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Current Gastroenterology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177550/how-to-care-for-patients-with-ea-tef-the-known-and-the-unknown
#1
REVIEW
Hayat Mousa, Usha Krishnan, Maheen Hassan, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Rachel Rosen, Frédéric Gottrand, Christophe Faure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guidelines were recently published highlighting why esophageal atresia (EA) patients are prone to complication risks, and the need for long-term follow-up. In this review, we will focus on how to investigate and treat potential complications, as well as the pros and cons of different investigative and treatment modalities, and what areas continue to need further research. RECENT FINDINGS: EA patients are at high risk for gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal strictures, and the sequela that result...
November 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159583/the-association-between-artificial-sweeteners-and-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Michelle Pearlman, Jon Obert, Lisa Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the evolution of artificial sweeteners; to examine the latest research on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the host microbiome, the gut-brain axis, glucose homeostasis, and energy consumption; and to discuss how all of these changes ultimately contribute to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Although artificial sweeteners were developed as a sugar substitute to help reduce insulin resistance and obesity, data in both animal models and humans suggest that the effects of artificial sweeteners may contribute to metabolic syndrome and the obesity epidemic...
November 21, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143891/in-search-of-the-ideal-promotility-agent-optimal-use-of-currently-available-promotility-agents-for-nutrition-therapy-of-the-critically-ill-patient
#3
REVIEW
Sarah J Diamond, Endashaw Omer, Laszlo Kiraly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition therapy is essential in the management of critically ill patients. Prokinetic agents have been used successfully to aid in the delivery of nutrition and improve feeding tolerance in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this report is to review the existing promotility agents available for use in the critically ill as well as outline the role of potential investigative drugs in order to provide a guide to the management of this difficult and important clinical dilemma...
November 16, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134293/medicinal-foods-for-functional-gi-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Brent W Acker, Brooks D Cash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in basic and clinical research involving functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). New diagnostic and biomarker procedures are helping to identify physiologic disruptions associated with FGIDs on cellular and molecular levels. Simultaneously, clinicians are using new approaches to help manage patients with FGIDs. Among these, an important component of care has been the use of medical foods. These include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, peppermint oil, caraway oil, curcumin, bovine immunoglobulin and many others...
November 13, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124370/popular-weight-loss-strategies-a-review-of-four-weight-loss-techniques
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105033/an-aerodigestive-approach-to-laryngeal-clefts-and-dysphagia-using-injection-laryngoplasty-in-young-children
#6
REVIEW
Amar Miglani, Scott Schraff, Pamela Y Clarke, Usmaan Basharat, Peter Woodward, Paul Kang, Lindsay Stevens, Jim Woodward, Howard Williams, Dana I Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective is to summarize the presentation, diagnosis, and management of mild laryngeal clefts in children. We focus on deep interarytenoid notches (DIN), a subclassification of type 1 laryngeal clefts (LC1), and review the literature and our multidisciplinary experience utilizing injection laryngoplasty (IL). RECENT FINDINGS: DIN is a mild form of LC1 and is considered a normal anatomical variant. Recent cohort studies demonstrate IL to be a safe, low-risk, and efficacious treatment of LC1, but few studies focus on DIN...
November 6, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080046/the-microbiome-that-shapes-us-can-it-cause-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Endashaw Omer, Hadi Atassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to examine the effects of the gut microbial makeup on weight gain and obesity. We wanted to find out what the current research on this topic was and what the effect of the gut microbiota on energy metabolism is, as well the effects of diet on the microbiome and what effect the microbiome has on metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is thought to be due to greater calorie intake than expenditure. Recently, research has looked into the effects of the microbiome on obesity...
October 27, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044439/liver-masses-what-physicians-need-to-know-about-ordering-and-interpreting-liver-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Arman Sheybani, Ron C Gaba, R Peter Lokken, Senta M Berggruen, Winnie A Mar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews diagnostic imaging techniques used to characterize liver masses and the imaging characteristics of the most common liver masses. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of recently adopted ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be emphasized. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is an inexpensive exam which can confirm benignity of certain liver masses without ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging using hepatocyte-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents can help confirm or narrow the differential diagnosis of liver masses...
October 18, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983771/endoscopic-and-imaging-predictors-of-complete-pathologic-response-after-chemoradiation-for-esophageal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Guneesh S Uberoi, Angad S Uberoi, Manoop S Bhutani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Locally advanced esophageal cancer is frequently treated preoperatively with chemotherapy and radiation. The degree of response to this preoperative therapy varies in different patients, and a complete pathological response (pCR) has important implications in the management and prognosis of these patients. This is a review of the different modalities currently available to detect pCR and the clinical context of their use. RECENT FINDINGS: While research is still ongoing, no single technique has emerged as the modality of choice to reliably predict pCR in all patients...
