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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Kyung-Ran Park, Hyung-Mun Yun, In Jun Yeo, Sehyung Cho, Jin Tae Hong, Yong Seok Jeong
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that regulate redox balance that are critical for maintaining the cellular potential for self-renewal and stemness. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach in tissue reconstruction. However, to obtain functional cells for use in clinical applications, stem cell technology still requires improvements. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that PRDX6 levels were decreased during osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
May 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Chaojin Chen, Yao Weifeng, Wu Shan, Zhou Shaoli, Gu Yu, Ge Mian, Li Xiang, Guihua Chen, Joseph A Bellanti, Songguo Zheng, Dongdong Yuan, Ziqing Hei
AIMS: Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is not conducive to the postoperative surgical recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) transmitted by gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin32 (Cx32) contributed to AKI. However, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms were unknown. The present study focuses on the underlying mechanisms related to ROS transmitted by Cx32 responsible for AKI aggravation. RESULTS: In a set of vivo studies, renal IR was found to cause severe impairment in renal tissues with massive ROS generation, and occurred contemporaneously with activation of NF-κB/p53/PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathways...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xu Cao, Lei Ding, Zhi-Zhong Xie, Yong Yang, Matthew Whiteman, Philip K Moore, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as the third gaseous transmitter alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated an active role of H2S in the context of cancer biology. The three H2S producing enzymes namely cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) have been found highly expressed in numerous types of cancer. Moreover, inhibition of CBS has shown anti-tumor activity particularly in colon cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer, whereas the consequence of CSE or 3MST inhibition remains largely unexplored in cancer cells...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yi Xiao, David Meierhofer
Detection and quantification of the highly reactive and short lived superoxide (O·2-) can be challenging. Here, we present a new mass spectrometry (MS)-based method to detect and quantify O·2- using three fluorogenic hydroethidine probes: HE, mito-HE, and HPr+, which measure cytosolic, mitochondrial and extracellular O·2-, respectively. The probes and their oxidation products were simultaneously quantified by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with mass spectrometry that allowed the specific measurement of ROS distribution within the cell...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Assam El-Osta
Diabetes is the disease of our time. It is a complex disorder. It is increasingly appreciated that genetic factors cannot fully explain susceptibility to diabetic complications. For almost a decade, the epigenetics field has grown tremendously becoming an alternative but integral component of how we interpret gene regulation. Some consider the field an epiphenomenon with an evidence base awaiting critical testing. The advent of experimental tools combined with the development of research methods have brought with the field technological advancements that allow scientists to assess ideas that have not yet been tested critically...
May 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jean-Philippe Deglasse, Leticia Prates Roma, Daniel Pastor-Flores, Patrick Gilon, Tobias P Dick, Jean-Christophe Jonas
AIMS: Whether H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> contributes to the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is highly controversial. We used two H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-sensitive probes, roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer with its pH-control SypHer, to test the acute effects of glucose, monomethylsuccinate, leucine with glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate, on β-cell cytosolic and mitochondrial H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> concentrations...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Petr Heneberg
Significance Hexokinases are key enzymes that are responsible for the first reaction of glycolysis, but they also moonlight other cellular processes, including mitochondrial redox signaling regulation. Modulation of hexokinase activity and spatiotemporal location by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as other gasotransmitters serves as the basis for a unique, underexplored method of tight and flexible regulation of these fundamental enzymes. Recent advances Redox modifications of thiols serve as a molecular code that enables the precise and complex regulation of hexokinases...
May 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ying Meng, Miaoxia Pan, Bojun Zheng, Yan Chen, Wei Li, Qianjie Yang, Zemao Zheng, Nana Sun, Yue Zhang, Xu Li
AIMS: The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and repressed by autophagy, has been identified as a novel agent of pulmonary fibrosis. Angiotensin II (AngII), the bioactive pro-oxidant in the renin-angiotensin system, aggravates lung fibrosis. However, the effect of AngII on NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagy in lung fibrosis remains unknown. This study investigates the potential link between AngII-induced autophagy in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β axis in lung fibrosis...
May 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA)...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xiao Li, Liting Xu, Xiaoyan Hou, Jian Geng, Jianwei Tian, Xiaoting Liu, Xiaoyan Bai
AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common microvascular complications and the principal cause of mortality and morbidity rates in patients with diabetes. The expression of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) has been found in vacuolated renal tubules in DN and correlated with patients' decreased renal function. The accumulation of AOPPs is regarded as an initiating factor in podocyte injuries via the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, which plays a critical role in triggering oxidative stress and mitochondrial injuries in diseases including DN...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Andreas Petry, Agnes Görlach
SIGNIFICANCE: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest group of cell surface receptors, which link cells to their environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as important cellular signaling molecules. The family of NADPH oxidases generates ROS in response to activated cell surface receptors. Recent Advances: Various signaling pathways linking GPCRs and activation of NADPH oxidases have been characterized. CRITICAL ISSUES: Still, a more detailed analysis of G proteins involved in the GPCR-mediated activation of NADPH oxidases is needed...
