments induced by four injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine...
January 27, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117598/cr6-interacting-factor-1-deficiency-impairs-vascular-function-by-inhibiting-the-sirt1-enos-pathway
#18
Harsha Nagar, Saetbyel Jung, Min Jeong Ryu, Su Jung Choi, Shuyu Piao, Hee Jung Song, Shin Kwang Kang, Nara Shin, Dong Woon Kim, Seon-Ah Jin, Jin-Ok Jeong, Kaikobad Irani, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Minho Shong, Gi Ryang Kweon, Cuk Seong Kim
AIMS: Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a major contributing factor to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, but the key mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction-induced endothelial dysfunction remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells plays a key role in vascular disease, by examining the phenotype of endothelial-specific CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) knockout mice. We also used siRNA mediated downregulation of CRIF1 gene in the endothelial cells to study about the in vitro pathophysiological underlying mechanisms...
January 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960536/oxidative-stress-induced-mir-200c-disrupts-the-regulatory-loop-among-sirt1-foxo1-and-enos
#19
Fabrizio Carlomosti, Marco D'Agostino, Sara Beji, Alessio Torcinaro, Roberto Rizzi, Germana Zaccagnini, Biagina Maimone, Valeria Di Stefano, Francesca De Santa, Sonia Cordisco, Annalisa Antonini, Roberta Ciarapica, Elena Dellambra, Fabio Martelli, Daniele Avitabile, Maurizio Colognesi Capogrossi, Alessandra Magenta
AIMS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in different pathologic conditions, including ischemia, diabetes, and aging. We previously showed that ROS enhance miR-200c expression, causing endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and senescence. Herein, we dissect the interaction among miR-200c and three strictly related proteins that modulate EC function and ROS production: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Moreover, the role of miR-200c on ROS modulation was also investigated...
January 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967218/protein-s-bacillithiolation-functions-in-thiol-protection-and-redox-regulation-of-the-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gap-in-staphylococcus-aureus-under-hypochlorite-stress
#20
Marcel Imber, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen, Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska, Vu Van Loi, Melanie Hillion, Jörg Bernhardt, Lena Thärichen, Katra Kolšek, Malek Saleh, Chris J Hamilton, Lorenz Adrian, Frauke Gräter, Markus C Wahl, Haike Antelmann
AIMS: Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low-molecular-weight thiol of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used OxICAT and Voronoi redox treemaps to quantify hypochlorite-sensitive protein thiols in S. aureus USA300 and analyzed the role of BSH in protein S-bacillithiolation. RESULTS: The OxICAT analyses enabled the quantification of 228 Cys residues in the redox proteome of S. aureus USA300. Hypochlorite stress resulted in >10% increased oxidation of 58 Cys residues (25...
January 18, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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