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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Yasuharu Kamachi, Takeshi Omasa
Cell culture platform processes are generally employed to shorten the duration of new product development. A fed-batch process with continuous feeding is a conventional platform process for monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To establish a simplified platform process, the feeding method can be changed from continuous feed to bolus feed. However, this change induces a rapid increase of osmolality by the bolus addition of nutrients. The increased osmolality suppresses cell culture growth, and the final product concentration is decreased...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masahito Hashimoto, Taichi Matsumoto, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Yasuo Suda
Acetobacter pasteurianus is characterized as a fermenting bacterium of kurozu, which is a common traditional Japanese black vinegar. Recently, we separated acid-resistant and low Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulatory lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from A. pasteurianus. We also showed that their lipid A parts possessed a novel sugar backbone that is responsible for the low TLR4-stimulatory and acid-resistant properties of the LPS. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized spherical structures secreted from many gram-negative bacteria...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Nilesh Kumar Sharma, Shuvashish Behera, Richa Arora, Sachin Kumar, Rajesh K Sani
Lignocellulosic ethanol has been considered as an alternative transportation fuel. Utilization of hemicellulosic fraction in lignocelluloses is crucial in economical production of lignocellulosic ethanol. However, this fraction has not efficiently been utilized by traditional yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetically modified S. cerevisiae, which can utilize xylose, has several limitations including low ethanol yield, redox imbalance, and undesired metabolite formation similar to native xylose utilizing yeasts...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chu-Fang Yang, Ci-Ruei Huang
In dealing with lignocellulosic and algal biomass, thermal acid hydrolysis is an economical and efficient method. In this process, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) is formed unavoidably, which inhibits downstream reducing sugar fermentation. Fortunately, 5-HMF can be biotransformed into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), the top 14 biomass platform molecules. Base on the connection between 5-HMF removal and FDCA production, microbes capable of biotransforming 5-HMF into FDCA are beneficial to raise biofuel yield and potential molecule production...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hideaki Shimizu, Fumikazu Akamatsu, Aya Kamada, Kazuya Koyama, Masaki Okuda, Hisashi Fukuda, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Nami Goto-Yamamoto
Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Satoshi Ara, Harutake Yamazaki, Hiroaki Takaku
2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) is the first intermediate in the 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotic biosynthesis pathway and has a six-membered carbocycle structure. DOI is a valuable material because it is easily converted to aromatic compounds and carbasugar derivatives. In this study, we isolated yeast strains capable of assimilating DOI as a carbon source. One of the strains, Cryptococcus podzolicus ND1, mainly converted DOI to scyllo-quercitol and (-)-vibo-quercitol, which is a valuable compound used as an antihypoglycemia agent and as a heat storage material...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shiue-Lin Li, Yu-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Chieh Chao, Ming-Der Bai, Sheng-Shung Cheng
While knowing the amylolysis mechanism is important to effectively decompose corn starch fed into an anaerobic digestor, the objective of this study was to detect the activities and locations of α-amylase in a continuous reactor and batch cultures. In the continuous reactor operated at 35 °C, the greatest cell-bound α-amylase activity was found to be 4.7 CU mL-1 at hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 9 h, while the greatest volumetric hydrogen production rate (rH2) was observed at HRT = 3 h as 61 mmol L-1 day-1...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Seiichi Morita, Daiki Mine, Yuki Ishida
The effect of the saturation of fatty acid (FA) in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DMPC)/FA membrane on the interaction between lipid membrane and amyloid β monomer was investigated by using the Langmuir monolayer technique. The surface pressure (Π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms and fluorescent measurements reveal that DMPC and octadecanoic acid (stearic acid, SA) molecules were somewhat miscible in the mixed membrane, which was maintained to homogeneous gel phase by enhance of the intermolecular hydrophobic interactions because of the all trans acyl chains...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Takahiro Bamba, Kentaro Inokuma, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Yeast displaying enzymes on the cell surface are used for developing whole-cell biocatalysts. High enzyme activity on the cell surface is required in certain applications such as direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. However, the cell surface enzyme activity is limited by several factors, one of which is the protein amount of the yeast cell wall. In this study, we attempted to improve the incorporation capacity of a displayed heterologous enzyme by disrupting a native cell-wall protein. β-Glucosidase (BGL1) from Aspergillus aculeatus was fused with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sed1 and displayed on the cell surface of S...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kenji Konishi, Shigeru Ueda, Miki Kawano, Susumu Osawa, Tomohiro Tamura, Eisaku Hokazono, Yuzo Kayamori, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa
Herein, we describe a novel enzymatic cycling method to measure nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which are precursors of NAD biosynthesis. A gene encoding an NMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC homologue was identified in Thermus thermophilus HB8. The gene from T. thermophilus (TtNMNAT) was engineered for expression in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme found to be stable, retaining full activity after incubation for 45 min at 70°C. The Km values for NMN and ATP were calculated to be 0...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sachi Akagi, Chika Nakajima, Yoichiro Tanaka, Yasuyuki Kurihara
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a valuable biomaterial for basic life sciences and industrial purposes. The production of the mAb is time and effort intensive. In this report, we established a time- and labor-saving method for the mAb production. Because membrane-type immunoglobulin on a hybridoma cell surface and its secreted form, called as antibody, share the same binding property to the antigen, the fluorescence-labeled antigen bound to membrane-type immunoglobulin can be used as a screening marker. In the method, a hybridoma labeled by a fluorescent antigen was selected and sorted singly into 96-well plate using flow cytometer...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shoji Mizuno, Yukio Enda, Azusa Saika, Ayaka Hiroe, Takeharu Tsuge
