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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Li Tan, Qiu-Shi Cheng, Zhao-Yong Sun, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida
The inhibitory effects of ammonium and sulfide on the methane production using acetate or propionate as a carbon source were investigated under different pH and temperature conditions. The methane production rate, duration of the lag phase, and inhibition threshold limit during methane production were estimated using the Gompertz equation and inhibitor mathematical model. The methane production rates at 53°C were 2.3-2.7 times higher than those at 35°C in the case of non-inhibitors. Increasing the NH4 + and/or S2- concentration decreased the methane production rate and increased the duration of the lag phase...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masako Ito, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda
We previously proposed a new method for exploring functional peptides using both spot-synthesis peptide libraries and principal component analysis (PCA). Here, we applied these methods to determine if high-binding 6-mer peptides can be used on bile acid for the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. We used a binding assay of 512 basal 4-mer peptides to bile acid, and from these selected high-binding and low-binding peptides. PCA was performed on data from both these binding groups and many physicochemical variables of the 512 peptides tested, and then through this, the variables were reduced to two principal components (PCs)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Guangsen Fan, Zhilei Fu, Baoguo Sun, Yuhang Zhang, Xinlei Wang, Yanqiu Xia, Mingquan Huang, Xiuting Li
Daqu, a complex starting material used for Baijiu production, contains microorganisms, enzymes, and volatile compounds. An important part of Daqu production is aging, but the physicochemical and microbial changes during aging remain largely unknown. This study characterized "aging" according to physicochemical parameters, volatile compounds, and microbial communities. Aging was found to aid in the stabilization of the physicochemical parameters. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect 72 types of volatile compounds, which were predominantly alcohols, esters, aldehydes, alkenes, and alkanes...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shunsuke Ichikawa, Maiko Ichihara, Toshiyuki Ito, Kazuho Isozaki, Akihiko Kosugi, Shuichi Karita
Efficient cellulosic biomass saccharification technologies are required to meet biorefinery standards. Biological simultaneous enzyme production and saccharification (BSES), which is glucose production from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum, can be a reliable cellulose saccharification technology for biorefineries. However, the current BSES processes require purified β-glucosidase supplementation. In this study, recombinant bacteria expressing the β-glucosidase gene were developed and directly applied to BSES...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yan Zeng, Hongchen Zheng, Yingying Shen, Jianyong Xu, Ming Tan, Fang Liu, Hui Song
Carbohydrate binding module (CBM) as a kind of non-catalytic domain has significant effects on the substrate binding and catalytic properties of glycoside hydrolases. CBM68 of an Anoxybacillus sp. pullulanase (PulA) was identified as a new type of CBM in our previous studies. Then, four key substrate binding amino acid residues (Y14, V91, G92, and R96) were obtained by alanine substitutions in this work. Through kinetic analysis of the mutants, V91A and G92A showed significant reduction both in Km values and kcat values against pullulan...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xiaoxi Gong, Weijun Tian, Jie Bai, Kaili Qiao, Jing Zhao, Liang Wang
To explore a new method for bio-regeneration of high-protein brewery spent diatomite, an ammonifying bacteria (BSD1) was screened out from it and identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. The protein degradation characteristics of BSD1 was studied with rice protein as the sole nitrogen source. Maximum protein degradation activity was obtained when BSD1 was inoculated with an inoculum of 5% into a medium with glucose as carbon source and initial pH value of 7.0 and incubated at 30°C for 48 h. In this optimal condition, protein concentration decreased from 156...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Eri Shuzui, Mee-Hae Kim, Masahiro Kino-Oka
Understanding the fundamental mechanisms that trigger deviation from the undifferentiated state of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides key strategies to maintain their undifferentiated state during cell expansion. We assessed deviation from the undifferentiated state in hiPSC colonies by measuring cell migration rates in colonies with deviation that were targeted by the end of culture, in a backward manner. Analyses of migration rates of single cells in colonies with deviation demonstrated that the distribution of migration rates at the region with occurrence of deviated cells had a broad or narrow range compared with those at the regions of undifferentiated cells...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yee Meng Wong, Pau Loke Show, Ta Yeong Wu, Hui Yi Leong, Shaliza Ibrahim, Joon Ching Juan
