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Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

Michael Schmutzer
The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Abhishek Sharma, Sasireka Rajendran, Ankit Srivastava, Satyawati Sharma, Bishwajit Kundu
The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kenji Uehara, Jun Watanabe, Yoshinobu Mogi, Yuichiro Tsukioka
4-Hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) is considered a key flavor compound in soy sauce. The compound has a caramel-like aroma and several important physiological activities, such as strong antioxidant activity. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of HEMF in yeast. We fractionated yeast cell-free extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using column chromatography and partially purified a fraction with HEMF-forming activity. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis showed that the partially purified fraction contains aldehyde reductase encoded by YNL134C...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kai Kudoh, Genma Kubota, Rintaro Fujii, Yusuke Kawano, Masaki Ihara
1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is responsible for production of two precursors of all isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Previously, we attempted the overexpression of endogenous DXS in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and revealed that although the mRNA level was 4-fold higher, the DXS protein level was only 1.5-fold higher compared with those of the original strain, suggesting the lability of endogenous DXS protein...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Khaled M Elsayed, Mohammad R Islam, Abdullah-Al-Mahin, Jun-Ichi Nagao, Takeshi Zendo, Kenji Sonomoto
Binding to lipid II is an important step in the mode of action of most lantibiotics targeting the bacterial cell wall. We applied the Bacillus subtilis two-component system, LiaRS, that is known to respond to antibiotics interfering with lipid II cycle, in order to evaluate lipid II binding activity of known bacteriocins and also to identify lipid II binding moieties in lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1. Using this method, we confirmed that the methyllanthionine ring in nukacin ISK-1 is crucial for lipid II binding as previously indicated...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takanori Inao, Shodai Komatsu, Guan Huang, Akira Ito, Takeshi Omasa, Masamichi Kamihira
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most useful host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Although a series of production processes have been refined to improve protein productivity and cost performance, establishing producer cells is still time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recombinase-mediated site-specific gene integration into a predetermined chromosomal locus may enable predictable protein expression, reducing the laborious process of cell screening. We previously developed an accumulative site-specific gene integration system (AGIS) using Cre recombinase and mutated loxP sites for transgene integration and amplification in the CHO cell genome...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jairam Choudhary, Surender Singh, Lata Nain
Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable energy source, can be used for the production of second generation bioethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the process which alleviates the problem of separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), requires thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast for bioethanol production. Therefore, ten yeast strains isolated from diverse sources, belonging to various genera like Saccharomyces, Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces were evaluated for their thermotolerance, sugar utilization pattern, inhibitor tolerance and ethanol production potential with glucose, xylose and alkali pretreated paddy straw...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Youji Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Chisato Mochizuki, Hideki Yamamura, Yuzuru Iimura, Masayuki Hayakawa
Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Yuya Takeuchi, Wichean Khawdas, Yuji Aso, Hitomi Ohara
Cellulomonas fimi, Cellulomonas biazotea, and Cellulomonas flavigena are cellulose-degrading microorganisms chosen to compare the degradation of cellulose. C. fimi degraded 2.5 g/L of cellulose within 4 days, which was the highest quantity among the three microorganisms. The electric current generation by the microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the cellulose-containing medium with C. fimi was measured over 7 days. The medium in the MFC was sampled every 24 h to quantify the degradation of cellulose, and the results showed that the electric current increased with the degradation of cellulose...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Parthiban Anburajan, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Pugazhendhi Arivalagan, Péter Bakonyi, Sang-Hyoun Kim
This study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation of galactose, a red algal biomass sugar, using individual and combined mixed culture inocula. Heat-treated (90°C, 30 min) samples of granular sludge (GS) and suspended digester sludge (SDS) were used as inoculum sources. The type of mixed culture inoculum played an important role in hydrogen production from galactose. Between two inocula, granular sludge showed higher hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 2.2 L H2/L-d and 1...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tomonori Asai, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Shin'ichiro Kajiyama
