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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Aurore Lebrun, Douglas C Hooper, D Allan Butterfield, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
AIMS: Microglial cells are brain resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to LPS-activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sarah Tessier, Natalia Martin-Martin, Hugues de Thé, Arkaitz Carracedo, Valerie Lallemand-Breitenbach
SIGNIFICANCE: Cellular metabolic activity impacts on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both positively through mitochondrial oxidative processes and negatively by promoting the production of reducing agents (including NADPH and reduced glutathione). A defined metabolic state in cancer cells is critical for cell growth and long-term self-renewal, and such state is intrinsically associated to redox balance. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) regulates several biological processes, at least in part through its ability to control the assembly of PML Nuclear Bodies (PML NBs)...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jong-Lyel Roh, Hye Jin Jang, Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin
AIMS: The glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx), and Nrf2 systems represent a major defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the cellular imbalance of which in cancer promotes growth and therapeutic resistance. This study investigated whether targeting the GSH, Trx, and Nrf2 antioxidant systems effectively eliminated head and neck cancer (HNC). RESULTS: At high concentrations, auranofin, but not buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) alone, decreased the viability of HNC, whereas even at low concentrations, auranofin plus BSO synergized to kill HNC cells...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yazhen Huo, Sanda Win, Tin Aung Than, Shutao Yin, Min Ye, Hongbo Hu, Neil Kaplowitz
AIM: Antrodia Camphorate (AC) is a mushroom that is widely used in Asian countries to prevent and treat various diseases, including liver diseases. However, the active ingredients that contribute to the biological functions remain elusive. The purpose of the present study is to test the hepatoprotective effect of Antcin H, a major triterpenoid chemical isolated from AC, in murine models of acute liver injury. RESULTS: We found that Antcin H pretreatment protected against liver injury in both acetaminophen (APAP) and galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α models...
October 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ayan Biswas, Emma C Clark, Chandan K Sen, Gayle Gordillo
: Hemangiomas are endothelial cell tumors and the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. They frequently cause deformity and can cause death. Current pharmacologic therapies have high-risk side effect profiles, which limit the number of children that receive treatment. AIMS: The objectives of this work were to identify the mechanisms through which standardized berry extracts can inhibit endothelial cell tumor growth and test these findings in vivo. RESULTS: EOMA cells are a validated model that generates endothelial cell tumors when injected subcutaneously into syngeneic (129P/3) mice...
October 5, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Christian Brix Folsted Andersen, Kristian Stødkilde, Kirstine Lindhart Sæderup, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
SIGNIFICANCE: Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant human plasma protein that tightly captures hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis. The Hb-Hp complex formation reduces the oxidative properties of heme/Hb and promotes recognition by the macrophage receptor CD163. This leads to Hb-Hp breakdown and heme catabolism by heme oxygenase. Gene duplications of a part of or the entire Hp gene in the primate evolution has led to variant Hp gene products that collectively may be designated 'the haptoglobins' as they all bind Hb...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xiao-Jing Shi, Lina Ding, Wenjuan Zhou, Yage Ji, Junwei Wang, Huimin Wang, Yongcheng Ma, Guozhong Jiang, Kai Tang, Yu Ke, Wen Zhao, Hong-Min Liu
AIMS: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is an aggressive malignancy and the most common solid tumor of gastrointestinal tract all over the world, with high incidence in Asia. The current study was designed to investigate the anticancer efficacy and mechanism which is involved in the action of a natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, JDA-202, targeting EC. RESULTS: We found that an anti-oxidant protein peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) was upregulated in human EC tissues as well as in EC cell lines...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Rhoda Elison Hirsch, Nathawut Sibmooh, Suthat Fucharoen, Joel M Friedman
Oxidative stress and the generation of free radicals are fundamental in initiating pathophysiological mechanisms leading to an inflammatory cascade resulting in high rates of morbidity and death from many inherited point mutation derived hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobin (Hb)E is the most common point mutation worldwide. The β<sup>E</sup>-globin gene is found in greatest frequency in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. With the wave of worldwide migration, it is entering the gene pool of diverse populations with greater consequences than expected...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Zhaokang Yang, Hannah Kirton, Moza Al-Owais, Jerôme Thireau, Sylvain Richard, Derek Steele, Chris Peers
AIMS: In the heart, β<sub>1</sub>-adrenergic signaling involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) acting via both protein kinase-A (PKA) and 'exchange protein directly activated by cAMP' (Epac): a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap1. Inhibition of Epac-Rap1 signaling has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for both cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, previous work suggests that impaired Rap1 signaling may have detrimental effects on cardiac function...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Brandon Jon Reeder
<i>Significance:</i> Erythrocyte hemoglobin and myocyte myoglobin, although primarily oxygen carrying proteins, have the capacity to do redox chemistry. Such redox activity in the wider family of globins now appears to have important associations with the mechanisms of cell stress response. In turn an understanding of such mechanisms <i>in vivo</i> may have a potential in the understanding of cancer therapy resistance and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. <i>Recent Advances:</i> There has been an enhanced understanding of the redox chemistry of the globin superfamily in recent years, leading to advances in development of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and in hypotheses relating to specific disease mechanisms...
