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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electrical-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#1
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, Wenfeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIMS: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS compared with control treatment...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889958/ace2-and-the-homolog-collectrin-in-the-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-oxidative-stress-in-blood-pressure-homeostasis-and-vascular-injury
#2
Guang Yang, Pei-Lun Chu, Lars C Rump, Thu H Le, Johannes Stegbauer
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertension is the leading risk factor causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. Angiotensin (Ang) II, the most active metabolite of the renin-angiotensin system, plays an outstanding role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular injury. Activation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has shown to attenuate devastating effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system by reducing Ang II degradation and increasing Ang-(1-7) generation leading to Mas receptor activation...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073290/intra-and-interorgan-communication-in-the-cardiovascular-system-a-special-view-on-redox-regulation
#3
Axel Gödecke, Judith Haendeler
Intraorgan communication in the cardiovascular system is exerted by direct cell-cell contacts, but also by locally released factors, which modulate neighboring cells by paracrine signals (e.g. NO, vascular endothelial growth factor, adenosine, reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Moreover, cells in close proximity to the typical cardiovascular cells such as fibroblasts, red blood cells, as well as resident and invading immune cells must be considered in attempts to understand cardiovascular function in physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967209/cluster-of-differentiation-36-deficiency-aggravates-macrophage-infiltration-and-hepatic-inflammation-by-upregulating-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-expression-of-hepatocytes-through-histone-deacetylase-2-dependent-pathway
#4
Shan Zhong, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Pei Wang, Wei Zhou, Ping Yang, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
AIMS: Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Excess CD36 facilitates liver cells taking fatty acid and activates inflammatory signals to promote hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, CD36 deficiency paradoxically promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by unknown mechanisms. We explored the probable molecular mechanism of hepatic inflammation induced by CD36 deficiency. RESULTS: CD36 deletion in mice (CD36(-/-) mice) specifically increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in hepatocytes, promoted macrophage migration to the liver, and aggravated hepatic inflammatory response and fibrosis...
January 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068782/gasotransmitter-heterocellular-signaling
#5
Gopi Kolluru, Shuai Yuan, XInggui Shen, Christopher G Kevil
SIGNIFICANCE: The family of gasotransmitter molecules nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has emerged as important mediators of numerous cellular signal transduction and pathophysiological responses. As such, these molecules have been reported to influence a diverse array of biochemical, molecular, and cell biology events often impacting one another. Recent Advances: Discrete regulation of gasotransmitter molecule formation, movement, and reaction are critical to their biological function...
January 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927016/inhibition-of-cathepsin-s-induces-mitochondrial-ros-that-sensitizes-trail-mediated-apoptosis-through-p53-mediated-downregulation-of-bcl-2-and-c-flip
#6
Bo Ram Seo, Kyoung-Jin Min, Seon Min Woo, Misun Choe, Kyeong Sook Choi, Young-Kyung Lee, Gyesoon Yoon, Taeg Kyu Kwon
AIMS: Cathepsin S is highly expressed in various cancer cells, and it has protumoral effects, including promotion of migration, invasion, and neovascularization. In this study, we show that inhibition of cathepsin S could sensitize cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. RESULTS: An inhibitor of cathepsin S (Z-FL-COCHO; ZFL) markedly induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells treated with TRAIL. In contrast, combined treatment with ZFL and TRAIL had no effect on normal cells...
January 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835924/redox-proteomics-a-key-tool-for-new-insights-into-protein-modification-with-relevance-to-disease
#7
D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
Oxidatively modified proteins are characterized by elevations in protein-resident carbonyls or 3-nitrotyrosine, measures of protein oxidation, or protein bound reactive alkenals such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a measure of lipid peroxidation. Oxidatively modified proteins nearly always have altered structure and function. Redox proteomics is that branch of proteomics used to identify oxidized proteins and determine the extent and location of oxidative modifications in the proteomes of interest. This technique nearly always employs mass spectrometry as the major platform to achieve the goals of identifying the target proteins...
