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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Sijing Jia, Xiaoqiang Chen, Toshikazu Suenaga, Akihiko Terada, Susumu Ishikawa, Fumitake Nishimura, Shaolan Ding, Taku Fujiwara
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an important greenhouse gas that can be emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Such emissions are reportedly process specific and related to operational parameters. This study was conducted to clarify spatial and daily variations of N2 O in a full-scale activated sludge anoxic/oxic process that consisted of an anoxic tank and three oxic tanks (oxic-1, oxic-2 and oxic-3), all of which except the final sedimentation tank were fully covered. Higher dissolved N2 O (D-N2 O) loading and gaseous N2 O (G-N2 O) emissions were observed for oxic-3 than for the anoxic, oxic-1, and oxic-2 tanks, implying that there was higher N2 O production potential via nitrification in the latter stage of the oxic tank...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Bruna de Souza Moraes, Graciete Mary Dos Santos, Tiago Palladino Delforno, Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Ariovaldo José da Silva
The role of sugarcane vinasse as a nutrient source and the impacts of different inoculum pretreatment methods (acid-thermal and thermal treatment) were assessed in acidogenic systems aiming to produce value-added short-chain organic acids (SCOA) and alcohols. In-depth microbiome characterization was also conducted by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using the Miseq Illumina platform. SCOA production was 47.3 % higher in vinasse-fed reactors, with isobutyric (up to 10.3 g L-1 ) and butyric (up to 10...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shuhei Hashiro, Mayu Mitsuhashi, Hisashi Yasueda
A high copy number mutant plasmid, designated pVC7H1, was isolated from an Escherichia coli-Corynebacterium glutamicum shuttle vector pVC7N derived from cryptic plasmid pAM330 that was originally found in Brevibacterium lactofermentum 2256 (formally C. glutamicum ATCC 13869). The copy number of pVC7N was estimated to be about 11 per chromosome, whereas pVC7H1 displayed a copy number of 112 per chromosome in C. glutamicum. The mutation (designated copA1) was in a region between long inverted repeats (designated the copA1 region) and was identified as a single base conversion of cytosine to adenine...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Thi Dong Phuong Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Thu Tran, Thi Van Anh Le, Truc Xuyen Nguyen Phan, Pau-Loke Show, Shir Reen Chia
Nowadays, the pretreatment of wastewater prior to discharge is very important in various industries as the wastewater without any treatment contains high organic pollution loads that would pollute the receiving waterbody and potentially cause eutrophication and oxygen depletion to aquatic life. The reuse of seafood wastewater discharge in microalgae cultivation offers beneficial purposes such as reduced processing cost for wastewater treatment, replenishing ground water basin as well as financial savings for microalgae cultivation...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yoshifumi Oguro, Ayana Nakamura, Atsushi Kurahashi
Koji amazake, prepared from rice koji, is a traditional Japanese sweet beverage. The main source of sweetness is glucose derived from rice starch following digestion by enzymes of Aspergillus oryzae during saccharification. The temperature of this process was empirically determined as 45°C-60°C, but no studies have systematically investigated the effect of temperature on saccharification efficiency. We addressed this in the present study by evaluating saccharification efficiency at various temperatures. We found that glucose content was the highest at 50°C (100%) and was reduced at temperatures of 40°C (66...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Li Tan, Hiroto Nishimura, Yan-Fang Wang, Zhao-Yong Sun, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida, Shigeru Morimura
Thermophilic methane fermentation was a valid approach for handling the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation of waste paper and kitchen waste. The wide organic loading rate (OLR) range (2-14 g VTS/(L d)) for stable performance and relatively high energy recovery efficiency (79.0%) were achieved, and OLR of 8 g VTS/(L d) was optimum for achievement of highest biogas evolution and VTS removal efficiency. Microbial community analysis revealed that hydrolysis of cellulose was the critical step for methane production from the stillage...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Keita Fukui, Kei Nanatani, Mayumi Nakayama, Yoshihiko Hara, Mitsunori Tokura, Keietsu Abe
