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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Mika Nishihara, Genki N Kanda, Tetsuya Suzuki, Shin'ichiro Yamakado, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Histone acetylation is associated with the activation of genes on chromosomes. Transgene expression from plasmid DNA might be increased by the acetylation of histones bound to plasmid DNA. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a positive feedback system, using a fusion protein of the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of mouse CREB-binding protein (GAL4-HAT), in which GAL4-HAT promotes its own expression as well as that of a reporter gene product (luciferase)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chan-I Chung, Ryoji Makino, Yuki Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Hiroshi Ueda
Fluorescence-based biosensor probes, especially those based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent protein (FP) variants, are widely used to monitor various biological phenomena, often detecting ligand-induced association of the receptor domains. While antibodies are fertile sources of specific receptors for various biomolecules, their potential has not been fully exploited. In this study, we used a fluorescent probe comprising FP-fused antibody variable region fragments to detect a bone metabolism biomarker, osteocalcin (BGP), by using fluorescence spectrometry/microscopy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rima Matsuyama, Noriko Yamano, Namiko Kawamura, Takeshi Omasa
The establishment process of high-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for therapeutic protein production is usually laborious and time consuming because of the low probability of obtaining stable, high-producing clones over a long term. Thus, development of an efficient approach is required to establish stable, high-producing cells. This study presents a novel method that can efficiently establish sustainably high-producing cell lines by acceleration of transgene amplification and suppression of transgene silencing...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yoong Kit Leong, John Chi-Wei Lan, Hwei-San Loh, Tau Chuan Ling, Chien Wei Ooi, Pau Loke Show
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Marie Okumura, Yoshiko Fujitani, Masahiko Maekawa, Jittima Charoenpanich, Hunja Murage, Kazuhide Kimbara, Nurettin Sahin, Akio Tani
Methylobacterium species are methylotrophic bacteria that widely inhabit plant surfaces. In addition to studies on methylotrophs as model organisms, research has also been conducted on their mechanism of plant growth promotion as well as the species-species specificity of plant-microbe interaction. We employed whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (WC-MS) analysis, which enables the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria at the species level, to identify Methylobacterium isolates collected from the rice seeds of different cultivars harvested in Japan, Thailand, and Kenya...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Akihide Yoshihara, Taro Kozakai, Tomoya Shintani, Ryo Matsutani, Kouhei Ohtani, Tetsuo Iida, Kazuya Akimitsu, Ken Izumori, Pushpa Kiran Gullapalli
An enzyme that catalyzes C-3 epimerization between d-fructose and d-allulose was found in Arthrobacter globiformis strain M30. Arthrobacter species have long been used in the food industry and are well-known for their high degree of safety. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies and characterized as a d-allulose 3-epimerase (d-AE). The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 128 kDa with four identical subunits. The enzyme showed maximal activity and thermostability in the presence of Mg(2+)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yuxiang Liu, Tingting Hu, Jing Zhao, Yongkang Lv, Ruipeng Ren
A novel heterotrophic nitrifying fungus, defined as Penicillium sp. L1, can form mycelial pellets in liquid medium in this study. The effects of inoculation method, C/N ratio, initial pH, and temperature were gradually evaluated to improve the simultaneous removal of total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater by Penicillium sp. L1. Results showed that compared with spore inoculation, 48 h pellet inoculum could significantly increase the pellet size (from about 1.5 mm to 3.2 mm) and improve the removal capability, particularly for COD removal (from less than 50-86...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masanori Watanabe, Charin Techapun, Ampin Kuntiya, Noppol Leksawasdi, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Thanongsak Chaiyaso, Shinji Takenaka, Isamu Maeda, Masahiro Koyama, Kozo Nakamura
A lactic acid producing bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, newly isolated from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. This strain has the ability to utilize the non-sterilized rice washing drainage and rice bran as a source of carbohydrate, saccharifying enzymes and nutrients for lactic acid production...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Soumesh Kumar Padhi, Nikhil Kumar Maiti
Organic carbon sources play a significant role in heterotrophic nitrogen consumption. This quintessential exploration is focused on carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in heterotrophic bacteria, capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). A heterotrophic bacterial strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans CF-S36 isolated from domestic wastewater efficiently eliminated ammonia, nitrate and nitrite by utilizing different carbon sources. The type of carbon utilized by strain CF-S36 determined the rate of heterotrophic nitrogen removal...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Makoto Matsui, Tatsuya Yokoyama, Kaoru Nemoto, Toshitaka Kumagai, Goro Terai, Koichi Tamano, Masayuki Machida, Takashi Shibata
FR901469 is an antifungal antibiotic produced by fungal sp. No. 11243. Here, we searched for FR901469 biosynthesis genes in the genome of No. 11243. Based on the molecular structure of FR901469 and endogenous functional motifs predicted in each genomic NRPS gene, a putative FR901469 biosynthesis gene cluster harboring the most plausible NRPS gene was identified. A transcription factor gene, designated frbF, was found in the cluster. To improve FR901469 productivity, we constructed a strain in which frbF was overexpressed and named it TFH2-2...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jikun Du, Li Li, Shining Zhou