The discovery of the lactate-polymerizing enzyme (LPE) enabled the biosynthesis of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) containing 2-hydroxyalkanoate (2HA). Amino acids are potential precursors of 2HA with various side chain structures if appropriate enzymes are used to convert amino acids to 2HA-coenzyme A (CoA) as the substrate for LPE. In this study, the suitability and utility of (R)-2-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (2H4MV) dehydrogenase (LdhA) and 2H4MV-CoA transferase (HadA) from Clostridium difficile as 2HA-CoA-supplying enzymes were investigated...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Pattanop Kanokratana, Sarunyou Wongwilaiwalin, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Verawat Champreda
Energy grass is a promising substrate for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion. However, the conversion efficiency is limited by the enzymatically recalcitrant nature of cellulosic wastes. In this study, an active, structurally stable mesophilic lignocellulolytic degrading microbial consortium (Np-LMC) was constructed from forest compost soil microbiota by successive subcultivation on Napier grass under facultative anoxic conditions. According to tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, increasing abundance of facultative Proteobacteria was found in the middle of batch cycle which was then subsequently replaced by the cellulose degraders Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes along with decreasing CMCase, xylanase, and β-glucanase activity profiles in the supernatant after 5 days of incubation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Takayuki Takei, So Danjo, Shogo Sakoguchi, Sadao Tanaka, Takuma Yoshinaga, Hiroto Nishimata, Masahiro Yoshida
Moist wounds were known to heal more rapidly than dry wounds. Hydrogel wound dressings were suitable for the moist wound healing because of their hyperhydrous structure. Chitosan was a strong candidate as a base material for hydrogel wound dressings because the polymer had excellent biological properties that promoted wound healing. We previously developed physically-crosslinked chitosan cryogels, which were prepared solely by freeze-thawing of a chitosan-gluconic acid conjugate (CG) aqueous solution, for wound treatment...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ting Li, Wenyan Wang, Yingying Cheng, Wenling Han
FAM19A4 (family with sequence similarity 19 member A4; also TAFA4) is a classical secretory protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system and upregulated significantly in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes and macrophages. It is a novel cytokine ligand of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), showing chemotactic activities on macrophages and promoting the phagocytosis capacity and the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by macrophages upon zymosan stimulation. Based on the same detection principle as ELISA, we developed a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of FAM19A4 in biological fluids by flow cytometry, with latex beads as solid carrier...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Bo-Bo Zhang, Hong-Bo Xing, Bing-Jie Jiang, Lei Chen, Gan-Rong Xu, Yun Jiang, Da-Yong Zhang
In this study, various grains such as rice, millet, corn, barley and wheat were used as raw materials for monacolin K production by solid-state fermentation of Monascus ruber. Among these substrates, millet was found to be the best one for monacolin K production, by which the yield reached 7.12 mg/g. For enhanced monacolin K production, the effects of fermentation time, charge amount, initial moisture content and inoculum volume were systematically investigated in the solid-state fermentation of M. ruber. Moreover, complementary carbon source and nitrogen source were added for further improving the production of monacolin K...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kiyota Sakai, Saran Kimoto, Yuta Shinzawa, Miho Minezawa, Kengo Suzuki, Sadanari Jindou, Masashi Kato, Motoyuki Shimizu
A GH 134 β-1,4-mannanase SsGH134 from Streptomyces sp. NRRL B-24484 possesses a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) 10 and a glycoside hydrolase 134 domain at the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Recombinant SsGH134 expressed in E. coli. SsGH134 was maximally active within a pH range of 4.0-6.5 and retained >80% of this maximum after 90 min at 30°C within a pH range of 3.0-10.0. The β-1,4-mannanase activity of SsGH134 towards glucomannan was 30% of the maximal activity after an incubation at 100°C for 120 min, indicating that SsGH134 is pH-tolerant and thermostable β-1,4-mannanase...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yosuke Sumida, Sachio Iwai, Yoshiaki Nishiya, Shinya Kumagai, Toshihide Yamada, Masayuki Azuma
d-Amino acids are important building blocks for various compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. A more cost-effective enzymatic method for d-amino acid production is needed in the industry. We improved a one-pot enzymatic method for d-amino acid production by the dynamic kinetic resolution of N-succinyl amino acids using two enzymes: d-succinylase (DSA) from Cupriavidus sp. P4-10-C, which hydrolyzes N-succinyl-d-amino acids enantioselectively to their corresponding d-amino acid, and N-succinyl amino acid racemase (NSAR, EC...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Mehwish Aslam, Naoya Takahashi, Kohei Matsubara, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tamotsu Kanai, Haruyuki Atomi
Although the chitinolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis is well-studied, the genome does not contain genes homologous to previously identified glucosamine kinase genes. As some ADP-dependent glucokinases in the order Thermococcales exhibit phosphorylation activities for both glucose and glucosamine in vitro, the homolog in T. kodakarensis, encoded by TK1110, was selected as a candidate for the missing glucosamine kinase gene. The purified, recombinant TK1110 enzyme exhibited phosphorylation activities for not only glucose but also glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Keiko Muta, Shinji Inomata, Tadao Fukuhara, Junko Nomura, Toshio Nishiyama, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Satoshi Amano
Exposure to UV radiation to human skin up-regulates the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Gelatinases are member of MMPs which have been suggested to play an important role in photoaging such as wrinkle formation. To inhibit gelatinase activity is regarded to be very important to keep healthy skin and to protect wrinkle formation. On the other hand, anti-photoaging agents are expected to be derived from natural resources, especially plants. Plant extracts having gelatinase-inhibitory effect that might be used as safe anti-photoaging ingredient were widely screened...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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