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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Daisuke Inoue, Yuta Suzuki, Kazuko Sawada, Kazunari Sei
The influence of temperature and pH during enrichment on the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation ability and composition of PHA-accumulating microorganisms (PHAAMOs) in enrichment cultures was investigated. Enrichment of PHAAMOs from activated sludge was conducted in acetate-fed sequencing batch reactors using a feast-famine regime under different temperature (20°C, 28°C, and 36°C) and pH (controlled at 7.2 or not) conditions. PHA accumulation ability, which was evaluated in nitrogen- and phosphorus-deficient 24-h single-batch cultures, was greatly enhanced by enrichment, irrespective of the temperature and pH...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sota Yagi, Satoshi Akanuma, Asumi Kaji, Hiroya Niiro, Hayato Akiyama, Tatsuya Uchida, Akihiko Yamagishi
Protein-metal hybrids are functional materials with various industrial applications. For example, a redox enzyme immobilized on a platinum electrode is a key component of some biofuel cells and biosensors. To create these hybrid materials, protein molecules are bound to metal surfaces. Here, we report the selection of a novel platinum-binding sequence in a loop of a four-helix bundle protein, the Lac repressor four-helix protein (LARFH), an artificial protein in which four identical α-helices are connected via three identical loops...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Fei Chang, Saisai Xue, Xiaqing Xie, Wei Fang, Zemin Fang, Yazhong Xiao
Complicated purification steps, together with the fact that β-glucosidase has to be tolerant to ethanol restricts the application of β-glucosidase in isoflavone aglycone hydrolyzing process. β-Glucosidase Bgl1A(A24S/F297Y) is a promising enzyme in hydrolyzing isoflavones. In this work, six different carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which were from 3 families, were fused to the C-terminal of Bgl1A(A24S/F297Y), respectively, to simplify the enzyme preparation process. The fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed onto cellulose...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Pijug Summpunn, Juntratip Jomrit, Watanalai Panbangred
Pichia pastoris is an established host system for heterologous protein expression. However, the potential productivity of this system can be limited. In this study, the Escherichia coli chaperones (GroES-GroEL) were expressed from the PGAP promoter and targeted to the secretory pathway through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ability of the ER targeted chaperones to improve production of bacterial protein in P. pastoris was evaluated. The chaperones tagged with α-factor secretion- and ER retention-signal sequences were co-expressed with either extracellularly secreted phytase or intracellular d-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT) enzymes...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Amal Hamed El-Naggar, Areej Ali Baeshen
Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yanhua Lu, Zhenghua Pan, Jun Tao, Faliang An
Dalesconols (dalesconols A and B) were isolated from Daldinia eschscholzii and have remarkable immunosuppressive activity. In this study, the response of fungal growth, intra- and extracellular Ca(2+), and dalesconols production after CaCl2 addition were reported for the first time. After supplementation with 5 mM Ca(2+) at 24 h, dalesconols production reached 84.33 mg/L, which resulted in a 1.57-fold enhancement compared to the control. The key role of calcium/calmodulin signaling in dalesconols biosynthesis was confirmed by treatment with Ca(2+) channel and calmodulin inhibitors...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Haruka Niikura, Chitose Maruyama, Yasushi Ogasawara, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Tohru Dairi, Yoshimitsu Hamano
Streptothricin (ST) and its related compounds produced by Streptomyces strains are broad-spectrum antibiotics that consist of carbamoylated d-gulosamine, amino-acid side chain, and streptolidine lactam moieties. BD-12, a streptothricin-related antibiotic, has a glycine-derived side chain and two N-methyl groups, whereas ST-F carrying the l-β-lysine side chain has no methyl group. In our previous studies, we identified and characterized the BD-12 and ST biosynthetic gene clusters. Here we report the functional analysis of two methyltransferase genes (orf 6 and orf 13) in the BD-12 biosynthetic gene cluster...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ritu Verma, Rahul Kumar, Luv Mehan, Aradhana Srivastava
Microalgae, a renewable source for third generation biofuel production, have a great potential if cultivated in high concentration economically. Bottleneck lies with designing economical and efficient photobioreactor. In addition, proportional C and N inputs in the known media does not support high specific growth rate and high biomass build-up. Nitrates in fermentation media, f/2 for Nannochloropsis sp. and Zarrouk's for Arthrospiraplatensis, were modified. Aeration and agitation were altered in conventional bioreactor (BIOFLO 110) to reduce power consumption, increase mixing time and prevents settling...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Takahisa Tajima, Kousuke Tomita, Hiroyuki Miyahara, Kenshi Watanabe, Tsunehiro Aki, Yoshiko Okamura, Yukihiko Matsumura, Yutaka Nakashimada, Junichi Kato
Macroalgae are a promising biomass feedstock for energy and valuable chemicals. Mannitol and alginate are the major carbohydrates found in the microalga Laminaria japonica (Konbu). To convert mannitol to fructose for its utilization as a carbon source in mannitol non-assimilating bacteria, a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst (PSCat) was constructed using a psychrophile as a host by expressing mesophilic enzymes, including mannitol 2-dehydrogenase for mannitol oxidation, and NADH oxidase and alkyl hydroxyperoxide reductase for NAD(+) regeneration...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sakurako Ichinose, Mizuki Tanaka, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
