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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528790/characterization-of-a-novel-thermostable-gh45-endoglucanase-from-chaetomium-thermophilum-and-its-biodegradation-of-pectin
#1
Qinzheng Zhou, Peng Ji, Jianye Zhang, Xue Li, Chao Han
A novel thermostable endoglucanase (CTendo45) encoding gene was cloned from Chaetomium thermophilum and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Sequence alignment indicated that the CTendo45 enzyme belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 45. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography, and its apparent molecular mass was estimated to be 32 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme displayed maximum activity at 70°C and pH 4. CTendo45 was stable at 60°C for 1 h, and residual activities of 78...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528789/mixed-culture-h2-fermentation-performance-and-the-relation-between-microbial-community-composition-and-hydraulic-retention-times-for-a-fixed-bed-reactor-fed-with-galactose-glucose-mixtures
#2
Parthiban Anburajan, Jong-Hun Park, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Chang-Su Choi, Sang-Hyoun Kim
This study examined the mesophilic continuous biohydrogen fermentation from galactose and glucose mixture with an initial substrate concentration of 15 g/L (galactose 12 g/L and glucose 3 g/L) as a resembling carbon source of pretreated red algal hydrolyzate. A fixed bed reactor was fed with the sugar mixture at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging 12 to 1.5 h. The maximum hydrogen production rate of 52.6 L/L-d was found at 2 h HRT, while the maximum hydrogen yield of 2.3±0.1 mol/mol hexoseadded, was achieved at 3 h HRT...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527827/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioconversion-of-chitin-to-pyruvate-with-thermophilic-enzymes
#3
Kohsuke Honda, Keisuke Kimura, Pham Huynh Ninh, Hironori Taniguchi, Kenji Okano, Hisao Ohtake
Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound on the planet and thus has been regarded as an alternative resource to petroleum feedstocks. One of the key challenges in the biological conversion of biomass-derived polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, is to close the gap between optimum temperatures for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation and to implement them in a single bioreactor. To address this issue, in the present study, we aimed to perform an in vitro, one-pot bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate, which is a precursor of a wide range of useful metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527826/metabolic-pathway-analysis-of-the-xylose-metabolizing-yeast-protoplast-fusant-zlyrhz7
#4
Jingping Ge, Renpeng Du, Gang Song, Yuhuan Zhang, Wenxiang Ping
Xylose is the second major fermentable sugar present in hard woods and herbs (after d-glucose). Therefore, efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol is essential for the commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol, which may provide an ideal alternative to fossil fuels in the future. ZLYRHZ7 is a fusant produced by protoplast fusion between two different yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335, which is able to utilize xylose to produce ethanol. To improve ethanol production and to quantitatively analyze metabolic pathway in ZLYRHZ7, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to assess the utilization rates of xylose, xylitol, and xylulose, and to measure ethanol yields using xylose, xylitol, and xylulose as sole carbon sources...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526203/quantitative-evaluation-of-inhibitory-effect-of-various-substances-on-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidation-anammox
#5
Tomotaka Nakamura, Yuhki Harigaya, Yuya Kimura, Megumi Kuroiwa, Yuhri Kurata, Kazuichi Isaka, Yuichi Suwa
The inhibitory effect of 20 substances of various chemical species on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity of an enrichment culture, predominated by Candidatus Brocadia, was determined systematically by using a (15)N tracer technique. The initial anammox rate was determined during first 25 min with a small-scale anaerobic batch incubation supplemented with possible inhibitors. Although Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) did not inhibit anammox, the remaining 18 substances [Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), [Formula: see text] , Fe(2+), 4 amines, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis (2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), citric acid, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), 1,4-dioxane, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF)] were inhibitory...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522285/production-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-via-the-malonyl-coa-pathway-using-recombinant-fission-yeast-strains
#6
Akiko Suyama, Yujiro Higuchi, Masahiro Urushihara, Yuka Maeda, Kaoru Takegawa
3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) can be converted into derivatives such as acrylic acid, a source for producing super absorbent polymers. Although Escherichia coli has often been used for 3-HP production, it exhibits low tolerance to 3-HP. To circumvent this problem, we selected the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as this microorganism has higher tolerance to 3-HP than E. coli. Therefore, we constructed S. pombe transformants overexpressing two genes, one encoding the S. pombe acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Cut6p) and the other encoding the malonyl-CoA reductase derived from Chloroflexus aurantiacus (CaMCR)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501542/metabolite-profile-of-koji-amazake-and-its-lactic-acid-fermentation-product-by-lactobacillus-sakei-uonuma
