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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Kyung In Baek, René R Sevag Packard, Jeffrey J Hsu, Arian Saffari, Zhao Ma, Anh Phuong Luu, Andrew Pietersen, Hilary Yen, Bin Ren, Yichen Ding, Constantinos Sioutas, Rongsong Li, Tzung K Hsiai
AIMS: Redox active ultrafine particles (UFP, d < 0.2 μm) promote vascular oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Notch signaling is intimately involved in vascular homeostasis, in which forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) acts as a co-activator of the Notch activation complex. We elucidated the importance of FOXO1/Notch transcriptional activation complex to restore vascular regeneration after UFP exposure. RESULTS: In a zebrafish model of tail injury and repair, transgenic Tg(fli1:GFP) embryos developed vascular regeneration at 3 days post amputation (dpa), whereas UFP exposure impaired regeneration (p < 0...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sergey I Dikalov, Yuliya F Polienko, Igor Kirilyuk
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions such as development of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of measurements of oxidative stress markers in biological systems have been developed; however, many of these methods are not specific, can produce artifacts, and do not directly detect the free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a unique tool that allows direct measurements of free radical species...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Micael Hardy, Jacek Zielonka, Hakim Karoui, Adam Sikora, Radosław Michalski, Radosław Podsiadły, Marcos Lopez, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Olivier Ouari
SIGNIFICANCE: Since the discovery of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the generation and fate of short-lived oxidizing, nitrosating, nitrating, and halogenating species in biological systems has been of great interest. Despite the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in numerous diseases and intracellular signaling, the rigorous detection of ROS and RNS has remained a challenge. Recent Advances: Chemical characterization of the reactions of selected ROS and RNS with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin traps and fluorescent probes led to the establishment of species-specific products, which can be used for specific detection of several forms of ROS and RNS in cell-free systems and in cultured cells in vitro and in animals in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jana Rudolf, Houssam Raad, Alain Taieb, Hamid Reza Rezvani
SIGNIFICANCE: Skin protects the body from dehydration, pathogens, and external mutagens. NADPH oxidases are central components for regulating the cellular redox balance. There is increasing evidence indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by members of this enzyme family play important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the skin. Recent Advances: NADPH oxidases are active producers of ROS such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Different isoforms are found in virtually all tissues...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
James M Phang
SIGNIFICANCE: It is increasingly clear that proline metabolism plays an important role in metabolic reprogramming, not only in cancer but also in related fields such as aging, senescence, and development. Although first focused on proline catabolism, recent studies from a number of laboratories have emphasized the regulatory effects of proline synthesis and proline cycling. Recent Advances: Although proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) has been known as a tumor protein 53 (P53)-activated source of redox signaling for initiating apoptosis and autophagy, senescence has been added to the responses...
November 15, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yu Ah Hong, Ji Hee Lim, Min Young Kim, Yaeni Kim, Hoon Suk Park, Hyung Wook Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Won Kim, Tae-Yoon Kim, Cheol Whee Park
AIMS: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We evaluated whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) has a renoprotective effect through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in diabetic kidneys. RESULTS: Human recombinant EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) was administered to 8-week-old male C57BLKS/J db/db mice through intraperitoneal injection once a week for 8 weeks. Renal SOD3 expression was suppressed in db/db mice, which was significantly enhanced by hEC-SOD treatment...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Constanze Depp, Carlos Bas-Orth, Lisa Schroeder, Andrea Hellwig, Hilmar Bading
AIMS: Excitotoxicity triggered by extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke. Mitochondrial calcium overload leading to mitochondrial dysfunction represents an early event in excitotoxicity. Neurons are rendered resistant to excitotoxicity by previous periods of synaptic activity that activates a nuclear calcium-driven neuroprotective gene program...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Angela S Fleischhacker, Eric L Carter, Stephen W Ragsdale
SIGNIFICANCE: Heme binds to and serves as a cofactor for a myriad of proteins that are involved in diverse biological processes. Hemoproteins also exhibit varying modes of heme binding, suggesting that the protein environment contributes to the functional versatility of this prosthetic group. The subject of this review is a subset of hemoproteins that contain at least one heme regulatory motif (HRM), which is a short sequence containing a Cys-Pro core that, in many cases, binds heme with the Cys acting as an axial ligand...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Erin L Mettert, Patricia J Kiley
SIGNIFICANCE: The Escherichia coli regulatory protein fumarate nitrate reduction (FNR) mediates a global transcriptional response upon O2 deprivation. Spanning nearly 40 years of research investigations, our understanding of how FNR senses and responds to O2 has considerably progressed despite a lack of structural information for most of that period. This knowledge has established the paradigm for how facultative anaerobic bacteria sense changes in O2 tension. Recent Advances: Recently, the X-ray crystal structure of Aliivibrio fischeri FNR with its [4Fe-4S] cluster cofactor was solved and has provided valuable new insight into FNR structure and function...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Samikkannu Thangavel, Carmen T Mulet, Venkata S R Atluri, Marisela Agudelo, Rhonda Rosenberg, Jessy G Devieux, Madhavan P N Nair
AIMS: HIV infection induces oxidative stress and alcohol use accelerates disease progression subsequently causing immune dysfunction. However, HIV and alcohol impact on lipid rafts-mediated immune dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the modulation by which oxidative stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting redox expression, lipid rafts caveiloin-1, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters, and transcriptional SREBP gene and protein modification and how these mechanisms are associated with arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in HIV positive alcohol users, and how they escalate immune dysfunction...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Valery V Khramtsov
