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Current Gastroenterology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173321/pediatric-endoscopic-procedure-complications
#1
REVIEW
Thomas M Attard, Anne-Marie Grima, Mike Thomson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current body of research, define high-risk patients and endoscopic processes, and outline evidence-based countermeasures aimed at minimizing the incidence of complications during endoscopy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant complications of endoscopy requiring emergency department or inpatient admission in otherwise healthy children are unusual, but more common with therapeutic procedures; risk from procedures increases incrementally with preoperative coexisting conditions...
September 1, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159792/imaging-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Rishi Philip Mathew, Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current imaging techniques for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis (LF). RECENT FINDINGS: Elastography-based techniques are the most widely used imaging methods for the evaluation of LF. Currently, MR elastography (MRE) is the most accurate non-invasive method for detection and staging of LF. Ultrasound-based vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) is the most widely used as it can be easily performed at the point of care but has technical limitations especially in the obese...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159690/bowel-dysfunction-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Zhengyan Qi, James W Middleton, Allison Malcolm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate and report current evidence regarding the management of bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury. There is a paucity of high-quality large studies on which to base management advice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has focused on defining the nature of symptomatology of bowel dysfunction in SCI and describing the effects on quality of life and social interactions. Technical aspects of colonoscopy have received attention, and aspects of understanding the pathophysiology in relation to both neural and non-neural dysfunction have been studied...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159612/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-children-and-adults-what-is-new-in-2018
#4
REVIEW
Katja Kovacic, Manu Sood, Thangam Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by severe vomiting episodes that alternate with symptom-free periods. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge and highlight most recent data on prevalence, diagnosis, management, and impact of CVS in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Originally thought to be a pediatric disorder, the past decade has witnessed a considerable increase in CVS diagnosed in adults...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083892/post-transplant-disease-recurrence-in-pediatric-psc
#5
REVIEW
Nisreen Soufi, Fateh Bazerbachi, Mark Deneau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review the current knowledge about recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) after transplant in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Recurrent PSC is a significant complication that afflicts 16% of children after liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at a median onset of 38 months post-transplant. Possible risk factors include younger age at PSC diagnosis or transplant, the presence of overlap syndrome or IBD, and post-transplant induction with thymoglobulin...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079434/the-relevance-of-spastic-esophageal-disorders-as-a-diagnostic-category
#6
REVIEW
Michelle P Clermont, Nitin K Ahuja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses the similarities and differences between the spastic esophageal disorders, including jackhammer esophagus, distal esophageal spasm (DES), and type III (spastic) achalasia. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of each separate disorder are discussed herein, with an emphasis on overlapping and discordant features. RECENT FINDINGS: The Chicago Classification is a hierarchical organizational scheme for esophageal motility disorders, currently in its third iteration, with direct impact on the definitions of these three disorders...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079433/small-bowel-lesions-mimicking-crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
David B Sachar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Not all injuries of the terminal ileum are Crohn's disease. It is the purpose of this review to consider the differential diagnosis of other acute and chronic ileal lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: The recognition of a granulomatous disease of the terminal ileum, distinct from tuberculosis, dates back over 85 years and perhaps much farther, but over the past decades, many other clinical pathologic entities have been described that are neither tuberculosis nor Crohn's eponymous regional enteritis...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078085/can-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-deliver-benefit-originally-expected-from-fish-oil
#8
REVIEW
Martin D Rosenthal, Jayshil Patel, Kyle Staton, Robert G Martindale, Frederick A Moore, Gilbert R Upchurch
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Fish oil (FO) supplementation has historically been used by individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory processes. However, a meta-analysis of several large randomized control trials (RCTs) suggested FO conferred no benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk. Skeptics surmised that the lack of benefit was related to FO dose or drug interactions; therefore, the widely accepted practice of FO consumption was brought into question. RECENT FINDINGS: Thereafter, Serhan et al...
August 4, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078058/evolution-of-clinical-trials-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the first clinical trial of cortisone in ulcerative colitis in 1955, remarkable progress has been made in the design and conduct of clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this review article, we will discuss evolution of clinical trials in IBD over the last 3-5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Recognizing limitations intrinsic to clinical disease activity indices in IBD, regulatory authorities have recommended evaluating co-primary endpoints of patient-reported outcomes and endoscopic disease activity in clinical trials...
August 4, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069679/the-esophageal-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Brooke Corning, Andrew P Copland, Jeanetta W Frye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigation of the esophageal microbiome is a relatively new field. This review will outline data characterizing the esophageal microbiome in both health and disease states, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, eosinophilic esophagitis, and motility disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: While the esophagus was previously considered devoid of a significant bacterial population, development of culture-independent techniques, specifically 16S rRNA gene sequencing, as well as novel, minimally invasive microbial sampling modalities, has facilitated characterization of the esophageal microbiome in both health and several disease states...