In a previous study, we reported that a double gene deletion mutant for CreA and CreB, which constitute the regulatory machinery involved in carbon catabolite repression, exhibited improved production of α-amylase compared with the wild-type strain and single creA or creB deletion mutants in Aspergillus oryzae. Because A. oryzae can also produce biomass-degrading enzymes, such as xylolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, we examined the production levels of those enzymes in deletion mutants in this study. Xylanase and β-glucosidase activities in the wild-type were hardly detected in submerged culture containing xylose as the carbon source, whereas those enzyme activities were significantly increased in the single creA deletion (ΔcreA) and double creA and creB deletion (ΔcreAΔcreB) mutants...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Anjaritha A R Parijadi, Sastia P Putri, Sobir Ridwani, Fenny M Dwivany, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Metabolomics is an emerging research field based on exhaustive metabolite profiling that have been proven useful to facilitate the study of postharvest fruit development and ripening. Specifically, tracking changes to the metabolome as fruit ripens should provide important clues for understanding ripening mechanisms and identify bio-markers to improve post-harvest technology of fruits. This study conducted a time-course metabolome analysis in mangosteen, an economically important tropical fruit valued for its flavor...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tomoharu Hogiri, Hiroshi Tamashima, Akitoshi Nishizawa, Masahiro Okamoto
To optimize monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures, culture pH should be temporally controlled with high resolution. In this study, we propose a new pH-dependent dynamic model represented by simultaneous differential equations including a minimum of six system component, depending on pH value. All kinetic parameters in the dynamic model were estimated using an evolutionary numerical optimization (real-coded genetic algorithm) method based on experimental time-course data obtained at different pH values ranging from 6...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hiroko Kitamoto, Shigenobu Yoshida, Motoo Koitabashi, Kimiko Yamamoto-Tamura, Hirokazu Ueda, Tohru Yarimizu, Yuka Sameshima-Yamashita
Agricultural mulch films made from biodegradable polymers (BP) have been used to decrease the burden of plastic waste recovery and recycling. However, their degradations depend largely on environmental conditions and sometimes do not proceed as desired. Yeast strains of Pseudozyma antarctica often isolated from rice husks were found to secrete an esterase to degrade BP films. Poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) films buried in unsterilized rice husks with 60% (w/w) moisture degraded rapidly compared to that buried in field soil...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wenjun Xiao, Li Jiang, Weiyu Wang, Ruyue Wang, Jun Fan
Fusion of solubility-enhancing tag is frequently used for improving soluble production of target protein in Escherichia coli. The Arabidopsis tetraticopeptide domain-containing thioredoxin (TDX) has been documented to exhibit functions of disulfide reductase, foldase chaperone, and holdase chaperone. Here, we identified that fusion of rice TDX with the smaller size increased soluble expression levels of three fluorescent proteins with different fluorophores in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3) or the Rosetta (DE3) strain with coexpression of six rare tRNAs, but decreased conformational quality of certain fluorescent proteins, as comparison with the His6-tagged ones...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Akihito Fujimoto, Keisuke Ito, Madoka Itou, Noriko Narushima, Takayuki Ito, Akihisa Yamamoto, Satoru Hirayama, Soichi Furukawa, Yasushi Morinaga, Takahisa Miyamoto
Sourdough is a food item made by kneading grain flour and water together and allowing fermentation through the action of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales) and yeast. Typically, Japanese bakeries make sourdough with rye flour, wheat flour, malt extract, and water and allow spontaneous fermentation for 6 days. We compared the microbial behavior and food components, such as organic acids, sugars, and free amino acids, of sourdoughs made using two different rye and wheat flours during the 6-day fermentation period...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hiroaki Negoro, Mitsuru Sakamoto, Atsushi Kotaka, Kengo Matsumura, Yoji Hata
Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces organic acids such as succinate, acetate, and malate during alcoholic fermentation. Since malate contributes to the pleasant taste of sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage), various methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeast strains have been developed. Here, a high-malate-producing yeast strain F-701H was isolated. This mutant was sensitive to dimethyl succinate (DMS) and harbored a nonsense mutation in the peroxin gene PEX22, which was identified as the cause of high malate production by comparative genome analysis...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hao Wu, Xianbo Cheng, Yongfeng Zhu, Wei Zeng, Guiguang Chen, Zhiqun Liang
Xylanase is an important enzyme involved in degrading xylan. In this study, an extracellular cellulase-free, thermostable endo-xylanase which was produced by Streptomyces griseorubens LH-3 with bagasse semi-cellulose as a carbon source was purified and characterized. The xylanase was purified 4-fold with a recovery yield of 21.6% by precipitation with 25-55% (NH4)2SO4, Mono Q ion exchange chromatography and sephacryl S-200 HR gel filtration chromatography. It appeared as a monomeric protein on SDS-PAGE gel and had an apparent molecular weight of 45...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shin-Ichi Akazawa, Haruka Tokuyama, Shunsuke Sato, Toshinori Watanabe, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara
Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yuichiro Sato, Jinshun Han, Hisashi Fukuda, Shigeaki Mikami
Monoterpene alcohols (MTAs) are characteristic flavour-imparting compounds in sweet potato shochu (Japanese distilled spirit) that are liberated following hydrolysis by specific enzymes during fermentation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an exogenously added diglycoside-specific β-glycosidase (β-primeverosidase) on aroma formation during shochu brewing using various sweet potato species to address whether MTAs are predominantly present as diglycosidic precursors in raw materials. The results showed that the amount of MTAs produced from enzyme-treated mash was dramatically increased by 2- to 9-fold compared with untreated controls, and the increase varied with sweet potato species...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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