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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Tianlei Qiu, Ying Xu, Min Gao, Meilin Han, Xuming Wang
While heterotrophic denitrification has been widely used for treating such nitrogen-rich wastewater, it requires the use of additional carbon sources. With fluctuations in the nitrate concentration in the influent, controlling the C/N ratio to avoid carbon breakthrough becomes difficult. To overcome this obstacle, solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using biodegradable polymers has been used, where denitrification and carbon source biodegradation depend on microorganisms growing within the reactor. However, the microbial community dynamics in continuous-flow SPD reactors have not been fully elucidated yet...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Elizabeth M Haley, Samantha G Tilson, Ursula L Triantafillu, Justin W Magrath, Yonghyun Kim
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are a unique subpopulation of cells within glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumors that possess the ability to self-renew and differentiate into bulk tumor cells. GSCs are resistant to currently available treatments and are the likely culprit behind tumor relapse in GBM patients. However, GSCs are currently inaccessible to the larger scientific community because obtaining a sufficient number of GSCs remains technically challenging and cost-prohibitive. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a more efficient GSC culture strategy that results in a higher cell yield of GSCs at a lower cost...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Dao Viet Linh, Nguyen Lan Huong, Michiro Tabata, Shunsuke Imai, Sou Iijima, Daisuke Kasai, To Kim Anh, Masao Fukuda
A rubber-degrading bacterial consortium named H2DA was obtained from an enrichment culture with natural rubber latex and rubber-processing factory waste in Vietnam. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that only the strain NVL3 degraded synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) into low-molecular-weight intermediates among the three strains found in the H2DA. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence of NVL3 showed the highest identity with that of Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T). NVL3 accumulated aldehyde intermediates from synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) on a rubber-overlay plate as indicated by Schiff's staining...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sepehr Shakeri Yekta, Ryan M Ziels, Annika Björn, Ulf Skyllberg, Jörgen Ejlertsson, Anna Karlsson, Matilda Svedlund, Magnus Willén, Bo H Svensson
The inhibitory effects of sulfide on microbial processes during anaerobic digestion have been widely addressed. However, other effects of sulfide are less explored, given that sulfide is a potential sulfur source for microorganisms and its high reactivity triggers a suit of abiotic reactions. We demonstrated that sulfide interaction with Fe regulates the dynamics and activities of microbial community during anaerobic digestion. This was manifested by the S:Fe molar ratio, whose increase adversely influenced the acetoclastic methanogens, Methanosaeta, and turnover of acetate...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Robert Schalk, Daniel Geoerg, Jens Staubach, Matthias Raedle, Frank-Juergen Methner, Thomas Beuermann
A mid-infrared (MIR) sensor using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique has been developed for real-time monitoring in biotechnology. The MIR-ATR sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The suitability of the sensor for practical application was tested during aerobic batch-fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneous monitoring of glucose and ethanol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Onur Güneşer, Yonca Karagül Yüceer
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using tomato and red pepper pomaces for the production eight-carbon volatiles by Trichoderma atroviride and Aspergillus sojae. The fermentation of tomato and pepper pomace-based media by both moulds was conducted in shake flasks and bioreactors. Microbial growth behaviours and fermentation abilities of T. atroviride and A. sojae under both fermentation conditions were followed by microbial counting. The production of flavours from tomato and pepper pomaces by fungal metabolism was determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sensory analysis...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kohei Ihara, Kazuki Sato, Hatsuhiro Hori, Yumiko Makino, Shuji Sigenobu, Tasuke Ando, Emiko Isogai, Hiroshi Yoneyama
The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Eul-Soo Park, Sunghoon Park, Jong-Shik Shin
Glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) is a pivotal enzyme for fermentative utilization of glycerol by catalyzing radical-mediated conversion of glycerol into 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). Precise and sensitive monitoring of cellular GDHt activity during the fermentation process is a prerequisite for reliable metabolic analysis to afford efficient cellular engineering and process optimization. Here we report a new spectrophotometric assay for the sensitive measurement of the GDHt activity with a sub-nanomolar limit of detection (LOD)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Teruyo Ojima-Kato, Satomi Nagai, Hideo Nakano
Despite advances in microbial protein expression systems, low production of proteins remains a great concern for some genes. Here we report that the insertion of a short peptide tag, consisting of Ser-Lys-Ile-Lys (SKIK), adjacent to the start codon of genes encoding difficult-to-express proteins can increase protein expression in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein expression levels of a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), rabbit mAbs obtained from clonal B cells, and an artificially designed peptide were significantly increased simply by the addition of the SKIK tag in E...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xiao Lu Wei, Shuang Ping Liu, Jian Shen Yu, Yong Jian Yu, Sheng Hu Zhu, Zhi Lei Zhou, Jian Hu, Jian Mao
As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hidenori Tani, Hiroaki Sato, Masaki Torimura
