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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931122/modulation-of-pancreatic-islets-function-and-survival-during-aging-involves-the-differential-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-p21-and-chop
#1
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Athanasios Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
AIMS: While endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as a major mechanism causing pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes, little is known on how aging modulates the process. Here we compared the response to ER stress, viability and insulin release from pancreatic islets of young (6 weeks) or aged (14 months) mice. RESULTS: Islets from aged mice were more sensitive to ER stress than their younger counterparts, they exhibited more pronounced unfolded protein response (UPR) and caspase activation and displayed compromised insulin release after high glucose stimulation...
December 8, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927026/modulation-of-local-and-systemic-heterocellular-communication-by-mechanical-forces-a-role-of-enos
#2
Ralf Erkens, Tatsiana Suvorava, Christian M Kramer, Lukas Diederich, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key physiological mechanotransducer modulating both local and systemic heterocellular communication, and contributing to the integrated (patho)physiology of the cardiovascular system. A deeper understanding of mechanotransduction-mediated local and systemic nodes controlling heterocellular communication between the endothelium, blood cells and other cell types (e.g. cardiomyocytes) may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
December 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927016/inhibition-of-cathepsin-s-induces-mitochondrial-ros-that-sensitizes-trail-mediated-apoptosis-through-p53-mediated-down-regulation-of-bcl-2-and-c-flip
#3
Bo Ram Seo, Kyoung-Jin Min, Seon Min Woo, Misun Choe, Kyeong Sook Choi, Young-Kyung Lee, Gyesoon Yoon, Taeg Kyu Kwon
AIMS: Cathepsin S is highly expressed in various cancer cells, and it has pro-tumoral effects, including promotion of migration, invasion and neovascularization. In this study, we show that inhibition of cathepsin S could sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. RESULTS: An inhibitor of cathepsin S (Z-FL-COCHO; ZFL) markedly induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells treated with TRAIL. In contrast, combined treatment with ZFL and TRAIL had no effect on normal cells...
December 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923281/nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-and-thioredoxin-1-in-atherosclerosis-and-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-heart
#4
Philipp Jakobs, Vlad Serbulea, Norbert Leitinger, Anna Eckers, Judith Haendeler
Significance Redox signaling is one of the key elements involved in cardiovascular diseases. Two important molecules are the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the oxidoreductase Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1). Recent Advances During the last years, a lot of studies investigated Nrf2 and Trx-1 as protective proteins in cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, post-translational modifications of those molecules were identified which play an important role in the cardiovascular system...
December 6, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923278/ampk-serves-as-a-therapeutic-target-against-anemia-of-inflammation
#5
Minjun Wang, Hong Xin, Wenbo Tang, Yiming Li, Zhaoyun Zhang, Linling Fan, Lei Miao, Bo Tan, Xiling Wang, Yizhun Zhu
<b>Aims:</b> Anemia of inflammation (AI), the second prevalent anemia, is associated with worse prognosis and increased mortality in numerous chronic diseases. We recently reported that the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) suppressed the inflammatory activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and hepcidin, the critical mediators of AI. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a novel inflammatory regulator and might be activated by H<sub>2</sub>S...
December 6, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796122/sex-differences-in-redox-biology-a-mandatory-new-point-of-view-approaching-human-inflammatory-diseases
#6
Elisabetta Straface, Walter Malorni, Donatella Pietraforte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#7
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650096/hbe-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-oxidative-stress-the-key-to-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-therapeutics
#8
Rhoda Elison Hirsch, Nathawut Sibmooh, Suthat Fucharoen, Joel M Friedman
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress and generation of free radicals are fundamental in initiating pathophysiological mechanisms leading to an inflammatory cascade resulting in high rates of morbidity and death from many inherited point mutation-derived hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobin (Hb)E is the most common point mutation worldwide. The β(E)-globin gene is found in greatest frequency in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. With the wave of worldwide migration, it is entering the gene pool of diverse populations with greater consequences than expected...
November 28, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889958/ace2-and-the-homolog-collectrin-in-the-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-oxidative-stress-in-blood-pressure-homeostasis-and-vascular-injury
#9
Guang Yang, Pei-Lun Chu, Lars Christian Rump, Thu H Le, Johannes Stegbauer
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertension is the leading risk factor causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. Angiotensin (Ang) II, the most active metabolite of the renin-angiotensin (RAS) plays an outstanding role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular injury. Activation of angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2) has shown to attenuate devastating effects of Angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system by reducing Ang II degradation and increasing Ang-(1-7) generation leading to Mas receptor activation...
November 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889956/red-blood-cell-function-and-dysfunction-redox-regulation-nitric-oxide-metabolism-anemia
#10
Viktoria Kuhn, Lukas Diederich, T C Stevenson Keller Iv, Christian M Kramer, Wiebke Lückstädt, Christina Panknin, Tatsiana Suvorava, Brant Isakson, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, as well as inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important inter-organ communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic NO metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology and viscosity...
November 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848249/cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-deficiency-exacerbates-ccl4-induced-acute-hepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-the-mouse-liver
#11
Lei Ci, Xing Yu Yang, Xiao Wen Gu, Qing Li, Yang Guo, Zi Ping Zhou, Meng Jie Zhang, Jia Hao Shi, Hua Yang, Zhu Gang Wang, Jian Fei
AIMS: The present study examined the role of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in CCl4- induced liver damage. RESULTS: A CSE gene knock-out and luciferase gene knock-in mouse model was constructed to study the function of CSE and trace its expression in living status. CCl4 or LPS markedly downregulated CSE expression in the liver of mice. CSE-deficient mice showed increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and liver damage after CCl4 challenge, whereas albumin and endogenous H2S levels decreased significantly...
