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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Lulu Lu, Xuan Zhao, Jianyong Zhang, Miao Li, Yonghao Qi, Lijun Zhou
The naturally occurring calycosin is a known antioxidant that prevents redox imbalance in organisms. However, calycosin's effect on lifespan and its physiological molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that calycosin could prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditiselegans, and that such extension was associated with its antioxidant capability as well as its ability to enhance stress resistance and reduce ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation. To explore mechanisms of this longevity effect, we assessed the impact of calycosin on lifespans of insulin-signaling impaired worms: daf-2, age-1, and daf-16 mutants...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Megumi Uno, Nichanan Phansroy, Yuji Aso, Hitomi Ohara
Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates electricity from lactic acid, but cannot utilize starch. On the other hand, Streptococcus bovis 148 metabolizes starch and produces lactic acid. Therefore, two methods were trialed for starch-fueled microbial fuel cell (MFC) in this study. In electric generation by two-step fermentation (EGT) method, starch was first converted to lactic acid by S. bovis 148. The S. bovis 148 were then removed by centrifugation, and the fermented broth was preserved for electricity generation by S...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yuki Kondo, Koji Hattori, Shota Tashiro, Eri Nakatani, Ryosuke Yoshimitsu, Taku Satoh, Shinji Sugiura, Toshiyuki Kanamori, Kiyoshi Ohnuma
Microfluidic perfusion systems enable small-volume cell cultures under precisely controlled microenvironments, and are typically developed for cell-based high-throughput screening. However, most such systems are designed to manipulate dissociated single cells, not cell aggregates, and are thus unsuitable to induce differentiation in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which is conventionally achieved by using cell aggregates to increase cell-cell interactions. We have now developed a compartmentalized microfluidic perfusion system with large flow channels to load, culture, and observe cell aggregates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masafumi Tokuoka, Chihiro Honda, Akira Totsuka, Hitoshi Shindo, Masaru Hosaka
A traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage, sake, contains several oligosaccharides, which are associated with the taste of sake; however, little is known about the specific molecular species and concentrations of oligosaccharides in sake. Here, we developed an analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOF/MS) which successfully detects the oligosaccharides in sake. A series of oligosaccharides with successive degree of polymerization (DP) values up to 18 were identified in sake for the first time, which we have named sake oligosaccharides (SAOs)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ikko Kozaki, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda
Intracellular functional peptides that play a significant role inside cells have been receiving a lot of attention as regulators of cellular activity. Previously, we proposed a novel screening system for intracellular functional peptides; it combined a photo-cleavable peptide array system with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Various peptides can be delivered into cells and intracellular functions of the peptides can be assayed by means of our system. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the proposed screening system can be used for assessing the intracellular activity of peptides...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Choowong Auesukaree
During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells encounter various stresses including sugar substrates-induced high osmolarity, increased ethanol concentration, oxygen metabolism-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated temperature. To cope with these fermentation-associated stresses, appropriate adaptive responses are required to prevent stress-induced cellular dysfunctions and to acquire stress tolerances. This review will focus on the cellular effects of these stresses, molecular basis of the adaptive response to each stress, and the cellular mechanisms contributing to stress tolerance...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yan Li, Dongliang Hua, Hui Mu, Haipeng Xu, Fuqiang Jin, Xiaodong Zhang
Vegetable wastes (VWs), which contained abundant solid content, were digested in a leaching bed reactor (LBR). The tested VWs for acidification in the LBR included cabbage, potato, and tomato vine. The digestion in the LBR was carried out at the same organic loading rate of 25 g volatile solid (VS) per liter. It was found that cabbage and potato produced much more volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than tomato vine, probably because readily degradable components were more abundant in cabbage and potato. The retention time to digest each feedstock was different...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rie Sonoi, Mee-Hae Kim, Kenta Yamada, Masahiro Kino-Oka
Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells at different population doublings (PDs) were cultured for 28 days to examine their phenotypic heterogeneity in a confluent state. In an early population (PD = 2.8), cells showed a cobblestone-like appearance (type I), which gradually became small and tight, and eventually exhibited dark pigmentation. Some cells showed a dome-like structure (type II), which detached from the culture surface during culture. With increasing PD, the cells showed active migration that caused a shift in phenotype from a single layer of large, flattened cells (type III) to a multiple cell layers (stratified) with flattened, irregularly shaped cells (type IV)...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xin-Qi Xu, Wei Han, Xiao-Bing Wu, Yong Xie, Juan Lin, Qing-Xi Chen
The relationship between unfolding and inactivation of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase has been investigated for the first time. The secretion of β-glucosidase from H. orientalis is induced by raw cassava residues. The enzyme was 75 kD without glycosylation. Guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) could reversibly inactivate the enzyme with an estimated IC50 value of 0.4 M. The inactivation kinetics model by GuHCl has been established and the microscopic inactivation rate constants are determined. The values of forward inactivation rate constants of free enzyme are found to be larger than that of substrate-enzyme complex suggesting the enzyme could be protected by substrate during denaturation...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Keita Mori, Hirotsugu Hamada, Takafumi Ogawa, Yuki Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Tomohisa Katsuda, Hideki Yamaji
Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Krishna Kant Gupta, Anshul Nigam, Sharmili Jagtap, Ramadas Krishna
