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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

David Joseph Lefer
Dr. Hideo Kimura is recognized as a redox pioneer because he has published an article in the field of antioxidant and redox biology that has been cited more than 1,000 times, and 27 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a toxic gas 300 years ago, most studies have been devoted to its toxicity. In 1996, Dr. Kimura demonstrated a physiological role of H2S as a mediator of cognitive function and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) as an H2S producing enzyme...
September 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Maroua Ferhat, Katsuhiko Funai, Sihem Boudina
SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in adipose tissue function have profound consequences on whole body energy homeostasis because this tissue is central for fat accumulation, energy expenditure, glucose and insulin metabolism and hormonal regulation. With the obesity reaching epidemic proportions globally, it is important to understand the mechanisms leading to adipose tissue malfunction. Recent Advances: Autophagy has originally been viewed as an adaptive response to cellular stress, but in recent years, this process was shown to regulate important cellular processes...
September 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Shuang Li, Bingbing Qiu, Hong Lu, Yunshi Lai, Jixing Liu, Jiajun Luo, Fengxin Zhu, Zheng Hu, Miaomiao Zhou, Jianwei Tian, Zhanmei Zhou, Shouyi Yu, Fan Yi, Jing Nie
AIMS: The risk factors promoting acute kidney injury (AKI) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) accelerates the development of renal fibrosis after AKI. RESULTS: Hhcy aggravated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI and the subsequent development of renal fibrotic lesions characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Mechanistically, the RNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) bound to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) messenger RNA (mRNA)...
September 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Emma Sevilla, María Teresa Bes, Andrés González, María Luisa Peleato, María F Fillat
SIGNIFICANCE: The successful adaptation of microorganisms to ever-changing environments depends, to a great extent, on their ability to maintain redox homeostasis. To effectively maintain the redox balance, cells have developed a variety of strategies mainly coordinated by a battery of transcriptional regulators through diverse mechanisms. Recent Advances: This comprehensive review focuses on the main mechanisms used by major redox-responsive regulators in prokaryotes and their relationship with the different redox signals received by the cell...
September 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Damian Klóska, Aleksandra Kopacz, Dominik Cysewski, Martin Aepfelbacher, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz, Anna Grochot-Przeczek
AIM: Nrf2 is a transcription factor known to modulate blood vessel formation. Various experimental settings, however, attribute to Nrf2 either stimulatory or repressive influence on angiogenesis. Our findings unveil the mechanism of Nrf2-dependent vessel formation, which reaches beyond transactivation of gene expression and reconciles previous discrepancies. RESULTS: We provide evidence that GDF-15- and SDF-1-induced angiogenesis strongly depends on the presence of Nrf2 protein but does not rely on its transcriptional activity...
September 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Chet E Holterman, Naomi C Boisvert, Jean-François Thibodeau, Eldjonai Kamto, Melica Novakovic, Khaled S Abd-Elrahman, Stephen S G Ferguson, Christopher R J Kennedy
AIMS: Oxidative stress associated with a proinflammatory state occurs in endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. The NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes is implicated in these processes, yet little information regarding the role of Nox5 is available. Our aim was to investigate the role of Nox5 in promoting renal inflammation and identify mechanisms regulating its activity. RESULTS: Mice with podocyte-specific Nox5 (Nox5pod+ ) expression demonstrated greater glomerular inflammation and increased expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and proinflammatory cytokines...
September 8, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yurim Ji, Soomin Chae, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Inji Park, Chowon Kim, Tayaba Ismail, Youni Kim, Jeen Woo Park, Oh-Shin Kwon, Beom-Sik Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Jong-Sup Bae, Sang-Hyun Kim, Pyung-Gon Moon, Moon-Chang Baek, Mae-Ja Park, In Sup Kil, Sue Goo Rhee, Joon Kim, Yang Hoon Huh, Jong-Yeon Shin, Kyoung-Jin Min, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Dong Gil Jang, Hyun Ae Woo, Taejoon Kwon, Tae Joo Park, Hyun-Shik Lee
AIMS: Peroxiredoxin5 (Prdx5) - a thioredoxin peroxidase is an antioxidant enzyme that is widely studied for its antioxidant properties and protective roles in neurological and cardiovascular disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the functional significance of Prdx5 in mitochondria and to analyze its roles in ciliogenesis during the process of vertebrate development. RESULTS: We found that several Prdx genes were strongly expressed in multiciliated cells in developing Xenopus embryos, and their peroxidatic functions were crucial for normal cilia development...