We have developed a rapid fluorescence assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the monitoring of RNA degradation activity in mammalian cells. In this technique, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fluorescent probes are used. The dsRNA fluorescent probes consist of a 5' fluorophore-labeled strand hybridized to a 3' quencher-labeled strand, and the fluorescent dye is quenched by a quencher dye. When the dsRNA is degraded by nascent RNases in cells, the fluorescence emission of the fluorophore is induced following the degradation of the double strands...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Silai Zhang, Akihiko Ban, Naoki Ebara, Osamu Mizutani, Mizuki Tanaka, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chantaraporn Phalakornkule, Sasikarn Nuchdang, Maneerat Khemkhao, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sarunyou Wongwilaiwalin, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Verawat Champreda, Jiraprat Kitsuwan, Savitri Vatanyoopaisarn
Effects of the freeze-thaw process on physical properties, cell viability, microbial activities and population structures of anaerobic sludge were investigated. It was found that the sludge volume index was greatly reduced from 16.4 mL/g in the original sludge to 4.0 mL/g in the solid fraction of the frozen-thawed sludge. Even though the freeze-thaw process decreased cell viability in the solid fraction of the frozen-thawed sludge, microbial activity tests showed that the freeze-thaw process enhanced acidogenic activity approximately 20%...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Soya Maeda, Kumiko Shimizu, Chie Kihira, Yuki Iwabu, Ryuichi Kato, Makoto Sugimoto, Satoru Fukiya, Masaru Wada, Atsushi Yokota
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) is a transcriptional regulator that negatively regulates formation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), NADH dehydrogenase (NDH)-2, and cytochrome bo3 oxidase in Escherichia coli. To investigate the effects of a PdhR defect on glucose metabolism, a pdhR deletion mutant was derived from the wild-type E. coli W1485 strain by λ Red-mediated recombination. While no difference in the fermentation profiles was observed between the two strains under oxygen-sufficient conditions, under oxygen-limited conditions, the growth level of the wild-type strain was significantly decreased with retarded glucose consumption accompanied by by-production of substantial amounts of pyruvic acid and acetic acid...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Giri Park, Masashi Takekawa, Satoshi Soda, Michihiko Ike, Kenji Furukawa
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, which is applicable at ambient temperature, is necessary to develop more versatile nitrogen removal technologies. In this study, two anammox reactors, Low-R1 and Low-R2 inoculated with activated sludge respectively in Kumamoto and Hokkaido, Japan, achieved nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) of 1.5 kg-N/m(3)/day at 20°C. The specific anammox activity (SAA) of the Low-R1 and Low-R2 sludge samples had peaks, respectively, of 2.8±0.3 mg-N/g-VSS/h at 25°C and 4...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Dongdong Zhang, Zhiling Li, Chunfang Zhang, Xue Zhou, Zhixing Xiao, Takanori Awata, Arata Katayama
A microbial fuel cell (MFC), with graphite electrodes as both the anode and cathode, was operated with a soil-free anaerobic consortium for phenol degradation. This phenol-degrading MFC showed high efficiency with a current density of 120 mA/m(2) and a coulombic efficiency of 22.7%, despite the lack of a platinum catalyst cathode and inoculation of sediment/soil. Removal of planktonic bacteria by renewing the anaerobic medium did not decrease the performance, suggesting that the phenol-degrading MFC was not maintained by the planktonic bacteria but by the microorganisms in the anode biofilm...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Weiqiang Zhu, Peiyu Zhang, Huiyu Dong, Jin Li
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been regarded as an efficient process to treat high-strength wastewater without organic carbon source. To investigate nitrogen removal performance of anammox in presence of organic carbon source can broaden its application on organic wastewater treatment. In this work, effect of carbon source on anammox process was explored. Operating temperature was set at 35 ± 1°C. Influent pH and hydraulic retention time were 7.5 and 6 h, respectively. Effluent [Formula: see text] was affected little with COD no more than 480 mg/L...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Li Yun, Li Jun, Wang Zhaozhao, Wei Jia, Zhang Yanzhuo, Zhao Baihang
Nitritation can be used as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Various control strategies for nitritation and half-nitritation of old landfill leachate in a membrane bioreactor were investigated in this study and the inhibition kinetics of substrate, product and old landfill leachate on nitritation were analyzed via batch tests. The results demonstrated that old landfill leachate nitritation in the membrane bioreactor can be achieved by adjusting the influent loading and dissolved oxygen (DO)...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ruo He, Min Chen, Ruo-Chan Ma, Yao Su, Xuan Zhang
Ammonium (NH4(+)) is not only nitrogen source that can support methanotrophic growth, but also it can inhibit methane (CH4) oxidation by competing with CH4 for the active site of methane monooxygenase. NH4(+) conversion and its feedback effect on the growth and activity of methanotrophs were evaluated with Methylosinus sporium used as a model methanotroph. Nitrogen sources could affect the CH4-derived carbon distribution, which varied with incubation time and nitrogen concentrations. More CH4-derived carbon was incorporated into biomass in the media with NH4(+)-N, compared to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), as sole nitrogen source at the nitrogen concentrations of 10-18 mmol L(-1)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Zhixin Wang, Jiayang Liu, Yawei Ning, Xiangru Liao, Yingmin Jia
The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of an intractable waster of Eichhornia crassipes in laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus SYBC-L1. E.crassipes as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was confirmed to produce laccase (7.26 U/g dry substrate). The fermentation medium for the maximum enzyme production was optimized and the laccase was then purified and characterized. The optimized culture medium was 25.1% E.crassipes, 13.9% sawdust, 1.5 mM CuSO4, 40 μM gallic acid, 65% moisture content and initial pH 6...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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