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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558479/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-redox-signaling-in-psychosocial-stress-responsive-systems-new-insights-into-an-old-story
#1
Thomas Meyer, Petra H Wirtz
SIGNIFICANCE: Psychosocial stress is associated with alterations in serum glucocorticoids and cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, which functionally interact. However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological relationship between the two systems within the context of stress exposure are not well characterized. Recent Advances: Extracellular IL-6, which stimulates the release of cortisol from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, mediates its intracellular effects by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
July 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540740/the-incomplete-glutathione-puzzle-just-guessing-at-numbers-and-figures
#2
Marcel Deponte
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It is supposed to comprise (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids, and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics, and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids, and iron-sulfur clusters. In addition, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I try to provide an overview on the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data...
July 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497978/extraction-and-quantitation-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-redox-cofactors
#3
Wenyun Lu, Lin Wang, Li Chen, Sheng Hui, Joshua D Rabinowitz
AIMS: Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms...
July 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497982/neuroprotection-in-oxidative-stress-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-role-of-endocannabinoid-system-modulation
#4
Janos Paloczi, Zoltan V Varga, George Hasko, Pal Pacher
SIGNIFICANCE: Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage, which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in the process of neurodegeneration. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases...
July 18, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715969/hypoxia-and-redox-signaling-on-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-from-the-mechanisms-to-the-pathological-implications
#5
David Labrousse-Arias, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Maria J Calzada
SIGNIFICANCE: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential modulator of cell behavior that influences tissue organization. It has a strong relevance in homeostasis and translational implications for human disease. In addition to ECM structural proteins, matricellular proteins are important regulators of the ECM that are involved in a myriad of different pathologies. Recent Advances: Biochemical studies, animal models and study of human diseases have contributed to the knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in the remodeling of the ECM, both in homeostasis and disease...
July 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715949/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-for-assessing-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-predicting-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#6
Wei Cao, Shuang Cui, Li Yang, Chunyi Wu, Jian Liu, Fang Yang, Youhua Liu, Jianping Bin, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor leading to progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the diagnostic tools for predicting AKI to CKD progression are particularly lacking. Here, we tested the utility of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for predicting progression to CKD after AKI by using both mild (20-minute) and severe (45-minute) bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) mice. RESULTS: Renal perfusion measured by CEUS reduced to 25%±7% and 14%±6% of the pre-ischemic levels in mild and severe AKI 1 hour after ischemia (P<0...
July 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712304/regulation-of-cellular-redox-signaling-by-matricellular-proteins-in-vascular-biology-immunology-and-cancer
#7
David D Roberts, Sukhbir Kaur, Jeffrey S Isenberg
SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to structural elements of the extracellular matrix, matricellular proteins appear transiently during development and injury responses, but their sustained expression can contribute to chronic disease. Through interactions with other matrix components and specific cell surface receptors matricellular proteins regulate multiple signaling pathways, including those mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2S. Dysregulation of matricellular proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and cancer...
July 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#8
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707980/extranuclear-sirtuins-and-metabolic-stress
#9
Mahmoud Sobhy Elkhwanky, Jukka Hakkola
SIGNIFICANCE: Extranuclear sirtuins in cytosol (SIRT2) and mitochondria (SIRT3, SIRT4 and SIRT5) are key regulators of metabolic enzymes and the antioxidative defense mechanisms. They play an important role in the adjustment of metabolic pathways in alterations of the nutritional status. Recent Advances: Recent studies have shown that in addition to lysine deacetylation, sirtuins catalyze several different lysine deacylation reactions, removal of lipid modifications and ADP-ribosylation...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707979/emerging-roles-for-sirt5-in-metabolism-and-cancer
#10
Lauren Rose Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H Guo, Costas A Lyssiotis, David B Lombard
SIGNIFICANCE: Developing evidence in the literature suggests that SIRT5 may be involved in metabolic reprogramming, an emerging hallmark of cancer by which neoplastic cells reconfigure their metabolism to support the anabolic demands of rapid cell division. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is one of the seven members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuin family of lysine deacylases. It removes succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups from protein targets within the mitochondrial matrix and other subcellular compartments...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594286/peroxisomes-as-modulators-of-cellular-protein-thiol-oxidation-a-new-model-system
#11
Celien Lismont, Marcus Nordgren, Chantal Brees, Bernard Knoops, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Marc Fransen
AIMS: Peroxisomes are ubiquitous, single-membrane-bounded organelles that contain considerable amounts of enzymes involved in the production or breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a key signaling molecule in multiple biological processes and disease states. Despite this, the role of this organelle in cross-compartmental H2O2 signaling remains largely unclear, mainly because of the difficulty to modulate peroxisomal H2O2 production in a selective manner. This study aimed at establishing and validating a cellular model suitable to decipher the complex signaling processes associated with peroxisomal H2O2 release...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540736/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-on-cardiovascular-function-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Simon J Wilson, Mark R Miller, David E Newby
SIGNIFICANCE: Air pollution is a major global health concern with particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis, and plaque stability...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594234/peroxiredoxins-and-redox-signaling-in-plants
#13
Michael Liebthal, Daniel Maynard, Karl-Josef Dietz
SIGNIFICANCE: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are thiol peroxidases with multiple functions in the antioxidant defense and redox signaling network of the cell. Our progressing understanding assigns both local and global significance to plant Prxs, which are grouped in four Prx types. In plants they are localized to the cytosol, mitochondrion, plastid, and nucleus. Antioxidant defense is fundamentally connected to redox signaling, cellular communication, and acclimation. The thiol-disulfide network is central part of the stress sensing and processing response and integrates information input with redox regulation...