After deleting the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase, Corynebacterium glutamicum can produce succinate and a considerable amount of acetate and pyruvate as by-products from glucose metabolism, under aerobic conditions. Recently, we identified ynfM in Pantoea ananatis (PaynfM) as a gene encoding a dicarboxylate transporter and found a homologous gene (CgynfM) in C. glutamicum. In this study, we examined dicarboxylate production using C. glutamicum strains expressing CgynfM. When C. glutamicum expressing the CgynfM gene was cultured under aerobic conditions, the sugar-consumption rate increased significantly, succinate accumulation increased from 66 mM to 110 mM, and pyruvate and acetate co-production decreased significantly...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Haruka Arashida, Takumi Kugenuma, Masanori Watanabe, Isamu Maeda
Nitrogen fixation in purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) does not take place even in N-free medium when they are cultured under aerobic conditions. It is assumed that PNSB might possess inadequate capability to protect their cellular components from exposure to air (20.95 vol.% oxygen). In this study, therefore, Bacillus subtilis was inoculated together with a purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris in N-free medium in order to examine whether nitrogen fixation in Rps. palustris takes place when the co-culture is exposed to 20...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Akihito Fujimoto, Keisuke Ito, Noriko Narushima, Takahisa Miyamoto
Sourdough is a low-pH, fermented product prepared using lactic acid bacteria and yeast mixed with rye flour, wheat flour, and water. It is used and backslopped in bakeries because it enhances texture, flavor, and dough expansion of bread. Various lactic acid bacteria and yeasts have been identified in sourdough, especially in the West. However, microbial and physical characteristics of sourdough from Japan have not been investigated. Here, we characterized the microbial composition and food component characteristics of sourdough from four bakeries in Kansai region, Japan, and performed sensory and quality evaluation of baguettes enriched with 10% sourdough...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Paerwen Paerhati, Akira Ito, Kantaro Yoshioka, Kaori Iwamoto, Sho Fujiwara, Masanobu Horie, Yoshinori Kawabe, Masamichi Kamihira
Investigating neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, is of importance for studying early neural development and providing a potential source of cells for nerve regeneration. Stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) using PA6 stromal cells promotes neural differentiation of iPS cells. Thus, we hypothesized that cadherin gene-engineered PA6 feeder cells will enhance the performance of SDIA by facilitating cell-cell interactions. Consequently, we created cadherin gene-engineered PA6 cells...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tomohiro Morohoshi, Yaoki Kamimura, Niina Sato, Taro Iizumi
N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading enzyme is identified from the various environments and applied for quorum-sensing inhibition. In this study, we isolated two AHL-degrading strains, Sphingopyxis sp. EG6 and FD7, from the industrial cooling water samples. When the eight Sphingopyxis type strains were checked for the AHL-degrading activity, two strains, Sphingopyxis alaskensis DSM 13593 and Sphingopyxis bauzanensis DSM 22271, showed high AHL-degrading activity. The complete genome sequences of EG6 and FD7 revealed the presence of gene homolog of qsdS, which encodes AHL-lactonase in Sphingomonas ursincola...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kshipra Gautam, Jayant Kumar Tripathi, Ashwani Pareek, Durlubh Kumar Sharma
Synergistic coexistence of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria such as Anabaena variabilis, Nostoc muscorum and Westiellopsis prolifica with green algae namely Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii was studied under nitrogen deficient conditions. The effect of these interactions was investigated on growth, fixed nitrogen content, lipid content and their secretomes in individual cultures and cocultures. Based on the cocultivation studies, it was found that out of the nine interactions studied, B...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yu-Pei Chen, Hong-Tan Wu, Guey-Horng Wang, Dai-Ying Wu, Ing-Er Hwang, Mei-Chih Chien, Hai-Yue Pang, Jong-Tar Kuo, Li-Ling Liaw
Neoagaro-oligosaccharides prepared by agar hydrolysis have various application fields, including the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. In this study, an agarolytic strain was isolated from a saltwater hot spring and identified as Microbulbifer pacificus LD25 by 16S rRNA. The whole genome sequence of M. pacificus LD25 was obtained. It had a size of 4.27 Mb and comprised 3062 predicted genes in 37 contigs with a G+C content of 58.0%. Six agarases were annotated and classified into three families, namely, GH16 (AgaL1), GH86 (AgaL2, AgaL3), and GH50 (AgaL4, AgaL5, AgaL6), which shared 75-96% identities with unpublished hypothetical proteins and agarases...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chen Li, Demao Li, Jun Feng, Xiang Fan, Shulin Chen, Dongyuan Zhang, Ronglin He
