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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Yen-Jung Chen, Yun-Chung Liu, Yu-Wen Liu, Yu-Bin Lee, Hsin-Chieh Huang, Yi-Yun Chen, Yao-Hsiang Shih, Ying-Chu Lee, Ching-Feng Cheng, Tzu-Ching Meng
AIMS: The coordination of neurons to execute brain functions requires plenty of oxygen. Thus, it is not surprising that the chronic hypoxia resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) can cause neuronal damage. Injury in the cortex can give rise to anxiety and cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated what causes hypoxia-induced neuronal injury and what strategies might be used to protect neurons against such damage. RESULTS: This study found that hypoxia in primary cortical neurons caused neurite retraction, a caspase-6-dependent process...
November 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Lorna Jane Daniels, Upasna Varma, Marco Annandale, Eleia Chan, Kimberley M Mellor, Lea Delbridge
SIGNIFICANCE: Energy stress in the myocardium occurs in a variety of acute and chronic pathophysiologic contexts including ischemia, nutrient deprivation, and diabetic disease settings of substrate disturbance. Although the heart is highly adaptive and flexible in relation to fuel utilization and routes of ATP generation, maladaptations in energy stress situations confer functional deficit. An understanding of the mechanisms which link energy stress to impaired myocardial performance is crucial...
November 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Vera Reitsema, Bastiaan Star, Vincent de Jager, Matijs van Meurs, Robert H Henning, Hjalmar Bouma
Sepsis is the main cause of death among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). As current treatment is limited to antimicrobial therapy and supportive care, mortality remains high, which warrants efforts to find novel therapies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as a key process in the induction of organ dysfunction during sepsis and metabolic resuscitation might reveal to be a novel cornerstone in the treatment of sepsis. Here, we review novel strategies to maintain organ function in sepsis by precluding mitochondrial dysfunction by lowering energetic demand to allow preservation of ATP-levels, while reducing free radical generation...
November 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Chung Ho Leung, Christopher A Caldarone, Rui Guan, Xiao-Yan Wen, Menachem Ailenberg, Andras Kapus, Katalin Szaszi, Ori D Rotstein
AIMS: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) protects against organ ischemia/reperfusion injury in experimental and clinical settings. We have demonstrated that RIC prevents liver and lung inflammation/injury following hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (S/R). In the current study, we used a murine model of S/R to investigate the role of Nrf2 in mediating hepatoprotection. RESULTS: The combination of RIC with S/R caused a synergistic rise in Nrf2 and its translocation to the nucleus in the liver...
November 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Norah Alruwaili, Sharath Kandhi, Dong Sun, Michael S Wolin
This review considers how some systems controlling pulmonary vascular function are potentially regulated by redox processes to examine how and why conditions such as prolonged hypoxia, pathological mediators and other factors promoting vascular remodeling contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Aspects of vascular remodeling induction mechanisms are described associated with shifts in glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway and increased cytosolic NADPH generation by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, increased glycolysis generation of cytosolic NADH and lactate, mitochondrial dysfunction associated with superoxide dismutase-2 depletion, changes in reactive oxygen species and iron metabolism, and redox signaling...
November 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
David Lefer
Dr. Hideo Kimura is recognized as a redox pioneer because he has published an article in the field of antioxidant and redox biology that has been cited >1000 times, and 29 articles that have been cited >100 times. Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) as a toxic gas 300 years ago, most studies have been devoted to its toxicity. In 1996, Dr. Kimura demonstrated a physiological role of H2 S as a mediator of cognitive function and cystathionine β-synthase as an H2 S-producing enzyme. In the following year, he showed H2 S as a vascular smooth muscle relaxant in synergy with nitric oxide and its production by cystathionine γ-lyase in vasculature...