<i><b>Significance:</b></i> A key role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression, treatment resistance and as a target for therapeutic intervention is increasingly appreciated. Among physiological components of the TME are tissue hypoxia, acidosis, high reducing capacity, elevated concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi). Noninvasive <i>in vivo</i> assessment of these parameters provide unique insights into biological processes in TME, and may serve as a tool for pre-clinical screening of anticancer drugs and optimizing TME-targeted therapeutic strategies...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Masahiro Abo, Eranthie Weerapana
SIGNIFICANCE: Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate redox signaling cascades that are critical to numerous physiological and pathological processes. Analytical methods to monitor cellular ROS levels and proteomic platforms to identify oxidative post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are critical to understanding the triggers and consequences of redox signaling. Recent advances: The prevalence and significance of redox signaling has recently been illuminated through the use of chemical probes that allow for sensitive detection of cellular ROS levels and proteomic dissection of oxidative PTMs directly in living cells...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
John J Tanner
SIGNIFICANCE: Proline catabolism refers to the 4-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate catalyzed by the enzymes proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH, aka ALDH4A1). These enzymes and the intermediate metabolites of the pathway have been implicated in tumor growth and suppression, metastasis, hyperprolinemia metabolic disorders, schizophrenia susceptibility, life span extension, and pathogen virulence and survival. In some bacteria, PRODH and GSALDH are combined into a bifunctional enzyme known as proline utilization A (PutA)...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Shun Kishimoto, Murali C Krishna, Valery V Khramtsov, Hideo Utsumi, David J Lurie
SIGNIFICANCE: Proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI) employs electron paramagnetic resonance irradiation with low-field magnetic resonance imaging so that the electron spin polarization is transferred to nearby protons, resulting in higher signals. PEDRI provides information about free radical distribution and, indirectly, about the local microenvironment such as partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), tissue permeability, redox status, and acid-base balance. Recent Advances: Local acid-base balance can be imaged by exploiting the different resonance frequency of radical probes between R and RH(+) forms...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Shun Kishimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Keita Saito, Ayano Enomoto, Shingo Matsumoto, James Mitchell, Nallathamby Devasahayam, Murali C Krishna
SIGNIFICANCE: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique capable of generating images of tissue oxygenation using exogenous paramagnetic probes such as trityl radicals or nitroxyl radicals. Using principles similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with field gradients, the spatial distribution of the paramagnetic probecan be generatedand,from its spectral features, spatial maps of oxygen can be obtained from live objects. In this review, two methods of signal acquisition, image formation/reconstruction will be described...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Colin T Stomberski, Douglas T Hess, Jonathan Stamler
SIGNIFICANCE: Protein S-nitrosylation, the oxidative modification of cysteine by nitric oxide (NO) to form protein S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), mediates redox-based signaling that largely conveys the ubiquitous influence of NO on cellular function. S-nitrosylation regulates protein activity, stability, localization and protein-protein interactions across myriad physiological processes, and aberrant S-nitrosylation is associated with diverse pathophysiologies. Recent Advances: It is recently recognized that S-nitrosylation endows SNO-proteins with trans-S-nitrosylase activity, i...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Roberto Cangemi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Simona Battaglia, Ludovica Perri, Maria Santulli, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Miryam Muscolo, Daniele Masala, Francesco Violi
Habitual physical activity has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk reduction by improving vascular function but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this issue, we performed a cross-sectional study comparing 50 physically active (PA) adults with 50 sedentary controls matched for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. PA subjects had significantly higher flow-mediated dilation (FMD) than controls and higher serum levels of nitrite/nitrate, a marker of nitric oxide generation. In addition, PA subjects showed lower levels of urinary isoprostanes, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lower serum levels of sNox2-dp, a validated assay to measure Nox2 activity, one of the most important enzymes producing ROS in the blood cells...
November 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Bryndon J Oleson, John A Corbett
SIGNIFICANCE: Cytokines released in and around pancreatic islets during islet inflammation are believed to contribute to impaired β cell function and β cell death during the development of diabetes. Nitric oxide, produced by β cells in response to cytokine exposure, controls many of the responses of β cells during islet inflammation. Recent Advances: Although nitric oxide has been shown to inhibit insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and induce DNA damage in β cells, it also activates protective pathways that promote recovery of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and repair of damaged DNA...
November 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Guangbi Li, RaMi Lee, Pin Lan Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingolipids play critical roles in the membrane biology and intracellular signaling events that influence cellular behavior and function. Our review focuses on the cellular mechanisms and functional relevance of the cross talk between sphingolipids and redox signaling, which may be critically implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases. Recent Advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids can regulate cellular redox homeostasis through the regulation of NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and antioxidant enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Rui-Sheng Wang, William M Oldham, Bradley A Maron, Joseph Loscalzo
Significance All cellular metabolic processes are tied to the cellular redox environment. Therefore, maintaining redox homeostasis is critically important for normal cell function. Indeed, redox stress contributes to the pathobiology of many human diseases. The cellular redox response system is composed of numerous interconnected components including free radicals, redox couples, protein thiols, enzymes, metabolites, and transcription factors. Moreover, interactions between and among these factors are regulated in time and space...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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