Bio-hydrogen production from wastewater using sludge as inoculum is a sustainable approach for energy production. This study investigated the influence of initial pH and temperature on bio-hydrogen production from dairy wastewater using pretreated landfill leachate sludge (LLS) as an inoculum. The maximum yield of 113.2 ± 2.9 mmol H2 /g chemical oxygen demand (COD) (12.8 ± 0.3 mmol H2 /g carbohydrates) was obtained at initial pH 6 and 37 °C. The main products of volatile fatty acids were acetate and butyrate with the ratio of acetate:butyrate was 0...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ashwini N Kulkarni, Bhumika N Bhalkar, Rahul V Khandare, Mayur B Kurade, Byong-Hun Jeon, Sanjay P Govindwar
Densitometric HPTLC quantification method was developed to validate the decolorization/biotransformation of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. which release several colored compounds during decolorization process, hence unable to use colorimetric estimation. Percent decolorization of Disperse Orange ERL and dye mixture by lichen Parmelia sp. was observed when estimated using developed high performance thin layer chromatography method. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for both dyes in mixture were obtained as 0...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hanyu Zhang, Rui Du, Shenbin Cao, Shuyin Wang, Yongzhen Peng
A denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) process has been regarded as an innovative process to simultaneously treat ammonia and nitrate containing wastewaters, whereas very limited research has focused on its application in biofilm system. In this research, a novel DEAMOX process was established with fixed sponge carriers in a sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR). To investigate biofilm formation process and characteristics can encourage further research on DEAMOX system optimization, deteriorated performance recovery strategies and application with actual wastewater...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yota Tsuge, Naoto Kato, Shogo Yamamoto, Masako Suda, Masayuki Inui
The use of mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose in lignocellulosic biomass is desirable for the microbial production of chemicals and fuels. We investigated the effect of individual or simultaneous overexpression of glycolytic genes on d-lactate production from a mixture of glucose and xylose by a recombinant xylose-assimilating Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. The individual overexpression of genes encoding phosphofructokinase (PFK) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) increased d-lactate production rate by 71% and 34%, respectively, with corresponding increases (2...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Meijie Li, Changqing Liu, Hailin Chen, Li Deng, Haibo Zhang, Rui Nian, Mo Xian
The bio-production process of isoprene, an essential chemical used in industry, is strongly limited by isoprene synthase. In our previous work, relatively high isoprene production was observed with isoprene synthase from Ipomoea batatas (IspSib ). In this work the biochemical properties of IspSib were analyzed and compared with those of isoprene synthase from Populus alba (IspSpa ) and other species. Firstly, IspSib and IspSpa were expressed, purified, and identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Secondly, pH and temperature dependence of IspSib were performed and an optimum pH of 8...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hitoshi Shimoi, Yuta Hanazumi, Natsuki Kawamura, Miwa Yamada, Shohei Shimizu, Taro Suzuki, Daisuke Watanabe, Takeshi Akao
Sake yeast strains are classified into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have a heterothallic life cycle. This feature allows cross hybridization between two haploids to breed new strains with superior characteristics. However, cross hybridization of sake yeast is very difficult because only a few spores develop in a sporulation medium, and most of these spores do not germinate. We hypothesized that these features are attributable to chromosome recombination defect in meiosis, which leads to chromosome loss. To test this hypothesis, we examined meiotic recombination of sake yeast Kyokai no...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Feng Pan, Kai Hou, Dan-Dan Li, Tian-Jiao Su, Wei Wu