November 1, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Maroua Ferhat, Katsuhiko Funai, Sihem Boudina
SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in adipose tissue function have profound consequences on whole body energy homeostasis because this tissue is central for fat accumulation, energy expenditure, glucose and insulin metabolism, and hormonal regulation. With the obesity reaching epidemic proportions globally, it is important to understand the mechanisms leading to adipose tissue malfunction. Recent Advances: Autophagy has originally been viewed as an adaptive response to cellular stress, but in recent years this process was shown to regulate important cellular processes...
November 1, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Thomas Kietzmann
Although initially considered as harmful, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now also recognized as important signaling molecules affecting various cellular processes. For example, they contribute to the response to hormones, growth factors, or hypoxia, and defense reactions against mechanical or chemical stress. Therefore, different ROS-generating, ROS-utilizing, and ROS-degrading systems in different intracellular compartments play an important role. On the one hand, this leads to a functional specialization wherein proteins, which participate in a specific ROS-regulated pathway in one compartment, may have another ROS-unrelated specific function in another compartment...
October 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yurim Ji, Soomin Chae, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Inji Park, Chowon Kim, Tayaba Ismail, Youni Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Oh-Shin Kwon, Beom-Sik Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Jong-Sup Bae, Sang-Hyun Kim, Pyung-Gon Moon, Moon-Chang Baek, Mae-Ja Park, In Sup Kil, Sue Goo Rhee, Joon Kim, Yang Hoon Huh, Jong-Yeon Shin, Kyoung-Jin Min, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Dong Gil Jang, Hyun Ae Woo, Taejoon Kwon, Tae Joo Park, Hyun-Shik Lee
AIMS: Peroxiredoxin5 (Prdx5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is an antioxidant enzyme that is widely studied for its antioxidant properties and protective roles in neurological and cardiovascular disorders. This study is aimed at investigating the functional significance of Prdx5 in mitochondria and at analyzing its roles in ciliogenesis during the process of vertebrate development. RESULTS: We found that several Prdx genes were strongly expressed in multiciliated cells in developing Xenopus embryos, and their peroxidatic functions were crucial for normal cilia development...
October 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xiqian Jiang, Chengwei Zhang, Jianwei Chen, Sungwoo Choi, Ying Zhou, Mingkun Zhao, Xianzhou Song, Xi Chen, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic, Timothy Gerald Palzkill, David Moore, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
AIMS: Quantitative imaging of glutathione with high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for studying the roles of glutathione in redox biology. To study the long-standing question of compartmentalization of glutathione, especially its distribution between the nucleus and the cytosol, an organelle-targeted quantitative probe is needed. RESULTS: We developed a reversible reaction-based ratiometric fluorescent probe-HaloRT-that can quantitatively measure glutathione dynamics with subcellular resolution in real-time...
October 25, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Damian Kloska, Aleksandra Kopacz, Dominik Cysewski, Martin Aepfelbacher, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz, Anna Grochot-Przeczek
AIMS: Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2) is a transcription factor known to modulate blood vessel formation. Various experimental settings, however, attribute to Nrf2 either stimulatory or repressive influence on angiogenesis. Our findings unveil the mechanism of Nrf2-dependent vessel formation, which reaches beyond transactivation of gene expression and reconciles previous discrepancies. RESULTS: We provide evidence that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)- and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)-induced angiogenesis strongly depends on the presence of Nrf2 protein but does not rely on its transcriptional activity...
October 25, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yi Zhang, Peiying Shan, Anup Srivastava, Zhenyu Li, Patty J Lee
AIMS: Oxidant-induced endothelial injury plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and subsequent respiratory failure. Our previous studies revealed an endogenous antioxidant and protective pathway in lung endothelium mediated by heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. However, the downstream effector mechanisms remained unclear. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) has been reported to mediate antioxidant responses in tissues such as the lungs...
October 25, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Minghui Yang, Jingli Tao, Hao Wu, Shengyu Guan, Lixi Liu, Lu Zhang, Shoulong Deng, Changjiu He, Pengyun Ji, Jinghao Liu, Guoshi Liu
AIMS: In addition to pineal gland, many cells, tissues and organs also synthesize melatonin. Embryos are group of special cells whether they can synthesize melatonin is still an open question. However, melatonin application promoted embryo development in many species under the in vitro condition. The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether the embryos can synthesize melatonin; if it is so, what are the impacts of the endogenously produced melatonin on embryo development as well as the associated molecular mechanisms...