November 16, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841660/regulation-of-transcription-factors-by-reactive-oxygen-species-and-nitric-oxide-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathology
#12
Stefanie Kohlgrüber, Aditi Upadhye, Nadine Dyballa-Rukes, Coleen A McNamara, Joachim Altschmied
Significance Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide and pose an immense economical burden. In most cases, the underlying problem is vascular occlusion by atherosclerotic plaques. Importantly, different cell types of the vascular wall and the immune system play crucial roles in atherosclerosis at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, atherosclerosis and conditions recognized as risk factors are characterized by a reduced availability of the vasoprotective molecule nitric oxide and an increase in reactive oxygen species, so-called oxidative stress...
November 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835930/master-autophagy-regulator-transcription-factor-eb-tfeb-regulates-cigarette-smoke-induced-autophagy-impairment-and-copd-emphysema-pathogenesis
#13
Manish Bodas, Neel Patel, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced oxidative-stress impairs autophagy resulting in aggresome-formation that correlates with the severity of COPD-emphysema. Although, specific step in autophagy-pathway that is impaired is unknown. Hence, in this study we aimed to evaluate the role of master autophagy-regulator and transcription factor-EB (TFEB) in CS-induced COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. RESULTS: We first observed that TFEB-accumulates in the peri-nuclear spaces of the COPD lung tissues of tobacco-smokers and severe-emphysema subjects...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835927/the-anti-apoptotic-properties-of-apex1-in-the-endothelium-require-the-first-twenty-amino-acids-and-converge-on-thioredoxin-1
#14
Nadine Dyballa-Rukes, Philipp Jakobs, Anna Eckers, Niloofar Ale-Agha, Vlad Serbulea, Karin Aufenvenne, Tim-Christian Zschauer, Lothar Ludwig Rabanter, Sascha Jakob, Florian von Ameln, Olaf Eckermann, Norbert Leitinger, Christine Goy, Joachim Altschmied, Judith Haendeler
: The APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 (APEX1) has a disordered N-terminus, a redox and a DNA repair domain. APEX1 has anti-apoptotic properties, which have been linked to both domains depending on cell type and experimental conditions. AIMS: As protection against apoptosis is a hallmark of vessel integrity, we wanted to elucidate whether APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in primary human endothelial cells and if, what the underlying mechanisms are. RESULTS: APEX1 inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells by reducing Cathepsin D cleavage, potentially by binding to the unprocessed form...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835924/redox-proteomics-a-key-tool-for-new-insights-into-protein-modification-with-relevance-to-disease
#15
D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
NA.
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835923/ros-no-mediated-inter-organ-communication-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-diseases
#16
Lucia Maria Leitner, Rebecca June Wilson, Zhen Yan, Axel Gödecke
SIGNIFICANCE: Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and a loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. This disease is associated with high incidence with chronic diseases such as heart failure, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS, among others. Since there is currently no effective treatment available, cachectic patients have a poor prognosis. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is therefore an important medical task...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604998/elucidating-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-supercomplexes-in-the-heart-during-ischemia-reperfusion
#17
Sehwan Jang, Taber S Lewis, Corey Powers, Zaza Khuchua, Christopher P Baines, Peter Wipf, Sabzali Javadov
AIMS: Mitochondrial supercomplexes (SCs) are the large supramolecular assembly of individual electron transport chain (ETC) complexes that apparently provide highly efficient ATP synthesis and reduce electron leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Oxidative stress during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) can result in degradation of SCs through oxidation of cardiolipin (CL). Also, IR induces calcium overload and enhances reactive oxygen species (mitROS) in mitochondria that result in the opening of the nonselective permeability transition pores (PTP)...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796142/metabolic-syndrome-and-oxidative-stress-a-complex-relationship
#18
Alice Carrier
The worldwide epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, clustered in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MS). Other main chronic illnesses are promoted by excessive body weight, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies, both affecting a great number of people worldwide. In the recent years, the primary role of an excess of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) resulting from altered redox control in the etiology of all of these pathologies has been unveiled...
October 31, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788593/paraquat-induces-peripheral-myelin-disruption-and-locomotor-defects-crosstalk-with-lxr-and-wnt-pathways
#19
Mehdi Hichor, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Julia Montanaro, Didier Borderie, Patrice X Petit, Victor Gorgievski, Eleni T Tzavara, Assaad Antoine Eid, Frederic Charbonnier, Julien Grenier, Charbel Massaad
AIMS: Paraquat (PQT), a redox-active herbicide, is a free radical producing molecule, causing damages particularly to the nervous system thus employed as an animal model for Parkinson's disease. However, its impact on peripheral nerve demyelination is still unknown. Our aim is to decipher the influence of PQT-induced ROS production on peripheral myelin. RESULTS: We report that PQT provokes severe locomotor and sensory defects in mice. PQT elicited an oxidative stress in the nerve, resulting in an increase of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation despite the induction of Nrf2-dependant antioxidant defenses...
October 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565538/dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-1-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#20
Tianhe Li, Run Feng, Chenyang Zhao, Yue Wang, Jian Wang, Shasha Liu, Jianwei Cao, Hongyun Wang, Ting Wang, Yuting Guo, Zhongbing Lu
AIMS: High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are associated with hepatic dysfunction in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is unknown whether ADMA is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) is an enzyme that degrades ADMA. In this study, we used Ddah1(-/-) mice to investigate the effects of the ADMA/DDAH1 pathway on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis...
October 20, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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