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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Li Liu, Wenxuan Hong, Min Li, Haozhen Ren, Jinglin Wang, Huihui Xu, Xiaolei Shi, Yong Xu
AIMS: Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes in response to excessive nutrients and the ensuing liver damages caused by ROS constitute a key pathophysiological basis for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, we investigated the epigenetic mechanism underlying ROS production in NASH pathogenesis. RESULTS: NASH was induced by feeding the mice with a methionine-and-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Compared to the control mice (WT), mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Brg1 (HepcKO), a core component of the mammalian chromatin remodeling complex, developed a less severe form of NASH when fed on the MCD diet...
June 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Kyung-Ran Park, Hyung-Mun Yun, In Jun Yeo, Sehyung Cho, Jin Tae Hong, Yong Seok Jeong
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that regulate redox balance that are critical for maintaining the cellular potential for self-renewal and stemness. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach in tissue reconstruction. However, to obtain functional cells for use in clinical applications, stem cell technology still requires improvements. RESULTS: In this study, we found that PRDX6 levels were decreased during osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
June 29, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xu Cao, Lei Ding, Zhi-Zhong Xie, Yong Yang, Matthew Whiteman, Philip K Moore, Jin-Song Bian
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been recognized as the third gaseous transmitter alongside nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated an active role of H2 S in the context of cancer biology. Recent Advances: The three H2 S-producing enzymes, namely cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), have been found to be highly expressed in numerous types of cancer. Moreover, inhibition of CBS has shown anti-tumor activity, particularly in colon cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer, whereas the consequence of CSE or 3MST inhibition remains largely unexplored in cancer cells...
June 29, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Susheel Kumar Nethi, Ayan Kumar Barui, Sudip Mukherjee, Chittaranjan R Patra
SIGNIFICANCE: Redox signaling plays a vital role in regulating various cellular signaling pathways and disease biology. Recently, nanomedicine (application of nanotechnology in biology and medicine) has been demonstrated to regulate angiogenesis through redox signaling. A complete understanding of redox signaling pathways influenced angiogenesis/ anti-angiogenesis triggered by therapeutic nanoparticles is extensively reviewed in this article. Recent Advances: In recent times, nanomedicines are regarded as the trojan horses that could be employed for successful drug delivery, gene delivery, peptide delivery, disease diagnosis etc conquering barriers associated with conventional theranostic approaches...
June 26, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Francesca Giampieri, Sadia Afrin, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Danila Cianciosi, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Alfonso Varela-Lopez, Jose L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
SIGNIFICANCE: In eukaryotes, autophagy represents a highly evolutionary conserved process, through which macromolecules and cytoplasmic material are degraded into lysosomes and recycled for biosynthetic or energetic purposes. Dysfunction of the autophagic process has been associated with the onset and development of many human chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Recent Advances: Currently, comprehensive research is being carried out to discover new therapeutic agents able to modulate the autophagic process in vivo...
June 26, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Amanda Kristiansson, Jonas Ahlstedt, Bo Holmqvist, Anders Brinte, Thuy A Tran, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Sven-Erik Strand, Magnus G Gram, Bo Åkerström
AIMS: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is in clinical use today to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Infused radiolabeled somatostatin analogue peptides targets the tumors which are killed by irradiation damage. The peptides, however, are also retained in the kidneys due to glomerular filtration, and the administered doses must be limited to avoid kidney damage. The human radical scavenger and antioxidant α1-microglobulin (A1M) has previously been shown to protect bystander tissue against irradiation damage, and has pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties similar to somatostatin analogues...
June 26, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yi Xiao, David Meierhofer
Detection and quantification of the highly reactive and short-lived superoxide (O• 2 - ) can be challenging. Here, we present a new mass spectrometry (MS)-based method to detect and quantify O• 2 - using three fluorogenic hydroethidine probes: hydroethidine (HE), mito-hydroethidine (mito-HE), and hydropropidine (HPr+ ), which measure cytosolic, mitochondrial, and extracellular O• 2 - , respectively. The probes and their oxidation products were simultaneously quantified by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with MS that allowed the specific measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution within the cell...
