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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326819/inflammation-and-nitrosative-stress-effects-in-ovarian-and-prostate-pathology-and-carcinogenesis
#1
Amy J Burke, Pablo Garrido, Carol Johnson, Francis J Sullivan, Sharon A Glynn
SIGNIFICANCE: Prostate and ovarian cancers are major contributors to cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recently, inflammation and nitrosative stress have been implicated in carcinogenesis, with the overexpression of NOS2 and concomitant release of nitric oxide (NO) associated with cancer initiation and progression. Recent Advances: An increasing body of evidence indicates an association between NOS2 expression and aggressive ovarian cancer. Research also indicates a role for NO in prostate disease pathology and prostate cancer...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325081/lipid-deposition-in-kidney-diseases-interplay-among-redox-lipid-mediators-and-renal-impairment
#2
Hua Su, Cheng Wan, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun-Yun Zhang, Chen Ye, Hui Tang, Yue Qiu, Chun Zhang
Lipids encompass a large variety of molecules representing a highly efficient energy resource and forming structural components of membranes or signaling molecules that regulate diverse cellular events underlying not only physiological homeostatic processes but also undesirable pathogenic outcomes. The relationship between lipid disturbances and renal diseases has been studied for several decades, and it is well-recognized that when the balance of renal lipid uptake, synthesis, oxidation and outflow is disrupted, lipids will undergo oxidation, be sequestrated as lipid droplets, generate toxic metabolites and cause nephrotoxicity in diverse renal diseases...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325059/lysophospholipids-and-their-receptors-serve-as-conditional-damps-and-damp-receptors-in-tissue-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury
#3
Ying Shao, Gayani Nanayakkara, Jiali Cheng, Ramon Cueto, William Y Yang, Joon-Young Park, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
SIGNIFICANCE: We proposed LPLs and LPL-GPCRs as conditional DAMPs and conditional DAMP receptors as a paradigm shift to the widely accepted classical DAMP and DAMP receptor model. Recent Advances: The aberrant levels of LPLs and GPCRs activate pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways, trigger innate immune response and lead to tissue oxidative and inflammatory injury. CRITICAL ISSUES: Classical DAMPs model specify only the endogenous metabolites that are released from damaged/ dying cells as DAMPs but fails to identify elevated endogenous metabolites secreted from viable/ live cells during pathologies as DAMPs...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322600/renal-mitochondrial-response-to-low-temperature-in-non-hibernating-and-hibernating-species
#4
George J Dugbartey, Maarten C Hardenberg, Wendelinde F Kok, Ate Boerema, Hannah V Carey, James Staples, Robert H Henning, Hjalmar Bouma
SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly applied to limit ischemic injury in organ transplantation, during cardiac and brain surgery and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In these procedures, the kidneys are particularly at risk for ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), likely due to their high rate of metabolism. Although hypothermia mitigates ischemic kidney injury, it is not a panacea. Residual mitochondrial failure is thought to be a key event triggering loss of cellular homeostasis, and potentially cell death...
March 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158949/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-deficiency-exacerbates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-increased-mitochondrial-damage-and-renal-cell-death
#5
Mi Ra Noh, Ki Young Kim, Sang Jun Han, Jee In Kim, Hwa-Young Kim, Kwon Moo Park
AIMS: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which is abundantly localized in the mitochondria, reduces methionine-S-sulfoxide, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, accumulates at high levels in the mitochondria of renal cells, causing mitochondrial impairment that ultimately leads to nephrotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of MsrA in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial damage and kidney cell death using MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA(-/-)) mice. RESULTS: Cisplatin injection resulted in increases of ROS production, methionine oxidation, and oxidative damage in the kidneys...
March 20, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314376/electrochemical-quantification-of-extracellular-local-h2o2-kinetics-originating-from-single-cells
#6
Monika Bozem, Phillip Knapp, Valentin Mirceski, Ewa Slowik, Ivan Bogeski, Reinhard Kappl, Christian Heinemann, Markus Hoth
AIMS: H2O2 is produced by all eukaryotic cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Due to its enormous relevance for cell signaling at low concentrations and anti-pathogenic function at high concentrations, precise quantification of extracellular local H2O2 concentrations ([H2O2]) originating from single cells is required. RESULTS: Using a scanning electrochemical microscope and bare platinum disk ultramicroelectrodes, we established sensitive long term measurements of extracellular [H2O2] kinetics originating from single primary human monocytes ex vivo...