January 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051338/activity-dependent-sulfhydration-signal-controls-nmdar-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-via-increasing-d-serine-availability
#8
Yuan-Long Li, Pei-Fei Wu, Jian-Guo Chen, Sheng Wang, Qian-Qian Han, Dan Li, Wen Wang, Xin-Lei Guan, Di Li, Li-Hong Long, Jian-Geng Huang, Fang Wang
AIMS: Reactive sulfur species (RSS) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its oxydates have been raised as novel redox signaling molecules. The present study aimed at examining whether endogenous sulfhydration signal are required for long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model for memory. RESULTS: Here, we found that increased synaptic activity triggered sulfide generationand protein sulfhydration. Activity-triggered sulfide production was essential for N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype glutamate receptors (NMDARs)-dependent LTP via maintaining the availability of D-serine, a primary co-agonist for synaptic NMDARs...
January 4, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030955/reno-cerebral-reflex-activates-renin-angiotensin-system-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-renal-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Wei Cao, Aiqing Li, Jiawen Li, Chunyi Wu, Shuang Cui, Zhanmei Zhou, Youhua Liu, Christopher Stuart Wilcox, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. RESULTS: Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system, increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury...
December 28, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027662/redox-control-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#10
Emmeran Le Moal, Vincent Pialoux, Gaëtan Juban, Carole Groussard, Hassan Zouhal, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of Muscle Stem Cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent...
December 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027652/melatonin-ameliorates-busulfan-induced-spermatogonial-stem-cell-oxidative-apoptosis-in-mouse-testes
#11
Bo Li, Xin He, Mengru Zhuang, Bowen Niu, Chongyang Wu, Hailong Mu, Furong Tang, Yanhua Cui, Weishuai Liu, Baoyu Zhao, Sha Peng, Guangpeng Li, Jinlian Hua
AIMS: Many men endure immunosuppressive or anticancer treatments that contain alkylating agents prior to the age of sexual maturity, especially the increasing number of preadolescent males who undergo busulfan treatment for myeloablative conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Prior to sperm production, there are no sperm available for cryopreservation. Thus, it is necessary to identify a solution to ameliorate the busulfan-induced damage of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs)...
December 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010122/lysyl-oxidase-induces-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-contributes-to-arterial-stiffness-and-abnormal-elastin-structure-in-hypertension-role-of-p38mapk
#12
Sonia Martínez-Revelles, Ana Belen Garcia-Redondo, Mª Soledad Avendaño, Saray Varona, Teresa Palao, Mar Orriols, Fernanda R Roque, Ana Fortuño, Rhian M Touyz, Jose Martínez-Gonzalez, Mercedes Salaices, Cristina Rodríguez, Ana María Briones
AIMS: Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin cross-linking enzyme that produces H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> as by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness and elastin. RESULTS: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and abnormal elastin structure...
December 23, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006954/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-a-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nuclear-transcription-factor-related-to-nf-e2
#13
Michela Campolo, Giovanna Casili, Flavia Biundo, Rosalia Crupi, Marika Cordaro, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
AIM: Oxidative stress plays a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD) and nuclear transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf-2) is involved in neuroprotection against PD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotherapeutic action, NF-κB/Nrf-2 dependent, of DMF in a mouse model of PD and in vitro SHSY-5Y cells. RESULTS: Daily oral gavage of DMF (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced neuronal degeneration of dopaminergic tract and behavioral impairments induced by four injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
December 23, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006953/lymphocyte-communication-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Stephen E Boag, Emanuele Andreano, Ioakim Spyridopoulos
SIGNIFICANCE: Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) is an important complication of reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction. It is a complex process involving metabolic and immunological factors. To date no effective treatment has been identified. Recent Advances: Previous research has focused on the role of innate immune cells in I/R injury. In recent years increasing evidence has accumulated for an important role for adaptive immune cells, particularly T lymphocytes. Data from ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients has identified prognostic significance for lymphocyte counts, particularly post-reperfusion lymphopenia...
December 23, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006950/augmentation-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-gsno-controls-cigarette-smoke-induced-inflammatory-oxidative-stress-and-copd-emphysema-pathogenesis-by-restoring-cftr-function
#15
Manish Bodas, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Kathryn A Brucia, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Cigarette-smoke (CS) mediated CFTR-dysfunction, autophagy-impairment, and resulting inflammatory-oxidative/nitrosative stress leads to COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO)-signaling regulates lung function, and low serum NO-levels correlate with COPD severity. We aim to evaluate here the effects and mechanism(s) of GSNO-augmentation in COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. RESULTS: Our data shows that CFTR co-localizes with aggresome-bodies in the lungs of COPD subjects with increasing emphysema severity (GOLD I-IV) as compared to non-emphysema controls (GOLD-0)...
