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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795583/regulation-of-cell-survival-apoptosis-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-nitric-oxide-dependent-post-translational-modifications
#1
Raúl González, Francisco J Molina-Ruiz, J Antonio Bárcena, C Alicia Padilla, Jordi Muntané
SIGNIFICANCE: Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiopathological messenger generating different reactive nitrogen species (RNS) according to hypoxic, acidic and redox conditions. Recent Advances: RNS and reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote relevant post-translational modifications, such as nitrosation, nitration, and oxidation, in critical components of cell proliferation and death, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis. CRITICAL ISSUES: The pro- or antitumoral properties of NO are dependent on local concentration, redox state, cellular status, duration of exposure, and compartmentalization of NO generation...
September 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934861/long-non-coding-rnas-in-diabetes-and-diabetic-complications
#2
Amy Leung, Rama Natarajan
SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetes is associated with markedly accelerated rates of micro- and macrovascular complications that increase morbidity and mortality. Understanding the molecular mechanisms can promote much needed therapeutics. Recent Advances: Long non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene regulation and cellular function and are emerging as important players in diabetes and its complications. There are number of examples in which lncRNAs are responsive to hyperglycemia and clearly involved in regulation of genes and pathways associated with the development of diabetic complications...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934858/metabolism-nutrition-and-redox-signaling-of-hydroxyproline
#3
Zhenlong Wu, Yongqing Hou, Zhaolai Dai, Chien-An Hu, Guoyao Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydroxyproline is a structurally and physiologically important imino acid in animals. It is provided from diets and endogenous synthesis, and its conversion into glycine is enhances the production of glutathione, DNA, heme, and protein. Furthermore, oxidation of hydroxyproline by hydroxyproline oxidase plays an important role in cell antioxidative reactions, survival, and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms whereby hydroxyproline participates in metabolism and cell signaling can improve the nutrition and health of animals and humans...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816057/mitochondrial-complex-i-reversible-s-nitrosation-improves-bioenergetics-and-is-protective-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Chiara Milanese, Victor Tapias, Sylvia Gabriels, Silvia Cerri, Giovanna Levandis, Fabio Blandini, Maria Tresini, Sruti Shiva, John Timothy Greenamyre, Mark T Gladwin, Pier G Mastroberardino
AIMS: This study was designed to explore the neuroprotective potential of inorganic nitrite as a new therapeutic avenue in Parkinson's disease (PD). RESULTS: Administration of inorganic nitrite ameliorates neuropathology in phylogenetically distinct animal models of PD. Beneficial effects are not confined to prophylactic treatment and also occur if nitrite is administered when the pathogenic cascade is already active. Mechanistically, the effect is mediated by both complex I S-nitrosation, which under nitrite administration is favored over formation of other forms of oxidation, and down-stream activation of the antioxidant Nrf2 pathway...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793787/the-roles-of-nrf2-in-modulating-cellular-iron-homeostasis
#5
Michael John Kerins, Aikseng Ooi
SIGNIFICANCE: Iron and oxygen are intimately linked: iron is an essential nutrient utilized as a cofactor in enzymes for oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolite oxidation. However, excess labile iron facilitates the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals capable of damaging biomolecules. Therefore, biological utilization of iron is a tightly regulated process. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) transcription factor, which can respond to oxidative and electrophilic stress, regulates several genes involved in iron metabolism...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679281/lipid-mediated-modulation-of-intracellular-ion-channels-and-redox-state-physiopathological-implications
#6
Marisa Brini, Luigi Leanza, Ildiko Szabo
SIGNIFICANCE: Ion channels play an important role in the regulation of organelle function within the cell, as proven by increasing evidence pointing to a link between altered function of intracellular ion channels and different pathologies ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, and lysosomal storage diseases. Recent Advances: A link between these pathologies and redox state as well as lipid homeostasis and ion channel function is in the focus of current research...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931313/muscle-expression-of-sod1g93a-triggers-the-dismantlement-of-neuromuscular-junction-via-pkc-theta
#7
Gabriella Dobrowolny, Martina Martini, Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Vanina Romanello, Simona Boncompagni, Carmine Nicoletti, Laura Pietrangelo, Simone De Panfilis, Angela Catizone, Marina Bouche, Marco Sandri, Rudiger Rudolf, Feliciano Protasi, Antonio Musaro
Aim Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents the morpho-functional interface between muscle and nerve. Several chronic pathologies such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including muscular dystrophy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), display altered NMJ and functional denervation. However, the triggers and the molecular mechanisms underlying the dismantlement of NMJ remain unclear. Results Here we provide evidence that perturbation in redox signaling cascades, induced by muscle-specific accumulation of mutant SOD1G93A in transgenic MLC/SOD1G93A mice, is causally linked to morphological alterations of the neuromuscular presynaptic terminals, high turnover rate of Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR), and NMJ dismantlement...