August 1, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974261/the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge-of-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#11
REVIEW
Paul Rider, John Hunter, Leander Grimm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: No single modality of care serves as the defined best practice for the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). This review aims to present the common treatment modalities germane to AIN while considering evolving evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: AIN affords an opportunity to evaluate and treat patients before the development of invasive diseases. Efforts to screen for AIN have yielded mixed results. The major available pharmacotheraputic and surgical options offer efficacious options to reduce the bioburden of disease but can be met with high levels of recurrent disease...
July 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968127/diagnosis-natural-history-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-enteritis-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Guillaume Pineton de Chambrun, Gaspard Dufour, Barbara Tassy, Benjamin Rivière, Najima Bouta, Michael Bismuth, Fabrizio Panaro, Natalie Funakoshi, Jeanne Ramos, Jean-Christophe Valats, Pierre Blanc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent findings regarding eosinophilic enteritis, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: A 2017 population-based study using a US healthcare system database identified 1820 patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis among 35,826,830 individuals. The majority of patients with eosinophilic enteritis in this study were women (57.7%), Caucasian (77.5%), and adults (> 18 years of age) (83...
July 2, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961926/de-escalation-of-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Catarina Frias Gomes, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Joana Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, inflammatory bowel disease treatment is based on immunomodulators (IM) and/or biologic as this strategy may prevent the development of irreversible damage. Nevertheless, long-term treatment may be associated with non-negligible side effects and with high costs, and therefore the question on whether therapy can be de-escalated is often posed in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown a predictable rate of relapse after stop biologic or IM therapy withdrawal...
July 2, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961911/gastric-antral-vascular-ectasia-pathogenesis-and-the-link-to-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Elliot Smith, Jessica Davis, Stephen Caldwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is a well-described source of chronic blood loss. We aim to review the previously hypothesized etiologies of GAVE and focus on recent proposed mechanisms, including metabolic syndrome. We will support these theories with newly discovered clinical associations and possible therapeutic implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, GAVE has been associated with connective tissue disease and liver disease. Based on these associations and its histologic appearance, GAVE has presumed to be caused by mechanical- and hormonally mediated injury...
July 2, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886566/mucosal-impedance-a-new-approach-to-diagnosing-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#15
REVIEW
Caroline Barrett, Yash Choksi, Michael F Vaezi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss current diagnostic testing modalities for both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and then introduce mucosal impedance (MI), a novel technology that measures epithelial integrity in real time during endoscopy. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of MI as compared with traditional diagnostic testing. RECENT FINDINGS: We review studies that demonstrate that GERD and EoE have distinct MI patterns, and that physicians can accurately diagnose and distinguish the two during endoscopy with minimal time added to the procedure...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886565/the-proton-pump-inhibitor-nonresponder-a-behavioral-approach-to-improvement-and-wellness
#16
REVIEW
Megan E Riehl, Joan W Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a difficult to treat medical condition, where nearly 40% of patients are refractory to standard medical intervention, which typically begins with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These PPI nonresponders represent a population of patients, where treatment planning must be individualized; multidisciplinary and psychiatric comorbidities should be considered. This review highlights treatment options that include neuromodulators, lifestyle, and psychological interventions for the PPI nonresponder...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886564/managing-incidental-pancreatic-cysts
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Phan, V Raman Muthusamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886561/technical-aspects-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-fmt
#18
REVIEW
N Bhutiani, J E Schucht, K R Miller, Stephen A McClave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has become established as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of antibiotic-refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. A number of formulations and methods of delivery of FMT are currently available, each with distinct advantages. This review aims to review donor and patient selection for FMT as well as procedural aspects of FMT to help guide clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: FMT can be obtained in fresh, frozen, lyophilized, and capsule-based formulations for delivery by oral ingestion, nasoenteric tube, colonoscopy, or enema (depending on the formulation used)...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886518/update-in-the-care-and-management-of-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#19
REVIEW
Mai Sedki, Cynthia Levy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease for which specific medical therapy is not available. The goals of treatment are primarily early detection and management of complications. In this review, we discuss novel therapies under evaluation and provide the foundation for surveillance strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Drugs under investigation include norursodeoxycholic acid, nuclear receptor agonists, anti-fibrotics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886513/the-role-of-therapeutic-endoscopy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-related-causes-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#20
REVIEW
Camille A Kezer, Neil Gupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to review current therapeutic endoscopic treatments available for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding related to cirrhosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endoscopic band ligation is an effective treatment for primary prophylaxis, acute bleeding, and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices as well as for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of select gastric varices. Sclerotherapy is a treatment option for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices when band ligation is technically difficult...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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