June 22, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Assam El-Osta
Diabetes is the disease of our time. It is a complex disorder. It is increasingly appreciated that genetic factors cannot fully explain susceptibility to diabetes and its complications. For almost a decade, the epigenetics field has grown tremendously becoming an alternative but integral component of how we interpret gene regulation. Some consider the field an epiphenomenon with an evidence base awaiting critical testing. The advent of experimental tools combined with the development of research methods has brought with the field technological advancements that allow scientists to assess ideas that have not yet been tested critically...
June 22, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ines Batinic-Haberle, Artak Tovmasyan, Ivan Spasojevic
SIGNIFICANCE: After ~3 decades of research, two Mn(III) porphyrins(MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010,AEOL10113) and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001) have progressed to 5 clinical trials. In parallel, another similarly potent metal-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic - Mn(II)pentaaza macrocycle, GC4419 - has been tested in clinical trial on application, identical to that one of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ - radioprotection of normal tissue in Head and Neck cancer patients. This clearly indicates that Mn complexes, that target cellular redox environment, have reached sufficient maturity for clinical applications...
June 21, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Petr Heneberg
SIGNIFICANCE: Hexokinases are key enzymes that are responsible for the first reaction of glycolysis, but they also moonlight other cellular processes, including mitochondrial redox signaling regulation. Modulation of hexokinase activity and spatiotemporal location by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as other gasotransmitters serves as the basis for a unique, underexplored method of tight and flexible regulation of these fundamental enzymes. Recent Advances: Redox modifications of thiols serve as a molecular code that enables the precise and complex regulation of hexokinases...
June 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Joost van den Born, Anne M Koning, Anne-Roos Frenay, Matthias Bachtler, Ineke Riphagen, Isidor Minovic, Martin Feelisch, Marinda Dekker, Marian Bulthuis, Ron Gansevoort, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Andreas Pasch, Stephan Bakker, Harry van Goor
Thiosulfate and sulfate are natural dietary constituents, as well as oxidative metabolites of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule with cardiovascular protective properties. Urinary thiosulfate and sulfate excretion are associated with favorable disease outcome in high-risk patients. In our large, general population based cohort neither thiosulfate, nor sulfate excretion is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. However, sulfate, but not thiosulfate, excretion, is inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality...
June 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jean-Philippe Deglasse, Leticia Prates Roma, Daniel Pastor-Flores, Patrick Gilon, Tobias P Dick, Jean-Christophe Jonas
AIMS: Whether H2 O2 contributes to the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β cells is highly controversial. We used two H2 O2 -sensitive probes, roGFP2-Orp1 (reduction/oxidation-sensitive enhanced green fluorescent protein fused to oxidant receptor peroxidase 1) and HyPer (hydrogen peroxide sensor) with its pH-control SypHer, to test the acute effects of glucose, monomethyl succinate, leucine with glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate on β cell cytosolic and mitochondrial H2 O2 concentrations...
June 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Ze Liu, Hao Li, Jianqun Su, Shihui Xu, Fengxin Zhu, Jun Ai, Zheng Hu, Miaomiao Zhou, Jianwei Tian, Zhiyuan Su, Peiliang Yang, Jing Nie
AIMS: Mitochondrial fragmentation is a crucial mechanism contributing to tubular cell apoptosis during acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the mechanism of modulating mitochondrial dynamics during AKI remains unclear. Numb is a multifunction adaptor protein that is expressed in renal tubules. The aim of the present study is to study the role of Numb in mitochondrial dysfunction during AKI. RESULTS: The expression of Numb was upregulated in both ischemia-reperfusion- and cisplatin-induced AKI...