September 20, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816061/redox-regulation-and-noncoding-rnas
#8
Matthias S Leisegang, Katrin Schröder, Ralf P Brandes
SIGNIFICANCE: RNA is a heterogeneous class of molecules with the minority being protein coding. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in translation and epigenetic control mechanisms of gene expression. Recent Advances: In recent years, the number of identified ncRNAs has dramatically increased and it is now clear that ncRNAs provide a complex layer of differential gene expression control. CRITICAL ISSUES: NcRNAs exhibit interplay with redox regulation. Redox regulation alters the expression of ncRNAs; conversely, ncRNAs alter the expression of generator and effector systems of redox regulation in a complex manner, which will be the focus of this review article...
September 18, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793782/direct-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-2-by-2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate-triggers-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-dependent-angiogenesis
#9
Dina Vara, Joanna M Watt, Tiago M Fortunato, Harry Mellor, Matthew Burgess, Kate Wicks, Kimberly Mace, Shaun Reeksting, Anneke Lubben, Caroline P D Wheeler-Jones, Giordano Pula
AIMS: Deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dRP) is a proangiogenic paracrine stimulus released by cancer cells, platelets, and macrophages and acting on endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to clarify how dRP stimulates angiogenic responses in human endothelial cells. RESULTS: Live cell imaging, electron paramagnetic resonance, pull-down of dRP-interacting proteins, followed by immunoblotting, gene silencing of different NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and their regulatory cosubunits by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, and experiments with inhibitors of the sugar transporter glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were utilized to demonstrate that dRP acts intracellularly by directly activating the endothelial NOX2 complex, but not NOX4...
September 18, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762750/genome-scale-modeling-of-nadph-driven-%C3%AE-lapachone-sensitization-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Joshua E Lewis, Francesco Costantini, Jade Mims, Xiaofei Chen, Cristina M Furdui, David A Boothman, Melissa L Kemp
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate differential NADPH production between radiation-sensitive and -resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and whether these differences are predictive of sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic β-lapachone. RESULTS: We have developed a novel human genome-scale metabolic modeling platform that combines transcriptomic, kinetic, thermodynamic, and metabolite concentration data. Upon incorporation of this information into cell line-specific models, we observed that the radiation-resistant HNSCC model redistributed flux through several major NADPH-producing reactions...
September 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903579/loneliness-social-isolation-and-cardiovascular-health
#11
Ning Xia, Huige Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (loneliness) are associated with increased mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899208/the-regulation-of-nrf2-by-nutrient-responsive-signaling-and-its-role-in-anabolic-cancer-metabolism
#12
Sae Bom Lee, Brianna Sellers, Gina DeNicola
SIGNIFICANCE: The stress-responsive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2, or NRF2, regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes to mitigate oxidative stress under physiological conditions. NRF2 is activated in response to oxidative stress, growth factor signaling, and changes in nutrient status. In addition, somatic mutations that disrupt the interaction between NRF2 and its negative regulator Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)- associated 1 (KEAP1) commonly occur in cancer and are thought to promote tumorigenesis...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899203/an-overview-of-the-advantages-of-keap1-nrf2-system-activation-during-inflammatory-disease-treatment
#13
Nadine Keleku-Lukwete, Mikiko Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Inflammation can be defined as a protective immune response against harmful exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Nevertheless, prolonged or autoimmune inflammatory response are likely to cause pathological states associated with a production of inflammation-associated molecules along with ROS (reactive oxygen species). KEAP1-NRF2 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) signaling provides a cell protection mechanism against oxidative insults when endogenous stress defense mechanisms are imbalanced...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899199/transcriptional-regulation-by-nrf2
#14
Claudia Tonelli, Iok In Christine Chio, David A Tuveson