October 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Rhian M Touyz, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Livia Camargo, Francisco Rios, Augusto Montezano
SIGNIFICANCE:  NADPH oxidases (Nox) of which there are 7 isoforms (Nox1-5, Duox1/Duox2) are professional oxidases functioning as ROS-generating enzymes. ROS are signaling molecules important in physiological processes. Increased ROS production and altered redox signaling in the vascular system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and have been attributed, in part, to increased Nox activity. RECENT ADVANCES:  Nox1,2,4,5 are expressed and functionally active in human vascular cells...
October 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Zuwen Zhang, Benjamin Trautz, Damir Kračun, Frederick Vogel, Michael Weitnauer, Katharina Hochkogler, Andreas Petry, Agnes Görlach
AIMS: Hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), a potentially fatal disorder characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy. However, how they are linked in the context of PH is not completely understood. We, therefore, investigated the role of the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox in the response to hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found that hypoxia decreased ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation of p22phox dependent on prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein von Hippel Lindau (pVHL), which resulted in p22phox stabilization and accumulation...
October 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Youakim Saliba, Victor Jebara, Joelle Hajal, Richard Maroun, Stéphanie Chacar, Viviane Smayra, Joel Abramowitz, Lutz Birnbaumer, Nassim Fares
AIMS: Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are emerging as major contributors to myocardial fibrosis (MF), a final common pathway of many etiologies of heart disease. Here, we studied the functional relevance of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) channels and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c3 (NFATc3) signaling in rodent and human ventricular CFs, and whether their modulation would limit MF. RESULTS: A positive-feedback loop between TRPC3 and NFATc3 drove a rat ventricular CF fibrotic phenotype...
October 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Han Luo, Peng-Fei Wu, Qian-Qian Han, Yu Cao, Si-Long Deng, Ji Wang, Qiao Deng, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen
AIMS: Astrocytes have been revealed as a controller of synaptic plasticity and memory via releasing gliotransmitters. Our recent findings showed that reactive sulfur species (RSS), including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and polysulfide (H2 Sn ), regulated the availability of d-serine, which is a well-known gliotransmitter that is involved in synaptic plasticity. An interesting question is whether RSS, which are small molecules, can function as direct gliotransmitters to integrate astrocyte-neuron interactions throughout the memory process...
October 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Manish Mishra, Arul J Duraisamy, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Renu A Kowluru
AIMS: Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina and dysfunctions their mitochondria, accelerating capillary cell apoptosis. A 66 kDa adaptor protein, p66Shc, is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, a progressive disease, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activation of a small molecular weight G-protein (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1])-Nox2 signaling precedes mitochondrial damage...
October 3, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Elianne P Bulthuis, Merel W Adjobo-Hermans, Peter H G M Willems, Werner J H Koopman
In addition to their classical role in cellular ATP production, mitochondria are of key relevance in various (patho)physiological mechanisms including 2nd messenger signaling, neuro-transduction, immune responses and death induction. Within cells mitochondria are motile and display temporal changes in internal and external structure ("mitochondrial dynamics"). During the last decade, substantial empirical and in silico evidence was presented demonstrating that mitochondrial dynamics impacts on mitochondrial function and vice versa...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Voahanginirina Randriamboavonjy, Anastasia Kyselova, Ingrid Fleming
SIGNIFICANCE: Calpains (CAPNs) are a family of calcium-activated cysteine proteases. The ubiquitous isoforms CAPN1 and 2 have been involved in the maintenance of vascular integrity but uncontrolled CAPN activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Recent advances: It is well accepted that chronic and acute overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with the development of vascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that ROS can also affect CAPN activity suggesting CAPN as a potential link between oxidative stress and vascular disease...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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