September 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Nara Shin, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Hyo Jung Shin, Sena Kim, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Hyunjung Baek, Min-Hee Yi, Enji Zhang, Jwa-Jin Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Sun Yeul Lee, Wonhyung Lee, Ursula L Triantafillu, Cuk-Seong Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Dong Woon Kim
AIMS: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease thought to be caused by repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subconcussive injuries. While hyperphosphorylation of tau (p-Tau), which is attributed to astrocytic tangles (ATs) and neurofibrillary tangles, is known to be involved in CTE, there are limited neuropathological or molecular data. By utilizing repetitive mild TBI (rmTBI) mouse models, our aim was to examine the pathological changes of CTE-associated structures, specifically the ATs...
September 7, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Victoria Bunik
SIGNIFICANCE: The paper develops a holistic view on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes. Recent advances. Catalytic and structural properties of the complexes and their components evolved to minimize damaging effects of side reactions, including ROS generation, simultaneously exploiting the reactions for homeostatic signaling. CRITICAL ISSUES: Side reactions of the complexes, characterized in vitro, are analysed in view of protein interactions and conditions in vivo...
September 6, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Han Luo, Peng-Fei Wu, Qian-Qian Han, Yu Cao, Si-Long Deng, Ji Wang, Qiao Deng, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen
AIMS: Astrocytes have been revealed as a controller of synaptic plasticity and memory via releasing gliotransmitters. Our recent findings showed that reactive sulfur species (RSS), including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and polysulfide (H2Sn), regulated the availability of D-serine, which is a well-known gliotransmitter involved in synaptic plasticity. An interesting question is whether RSS, which are small molecules, can function as direct gliotransmitters to integrate astrocyte-neuron interactions throughout the memory process...
September 6, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Y I Zhang, Peiying Shan, Anup Srivastava, Zhenyu Li, Patty J Lee
AIMS: Oxidant-induced endothelial injury plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and subsequent respiratory failure. Our previous studies revealed an endogenous anti-oxidant and protective pathway in lung endothelium mediated by Hsp70-TLR4 signaling. However, the downstream effector mechanisms remained unclear. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) has been reported to mediate antioxidant responses in tissues such as lungs. However, regulators of STC1 expression as well as its physiologic function in lungs were unknown...
September 6, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Andrée Tuzet, Marie-Sylviane Rahantaniaina, Graham Noctor
SIGNIFICANCE: Plant stress involves redox signaling linked to reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), which can be generated at high rates in photosynthetic cells. The systems that process H2 O2 include catalase (CAT) and the ascorbate-glutathione pathway, but interactions between them remain unclear. Modeling can aid interpretation and pinpoint areas for investigation. Recent Advances: Based on emerging data and concepts, we introduce a new experimentally constrained kinetic model to analyze interactions between H2 O2 , CAT, ascorbate, glutathione, and NADPH...
September 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Andreas Petry, Zuwen Zhang, Benjamin Trautz, Florian Rieß, Agnes Görlach
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases have been associated with stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and accumulation of unfolded proteins leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and H2 O2 derived from NADPH oxidases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. ROS have also been associated with ER stress. The role NADPH oxidases in the UPR is, however, not completely resolved yet. AIM: In this study, we investigated the role of p22phox, an essential component of most NADPH oxidases, in the UPR of endothelial cells...