SIGNIFICANCE: Nrf2 is a transcription factor that coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. Understanding the regulation of Nrf2 activity and downstream pathways has major implications for human health. Recent Advances: Nrf2 regulates the transcription of components of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, as well as enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification of exogenous and endogenous products, NADPH regeneration, and heme metabolism...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899103/drfrne-represents-a-hitherto-unknown-class-of-eubacterial-cytoplasmic-disulfide-oxido-reductases
#15
Subhash C Bihani, Lata Panicker, Yogendra S Rajpurohit, Hari S Misra, Vinay Kumar
Aims Living cells employ thioredoxin and glutaredoxin disulfide oxido-reductases to protect thiol groups in intracellular proteins. FrnE protein of Deinococcus radiodurans (drFrnE) is a disulfide oxido-reductase induced in response to Cd2+ exposure and is involved in cadmium and radiation tolerance. The aim of the present study is to probe structure, function and cellular localization of FrnE class of proteins. Results Here we show drFrnE as a novel cytoplasmic oxido-reductase that could be functional in eubacteria under conditions where thioredoxin/glutaredoxin systems are inhibited or absent...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895473/neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-role-of-redox-dys-regulation
#16
Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Maria Teresa Carrì
SIGNIFICANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and in the motor cortex. Mechanisms leading to motor neuron death are complex and currently the disease is untreatable. Recent Advances. Work in genetic models of ALS indicates that an imbalance in the crosstalk that physiologically exists between motor neurons and the surrounding cells is eventually detrimental to motor neurons. In particular, the cascade of events collectively known as neuroinflammation and mainly characterized by a reactive phenotype of astrocytes and microglia, moderate infiltration of peripheral immune cells and elevated levels of inflammatory mediators has been consistently observed in motor regions of the central nervous system in sporadic and familial ALS, constituting a hallmark of the disease...
September 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891325/epigenetics-and-immunometabolism-in-diabetes-and-aging
#17
Tomasz J Guzik, Francesco Cosentino
SIGNIFICANCE: A strong relationship between hyperglycemia, impaired insulin pathway and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunometabolic pathways link these pathogenic processes and pose important potential therapeutic targets. Recent Advances: The link between immunity and metabolism is bi-directional and includes the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as T2D, obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension as well as the role of metabolic factors in regulation of immune cell functions...
September 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891317/the-role-of-sirtuins-in-antioxidant-and-redox-signaling
#18
Chandra K Singh, Gagan Chhabra, Mary Ndiaye, Liz Mariely Garcia-Peterson, Nicholas John Mack, Nihal Ahmad
SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant and redox signaling (ARS) events are regulated by critical molecules that modulate antioxidants, reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and/or oxidative stress within the cell. Imbalances in these molecules can disturb cellular functions to become pathogenic. Sirtuins serve as important regulators of ARS in cells. Recent Advances: Sirtuins (SIRTs 1-7) are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylases with the ability to deacetylate histone and non-histone targets...
September 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793796/platelet-enriched-micrornas-and-cardiovascular-homeostasis
#19
Amro Elgheznawy, Ingrid Fleming
SIGNIFICANCE: Platelets are anucleate blood cells that are involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Although no longer able to generate ribonucleic acid (RNA) de novo, platelets contain messenger RNA (mRNA), YRNA fragments, and premature microRNAs (miRNAs) that they inherit from megakaryocytes. Recent Advances: Novel sequencing techniques have helped identify the unexpectedly large number of RNA species present in platelets. Throughout their life time, platelets can process the pre-existing pool of premature miRNA to give the fully functional miRNA that can regulate platelet protein expression and function...
September 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791878/role-of-ergothioneine-in-microbial-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#20
Bridgette M Cumming, Krishna C Chinta, Vineel P Reddy, Adrie J C Steyn
SIGNIFICANCE: L-ergothioneine is synthesized in actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, methylobacteria, and some fungi. In contrast to other low-molecular-weight redox buffers, glutathione and mycothiol, ergothioneine is primarily present as a thione rather than a thiol at physiological pH, which makes it resistant to autoxidation. Ergothioneine regulates microbial physiology and enables the survival of microbes under stressful conditions encountered in their natural environments. In particular, ergothioneine enables pathogenic microbes, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to withstand hostile environments within the host to establish infection...
September 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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