#7
Yoshifumi Oguro, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Ryota Shinada, Kazuya Kobayashi, Atsushi Kurahashi
The koji amazake is a traditional sweet Japanese beverage. It has been consumed for over a thousand years in Japan; nonetheless, little is yet known of the ingredients in koji amazake. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the metabolites of koji amazake using a metabolomics approach. Additionally, we reformed the flavor of koji amazake by lactic acid fermentation (LAF-amazake) using Lactobacillus sakei UONUMA, which was isolated from snow caverns. The purpose of this article is to identify the ingredients in these beverages...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495561/function-of-a-thermophilic-archaeal-chaperonin-is-enhanced-by-electrostatic-interactions-with-its-targets
#8
Le Gao, Ryota Hidese, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Molecular chaperonin CpkB from Thermococcus kodakarensis possesses a unique negatively charged carboxy-terminal region that functions in target protein recognition. In the present study, green fluorescent protein (GFP), 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4OTA) and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) were fused with a positively charged tag, selected using docking simulation in silico, to enhance their electrostatic interactions with CpkB. Target proteins were heated at 75°C in the presence or absence of CpkB, and the remaining enzymatic activity was measured...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495560/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-from-kocuria-palustris-ipufs-1-and-construction-of-novel-escherichia-coli-kocuria-shuttle-vector-for-biocatalysis
#9
Hiroshi Toda, Takashi Koyanagi, Toshiki Enomoto, Nobuya Itoh
Two cryptic plasmids, designated pKPAL1 and pKPAL2, were identified from the gram-positive bacterium Kocuria palustris IPUFS-1, which was isolated from a fish source. The 2251-bp and 2488-bp circular genomes of pKPAL1 and pKPAL2, respectively, were sequenced. Subsequent open reading frame (ORF) and homology search analyses suggested that pKPAL1 and pKPAL2 possess two and three ORFs, respectively, and encode the putative replication proteins, RepA and RepB, like the genomes of several plasmids in gram-positive bacteria...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483385/acclimation-to-nacl-and-light-stress-of-heterotrophic-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-for-lipid-accumulation
#10
Jianhua Fan, Lvhong Zheng
Salt stress has been proven very effective in enhancing the lipid content among many photoautotrophically grown microalgae species including marine and freshwater algae. Nevertheless, its effect on heterotrophic grown cells and lipid accumulation is scarcely known. This study sought to demonstrate a new train of thought for cost-effective biofuels production by heterotrophic culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii coupling with subsequent salt and light stress. NaCl treatments (25-200 mM) gradually suppressed the cell growth...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479043/characterization-of-a-thermostable-glycoside-hydrolase-family-36-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#11
Areum Lee, Kyoung-Hwa Choi, Dahye Yoon, Suhkmann Kim, Jaeho Cha
The putative gene cluster involved in the degradation of the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) was identified in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. Within the cluster, the gene encoding a putative α-galactosidase (CbAga36) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified rCbAga36 indicated that the native form was a tetramer. Its primary sequence was similar to the family of glycoside hydrolase 36. The purified recombinant CbAga36 (rCbAga36) was optimally active at pH 5...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476241/evaluation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-gas1-with-respect-to-its-involvement-in-tolerance-to-low-ph-and-salt-stress
#12
Akinori Matsushika, Toshihiro Suzuki, Tetsuya Goshima, Tamotsu Hoshino
We previously showed that overexpression of IoGAS1, which was isolated from the multiple stress-tolerant yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, endows Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the ability to grow and ferment under acidic and high-salt conditions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the IoGAS1 gene product exhibits 60% identity with the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity. However, the functional roles of ScGAS1 in stress tolerance and pH regulation remain unclear...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476240/effect-of-free-ammonium-and-free-nitrous-acid-on-the-activity-aggregate-morphology-and-eps-distribution-of-ammonium-oxidizing-bacteria-in-partial-nitrification
#13
Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng, Bo Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Jiaqi Li, Qiaodi Zhao, Binbin Wang
Successful partial nitrification not only guarantees the inhibition of nitrite oxidation, but also does not excessively retard the ammonia oxidation rate. Therefore, the performance of ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) during partial nitrification is fundamental to this process. In this study, two lab-scale partial nitrification bioreactors containing different inhibition conditions-one with free ammonium (FA) inhibition, the other with free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition-were used to compare the differences between activity, quantity, aggregation morphology and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) distribution of AOB...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465021/morphology-based-non-invasive-quantitative-prediction-of-the-differentiation-status-of-neural-stem-cells
