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Current Gastroenterology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406857/dietary-fiber-and-gastrointestinal-disease-an-evolving-story
#1
REVIEW
John O'Grady, Fergus Shanahan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397835/update-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-wilson-disease
#2
REVIEW
Eve A Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting developments relating to Wilson disease (WD) have taken place with respect to both basic biological and clinical research. This review critically examines some of these findings and considers their implications for current thinking about WD. It is not a comprehensive review of WD as a clinical disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: The structure of the gene product of ATP7B, abnormal in WD, is being worked out in detail, along with a broader description of how the protein ATP7B (Wilson ATPase) functions in cells including enterocytes, not only in relation to copper disposition but also to lipid synthesis...
November 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397834/new-metrics-in-high-resolution-and-high-definition-anorectal-manometry
#3
REVIEW
Myeongsook Seo, Segyeong Joo, Kee Wook Jung, Eun Mi Song, Satish S C Rao, Seung-Jae Myung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recently published diagnostic methods that use high-resolution (HR-) or high-definition- (HD-) anorectal manometry (ARM) techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The integrated pressurized volume (IPV) is a new measure based on spatiotemporal plots obtained from HR-ARM. The IPV may be clinically useful for improving the prediction of abnormal balloon expulsion test in patients with constipation and for discriminating patients with anorectal disorders from asymptomatic controls...
November 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397821/psychotropics-antidepressants-and-visceral-analgesics-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Hans Törnblom, Douglas A Drossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The functional gastrointestinal disorders, or disorders of gut-brain interaction as defined by the Rome IV criteria, are the most common diagnostic entities in gastroenterology. Treatments that address the dysregulation of gut-brain interaction with these disorders are increasingly gaining interest as a better option than for example traditional analgesics, particularly opioids. Antidepressants, antianxiety and antipsychotic medications, and visceral analgesics, now termed neuromodulators, are included in this update addressing the evidence of treatment benefit in disorders of brain-gut interaction...
November 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338390/new-approaches-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-functional-dyspepsia
#5
REVIEW
Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Hiroto Miwa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature and discuss the new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). RECENT FINDINGS: According to the recent American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guideline for dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is recommended as a first treatment option, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and prokinetics are listed as second-line therapy...
October 18, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302571/advanced-imaging-for-barrett-s-esophagus-and-early-neoplasia-surface-and-subsurface-imaging-for-diagnosis-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Mansoureh Mkarimi, Hiroshi Mashimo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal adenocarcinoma bears one of the fastest rising incidence of any cancers and generally arises in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus. However, early detection of neoplasia can be challenging since most patients are asymptomatic until they progress to more advanced and less curable stages, and early dysplastic lesions can be small, multifocal, and difficult to detect. Clearly, new imaging tools are needed in light of sampling error associated with random biopsies, the current standard of practice...
October 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267281/update-on-the-use-of-thiopurines-and-methotrexate-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Christopher M Johnson, Themistocles Dassopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increased use of biologic agents over the past two decades has led to a reappraisal of the role of the immunomodulators (thiopurines and methotrexate) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data on the use of thiopurines and methotrexate either as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy with biologic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have addressed the need for concomitant immunomodulatory therapy in treatment-naïve patients starting anti-TNF-α therapy, the appropriate dose of the immunomodulator in this setting, the minimum duration of combination therapy, and the possible mechanisms by which immunomodulators enhance the effectiveness of anti-TNF-α agents...
September 28, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259225/cellular-origins-of-barrett-s-esophagus-the-search-continues
#8
REVIEW
Horace Rhee, David H Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cellular origins of Barrett's esophagus remain elusive. In this review, we discuss the potential cellular mechanisms behind squamous to columnar metaplasia as well as the limitations of these proposed mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Several theories have been proposed, including the reprogramming of native squamous cells, repopulation from submucosal glands, contributions from circulating bone marrow-derived cells, and direct extension of gastric cells...
September 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259210/wireless-24-48-and-96-hour-or-impedance-or-oropharyngeal-prolonged-ph-monitoring-which-test-when-and-why-for-gerd
#9
REVIEW
Soojong Chae, Joel E Richter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: pH monitoring technologies are routinely utilized in practice to further evaluate symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). This is a review of the recent literature of the available pH monitoring technology and creates an algorithm in the diagnostic work up of a patient with GERD or LPR. RECENT FINDINGS: The catheter-free wireless pH monitor traditionally collects data for 48 h. Recent studies have found that extending to 96 h can be helpful in patients with conflicting results on the first 2 days of the study...
September 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259203/should-sarcopenia-increase-priority-for-transplant-or-is-it-a-contraindication
#10
REVIEW
Guido Stirnimann, Maryam Ebadi, Puneeta Tandon, Aldo J Montano-Loza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current evidence regarding the impact of sarcopenia on patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation and to determine if its presence should be considered a criterion for expedited transplantation or a contraindication for transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Sarcopenia is a negative predictor of survival in patients on a waiting list and after liver transplant. The gut-liver axis and the liver-muscle axis have been explored to understand the complex pathophysiology of sarcopenia...
