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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Masahiro Tatara, Shu Ishikawa, Yoshiyuki Ueno
The efficiency of nitrogen removal by a partial-nitritation/anammox (PNA) reaction was investigated using a packed-bed reactor in which ring-laced strings were used as the supporting medium. A stable population of PNA microorganisms was established from typical activated sludge, after less than two months of acclimation in the packed-bed reactor, by applying a high nitrogen-loading rate (NLR: 0.53 kg/m(3)/d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT: 1.8 h). The stability of reactor performance was confirmed in industrial wastewater (IW), demonstrating a nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of greater than 77% during 260 days of continuous operation, between 0...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Dian Anggraini Suroto, Shigeru Kitani, Kiyoko T Miyamoto, Yasuko Sakihama, Masayoshi Arai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
The genomes of actinomycetes encode many cryptic novel/useful bioactive compounds, but access to these cryptic secondary metabolites remains limited. Streptomyces avermitilis predominantly produces three polyketide antibiotics (avermectin, filipin, and oligomycin) but has the potential to produce more secondary metabolites based on the number of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters. Here, we extensively investigated the metabolite profiles of a gene disruptant of AvaR3 (an autoregulator receptor homologue), which is involved in the pleiotropic regulation of antibiotic production and cell morphology...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Fei Huang, Luqing Pan, Na Lv, Xianming Tang
The development of an intensive aquaculture industry has been accompanied by increasing environmental impacts, especially nitrogen pollution. In this study, a novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from mariculture water and identified as Bacillus litoralis N31. The efficiency of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate removal by N31 were 86.3%, 89.3% and 89.4%, respectively, after a 48-h cultivation in sole N-source medium with initial nitrogen approximately 20 mg/L...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tatsuya Kato, Kohei Itagaki, Mai Yoshimoto, Rikito Hiramatsu, Hamizah Suhaimi, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered BmNPV. The GP64 of BmNPV (BmGP64) was replaced with the GP64 of AcMNPV (AcGP64); this construct, designated BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64, displays AcGP64 on the surface of BmNPV. The Neospora caninum antigen (NcSRS2) expression cassette, consisting of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and NcSRS2 from N...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kouichi Kuroda, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Microbial cell factories are subject to various stresses, leading to the reductions of metabolic activity and bioproduction efficiency. Therefore, the development of stress-tolerant microorganisms is important for improving bio-production efficiency. Recently, modifications of cell surface properties and master regulators have been shown to be effective approaches for enhancing stress tolerance. The cell surface is an attractive target owing to its interactions with the environment and its role in transmitting environmental information...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Satomi Yabuuchi, Satoshi Endo, KeangOk Baek, Kunihide Hoshino, Yoshio Tsujino, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Masahiro Takagi
Certain food ingredients can stimulate the human immune system. A lectin, concanavalin A (ConA), from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) is one of the most well-known food-derived immunostimulants and mediates activation of cell-mediated immunity through T cell proliferation. Generally, T cell activation is known to be triggered by the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via a juxtacrine (contact-dependent) signaling pathway. The mechanism has been well characterized and is referred to as formation of the immunological synapse (IS)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Mayumi Matsushita-Morita, Sawaki Tada, Satoshi Suzuki, Ryota Hattori, Ken-Ichi Kusumoto
Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases are peptidases responsible for the cleavage of any amino acid N-terminally adjacent to a proline residue. We identified a gene encoding a putative Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase in the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae (genome database number: AO090701000720) and named this gene xpmA. We produced its enzyme in a C-terminally His6-tag-fused form in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified it. The purified recombinant XpmA (rXpmA) showed hydrolysis activity toward Xaa-Pro-oligopeptides, especially the two dipeptides Ala-Pro and Phe-Pro...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Lin Wang, Rui Jiang, Yang Liu, Maosheng Cheng, Qingyu Wu, Xue-Long Sun
Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein that acts as a major cofactor in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. The EGF-like domains 4-6 of TM (TM456) are essential for PC activation. In this study, we proposed a liposomal recombinant TM conjugate to mimic the membrane TM structure and its anticoagulant activity. First, a DSPE-PEG2000-TM456 was successfully synthesized by site-specific conjugation of azido-TM456 with DSPE-PEG2000-DBCO via copper-free click chemistry quantitatively. Then, liposome-TM456 was fabricated via direct liposome formation with the DSPE-PEG2000-TM456 and other lipids...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Metzere Bierlein De la Rosa, Anup D Sharma, Surya K Mallapragada, Donald S Sakaguchi
The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Byung-Taek Oh, Seong-Yeop Jeong, Palanivel Velmurugan, Jung-Hee Park, Do-Youn Jeong
The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of blueberry fruit with selected probiotic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus brevis) and yeast (Starmerella bombicola) isolated from fermented starfish for the extraction of functionalized products for biomedical applications. All probiotic-based fermented extracts showed augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared to the control. Biochemical parameters of viable cell count, titratable acidity, total phenol, total anthocyanin, total flavonoids, total sugar, and reducing sugar were analyzed during a 0-96 h fermentation period...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hitosi Agematu, Takehiko Takahashi, Yoshio Hamano
Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of biofuels and biochemicals, being abundant in various plant sources. However, processing this type of biomass requires hydrolysis of cellulose. The proposed rumen-mimetic bioprocess consists of dry-pulverization of lignocellulosic biomass and pH-controlled continuous cultivation of ruminal bacteria using ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this study, ruminal bacteria were continuously cultivated for over 60 days and used to digest microcrystalline cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Luisina A Cappellino, Ricardo B Kratje, Marina Etcheverrigaray, Claudio C Prieto
If cultured in appropriate conditions, such as supplementing culture media with costly cytokines and growth factors, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from different origins have shown to be an adequate source of erythroid cells. This requirement turns erythroid cells production into a complicated process to be scaled-up for future applications. The aim of our work was to genetically modify HSPCs with human erythropoietin (hEPO) sequence by lentiviral transgenesis in order for cells to secrete the hormone into the culture medium...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Takayuki Nagai, Yasuhiro Ikegami, Hideyuki Mizumachi, Nana Shirakigawa, Hiroyuki Ijima
Two-dimensional monolayer culture is the most popular cell culture method. However, the cells may not respond as they do in vivo because the culture conditions are different from in vivo conditions. However, hydrogel-embedding culture, which cultures cells in a biocompatible culture substrate, can produce in vivo-like cell responses, but in situ evaluation of cells in a gel is difficult. In this study, we realized an in vivo-like environment in vitro to produce cell responses similar to those in vivo and established an in situ evaluation system for hydrogel-embedded cell responses...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Katsuaki Nitta, Walter A Laviña, Sammy Pontrelli, James C Liao, Sastia P Putri, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Metabolomics is the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in biological systems that uses multivariate analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) or partial least squares/projections to latent structures regression (PLSR) to understand the metabolome state and extract important information from biological systems. In this study, orthogonal PLSR (OPLSR) model-based metabolomics approach was applied to 1-butanol producing Escherichia coli to facilitate in strain improvement strategies. Here, metabolite data obtained by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to construct an OPLSR model to correlate metabolite changes with 1-butanol production and rationally identify gene targets for strain improvement...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Maohua Yang, Ruonan Chen, Tingzhen Mu, Xiang Zhang, Jianmin Xing
Due to the decrease of intracellular NADH availability, gluconate metabolism is more conducive to pyruvate production than glucose. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway was activated by gluconate in Escherichia coli YP211 (MG1655 ΔldhA ΔpflB Δpta-ackA ΔpoxB Δppc ΔfrdBC). To construct a new pyruvate producing strain with glucose metabolism via ED pathway, the genes ppsA, ptsG, pgi and gnd were deleted sequentially to reduce the demand for PEP and block the Embden-Meyerhor-Parnas pathway and Pentose-Phosphate pathway...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Minori Numamoto, Hiromi Maekawa, Yoshinobu Kaneko
The methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha (syn. Hansenula polymorpha) is an attractive industrial non-conventional yeast showing high thermo-tolerance (up to 50°C) and xylose assimilation. However, genetic manipulation of O. polymorpha is often laborious and time-consuming because it has lower homologous recombination efficiency relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To overcome this disadvantage, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a powerful genome editing tool in O. polymorpha. In this system, both single guide RNA (sgRNA) and endonuclease Cas9 were expressed by a single autonomously-replicable plasmid and the sgRNA portion could be easily changed by using PCR and In-Fusion cloning techniques...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xue Wang, Yoshinori Kawabe, Risa Kato, Takeshi Hada, Akira Ito, Yoshimasa Yamana, Masako Kondo, Masamichi Kamihira
We have previously developed an accumulative site-specific gene integration system (AGIS) using Cre-recombinase and mutated loxP sites. AGIS enables repeated transgene integration into a predetermined chromosomal site in mammalian cells. However, the process of establishing cells with multiple integrated copies of the transgene is still time-consuming. In the present study, we describe an improved version of AGIS that facilitates and accelerates the establishment of high-producer Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wei Zheng, Teng Cai, Manhong Huang, Donghui Chen
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted intensive interest for their power generation and pollutants removal characteristics. Electrochemical performances and community structures of two algae cathode photosynthetic MFCs were investigated and compared. Microbial consortia of these two MFCs were taken from wetland sediment (named SMFC) and an up-flow anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor (named UMFC). Maximum power density of the SMFC and UMFC achieved 202.9 ± 18.1 mW/m(2) and 158.2±15.1 mW/m(2), respectively...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jun Lv, Bo-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Dong Liu, Chan Zhang, Lei Chen, Gan-Rong Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Natural yellow pigments produced by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus have potential economic value and application in the food industry. In the present study, the relationships among fermentation conditions (in terms of pH and shaking/agitation speed), mycelial morphology and the production of Monascus yellow pigments were investigated in both shake-flask and scale-up bioreactor experiments. In the shake-flask fermentation, the highest yield of the Monascus yellow pigments was obtained at pH 5.0 and a shaking speed of 180 rpm...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xue-Jiao Li, Jian-Wei Dong, Le Cai, Rui-Feng Mei, Zhong-Tao Ding
Illigera henryi, an endemic traditional Chinese medicine, contains abundant aporphine alkaloids that possess various bioactivities. In the present study, tubers of I. henryi were fermented by several fungi, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of non-fermented and fermented I. henryi were measured. The results showed that the fermentation of I. henryi with Clonostachys rogersoniana 828H2 is effective for improving the AChE inhibitory activity. A key biotransformation was found during the C...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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