Acinetobacter radioresistens PR8 produces extracellular lipase depending upon growth media. In present work we not only screened the nutrient sources but also investigated the causes for variation in productivity. The nutrient sources investigated are, groundnut oil, groundnut cake and fresh groundnut. Lower lipase productivity was observed on fresh ground nut in contrast to groundnut oil and groundnut cake. The lipase productivity was examined in the batch and parameters monitored were bacterial growth, enzyme activity, pH, lipids and protein concentration...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Radhika Rajendran, Balaji Sitthu Narashimman, Vishal Trivedi, Rakhi Chaturvedi
This is the pioneer work reporting on simple procedure for synchronized determination and quantification of two biologically active N-alkylamides, (2E,6Z,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol) and (2E,4Z)-N-isobutyl-2,4-undecadiene-8,10-diynamide (UDA), using in vitro callus cultures from flower-heads of Spilanthes paniculata. The extracts were purified using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and finest separation of compounds was optimized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kazunari Ito, Katsuya Gomi, Masahiro Kariyama, Tsuyoshi Miyake
The construction of an experimental system that can mimic koji making in the manufacturing setting of a sake brewery is initially required for the quantitative evaluation of mycelia grown on/in koji pellets (haze formation). Koji making with rice was investigated with a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system using a non-airflow box (NAB), which produced uniform conditions in the culture substrate with high reproducibility and allowed for the control of favorable conditions in the substrate during culture. The SSF system using NAB accurately reproduced koji making in a manufacturing setting...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Silai Zhang, Hiroki Sato, Sakurako Ichinose, Mizuki Tanaka, Ken Miyazawa, Akira Yoshimi, Keietsu Abe, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
We have previously reported that α-amylase (Taka-amylase A, TAA) activity disappears in the later stage of submerged Aspergillus oryzae culture as a result of TAA adsorption onto the cell wall. Chitin, one of the major components of the cell wall, was identified as a potential factor that facilitates TAA adsorption. However, TAA adsorption only occurred in the later stage of cultivation, although chitin was assumed to be sufficiently abundant in the cell wall regardless of the submerged culture period. This suggested the presence a factor that inhibits TAA adsorption to the cell wall in the early stage of cultivation...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Takeshi Suzuki, Satoshi Baba, Minako Ono, Koichi Nonaka, Kimihisa Ichikawa, Masayuki Yabuta, Rie Ito, Yasunori Chiba
A production system for a therapeutic monoclonal antibody was developed using the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta IFO10746. The genetically engineered O. minuta secreted a detectable amount of anti-TRAIL receptor antibody into the culture supernatant, and the secreted antibody was purified by multiple column chromatography steps. In the purification process, both fully and partially assembled antibodies were detected and isolated. The fully assembled antibody from O. minuta showed almost the same biological activity as that derived from mammalian cells despite the distinct glycosylation profile, whereas the partially assembled antibody showed no cytotoxic activity...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ryushi Kawakami, Haruhiko Sakuraba, Taketo Ohmori, Toshihisa Ohshima
A novel amino acid racemase with broad substrate specificity (BAR) was recently isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3. Characterization of this enzyme has been difficult, however, because the recombinant enzyme is produced mainly as an inclusion body in Escherichia coli. In this study, expression of the recombinant protein into the soluble fraction was markedly improved by co-expression with chaperone molecules. The purified enzyme retained its full activity after incubation at 80°C for at least 2 h in buffer (pH 7-10), making this enzyme the most thermostable amino acid racemase so far known...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Makoto Matsui, Tatsuya Yokoyama, Kaoru Nemoto, Toshitaka Kumagai, Koichi Tamano, Masayuki Machida, Takashi Shibata
FR901469 is a secondary metabolite with antifungal activity, produced by fungal sp. No. 11243. In our previous study, we constructed the frbF overexpression mutant (TFH2-2) from the wild-type strain. FR901469 productivity of TFH2-2 was 3.4 times higher than that of the wild-type strain. To further enhance FR901469 productivity in TFH2-2, we attempted to find genes from the genome that limited the productivity as bottlenecks in this study. Based on both correlation analysis of gene expression level against FR901469 productivity and genome annotation information, the cross-pathway control gene A (cpcA) was most predicted as the bottleneck...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kouki Matsuo, Takeshi Matsumura
The production of recombinant proteins in plants has many advantages, including safety and reduced costs. However, this technology still faces several issues, including low levels of production. The repression of RNA silencing seems to be particularly important for improving recombinant protein production because RNA silencing effectively degrades transgene-derived mRNAs in plant cells. Therefore, to overcome this, we used RNA interference technology to develop DCL2- and DCL4-repressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants (ΔD2, ΔD4, and ΔD2ΔD4 plants), which had much lower levels of NbDCL2 and/or NbDCL4 mRNAs than wild-type plants...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yu-Kuo Liu, Wei-Chuan Chen, Yu-Ching Huang, Yu-Kaung Chang, I-Ming Chu, Shen-Long Tsai, Yu-Hong Wei
The aim of this study was to use a modified bioreactor system for simultaneous saccharification of cellulose and bioethanol production. We tested Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei for cellulose saccharification and Zymomonas mobilis for bioethanol production simultaneously in this modified bioreactor. The results showed that various carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) concentrations (10, 15, or 20 g/L) as a substrate for A. niger and T. reesei yielded bioethanol production of 0.51, 0.78, and 0.89 g/L and a CMC conversion rate of 10...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yasutaka Hirokawa, Ryota Goto, Yoshitaka Umetani, Taizo Hanai
Using engineered cyanobacteria to produce various chemicals from carbon dioxide is a promising technology for a sustainable future. Lactate is a valuable commodity that can be used for the biodegradable plastic, polylactic acid. Typically, lactate production using engineered cyanobacteria was via the conversion of pyruvate in glycolysis by lactate dehydrogenase. In cyanobacteria, the metabolic flux in the Calvin cycle is higher than that in glycolysis under photoautotrophic conditions. The construction of a novel lactate producing pathway that uses metabolites from the Calvin cycle could potentially increase lactate productivity in cyanobacteria...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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