April 25, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xin Guo, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Naoki Ishii, Takujiro Homma, Taiji Hamada, Tsubasa Hiraki, Jing Zhang, Kei Matsuo, Seiya Yokoyama, Hiroaki Ishibashi, Tomoko Fukushige, Takuro Kanekura, Junichi Fujii, Hidetaka Uramoto, Akihide Tanimoto, Sohsuke Yamada
AIMS: Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes. Previously, we reported that PRDX4 can restrain the initiation and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by reducing local and systemic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oxidative stress is recognized as a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis, and a high ROS level has also been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, our aim is to investigate roles of PRDX4 in the initiation and progression of HCC...
April 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz, Magdalena Kozakowska, Iwona Bronisz-Budzynska, Maciej Ciesla, Olga Mucha, Paulina Podkalicka, Magdalena Madej, Urszula Glowniak, Krzysztof Tomasz Szade, Jacek Stepniewski, Mateusz Jez, Kalina Andrysiak, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Anna Kaminska, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk, Alicja Jozkowicz, Agnieszka Loboda, Jozef Dulak
AIMS: Muscle damage in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) caused by the lack of dystrophin is strongly linked to inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) is an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective enzyme affecting myoblasts differentiation by inhibiting myomirs. The role of HO-1 has not been so far well addressed in DMD. RESULTS: In dystrophin-deficient mdx mice expression of Hmox1 in limb skeletal muscles and diaphragm is higher than in wild-type animals, being consistently elevated from 8 up to 52 weeks, both in myofibres and inflammatory leukocytes...
April 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Tingting Chen, Yichen Guo, Jinjun Shan, Jiarui Zhang, Xu Shen, Jun Guo, Xiaoguang Margaret Liu
AIMS: Pyroptotic cells are characterized by plasma swelling, membrane blebbing, and disintegration of the cell membrane mediated by spectrin-based membrane skeleton and intercellular competitive tension activities. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is involved in membrane organization through the regulation of intercellular tension. Using genetically encoded tension sensors to attain non-invasive force measurements in structural proteins, we investigated how cytoskeletal structural tension influences changes in plasma morphology during pyroptosis and the regulatory mechanism of cytoskeletal structural tension that underpins pyroptosis...
April 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Katrin Schröder
SIGNIFICANCE: Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels that sprout from existing vessels. This process is highly complex and requires a coordinated shift of the endothelial phenotype from a quiescent cell in the vessel wall into a migrating or proliferating cell. Such change in the life of the endothelial cell is induced by a variety of factors such as hypoxia, metabolic changes or cytokines. CRITICAL ISSUES: According to the wide variety of stimuli that induce angiogenesis a complex signaling network is needed to support a coordinated response of the endothelial...
April 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Hongcui Zhao, Tianjie Li, Yue Zhao, Tao Tan, Changyu Liu, Yali Liu, Liang Chang, Ning Huang, Chang Li, Yong Fan, Yang Yu, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
AIMS: The mechanisms coordinating maturation with an environment-driven metabolic shift, a critical step in determining the developmental potential of human in vitro maturation (IVM) oocytes, remain to be elucidated. Here we explored the key genes regulating human oocyte maturation using single-cell RNA sequencing and illuminated the compensatory mechanism from a metabolic perspective by analyzing gene expression. RESULTS: Three key genes that encode CoA-related enzymes were screened from the RNA sequencing data...
April 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
David Young, Brandan Pedre, Daria Ezerina, Barbara De Smet, Aleksandra Lewandowska, Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Nandita Bodra, Jingjing Huang, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Frank Van Breusegem, Joris Messens
Decrypting the cellular response to oxidative stress relies on a comprehensive understanding of the redox signaling pathways stimulated under oxidizing conditions. Redox signaling events can be divided into upstream sensing of oxidants, midstream redox signaling of protein function, and downstream transcriptional redox regulation. A more and more accepted theory of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) signaling is that of a thiol peroxidase redox relay, whereby protein thiols with low reactivity toward H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> are instead oxidized through an oxidative relay with thiol peroxidases...
April 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Paul J M Wijnker, Vasco Sequeira, Diederik W D Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits...
April 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Bo Åkerström, Lena Rosenlöf, Anneli Hägerwall, Sigurbjörg Rutardottir, Jonas Ahlstedt, Maria E Johansson, Lena Erlandsson, Maria Allhorn, Magnus Gram
AIMS: Human α1 -microglobulin (A1M) is an endogenous reductase and radical- and heme-binding protein with physiological antioxidant protective functions. Recombinant human A1M (rA1M) has been shown to have therapeutic properties in animal models of preeclampsia, a pregnancy disease associated with oxidative stress. Recombinant A1M, however, lacks glycosylation, and shows lower solubility and stability than A1M purified from human plasma. The aims of this work were to (i) use site-directed mutagenesis to improve the physicochemical properties of rA1M, (ii) demonstrate that the physicochemically improved rA1M displays full in vitro cell protective effects as recombinant wild-type A1M (rA1M-wt), and (iii) show its therapeutic potential in vivo against acute kidney injury (AKI), another disease associated with oxidative stress...
April 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Keiji Yasukawa, Ryota Shigemi, Tomomi Kanbe, Yusaku Mutsumoto, Fumiko Oda, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Xin Tun, Hideo Utsumi
<b>Aims</b>: Repeated use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can induce changes in the redox status including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the specific details of these changes remain unknown. Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) has been used <i>in vivo</i> to monitor the redox status in several diseases and map tissue oxygen concentrations. We monitored the intra- and extracellular redox status in the stomachs of rats with indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers using OMRI, and investigated the relationship with gastric mucosal damage...
April 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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