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high-molecular-weight carbohydrates with a wide range of biophysiological activities, such as antioxidant activity, immunostimulatory activity, antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, and antifatigue effects. In the present work, two water-soluble EPSs, namely, A14EPS-1 and A14EPS-2, were isolated and purified from the fungal endophytic strain A14 using ethanol precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and Sepharose G-150 gel filtration chromatography. A14EPS-1 (∼2...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Naruhiko Sawa, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Atsushi Ogawa, Yasutaka Hirokawa, Takashi Osanai, Taizo Hanai
Many cyanophages, which infect cyanobacteria, most of possess putative sigma factors that have high amino acid sequence homology with the σ70-type sigma factor present in cyanobacteria, allowing them to obtain energy and metabolites for their own propagation. In this study, we aimed to modify the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 by expressing putative sigma factors from Synechococcus phages to improve bioproduction. Four cyanophage-derived putative sigma factors-putative RpsD4 from Synechococcus phage S-CBS1, putative RpoD and putative RpoS from S-CBS2, and putative RpsD4 from S-CBS3-were selected for this purpose...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Motoharu Uchida, Nobuo Hideshima, Toshiyoshi Araki
Koji is a traditional fermentation culture medium, based on Aspergillus oryzae, which is commonly used in the manufacture process of Japanese fermented products such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, and promote enzymatic degradation. Koji is usually prepared by culturing a mold on cereals such as wheat flour, soybean, or rice, but that cultured on seaweeds has not been developed yet. This study prepared the koji by culturing A. oryzae on seaweed nori (dried piece of Pyropia yezoensis), and, then, characterized on this nori koji...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tsutomu Arai, Peter Biely, Iveta Uhliariková, Nobuaki Sato, Satoshi Makishima, Masahiro Mizuno, Kouichi Nozaki, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoshihiko Amano
Hydrothermal reaction is known to be one of the most efficient procedures to extract hemicelluloses from lignocellulosic biomass. We investigated the molecular structure of xylooligosaccharides released from corn cob in a continuous flow type hydrothermal reactor designed in our group. The fraction precipitable from the extract with four volumes of ethanol was examined by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS before and after enzymatic treatment with different purified enzymes. The released water-soluble hemicellulose was found to correspond to a mixture of wide degree of polymerization range of acetylarabinoglucuronoxylan fragments (further as corn cob xylan abbreviated CX)...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Mahesh D Patil, Vijay P Rathod, Umesh R Bihade, Uttam Chand Banerjee
Arginine deiminase (ADI) from Pseudomonas putida was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Influence of various chemical compounds (metal ions, reducing agents, sulphydryl agents, and surfactants) on the catalytic activity of ADI was determined was evaluated on the purified ADI. The enzyme displayed high sensitivity towards thiol binding metal ions, chemicals acting on sulfhydryl group, and most of the surfactants. Substrate specificity studies exhibited that among the eight substrate analogues tested, canavanine had the highest affinity for ADI, followed by d-arginine and guanidine...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Liu Yang, Xiaofeng Liu, Nandi Zhou, Yaping Tian
Bifunctional acid urease can not only remove urea from rice wine, but also effectively remove ethyl carbamate (EC), thereby reducing harmful substances in rice wine. Acid urease from Providencia rettgeri JN-B815 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as an inclusion body. Subsequently, acid urease was refolded gradually using dilution-ultrafiltration and specific activity of 12.3 U mg-1 was obtained. The acid urease thus obtained was immobilized on graphene oxide/chitosan beads. The recovery of immobilized urease was 77% for the graphene oxide/chitosan composite when coupled for 8 h with 5% glutaraldehyde...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Guey-Horng Wang, Yi-Min Lin, Jong-Tar Kuo, Chia-Pei Lin, Chin-Feng Chang, Min-Chi Hsieh, Chiu-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chien Chung
Asparagus cochinchinensis root (ACR) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ACR was first extracted with 25% ethyl acetate (EA) and then fermented by Aspergillus oryzae to enhance its antioxidant activity and evaluate its potential antityrosinase activity. The physiological activity and cytotoxicity of A. oryzae-fermented ACR extract, along with its antityrosinase activity and effects on melanogenic factor levels in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs), were analyzed and compared with those of the unfermented extract...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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