Cyanophycin is a non-ribosomally synthesized polymer and its microbial production has attracted increased attention due to its pharmaceutical and chemical values. For the characterization and production of cyanophycin, the cphA49 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Soluble cyanophycin was isolated from the cultures and characterized. The results showed that it was composed of 50% of aspartic acid, 45% of arginine, and 3.5% of lysine, and exhibited a homogenous molecular mass of 35 kDa. To improve soluble cyanophycin production, the induction conditions for cphA49 gene expression were optimized...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yutaka Konya, Moyu Taniguchi, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Recently, the demand for d-amino acid profiling has been drastically increasing because the significance of d-amino acid in various biological events is suggested. However, the present methodologies for d-amino acid profiling are still unsatisfactory. Therefore, a highly sensitive, robust, high-throughput, and user-friendly method for d-amino acid profiling must be developed. In this paper, we developed a novel method for d-amino acid profiling using a combination of a chiral column and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS)...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Daisuke Watanabe, Akie Kaneko, Yukiko Sugimoto, Shinsuke Ohnuki, Hiroshi Takagi, Yoshikazu Ohya
A loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene, which encodes a Greatwall-like protein kinase, is one of the major causes of the high alcoholic fermentation rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake strains closely related to Kyokai no. 7 (K7). However, impairment of Rim15p may not be beneficial under more severe fermentation conditions, such as in the late fermentation stage, as it negatively affects stress responses. To balance stress tolerance and fermentation performance, we inserted the promoter of a gluconeogenic gene, PCK1, into the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain to achieve repression of RIM15 gene expression in the glucose-rich early stage with its induction in the stressful late stage of alcoholic fermentation...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tomohiro Nakamura, Shunya Takagi, Takafumi Kamon, Ken-Ichi Yamasaki, Toshia Fujisato
Tissue-engineered skeletal muscles were potentially useful as physiological and biochemical in vitro models. Currently, most of the similar models were constructed without tendons. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple, highly versatile tissue-engineered muscle with artificial tendons, and to evaluate the contractile, histological and molecular dynamics during differentiation. C2C12 cells were embedded in a cold type-І collagen gel and placed between two artificial tendons on a silicone sheet. The construct shrank and tightly attached to the artificial tendons with differentiation, finally detaching from the silicone sheet within 1 week of culture onset...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Akiko Kume, Shun Kawai, Ryuji Kato, Shinmei Iwata, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda
To investigate the binding properties of a peptide sequence, we conducted principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical features of a tetramer peptide library comprised of 512 peptides, and the variables were reduced to two principal components. We selected IL-2 and IgG as model proteins and the binding affinity to these proteins was assayed using the 512 peptides mentioned above. PCA of binding affinity data showed that 16 and 18 variables were suitable for localizing IL-2 and IgG high-affinity binding peptides, respectively, into a restricted region of the PCA plot...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Jeong-Hoon Park, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Sang-Hoon Lee, Hee-Deung Park, Sang-Hyoun Kim
In this study, microbial responses of a continuous hydrogen reactor fed with galactose have been investigated. Process disturbances reduced H2 production performance as well as large fluctuations in microbial diversity. The peak values of the hydrogen yield (HY) was not influenced greatly during the steady state period, and accounted as 2.01 ± 0.05 and 2.14 ± 0.03 mol/mol galactoseadded, while hydraulic retention time (HRT) was at 12 and 8 h, respectively. Microbial community analysis via 454 pyrosequencing revealed that functional redundancy following changes in the microbial community distribution led to the stability of the fermentation performance...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yasutaka Hirokawa, Yudai Dempo, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Taizo Hanai
Cyanobacteria engineered for production of biofuels and biochemicals from carbon dioxide represent a promising area of research in relation to a sustainable economy. Previously, we have succeeded in producing isopropanol from cellular acetyl-CoA by means of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 into which a synthetic metabolic pathway was introduced. The isopropanol production by this synthetic metabolic pathway requires acetate; therefore, the cells grown under photosynthetic conditions have to be transferred to a dark and anaerobic conditions to produce acetate...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Osato Miyawaki, Tsukasa Kanazawa, Chika Maruyama, Michiko Dozen
The static half-life of an enzyme is the half-life of a free enzyme not working without substrate and the dynamic half-life is that of an active enzyme working with plenty amount of substrate. These two half-lives were measured and compared for glucoamylase (GA) and β-galactosidase (BG). The dynamic half-life was much longer than the static half-life by one to three orders of magnitude for both enzymes. For BG, the half-life of the enzyme physically entrapped in a membrane reactor was also measured. In this case also, the half-life of BG in the membrane reactor was much longer than the free enzyme without substrate...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hoang T N Dao, Kyohei Kuroda, Nozomi Nakahara, Tsuyoshi Danshita, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi
In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of microbial community compositions in leachate and leachate treatment system (14 processes) during dry and rainy seasons (from February to September and from October to January, respectively), at Khanh Son landfill site, Danang City, Vietnam. In this study, raw leachate in dry and rainy seasons was predominated by Arcobacter, Clostridia, Thermotogales, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanosaeta. During the two seasons, the system had different microbial community compositions...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Naoki Akasaka, Haruka Higashikubo, Yuri Ishii, Hisao Sakoda, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and brown rice vinegar (BRV) are used as lures to detect Drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [SWD], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of BRV and ACV to SWD in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a pipette tip as a trap...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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