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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Naveen Kumar Tangudu, Betül Alan, Francesca Vinchi, Katharina Wörle, Dilay Lai, Sabine Vettorazzi, Kerstin Leopold, Maja Vujić Spasić
AIMS: Release of large amounts of free heme into circulation, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of toll-like receptor-4-dependent responses are considered critical for the ability of heme to promote oxidative stress and to initiate proinflammatory responses, posing a serious threat to the body. A deep understanding of the consequences of heme overload on the regulation of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is, however, still lacking. RESULTS: The effects of heme on iron metabolism were studied in primary macrophages and in mouse models of acute and chronic hemolysis...
March 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Paul Wijnker, Vasco Sequeira, Diederik Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits...
February 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Faiz Ur Rahman, Dae-Ryoung Park, Yeonsoo Joe, Kyu Yun Jang, Hun Taeg Chung, Uh-Hyun Kim
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, resulting in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the sequential production of Ca2+ mobilizing messengers nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). We previously found that NAADP activates the neuronal type of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS), which product, NO, activates guanylyl cyclase (GC) to produce cyclic GMP (cGMP), which in turn induces cADPR formation...
February 27, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ying Meng, Miao-Xia Pan, Bo-Jun Zheng, Yan Chen, Wei Li, Qian-Jie Yang, Ze-Mao Zheng, Na-Na Sun, Yue Zhang, Xu Li
<b><i>Aims:</i></b> The NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome, which is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and respressed by autophagy, has been identified as a novel agent of pulmonary fibrosis. Angiotensin II (AngII), the bioactive pro-oxidant in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), aggravates lung fibrosis. However, the effect of AngII on NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagy in lung fibrosis remains unknown. <i><b>Objective:</b></i> To investigate a potential link between AngII, redox balance, autophagy and the NLRP3 inflammasome, which determines extracellular matrix accumulation in lung fibrosis...
February 27, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Hongcui Zhao, Tianjie Li, Yue Zhao, Tao Tan, Changyu Liu, Yali Liu, Liang Chang, Ning Huang, Chang Li, Yong Fan, Yang Yu, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
AIM: The mechanisms coordinating maturation with an environment-driven metabolic shift, a critical step in determining the developmental potential of human in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the key genes regulating human oocyte maturation using single-cell RNA sequencing and illuminated the compensatory mechanism from a metabolic perspective by analyzing gene expression. RESULTS: Three key genes that encode CoA-related enzymes were screened from the RNA sequencing data...
February 27, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xiao Li, Liting Xu, Xiaoyan Hou, Jian Geng, Jianwei Tian, Xiaoting Liu, Xiaoyan Bai
AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common microvascular complications and the principal cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. The expression of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) has been found in vacuolated renal tubules in DN and correlated with patients' decreased renal function. The accumulation of AOPPs is regarded as an initiating factor in podocyte injuries via the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, which plays a critical role in triggering oxidative stress and mitochondrial injuries in diseases including DN...
February 26, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Alessia Parascandolo, Mikko Laukkanen
Reduction oxidation (redox) balance could be defined as an even distribution of reduction and oxidation complementary processes and their reaction end products. There is a consensus that aberrant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), commonly observed in cancer, stimulate primary cell immortalization and progression of carcinogenesis. However, mechanism how different ROS regulate redox balance is not completely understood. In the current review, we have summarized the main signaling cascades inducing NADPH oxidase NOX1-5 and SOD1-3 expression and their connection to cell proliferation, immortalization, transformation, and CD34+ cell differentiation in thyroid, colon, lung, breast, and hematological cancers...
February 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Bo Åkerström, Lena Rosenlöf, Anneli Hägerwall, Sigurbjörg Rutardottir, Jonas Ahlstedt, Maria E Johansson, Lena Erlandsson, Maria Allhorn, Magnus G Gram
AIMS: Human A1M (α1-microglobulin) is an endogenous reductase and radical- and heme-binding protein with physiological antioxidant protective functions. Recombinant human A1M (rA1M) has been shown to have therapeutic properties in animal models of preeclampsia, a pregnancy disease associated with oxidative stress. Recombinant A1M, however, lacks glycosylation, and shows lower solubility and stability than A1M purified from human plasma. The aims of this work was to 1) use site-directed mutagenesis to improve the physicochemical properties of rA1M, 2) demonstrate that the physicochemically improved rA1M displays full in vitro cell protective effects as recombinant wild-type A1M (rA1M-wt), and 3) show its therapeutic potential in vivo against acute kidney injury (AKI), another disease associated with oxidative stress...
February 22, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Hao Ding, Feng Bai, Hongdi Cao, Jing Xu, Li Fang, Jining Wu, Qi Yuan, Yang Zhou, Qi Sun, Weichun He, Chunsun Dai, Ke Zen, Lei Jiang, Junwei Yang
AIMS: Cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal second messenger that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction. cAMP is synthesized by adenylate cyclases from adenosine triphosphate and terminated by the phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In the present study, we investigated the role of the cAMP pathway in tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial biogenesis in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. RESULTS: We found that the cAMP levels were decreased in fibrotic kidney tissues, and replenishing cAMP could ameliorate tubular atrophy and extracellular matrix deposition...
February 22, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Andreas Petry, Agnes Görlach
SIGNIFICANCE: G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest group of cell-surface receptors which link cells to their environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as important cellular signaling molecules. The family of NADPH oxidases generates ROS in response to activated cell-surface receptors. Recent Advances: Various signaling pathways linking GPCRs and activation of NADPH oxidases have been characterized. CRITICAL ISSUES: Still, a more detailed analysis of G proteins involved in the GPCR-mediated activation of NADPH oxidases is needed...