September 16, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Benjamin I Silbert, Kwok M Ho, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts, Tomas B Corcoran, David J Morgan, Warren Pavey, Emilie Mas, Anne E Barden, Trevor A Mori
Furosemide, a loop diuretic, is used to increase urine output in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). It remains uncertain whether the benefits of furosemide in AKI outweigh its potential harms. We investigated if furosemide influenced oxidative stress in 30 critically ill patients with AKI by measuring changes in F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), markers of in vivo oxidative stress, in plasma and urine following intravenous furosemide. Urine F2-IsoPs were higher in sepsis (p = 0.001) and increased in proportion to urine furosemide (p = 0...
September 15, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Alessandra Giorgi, Laura Di Francesco, Eugenia Schinina, Raffaella Coccia, Andrea Arena, Elizabeth Head, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
AIMS: Among the putative mechanisms proposed to be common factors in Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology, deficits in protein quality control have emerged as a unifying mechanism of neurodegeneration. Considering that disturbance of protein degradative systems are present in DS and that oxidized/misfolded proteins require poly-ubiquitinylation for degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), this study investigated if dysregulation of protein poly-ubiquitinylation is associated with AD neurodegeneration in DS...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Michael Brad Strader, Abdu I Alayash
SIGNIFICANCE: Worldwide demand has driven the development of hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) as potential acellular oxygen therapeutics. HBOCs have the potential to provide an oxygen bridge to patients and minimize current problems associated with supply and storage of donated blood. However, to date, safety and efficacy issues have hampered the approval of viable HBOCs in the United States. These previous efforts have underscored the need for a better molecular understanding of toxicity in order to design safe and oxidatively stable HBOCs...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
SIGNIFICANCE: Alzheimer disease (AD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that represents the most disabling condition in the aged, shares many features of insulin resistance diseases, suggesting AD can be considered a metabolic disease, characterized by reduced insulin signaling, increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired energy metabolism, and altered protein homeostasis. RECENT ADVANCES: Reduced glucose utilization and energy metabolism in AD has been associated with accumulation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau, increased oxidative stress, and accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Pushpankur Ghoshal, Bhupesh Singla, Huiping Lin, Douglas M Feck, Nadiezhda Cantu-Medellin, Eric E Kelley, Stephen Haigh, David Fulton, Gábor Csányi
AIMS: Internalization of extracellular fluid and its solute by macropinocytosis requires dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton, membrane ruffling, and formation of large endocytic vacuolar compartments, called macropinosomes, inside the cell. Although instigators of macropinocytosis, such as growth factors and phorbol esters, stimulate NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation and signal transduction mediators upstream of Nox assembly, including Rac1 and protein kinase C (PKC), are involved in macropinocytosis, the role of Nox enzymes in macropinocytosis has never been investigated...
September 13, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sehwan Jang, Taber S Lewis, Corey Powers, Zaza Khuchua, Christopher P Baines, Peter Wipf, Sabzali Javadov
<b>Aims:</b> Mitochondrial supercomplexes (SCs) are the large supramolecular assembly of individual electron transport chain (ETC) complexes that apparently provide highly efficient ATP synthesis and reduce electron leakage and ROS production. Oxidative stress during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) can result in degradation of SCs through oxidation of cardiolipin. Also, IR induces calcium overload, and enhances reactive oxygen species (mitROS) in mitochondria that result in the opening of the non-selective permeability transition pores (PTP)...
September 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Han-Chen Lin, Shin-Yun Liu, Er-Yen Yen, Tsai-Kun Li, I-Rue Lai
AIMS: Ischemic postconditioning (iPoC) is known to mitigates ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of the liver, the mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. This study explored the role of microRNA-183 (miR-183) in the protective mechanism of iPoC. RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed miR-183 was robustly expressed in rats' livers with iPoC. MiR-183 repressed the mRNA expression of Apaf-1 which is an apoptosis promoting factor. Using an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injury model in Clone 9 cells, hypoxic postconditioning (HPoC) and an miR-183 mimetic significantly decreased cell death after OGD, but miR-183 inhibitors eliminated the protection of HPoC...
August 31, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Daniele Pastori, Roberto Carnevale, Danilo Menichelli, Simona Bartimoccia, Cristina Nocella, Isabella Leo, Marta Novo, Francesco Violi, Pasquale Pignatelli
Mediterranean Diet (Med-Diet) is associated with reduced incidence of vascular events (VEs) in atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanism accounting for its beneficial effect is only partially known. We hypothesized that Med-Diet may reduce VEs by improving antioxidant status, as assessed by glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). We performed a prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between adherence to Med-Diet, serum baseline GPx3 and SOD activities, and the occurrence of vascular events (VEs) in 690 AF patients...
August 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Schohraya Spahis, Edgard Delvin, Jean-Michel Borys, Emile Levy
SIGNIFICANCE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by liver triacylglycerol build-up, has been growing in the global world in concert with the raised prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Redox imbalance has been suggested to be highly relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. RECENT ADVANCES: As a major health problem, NAFLD progresses to the more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) condition and predisposes susceptible individuals to liver and cardiovascular disease...
August 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Diana Klein, Jennifer Steens, Alina Wiesemann, Florian Christoph Schulz, Farnusch Kaschani, Katharina Roeck, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Florian Wirsdörfer, Markus Kaiser, Jens Fischer, Martin Stuschke, Verena Jendrossek
AIMS: Radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is closely linked to endothelial cell (EC) damage and dysfunction (acute effects). However, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced adverse late effects with respect to the vascular compartment remain elusive and no causative radioprotective treatment is available to date. RESULTS: The importance of injury to EC for radiation-induced late toxicity in lungs after whole thorax irradiation (WTI) was investigated using a mouse model of radiation-induced pneumopathy...
August 29, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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