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Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM

Daniela Cabibi, Andrea Bisanti, Dorotea Lanza, Vanessa Brucculeri, Rossana Porcasi, Sabrina Ingrao, Federico Midiri, Dario Picone, Antonino Giulio Giannone
Till date, the utility of cytologic assessment of ascites for the identification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is still debated and the usefulness of immunocytochemistry for glypican-3 (GPC3) and Hep Par-1 in this setting has not been reported. Liquid-based cytology of ascitic fluid of 28 cirrhotic patients was performed and the spots obtained were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, papanicolau, and with GPC3 and Hep Par-1 antibodies. GPC3 and Hep Par-1 antibodies stained positively the atypical cells in the ascites of 2 patients with HCC showing an exophytic growth pattern...
October 31, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Devendra Alrani, Kochli C Niranjan, Niharika A Sarathy
AIM: The knowledge of cellular proteins that involves cell cycle and its control system is essential for understanding tumor biology. Minichromosome maintenance protein (Mcm-2), a component of prereplicative complex, essential for initiating DNA replication, is deregulated in different malignant lesions, and is expressed throughout the whole cell cycle including the G0 and G1 phases. This characteristic cell cycle event is not found in other proliferative markers such as geminin, AgNOR, Ki-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Katharina Kriegsmann, Christiane Zgorzelski, Daniel Kazdal, Martin Cremer, Thomas Muley, Hauke Winter, Rémi Longuespée, Jörg Kriegsmann, Arne Warth, Mark Kriegsmann
OBJECTIVE: Recognition of neuroendocrine differentiation is important for tumor classification and treatment stratification. To detect and confirm neuroendocrine differentiation, a combination of morphology and immunohistochemistry is often required. In this regard, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56 are established immunohistochemical markers. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) has been suggested as a novel stand-alone marker with the potential to replace the current standard panel...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Dibson D Gondim, Melissa A Gener, Kendra L Curless, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Eyas M Hattab, Liang Cheng
Determination of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status, presence or absence of mutation in IDH genes (IDH1 or IDH2), has become one of the most important molecular features taken into account in the management of patients with diffuse gliomas. Tumors that are IDH-mutant have a better prognosis than their counterparts with similar histologic grade and IDH-wildtype phenotype. IDH1-R132H is the most common IDH mutation, present in ~90% of IDH-mutant cases. This mutation yields an altered protein that can be detected by immunohistochemistry...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Marwa M Afifi, Manal I Elnouaem, Enas M Omar, Ingy El-Komary
Intermediate tumors of the head and neck fall in the borderline category. They are clinically aggressive tumors with no malignant phenotyping. They are locally infiltrative and have high recurrence rate with less chances to metastasize. The standard care is surgical excision with wide margins. However, surgeons are challenged with the anatomic complexity of the head and neck, increasing the susceptibly of satellite cells being left behind. Ki-67 and MMP-9 are proliferative index and extracellular matrix degradation biomarkers, respectively...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Satu Luhtala, Teppo Haapaniemi, Synnöve Staff, Jorma Isola
Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 2 (MCM2) is critical in initiating DNA replication during the cell division process. As expressed intensively in all phases of the active cell cycle, MCM2 has been proposed as a novel biomarker to determine cellular proliferation. We aimed at clarifying the prevalence and clinical significance of MCM2 in HER2-amplified breast cancer subtype. MCM2 expression was studied in 142 primary HER2-amplified breast carcinomas by applying a novel fluoro-chromogenic immunohistochemistry and tailored digital image analysis to determine labelling index (MCM2-LI)...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Ga-Eon Kim, Nah Ihm Kim, Ji Shin Lee, Min Ho Park, Keunsoo Kang
Genome-wide screening of transcriptional changes among normal, cancer, and nodal metastases provides insights into the molecular basis of breast cancer (BC) progression and metastasis. To identify transcriptional changes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the metastatic progression of BC and to determine the prognostic role of these DEGs in clinical outcome, we compared transcriptome profiling in matched normal, cancer, and lymph node metastatic tissues of 7 patients with estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative BC by using massive parallel RNA sequencing...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Patrizia Straccia, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Francesco Pierconti, Chiara Brunelli, Guido Fadda
It is a diagnostic challenge to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms made up of Hürthle (or oncocytic) cells on cytologic material. They are large, polygonal cells with marked eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm reflective of overly abundant mitochondria. These cells commonly occur in nodular goiters and dominant adenomatous or hyperplastic nodules though they may also be the predominant component of neoplastic lesions. There are significant controversies concerning the optimal management of patients with oncocytic cell carcinoma...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Mark R Kilgore, Dustin E Bosch, Kathi H Adamson, Paul E Swanson, Suzanne M Dintzis, Mara H Rendi
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often critical for distinction between metastatic carcinomas of Mullerian organ and breast origin. Paired box family protein 8 (PAX8) has been described as a transcription factor highly specific to neoplasms derived from Mullerian organs, thyroid, and kidney. PAX8 IHC with polyclonal and monoclonal antibody reagents was performed on 27 primary and 22 metastatic breast carcinomas. Eight of 27 primary breast carcinomas (30%) were positive for PAX8 with the monoclonal antibody reagent only; 0 of 22 were polyclonal anti-PAX8 immunoreactive...