March 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301954/the-role-of-bacillithiol-in-gram-positive-firmicutes
#7
Pete Chandrangsu, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann, John D Helmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Since the discovery and structural characterization of bacillithiol (BSH), the biochemical functions of BSH-biosynthesis enzymes (BshA/B/C) and BSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (FosB, Bst, GlxA/B) have been explored in Bacillus and Staphylococcus species. It was shown that BSH plays an important role in detoxification of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species, alkylating agents, toxins and antibiotics. Recent Advances: More recently, new functions of BSH were discovered in metal homeostasis (Zn buffering, FeS-cluster and copper homeostasis) and virulence control in Staphylococcus aureus...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298143/p450-eicosanoids-and-ros-interplay-in-brain-injury-and-neuroprotection
#8
Xuehong Liu, Catherine M Davis, Nabil J Alkayed
<b>Significance</b>. Eicosanoids are endogenous lipid mediators that play important roles in brain function and disease. Acute brain injury such as that occurs in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the formation of eicosanoids, which in return exacerbate or diminish injury. In chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), eicosanoid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes are altered, disrupting the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic eicosanoids...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292196/nitration-of-trpm2-as-a-molecular-switch-induces-autophagy-during-brain-pericyte-injury
#9
Quan Jiang, Yinping Gao, Chengkun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yan Wu, Kaiyu Zhan, Mei-Hua Liao, Nannan Lu, Ying-Mei Lu, Christopher Stuart Wilcox, Jianhong Luo, Lin-Hua Jiang, Wei Yang, Feng Han
AIMS: Dysfunction of neurovascular pericytes underlies breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the role of the TRPM2 channel and autophagy during brain pericyte injury in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: A rapid induction in autophagy in human brain vascular pericytes, in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP)-induced cell stress model, was paralleled with an increase in the expression of the TRPM2-S truncated isoform, which was abolished by treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and peroxynitrite scavenger...
March 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288516/the-evolving-role-of-diverse-gaseous-transmitters-mediating-heterocellular-communication-within-the-vasculature
#10
Alex Keller, Brant Isakson
Heterocellular communication between different cell types of the vasculature, both within the blood vessel wall and cells interacting with the blood vessel wall, is absolutely vital and must bet tightly regulated. In this forum issue, the role of four different gaseous transmitters (nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and superoxide (O2·-)) are examined by four different research groups in detail, with 2 original articles and 2 reviews of the literature. In this editorial, we discuss how each of them may contribute their own component to heterocellular signaling in the vasculature...
March 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158956/cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-induces-runt-related-transcription-factor-2-sulfhydration-thereby-increasing-osteoblast-activity-to-promote-bone-fracture-healing
#11
Yang Zheng, Feng Liao, Xianjuan Lin, Fengjiao Zheng, Jinghui Fan, Qinghua Cui, Jichun Yang, Bin Geng, Jun Cai
AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an essential role in bone formation, in part, by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, maintaining mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis ability, or reducing osteoblast injury. We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in osteoblast function and its possible molecular target. RESULTS: In this study, we found that cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) majorly contributed to endogenous H2S production in the primary osteoblast. Overexpressed CSE increased osteoblast differentiation and maturation with higher bone morphogenetic protein 2 and osteopontin expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium nodule formation; in contrast, knockdown of CSE had opposite effects...
March 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279074/oxidized-derivatives-of-linoleic-acid-in-pediatric-metabolic-syndrome-is-their-pathogenic-role-modulated-by-the-genetic-background-and-the-gut-microbiota
#12
Domenico Trico, Anna Di Sessa, Sonia Caprio, Naga Chalasani, Wanqing Liu, Tiebing Liang, Joerg Graf, Raimund Herzog, Casey D Johnson, Giuseoppina Rosaria Umano, Ariel Feldstein, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We tested whether oxidized metabolites of linoleic acid (OXLAM) are associated with pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profile in 122 obese adolescents. Furthermore, we examined whether genetic and metagenomic factors can modulate plasma OXLAM concentrations by genotyping the Fatty Acid Desaturase 1/2 (FADS) gene and by characterizing the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Subjects with MetS (n=50) showed higher concentrations of 9- and 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-oxo-ODE) than subjects without MetS (n=72)...
March 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276697/the-crosstalk-between-sphingomyelinases-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mycobacterial-infection
#13
Yuqing Wu, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassme
SIGNIFICANCE: Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most important infections worldwide. The sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which has been shown to be a crucial factor in internalizing and killing various pathogens, modulates both the pro-inflammatory response and the state of mycobacteria in macrophages. However, studies about the role of sphingomyelinases in TB are still at an early stage. Recent Advances: Recent studies elucidated several roles of sphingomyelinases in manipulating mycobacterial infections...
March 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186440/britanin-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inducing-the-nrf2-protective-pathway
#14
Guozhen Wu, Lili Zhu, Xing Yuan, Hao Chen, Rui Xiong, Shoude Zhang, Hao Cheng, Yunheng Shen, Huazhang An, Tiejun Li, Honglin Li, Weidong Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress is considered the major cause of tissue injury after cerebral ischemia. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative stresses and has been confirmed as a target for stroke treatment. Thus, we desired to find new Nrf2 activators and test their neuronal protective activity both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: The herb-derived compound, Britanin, is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 system...