July 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132522/inhibition-of-nfe2l2-antioxidant-response-element-pathway-by-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-contributes-to-development-of-cardiomyopathy-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-chagas-disease
#14
Jake Jianjun Wen, Craig Porter, Nisha Jain Garg
AIMS: We investigated the effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) on nuclear factor (erythroid 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) transcription factor activity during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection and determined whether enhancing the mtROS scavenging capacity preserved the heart function in Chagas disease. RESULTS: C57BL/6 wild type (WT, female) mice infected with Tc exhibited myocardial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, complex II (CII)-driven coupled respiration, and ninefold increase in mtROS production...
July 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699407/hydrogen-sulfide-and-glucose-homeostasis-a-tale-of-sweet-the-stink
#15
Ashley Untereiner, Lingyun Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Among many endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Here we discuss different functional roles of H2S in several metabolic organs/tissues required in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Recent Advances: New evidence has emerged revealing the insulin sensitizing role of H2S in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biology. Additionally, H2S was demonstrated to be a potent stimulator of gluconeogenesis via the induction and stimulation of various glucose-producing pathways in the liver...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699398/compartment-specific-importance-of-ascorbate-during-environmental-stress-in-plants
#16
Bernd Zechmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Ascorbate is an essential antioxidant in plants. Total contents and its redox state in organelles are crucial to fight and signal oxidative stress. Recent Advances: With quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical methods highest ascorbate contents have recently been measured in peroxisomes (23 mM) and the cytosol (22 mM), lowest ones in vacuoles (2 mM), and intermediate concentrations (4-16 mM) in all other organelles. CRITICAL ISSUES: The accumulation of ascorbate in chloroplasts and peroxisomes is crucial for plant defense...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699365/activating-the-chromatin-by-non-coding-rnas
#17
Nihay Laham-Karam, Pia Laitinen, Tiia A Turunen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
SIGNIFICANCE: The extent and breadth of transcription has recently been uncovered and this has revealed an extensive array of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The biological role and significance of these ncRNAs have been realised and to date it appears that ncRNA may have many important regulatory functions. ncRNAs are multifaceted and they induce a complexity of different types of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation including gene activation. Recent Advances: Association of ncRNAs with gene activation is an important finding...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699361/long-noncoding-rnas-and-cardiac-disease
#18
Simona Greco, Antonio Salgado-Somoza, Yvan Devaux, Fabio Martelli
SIGNIFICANCE: To maintain homeostasis, gene expression has to be tightly regulated by complex and multiple mechanisms occurring at the epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. One crucial regulatory component is represented by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), non protein-coding RNA species implicated in all of these levels. Thus, lncRNAs have been associated with any given process or pathway of interest in a variety of systems, including the heart. Recent Advances: Mounting evidence implicates lncRNAs in cardiac disease and progression, and their presence in the blood of heart disease patients indicates them as attractive potential biomarkers...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699359/mitochondrial-uptake-and-accumulation-of-vitamin-c-what-can-we-learn-from-cell-cultures-studies
#19
Orazio Cantoni, Andrea Guidarelli, Mara Fiorani
SIGNIFICANCE: The mitochondrial fraction of L-ascorbic acid (AA) is of critical importance for the regulation of the redox status of these organelles and for cell survival. Recent Advances: Most cell types take up AA by high affinity sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2), sensitive to inhibition by dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). DHA can also be taken up by glucose transporters (GLUTs) and then reduced back to AA. DHA concentrations, normally very low in biological fluids, may only become significant next to superoxide releasing cells...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699354/drug-mediated-intracellular-donation-of-nitric-oxide-potently-inhibits-5-lipoxygenase-a-possible-key-to-future-anti-leukotriene-therapy
#20
Jessica Roos, Marcus Peters, Isabelle V Maucher, Benjamin Kühn, Jasmin Fettel, Nadine Hellmuth, Camilla Brat, Benita Sommer, Anja Urbschat, Matthias Piesche, Anja Vogel, Ewgenij Proschak, René Blöcher, Estel la Buscato, Ann-Kathrin Häfner, Carmela Matrone, Oliver Werz, Juliana Heidler, Ilka Wittig, Carlo Angioni, Gerd Geisslinger, Michael J Parnham, Kai Zacharowski, Dieter Steinhilber, Thorsten Jürgen Maier
AIMS: 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis and is critically involved in a number of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis and cancer. Because 5-LO contains critical nucleophilic amino acids, which are sensitive to electrophilic modifications, we determined the consequences of a drug-mediated intracellular release of nitric oxide (NO) on 5-LO product formation by human granulocytes and on 5-LO-dependent pulmonary inflammation in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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