December 22, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796142/metabolic-syndrome-and-oxidative-stress-a-complex-relationship
#16
Alice Carrier
The worldwide epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. Obesity is a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, clustered in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MS). Other main chronic illnesses are promoted by excessive body weight, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies, both affecting a number of people worldwide. In recent years, the primary role of an excess of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) resulting from altered redox control in the etiology of all of these pathologies has been unveiled...
December 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788593/paraquat-induces-peripheral-myelin-disruption-and-locomotor-defects-crosstalk-with-lxr-and-wnt-pathways
#17
Mehdi Hichor, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Julia Montanaro, Didier Borderie, Patrice X Petit, Victor Gorgievski, Eleni T Tzavara, Assaad A Eid, Frédéric Charbonnier, Julien Grenier, Charbel Massaad
AIMS: Paraquat (PQT), a redox-active herbicide, is a free radical-producing molecule, causing damage particularly to the nervous system; thus, it is employed as an animal model for Parkinson's disease. However, its impact on peripheral nerve demyelination is still unknown. Our aim is to decipher the influence of PQT-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on peripheral myelin. RESULTS: We report that PQT provokes severe locomotor and sensory defects in mice...
December 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967218/protein-s-bacillithiolation-functions-in-thiol-protection-and-redox-regulation-of-the-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gap-in-staphylococcus-aureus-under-hypochlorite-stress
#18
Marcel Imber, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen, Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska, Vu Van Loi, Melanie Hillion, Jörg Bernhardt, Lena Thärichen, Katra Kolšek, Malek Saleh, Christopher J Hamilton, Lorenz Adrian, Frauke Gräter, Markus Wahl, Haike Antelmann
AIMS: Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low molecular weight thiol of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we used OxICAT and Voronoi redox treemaps to quantify hypochlorite-sensitive protein thiols in S. aureus USA300 and analyzed the role of BSH in protein S-bacillithiolation. RESULTS: The OxICAT analyses enabled the quantification of 228 Cys residues in the redox proteome of S. aureus USA300. Hypochlorite stress resulted in a >10% increased oxidation of 58 Cys residues (25...
December 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967213/could-nlrp3-inflammasome-be-a-cardiovascular-risk-biomarkers-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients
#19
Pedro Bullon, Francisco J Cano-García, Elisabet Alcocer-Gómez, Alfonso Varela-Lopez, Lourdes Román-Malo, Rafael J Ruiz-Salmerón, Jose L Quiles, Jose M Navarro-Pando, Maurizio Battino, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Luis J Jiménez-Borreguero, Mario D Cordero
Conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are accepted to identify asymptomatic individuals with high risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, AMI affects many patients previously classified at low risk. New biomarkers are needed to improve risk prediction. We propose to evaluate the NLRP3-inflammasome complex as a potential CVR indicator in healthy males and post-AMI patients and compare both groups by known CVRFs. We included 109 men with no history of cardiovascular disease (controls) and 150 AMI patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program...
December 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960539/chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-plays-a-crucial-role-in-mediating-oxidative-stress-induced-podocyte-injury
#20
Hongyan Mo, Qinyu Wu, Jinhua Miao, Congwei Luo, Xue Hong, Yongping Wang, Lan Tang, Fan Fan Hou, Youhua Liu, Lili Zhou
AIMS: Oxidative stress plays a role in mediating podocyte injury and proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the potential role of CXCR4, the chemokine receptor for SDF-1α, in mediating oxidative stress-induced podocyte injury. RESULTS: In mouse model of adriamycin nephropathy (ADR), CXCR4 expression was significantly induced in podocytes as early as 3 days. This was accompanied by an increased upregulation of oxidative stress in podocyte, as demonstrated by MDA assay, nitrotyrosine staining and secretion of 8-OHdG in urine, and induction of NOX2 and NOX4, major subunits of NADPH oxidase...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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