March 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135838/novel-role-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-fus1-in-protection-from-premature-hearing-loss-via-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-nutrient-and-energy-sensing-pathways-in-the-inner-ear
#15
Winston J T Tan, Lei Song, Morven Graham, Amy Schettino, Dhasakumar Navaratnam, Wendell G Yarbrough, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Alla V Ivanova
AIMS: Acquired hearing loss is a worldwide epidemic that affects all ages. It is multifactorial in etiology with poorly characterized molecular mechanisms. Mitochondria are critical components in hearing. Here, we aimed to identify the mechanisms of mitochondria-dependent hearing loss using Fus1 KO mice, our novel model of mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress. RESULTS: Using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), we characterized the Fus1 KO mouse as a novel, clinically relevant model of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) of metabolic etiology...
March 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269997/pgc-1%C3%AE-downregulation-in-the-steatotic-liver-enhances-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-impairs-ischemic-preconditioning
#16
Cristina Sánchez Ramos, Ignacio Prieto, Alberto Tierrez, Javier Laso, M Pilar Valdecantos, Ramón Bartrons, Joan Rosello-Catafau, Maria Monsalve
AIMS: Liver steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels together with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and limited response to preconditioning protocols. Here, we sought to determine whether the downregulation in the steatotic liver of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and ROS that is known to play a role in liver metabolic control, could be responsible for the sensitivity of steatotic liver to ischemic damage...
March 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264587/ros-mediated-loss-of-synaptic-akt1-signaling-leads-to-deficient-activity-dependent-protein-translation-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Faraz Ahmad, Kunal Singh, Debajyoti Das, Ruturaj Gowaikar, Eisha Shaw, Arathy Ramachandran, Khader Valli Rupanagudi, Reddy Peera Kommaddi, David A Bennett, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
AIMS: Synaptic deficits are known to underlie the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by β-amyloid has also been implicated in AD pathogenesis. However, it is unclear if ROS contributes to synaptic dysfunction seen in AD pathogenesis and therefore, we examined if altered redox signaling could contribute to synaptic deficits in AD. RESULTS: Activity-dependent but not basal translation was impaired in synaptoneurosomes from 1 month old presymptomatic APPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and this deficit was sustained till middle age (9-10 months)...
March 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257621/the-heme-oxygenase-system-in-hematological-malignancies
#18
Giovanni Li Volti, Daniele Tibullo, Luca Vanella, Cesarina Giallongo, Francesco Di Raimondo, Stefano Forte, Michelino Di Rosa, Salvatore S Signorelli, Ignazio Barbagallo
SIGNIFICANCE: Several lines of evidence suggest that hematological malignancies exhibit an altered redox balance homeostasis that can lead to the activation of various survival pathways that, in turn, lead to the progression of disease and chemoresistance. Among these pathways, the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is likely to play a major role. HO is an enzyme that catalyzes regio-selective, oxidative degradation of heme with the simultaneous release of carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous iron (Fe2+), and biliverdin, which is reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase...
March 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253732/the-indirubin-derivative-6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-6bio-activates-proteostatic-modules-reprograms-cellular-bioenergetics-pathways-and-exerts-anti-aging-effects
#19
Eleni Tsakiri, Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Kalliopi Iliaki, Job Tchoumtchoua, Eleni-Dimitra Papanagnou, Sofia Chatzigeorgiou, Konstantinos Tallas, Emmanuel Mikros, Maria Halabalaki, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Ioannis P Trougakos
AIMS: Organismal aging can be delayed by mutations that either activate stress responses or reduce the nutrients sensing pathways signaling; thus, by using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo experimental screening platform we searched for compounds that modulate these pathways. RESULTS: We noted that oral administration of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk-3) inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (6BIO) in Drosophila flies extended healthy lifespan. 6BIO is not metabolized in flies' tissues; modulated bioenergetic pathways, decreased lipid and glucose tissues' load, activated antioxidant and proteostatic modules and enhanced resistance to stressors...
March 2, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253731/age-dependent-allergic-asthma-development-and-cystathionine-gamma-lyase-deficiency
#20
Peipei Wang, Lingyun Wu, Youngjun Ju, Ming Fu, Tian Shuang, Zhong Ming Qian, Rui Wang
<b>Aims:</b> Allergic asthma is more prevalent in children than in adults, for which the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that age-dependent expression of H2S-generating enzyme, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), underlies age-dependent development of allergic asthma. <b>Results:</b> Allergic asthma was induced with ovalbumin in wild-type (WT) and CSE knock-out (KO) mice at young and old ages. Young WT mice developed more severe asthmatic symptoms with higher type-2 immunoreaction than old WT mice, which resulted from lower levels of CSE expression and H2S production in immune cells of young WT mice than in old WT animals...
March 2, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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