An inducer is crucial for cellulase production. In this study, duckweed was used as an inducer of cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. In a reaction induced by 50 g/L duckweed in shake flasks, the filter-paper activity (FPA) reached 6.5 FPU/mL, a value comparable to that induced by avicel. The enzyme-hydrolysis rate induced by steam-exploded corn stalk was 54.2%, representing a 28% improvement over that induced by avicel. The duckweed starch was hydrolyzed to glucose, which was subsequently used for biomass accumulation during the fermentation process...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Neha Sharma, KeangOK Baek, Naofumi Shimokawa, Masahiro Takagi
Temperature plays an important role in the immune response. Acclimatization occurs when there are changes in ambient temperature over a long period. In this study, we used the human leukemic Jurkat T cell line to study the effect of temperature on the immune system using concanavalin A (ConA), a plant-derived immunostimulant, as a trigger for T-cell activation. Previously, we have reported endocytic intracellular cluster formation during T-cell activation by ConA with the aid of rafts and polymerization of the cytoskeleton (actin and microtubules)...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rodrigo Andler, Robin Vivod, Alexander Steinbüchel
The search of alternative substrates for the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has become an important factor in order to decrease the production costs. Therefore, the use of industrial by-products or waste materials as carbon and energy sources for different PHA-producing microorganisms has been evaluated during the last decades. Recombinant strains of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 harboring plasmid pAK68, which contains phaCAB from Ralstonia eutropha and plasmid pAK71 comprising phaC1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated for PHA production...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Derya Aksu Demirezen, Yalçın Şevki Yıldız, Şeyda Yılmaz, Dilek Demirezen Yılmaz
Ficus carica (common fig) dried fruit extract was used to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles in this study. Biomaterials in the common fig dried fruit extract synthesized the iron nanoparticles by reducing the iron precursor salt and then acted as capping and stabilizing agents. The nanoparticles were produced smaller than 20 nm diameters and oxidized due to the high phenolic compound content in the common fig dried fruit extract. Nanoparticles were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yue Feng, Song Liu, Yun Jiao, Yunlong Wang, Miao Wang, Guocheng Du
l-Asparaginase (ASN; EC shows great commercial value because of its ability to reduce toxic levels of acrylamide in foods. To achieve high-efficiency production of l-asparaginase, an open reading frame of 978 bp encoding asparaginase (BcA) was amplified from Bacillus cereus BDRD-ST26, followed by its expression in Bacillus subtilis WB600, with the highest yield of 374.9 U/ml obtained using an amyE-signal peptide. A four-step purification protocol was used to purify BcA, resulting in a 15.1-fold increase in purification yield, with a specific activity of purified BcA at 550...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hironori Yamazoe
Protein is a promising material for fabricating the biocompatible films used in the biomedical fields and food industry. Previously, we successfully prepared a water-insoluble albumin film possessing native albumin properties such as resistance to cell adhesion and drug-binding ability. Here, I quantitatively investigated the conformation of albumin in a film state using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The albumin film was prepared by crosslinking albumin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). CD measurements of albumin films revealed that approximately 70% of the α-helical structure was retained after film formation...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masayuki Taniguchi, Ryousuke Aida, Kazuki Saito, Akihito Ochiai, Satoshi Takesono, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In this study, we investigated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing and angiogenic activities of cationic peptides derived from the traditional Japanese fermented product Natto, which is made by fermenting cooked soybeans using Bacillus subtilis. Initially, we prepared 20 fractions of Natto extracts with various isoelectric points (pI's) using ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Cationic peptides were then purified from fractions 19 and 20, whose pH values were greater than 12, using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and were identified using matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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