#14
Masaya Fujitani, Noor Safika Huddin, Shun Kawai, Kei Kanie, Yasujiro Kiyota, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda, Ryuji Kato
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and are considered ideal source for regenerating damaged neural cells for neurological disorders. During culture of NSCs, both the measurement and the evaluation of their differentiation potential are important to maintain stable quality-assured NSCs for regenerative treatments since the rate of differentiation into certain lineages from NSCs is still not fully controllable. However, conventional cell evaluation techniques using biological molecular are still invasive, costly, and time-consuming...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460871/effect-of-temperature-post-viral-vector-inoculation-on-the-amount-of-hemagglutinin-transiently-expressed-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#15
Ryo Matsuda, Tatsuki Abe, Naomichi Fujiuchi, Nobuyuki Matoba, Kazuhiro Fujiwara
Transient gene expression in whole plants by using viral vectors is promising as a rapid, mass production system for biopharmaceutical proteins. Recent studies have indicated that plant growth conditions such as air temperature markedly influence the accumulation levels of target proteins. Here, we investigated time course of the amount of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA), a vaccine antigen of influenza virus, in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown at 20°C or 25°C post viral vector inoculation. The HA content per unit of leaf biomass increased and decreased from 4 to 6 days post inoculation at 20°C and 25°C, respectively, irrespective of the subcellular localization of HA...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457659/estimation-of-the-influence-of-sequencing-errors-and-distribution-of-random-sequence-tags-on-quantitative-sequencing
#16
Tatsuhiko Hoshino, Yohei Hamada
To simultaneously sequence and quantify target DNA, quantitative sequencing (qSeq) employs stochastic labeling of target DNA molecules with random-sequence tags (RSTs). This recently developed approach allows parallel quantification of hundreds of microorganisms in natural habitats in a single sequencing run. Yet, no study has addressed to what extent sequencing errors affect quantification and how many sequence reads are needed for quantification. Here, we addressed those issues by using numerical simulations and experimental data from second-generation sequencing of various RSTs...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457658/pilot-scale-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-biopolymers-with-high-molecular-weight-and-elastomeric-properties
#17
Kai-Hee Huong, Mat Junoh Azuraini, Nursolehah Abdul Aziz, Al-Ashraf Abdullah Amirul
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456470/simple-and-rapid-method-for-isolation-and-quantitation-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-by-sds-sonication-treatment
#18
Hisashi Arikawa, Shunsuke Sato, Tetsuya Fujiki, Keiji Matsumoto
We developed a new method for isolation and quantitation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from culture broth. In this method, the cells were sonicated in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and centrifuged to recover PHA. The recovered PHA was rinsed with deionized water and ethanol, and then weighed after drying. Hazardous chemicals such as chloroform, methanol, and sulfuric acid were not used, and no expensive analytical instruments were needed. We applied this method to Cupriavidus necator culture broths that included various amounts of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) from flasks and jar fermentors...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442390/high-pressure-thermophilic-electromethanogenic-system-producing-methane-at-5%C3%A2-mpa-55%C3%A2-c
#19
Hajime Kobayashi, Ayano Nagashima, Miki Kouyama, Qian Fu, Masayuki Ikarashi, Haruo Maeda, Kozo Sato
Toward applications of bio-electrochemical systems in industrial processes and extreme environments, electromethanogenesis under high-pressure conditions was examined. Stainless-steel single-chamber reactors specifically designed to examine bio-electrochemical reactions under pressurized conditions were inoculated with thermophilic microorganisms originated from an oilfield formation water. The reactors were incubated at 5 MPa, 55°C in fed-batch operational mode with an applied voltage of 0.7 V. In the first few fed-batch cycles, hydrogen was mainly produced...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442389/gene-identification-and-characterization-of-fucoidan-deacetylase-for-potential-application-to-fucoidan-degradation-and-diversification
#20
Tatsuhiko Nagao, Ayako Kumabe, Fumika Komatsu, Hisashi Yagi, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takashi Ohshiro
Fucoidan is an α-l-fucopyranosyl polymer found in seaweeds with forms that have acetyl and sulfuric modifications and derivatives that are lower and/or diversified, with modifications that have attracted interest as potential bioactive substances. We identified the gene for a fucoidan deacetylase that cleaves acetyl moieties from fucoidan and thereby contributes to fucoidan utilization in the marine bacterium Luteolibacter algae H18. Fucoidan deacetylase was purified to homogeneity from a cell-free extract of L...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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