September 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244334/treatment-of-nash-with-gastric-bypass
#11
REVIEW
Pichamol Jirapinyo, Christopher C Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is defined as the presence of fatty liver along with inflammation and hepatocyte injury. To date, weight loss achieved via lifestyle intervention remains the mainstay of NASH treatment. However, given the known benefit of weight loss on NASH and the known effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, several studies have explored the potential role of bariatric surgery on the treatment of NASH...
September 22, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173321/pediatric-endoscopic-procedure-complications
#12
REVIEW
Thomas M Attard, Anne-Marie Grima, Mike Thomson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current body of research, define high-risk patients and endoscopic processes, and outline evidence-based countermeasures aimed at minimizing the incidence of complications during endoscopy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant complications of endoscopy requiring emergency department or inpatient admission in otherwise healthy children are unusual, but more common with therapeutic procedures; risk from procedures increases incrementally with preoperative coexisting conditions...
September 1, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159792/imaging-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Rishi Philip Mathew, Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current imaging techniques for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis (LF). RECENT FINDINGS: Elastography-based techniques are the most widely used imaging methods for the evaluation of LF. Currently, MR elastography (MRE) is the most accurate non-invasive method for detection and staging of LF. Ultrasound-based vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) is the most widely used as it can be easily performed at the point of care but has technical limitations especially in the obese...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159690/bowel-dysfunction-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Zhengyan Qi, James W Middleton, Allison Malcolm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate and report current evidence regarding the management of bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury. There is a paucity of high-quality large studies on which to base management advice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has focused on defining the nature of symptomatology of bowel dysfunction in SCI and describing the effects on quality of life and social interactions. Technical aspects of colonoscopy have received attention, and aspects of understanding the pathophysiology in relation to both neural and non-neural dysfunction have been studied...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159612/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-children-and-adults-what-is-new-in-2018
#15
REVIEW
Katja Kovacic, Manu Sood, Thangam Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by severe vomiting episodes that alternate with symptom-free periods. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge and highlight most recent data on prevalence, diagnosis, management, and impact of CVS in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Originally thought to be a pediatric disorder, the past decade has witnessed a considerable increase in CVS diagnosed in adults...
August 29, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083892/post-transplant-disease-recurrence-in-pediatric-psc
#16
REVIEW
Nisreen Soufi, Fateh Bazerbachi, Mark Deneau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review the current knowledge about recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) after transplant in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Recurrent PSC is a significant complication that afflicts 16% of children after liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at a median onset of 38 months post-transplant. Possible risk factors include younger age at PSC diagnosis or transplant, the presence of overlap syndrome or IBD, and post-transplant induction with thymoglobulin...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079434/the-relevance-of-spastic-esophageal-disorders-as-a-diagnostic-category
#17
REVIEW
Michelle P Clermont, Nitin K Ahuja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses the similarities and differences between the spastic esophageal disorders, including jackhammer esophagus, distal esophageal spasm (DES), and type III (spastic) achalasia. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of each separate disorder are discussed herein, with an emphasis on overlapping and discordant features. RECENT FINDINGS: The Chicago Classification is a hierarchical organizational scheme for esophageal motility disorders, currently in its third iteration, with direct impact on the definitions of these three disorders...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079433/small-bowel-lesions-mimicking-crohn-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
David B Sachar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Not all injuries of the terminal ileum are Crohn's disease. It is the purpose of this review to consider the differential diagnosis of other acute and chronic ileal lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: The recognition of a granulomatous disease of the terminal ileum, distinct from tuberculosis, dates back over 85 years and perhaps much farther, but over the past decades, many other clinical pathologic entities have been described that are neither tuberculosis nor Crohn's eponymous regional enteritis...
August 6, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078085/can-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-deliver-benefit-originally-expected-from-fish-oil
#19
REVIEW
Martin D Rosenthal, Jayshil Patel, Kyle Staton, Robert G Martindale, Frederick A Moore, Gilbert R Upchurch
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Fish oil (FO) supplementation has historically been used by individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory processes. However, a meta-analysis of several large randomized control trials (RCTs) suggested FO conferred no benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk. Skeptics surmised that the lack of benefit was related to FO dose or drug interactions; therefore, the widely accepted practice of FO consumption was brought into question. RECENT FINDINGS: Thereafter, Serhan et al...
August 4, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078058/evolution-of-clinical-trials-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the first clinical trial of cortisone in ulcerative colitis in 1955, remarkable progress has been made in the design and conduct of clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this review article, we will discuss evolution of clinical trials in IBD over the last 3-5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Recognizing limitations intrinsic to clinical disease activity indices in IBD, regulatory authorities have recommended evaluating co-primary endpoints of patient-reported outcomes and endoscopic disease activity in clinical trials...
August 4, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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