June 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Elena Popugaeva, Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Ilya Bezprozvanny
SIGNIFICANCE: Calcium (Ca2+) hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) gains popularity. It points to new signaling pathways that may underlie AD pathogenesis. Based on calcium hypothesis novel targets for the development of potential AD therapies are identified. Recent Advances: Recently the key role of neuronal store-operated calcium entry (nSOCE) in the development of AD has been described. Correct regulation of nSOCE is necessary for the stability of postsynaptic contacts to preserve the memory formation...
June 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xin Guo, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Naoki Ishii, Takujiro Homma, Taiji Hamada, Tsubasa Hiraki, Jing Zhang, Kei Matsuo, Seiya Yokoyama, Hiroaki Ishibashi, Tomoko Fukushige, Takuro Kanekura, Junichi Fujii, Hidetaka Uramoto, Akihide Tanimoto, Sohsuke Yamada
AIMS: Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes. Previously, we reported that PRDX4 can restrain the initiation and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by reducing local and systemic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oxidative stress is recognized as a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis, and a high ROS level has also been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, our aim is to investigate roles of PRDX4 in the initiation and progression of HCC...
June 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
David Young, Brandan Pedre, Daria Ezeriņa, Barbara De Smet, Aleksandra Lewandowska, Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Nandita Bodra, Jingjing Huang, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Frank Van Breusegem, Joris Messens
SIGNIFICANCE: Decrypting the cellular response to oxidative stress relies on a comprehensive understanding of the redox signaling pathways stimulated under oxidizing conditions. Redox signaling events can be divided into upstream sensing of oxidants, midstream redox signaling of protein function, and downstream transcriptional redox regulation. Recent Advances: A more and more accepted theory of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) signaling is that of a thiol peroxidase redox relay, whereby protein thiols with low reactivity toward H2 O2 are instead oxidized through an oxidative relay with thiol peroxidases...
June 6, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jingnan Zhang, Xiangpei Yue, Hongjun Luo, Wenjing Jiang, Yufei Mei, Li Ai, Ge Gao, Yan Wu, Hui Yang, Jieran An, Shumao Ding, Xu Yang, Bingui Sun, Wenhong Luo, Rongqiao He, Jianping Jia, Jihui Lyu, Zhiqian Tong
AIMS: Pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not resulted in desirable clinical efficacy over 100 years. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive and the most stable compound of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributes to oxidative stress in AD patients. Here, we designed a medical device to emit red light at 630±15 nm from a light-emitting diode (LED-RL) and investigated whether the LED-RL reduces brain H2O2 levels and improves memory in senescence-accelerated prone 8 mouse (SAMP8) model of age-related dementia...
June 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion, as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the ER and GA...
June 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Francesca Iannantuoni, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Irene Escribano-Lopez, Eva Sola, Ildefonso Roldan-Torres, Nadezda Apostolova, Celia Bañuls, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Milagros Rocha, Victor M Victor
Since mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with NLRP3 activation in type 2 diabetes (T2D), which can eventually lead to an impaired immune response, we set out to determine if glycaemic control modulates the effects of T2D on the NLRP3 inflammasome. We have studied leukocytes from 61 diabetic patients (25 with HbA1c≤7% and 36 with HbA1c≥8%) and 40 healthy controls. Total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was enhanced in T2D patients, and mitochondrial ROS was more pronounced in those with poor glycaemic control...
June 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Shazib Pervaiz
Cellular redox state is a consequence of the balance between the rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) species and their dissipation via enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox buffering systems. Whilst low levels of oscillation are associated with normal cellular metabolism, stimuli that favor a significant shift in the redox microenvironment, through either the increased production and/or compromise of the anti-oxidant defenses, induce overt oxidative stress. This change in the redox set point triggers a host of cellular responses ranging from modifications in cellular macromolecules, organelle morphology and physiology, amplified cell-to-cell and intra-cellular signaling and changes in genome, epigenome and proteome...
May 30, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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