September 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sushil K Jain, Rajesh Parsanathan, Arunkumar E Achari, Preeti Kanikarla-Marie, Joseph A Bocchini
AIMS: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)VD] deficiency/inadequacy is a major public health issue affecting over 1 billion people worldwide. A convincing association exists between low levels of circulating 25(OH)VD and the poor health outcomes associated with chronic diseases. However, high supraphysiological doses of VD are needed to achieve the required 25(OH)VD levels in blood, because many subjects respond poorly to supplementation. RESULTS: This study reports a link between 25(OH)VD deficiency and a reduction in glutathione in obese adolescents...
August 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Chaojin Chen, Weifeng Yao, Shan Wu, Shaoli Zhou, Mian Ge, Yu Gu, Xiang Li, Guihua Chen, Joseph A Bellanti, Song Guo Zheng, Dongdong Yuan, Ziqing Hei
AIMS: Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is not conducive to the postoperative surgical recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) transmitted by gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin32 (Cx32) contributed to AKI. However, the precise underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms were largely unknown. This study focuses on the underlying mechanisms related to ROS transmitted by Cx32 responsible for AKI aggravation...
August 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ines Batinic-Haberle, Artak Tovmasyan, Ivan Spasojevic
SIGNIFICANCE: After approximatelty three decades of research, two Mn(III) porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113) and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001), have progressed to five clinical trials. In parallel, another similarly potent metal-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic-Mn(II)pentaaza macrocycle, GC4419-has been tested in clinical trial on application, identical to that of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ -radioprotection of normal tissue in head and neck cancer patients. This clearly indicates that Mn complexes that target cellular redox environment have reached sufficient maturity for clinical applications...
August 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Susheel Kumar Nethi, Ayan Kumar Barui, Sudip Mukherjee, Chitta Ranjan Patra
SIGNIFICANCE: Redox signaling plays a vital role in regulating various cellular signaling pathways and disease biology. Recently, nanomedicine (application of nanotechnology in biology and medicine) has been demonstrated to regulate angiogenesis through redox signaling. A complete understanding of redox signaling pathways influenced angiogenesis/antiangiogenesis triggered by therapeutic nanoparticles is extensively reviewed in this article. Recent Advances: In recent times, nanomedicines are regarded as the Trojan horses that could be employed for successful drug delivery, gene delivery, peptide delivery, disease diagnosis, and others, conquering barriers associated with conventional theranostic approaches...
August 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Lorenzo Loffredo, Anna Maria Zicari, Ludovica Perri, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben, Antonella Mosca, Salvatore Zaffina, Nadia Panera, Anna Alisi, Marzia Duse, Francesco Violi, Valerio Nobili
It is unknown whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (Nox2) activation is early associated with endotoxemia and liver damage in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To address this issue, we evaluated Nox2 activation, oxidative stress, gut permeability, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serum levels in 67 children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 73 controls. Compared with controls, NAFLD patients had higher Nox2 activity, isoprostane, zonulin, and LPS levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), LPS, and isoprostanes were independently associated with Nox2-derivative peptide (sNox2-dp) levels...
August 17, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Lin An, Li-Ying Peng, Ning-Yuan Sun, Yi-Lin Yang, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Bin Li, Bao-Lin Liu, Ping Li, Jun Chen
AIMS: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by myofibroblast activation through oxidative stress. However, the precise regulation of myofibroblast transdifferentiation remain largely uncharacterized. RESULTS: In this study, we found that tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA), an active component in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, can suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of myofibroblast and reduce extracellular matrix deposition in bleomycin (BLM)-challenged mice through regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
August 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Manish Mishra, Arul J Duraisamy, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Renu Kowluru
AIMS: Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina, and dysfunctions their mitochondria, accelerating capillary cell apoptosis. A 66kDa adaptor protein, p66Shc, is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, a progressive disease, ROS production by activation of a small molecular weight G-protein (Rac1)-Nox2 signaling precedes mitochondrial damage. Rac1 activation is facilitated by guanine exchange factors (GEFs), and p66Shc increases Rac1-specific GEF activity of Son of Sevenless (Sos1)...
August 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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