October 6, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948512/phenotypes-of-obesity-how-it-impacts-management
#10
REVIEW
Meera Shah, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is strongly associated with many chronic health conditions that have been shown to improve with weight loss. However, counseling patients on weight loss can be challenging. Identifying specific aspects of weight management may personalize the conversation about weight loss and better address the individual patient's health goals and perceived barriers to change. RECENT FINDINGS: Physical and behavioral phenotypes are being identified to better tailor treatment recommendations, given lack of efficacy of currently available interventions...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948467/post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Yeong Yeh Lee, Chandramouli Annamalai, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea, typically following an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. The mechanisms that underlie IBS-D remain elusive, but PI-IBS provides a mechanistic model of this disorder. This review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management approaches for PI-IBS. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered immune reactions and release of cytokines with resultant gut inflammation and dysfunction appear to be key features of PI-IBS...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948465/going-gluten-free-the-history-and-nutritional-implications-of-today-s-most-popular-diet
#12
REVIEW
Carolyn Newberry, Lindsay McKnight, Menaka Sarav, Octavia Pickett-Blakely
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gluten-free diet (GFD) has become one of the most popular diets in modern history. Claims of improved health and increased energy fuel this popularity, though there is little evidence to substantiate these claims. The present review focuses on outlining known gluten-related disorders (GRD), discussing the GFD in the general population, exploring nutritional considerations, and providing advice for physicians in managing these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, about a quarter of the population reports keeping a GFD despite GRDs affecting less than half of these individuals...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887755/prokinetics-in-the-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to review the current status of prokinetics and to place it in historical context. Impaired motility and thus propulsion have long been thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. Historically, disordered motility was also thought to contribute to a number of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
September 8, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780717/proton-pump-inhibitors-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-friend-or-foe
#14
REVIEW
C Prakash Gyawali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been redefined, in light of recent advances highlighting GERD phenotypes that respond to PPIs, and fresh revelations of potential risks of long-term PPI therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Erosive esophagitis predicts excellent response to PPI therapy, but non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) with abnormal reflux parameters on ambulatory reflux monitoring also demonstrates a similar response...
September 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752476/bleeding-risk-with-invasive-procedures-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-coagulopathy
#15
REVIEW
Nekisa Zakeri, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous perceptions of cirrhosis as a hypocoagulable state have resulted in empirical blood product transfusions prior to invasive procedures. We evaluate procedure-related bleeding risks in patients with cirrhosis, assess the utility of conventional and newer global coagulation tests, and explore evidence surrounding prophylactic transfusion strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature supports the concept of a rebalanced, albeit fragile, haemostasis equilibrium in cirrhosis, with a potential hypercoagulable tendency in stable patients...
September 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752475/use-of-statins-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-cirrhosis-current-views-and-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Jose Ignacio Vargas, Marco Arrese, Vijay H Shah, Juan Pablo Arab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to analyze the current evidence regarding the use of statins in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic liver disease (CLD), cirrhosis, and its complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are significant public health problems. The use of statins in patients with CLD has been a matter of concern, and physicians are often reluctant to its prescription in these patients...
September 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752474/secondary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-review-of-recent-literature
#17
REVIEW
John Brooling, Rolando Leal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is an emerging entity. Yet, because of the low incidence and varying etiologies of this disease, the literature is not robust. There are mainly case reports and small studies evaluating the disease. Our aim in this review is to bring the reader up to date with recent literature on secondary sclerosing cholangitis including the disease presentation, course, prognosis, and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous case reports have been published the last 5 years on secondary sclerosing cholangitis...
September 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853002/the-serrated-polyp-pathway-is-it-time-to-alter-surveillance-guidelines
#18
REVIEW
Brendon O'Connell, Nazar Hafiz, Seth Crockett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this manuscript, we review current surveillance guidelines for serrated polyps (SPs) and discuss how recent studies inform the selection of appropriate surveillance intervals for patients with SPs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large and/or proximal SPs, particularly sessile serrated polyps (SSPs), are associated with increased risk of both synchronous and metachronous neoplasia, including advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Persons harboring multiple SSPs or dysplastic SSPs are at the highest risk...
August 29, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840522/endoscopic-evaluation-of-post-fundoplication-anatomy
#19
REVIEW
Walaa F Abdelmoaty, Lee L Swanstrom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the endoscopic evaluation of post-fundoplication anatomy and its role in assessment of fundoplication outcomes and in pre-operative planning for reoperation in failed procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: There is no universally accepted system for evaluating post-fundoplication anatomy endoscopically. However, multiple reports described the usefulness of post-operative endoscopy as a quality control measure and in the evaluation of complex cases such as repeat procedures and paraesophageal hernias (PEH)...
August 24, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840483/endoscopic-management-of-benign-esophageal-strictures
#20
REVIEW
William J Ravich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper presents the author's approach to esophageal dilation. It offers a tailored approach to the application of dilation to specific types of esophageal stenotic lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with inflammatory stricture, recent studies confirm the importance of treating the underlying inflammatory condition in order to decrease the rate of recurrence. The paper reviews some of the novel techniques that have been suggested for the treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures, including incisional therapy, stenting, or the injection steroids or antifibrotic agents...
August 24, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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