February 21, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ron Mittler, Merav Darash-Yahana, Yang Sung Sohn, Fang Bai, Luhua Song, Ioav Zvi Cabantchik, Patricia Jennings, Jose Onuchic, Rachel Nechushtai
SIGNIFICANCE: Cancer cells accumulate high levels of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to promote their high metabolic activity and proliferation rate. However, high levels of iron and ROS can also lead to enhanced oxidative stress and the activation of cell death pathways such as apoptosis and ferroptosis. This has led to the proposal that different drugs that target iron and/or ROS metabolism could be used as anticancer drugs. However, due to the complex role iron and ROS play in cells, the majority of these drugs yielded mixed results, highlighting a critical need to identify new players in the regulation of iron and ROS homeostasis in cancer cells...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Karl-Josef Dietz, Corinna Wesemann, Melanie Wegener, Thorsten Seidel
SIGNIFICANCE: Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of eukaryotes which occupies a large portion of the photosynthetic cell. The chloroplast function and integrity depend on intensive material and signal exchange between all genetic compartments and conditionally secures efficient photosynthesis and high fitness. Recent Advances: During the last two decades the concept of the mutual control of plastid performance by extraplastidic anterograde signals acting on the chloroplast and the feedback from the chloroplast to the extraplastidic space by retrograde signals has been profoundly revised and expanded...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Stefan W Ryter, Divya Bhatia, Mary E Choi
SIGNIFICANCE: Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent homeostatic process inherent to cells and tissues, has emerging significance in the pathogenesis of human disease. This process enables the degradation and turnover of cytoplasmic substrates via membrane-dependent sequestration in autophagic vesicles (autophagosomes) and subsequent lysosomal delivery of cargo. Recent Advances: Selective forms of autophagy can target specific substrates (e.g., organelles, protein aggregates, lipids) for processing...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Alina Wiesemann, Julia Ketteler, Alexis Slama, Florian Wirsdörfer, Thomas Hager, Katharina Roeck, Daniel Engel, Jens Fischer, Clemens Aigner, Verena Jendrossek, Diana Klein
AIMS: Radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity often precludes the application of curative radiation doses. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of Ccl2 signaling inhibition to protect normal lung tissue from radiotherapy (RT)-induced injury. RESULTS: RT-induced vascular dysfunction and associated adverse effects can be efficiently antagonized by inhibition of Ccl2 signaling using either the selective Ccl2 inhibitor bindarit (BIN) or mice deficient for the main Ccl2 receptor CCR2 (KO)...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Johannes Fels, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
SIGNIFICANCE: Stiffness of endothelial cells is closely linked to the function of the vasculature as it regulates the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The outer layer of endothelial cells, consisting of the glycocalyx above and the cortical zone beneath the plasma membrane, is a vulnerable compartment able to adapt its nanomechanical properties to any changes of forces exerted by the adjacent blood stream. Sustained stiffening of this layer contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Marc Fransen, Celien Lismont
<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Peroxisomes are organelles that are best known for their role in cellular lipid and hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that these organelles serve as guardians and modulators of cellular redox balance, and that alterations in their redox metabolism may contribute to aging and the development of chronic diseases such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancer. <b><i>Recent Advances:</i></b> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> is an important signaling messenger that controls many cellular processes by modulating protein activity through cysteine oxidation...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Qiong Wu, Wen-Shuang Wu, Lin Su, Xin Zheng, Wenyue Wu, Paolo Santambrogio, Yujing Gou, Qian Hao, Peina Wang, Yaru Li, Bao-Lu Zhao, Guangjun Nie, Sonia Levi, Yan-Zhong Chang
Mitochondrial Ferritin (FtMt) is preferentially expressed in cell types of high metabolic activity and oxygen consumption, which is consistent with its role of sequestering iron and preventing oxygen-derived redox damage. As of yet, the mechanisms of FtMt regulation and the protection FtMt affords remain largely unknown. Here, we report that hypoxia-inducible-factor 1α (HIF-1α) can upregulate FtMt expression. We verify one functional hypoxia response element (HRE) in the positive regulatory region and two HREs possessing HIF-1α binding activity in the minimal promoter region of the human FTMT gene...
February 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Carla Garza-Lombo, Yanahi Posadas, Liliana Quintanar, Maria E Gonsebatt, Rodrigo Franco
SIGNIFICANCE: Essential metals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc play a role as cofactors in the activity of a wide range of processes involved in cellular homeostasis and survival, as well as during organ and tissue development. Throughout our lifespan, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. It is well recognized that alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and an increased environmental/occupational exposure to xenobiotic metals is linked to several neurological disorders including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental alterations...
February 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Artak Tovmasyan, Jacqueline C Bueno-Janice, Melba C Jaramillo, Romulo S Sampaio, Julio S Reboucas, Natalia Kyui, Ludmil T Benov, Brian Deng, Ting-Ting Huang, Margaret Tome, Ivan Spasojevic, Ines Batinic-Haberle
AIMS: We aim here to demonstrate that radiation enhances tumor sensitization by only those Mn complexes which are redox-active and cycle with ascorbate, thereby producing H2O2 and utilizing it subsequently in protein S-glutathionylation in a glutathione peroxidase(GPx)-like fashion. In turn, such compounds affect cellular redox environment, described by GSSG/GSH ratio, and tumor growth. To achieve our goal we tested several Mn complexes of different chemical and physical properties in cellular and animal flank models of 4T1 breast cancer cell...
February 1, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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