Mechanical damage is one of the unavoidable environmental stresses to plant growth and development. Plants induce a variety of reactions which defend against natural enemies and/or heal the wounded sites. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), defense-related plant hormones, are well known to be involved in induction of defense reactions and play important roles as signal molecules. However, defense related metabolites are so numerous and diverse that roles of individual compounds are still to be elucidated...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Motoharu Uchida, Hirotaka Kurushima, Kenji Ishihara, Yuko Murata, Ken Touhata, Noriko Ishida, Kentaro Niwa, Toshiyoshi Araki
High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Osamu Mizutani, Takayuki Arazoe, Kenji Toshida, Risa Hayashi, Shuichi Ohsato, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Shigeru Kuwata, Osamu Yamada
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which can generate DNA double-strand breaks at specific sites in the desired genome locus, have been used in many organisms as a tool for genome editing. In Aspergilli, including Aspergillus oryzae, however, the use of TALENs has not been validated. In this study, we performed genome editing of A. oryzae wild-type strain via error of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair by transient expression of high-efficiency Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jihye Chung, Shunsuke Aburaya, Wataru Aoki, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
In very early stages of cancer development, one or a few cells expressing cancer-associated genes appear among a much larger number of surrounding normal cells. To analyze the molecular changes induced by this co-existence, we artificially prepared transformed cells with complete loss of tumor suppressor gene, SCRIB, among normal human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. A cell strain with SCRIB-knockout was successfully constructed by using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease system and co-cultured with normal cells...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sachiko Iizuka-Furukawa, Atsuko Isogai, Kazutaka Kusaka, Tsutomu Fujii, Yoshinori Wakai
The grassy characteristic aroma perceived in brewed sake made from low-glutelin rice (Oryza sativa L. Mizuhonoka) was examined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By comparing the odor properties and Kovats retention indices to those of standard compounds, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) was found to contribute to the characteristic aroma. Sake brewing using Mizuhonoka, low-glutelin rice, and Gin-ohmi (a control) revealed that 4MMP concentrations in Mizuhonoka sake samples were higher than those in Gin-ohmi samples over the fermentation period...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jianfang Li, Chunjuan Wang, Die Hu, Fengjiao Yuan, Xueqing Li, Shihan Tang, Minchen Wu
A family 27 carbohydrate-binding module of a Thermotoga maritima β-mannanase (TmCBM27) was chosen from the carbohydrate-active enzyme database by computer-aided design, possessing the lowest binding free energy with mannopentaose. To improve the enzymatic properties of a glycoside hydrolase family 5 β-mannanase from Aspergillus usamii (AuMan5A), two fusion β-mannanases, AuMan5A-F-M and AuMan5A-R-M, were designed by fusing a TmCBM27 into its C-terminus linked with a flexible peptide F (GGGGS)3 and rigid peptide R (EAAAK)3...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masaki Muto, Daisuke Nojima, Liang Yue, Hideyuki Kanehara, Hideaki Naruse, Asuka Ujiro, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Zijian Zhang, Liuyi Meng, Congjian Ni, Lanqiu Yao, Fengyu Zhang, Yuji Jin, Xuelang Mu, Shiyu Zhu, Xiaoyu Lu, Shiyu Liu, Congyu Yu, Chenggong Wang, Pu Zheng, Jie Wu, Li Kang, Haoqian M Zhang, Qi Ouyang
We engineered Escherichia coli cells to bind to cyanobacteria by heterologously producing and displaying lectins of the target cyanobacteria on their surface. To prove the efficacy of our approach, we tested this design on Microcystis aeruginosa with microvirin (Mvn), the lectin endogenously produced by this cyanobacterium. The coding sequence of Mvn was C-terminally fused to the ice nucleation protein NC (INPNC) gene and expressed in E. coli. Results showed that E. coli cells expressing the INPNC::Mvn fusion protein were able to bind to M...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Mika Nishihara, Genki N Kanda, Tetsuya Suzuki, Shin'ichiro Yamakado, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Histone acetylation is associated with the activation of genes on chromosomes. Transgene expression from plasmid DNA might be increased by the acetylation of histones bound to plasmid DNA. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a positive feedback system, using a fusion protein of the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of mouse CREB-binding protein (GAL4-HAT), in which GAL4-HAT promotes its own expression as well as that of a reporter gene product (luciferase)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Chan-I Chung, Ryoji Makino, Yuki Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Hiroshi Ueda
Fluorescence-based biosensor probes, especially those based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent protein (FP) variants, are widely used to monitor various biological phenomena, often detecting ligand-induced association of the receptor domains. While antibodies are fertile sources of specific receptors for various biomolecules, their potential has not been fully exploited. In this study, we used a fluorescent probe comprising FP-fused antibody variable region fragments to detect a bone metabolism biomarker, osteocalcin (BGP), by using fluorescence spectrometry/microscopy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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