October 24, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Marwa M Dawoud, Dalia Abouelfadl, Asmaa G Abdou, Enas A B Elkhouly
Breast cancer (BC) remains the most prevalent female cancer in Egypt and worldwide. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is a multifunctional glycoprotein. Although MFAP5 gene was among the genes that found globally expressed in human cancers, it had been only recently reported in few cancer research studies. This is a retrospective study that has been conducted on 66 Egyptian patients who had invasive carcinoma of no special type. Immunohistochemical staining for MFAP5 was applied on the archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks...
October 12, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Fanny Barel, Arnaud Uguen
BRAFV600 mutation testing is mandatory for treatment choices in patients with advanced melanomas. Besides molecular methods, VE-1 immunohistochemistry has paved the way for BRAF mutation detection by every pathologist, but it only detects BRAFV600E mutant protein, and additional DNA-based molecular analyses are often delegated to molecular genetics laboratories to detect mutations other than BRAFV600E. In this technical article, we present a new diagnostic device that is easy to implement in surgical pathology laboratories, even for pathologists lacking any experience in molecular analyses, to diagnose most of the BRAF mutations encountered in melanoma...
October 12, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Elena Guanziroli, Alessandro Del Gobbo, Antonella Coggi, Luigia Venegoni, Daniele Fanoni, Giulia Ercoli, Francesca Boggio, Stefano Veraldi, Stefano Cavicchini, Emilio Berti, Stefano Ferrero, Raffaele Gianotti
Spindle or epithelioid melanocytic (Spitz) nevi usually affect children or adolescents and growth in the face or the lower extremities. Histologically, they may show cytoarchitectural atypia and mitotic figures that could represent diagnostic pitfalls with malignant melanoma. Atypical spitzoid tumors (AST) indicate lesions that microscopically show intermediate characteristics between benign nevi and malignant melanoma. Nestin expression has been evaluated in benign nevi and malignant melanoma, but no studies on its role in Spitz lesion have been elaborated so far...
September 12, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Khalid Amin, Dina El-Rayes, Dale Snover, Tetyana Mettler, Rachel I Vogel, Mahmoud A Khalifa
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a well-established morphology adjunct enabling pathologists to make accurate diagnoses. Metastases to the liver is a common scenario where pathologists may rely heavily on IHC in their interpretation. We conducted this study to audit the patterns of IHC utilization in malignant liver biopsies in 3 practice types (academic, community, and expert) as an initial step toward developing best practice guidelines. A total of 1100 specimens were analyzed and the association between the availability of history of other malignancies and the practice type on IHC utilization was studied...
September 5, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Ali G Saad, Zakaria Grada, Barbara Bishop, Hend Abulsayen, Mohamed Hassan, Adolfo Firpo-Betancourt, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Mostafa Fraig, Siraj M El Jamal
Classifying diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) according to the cell-of-origin (COO) was first proposed using gene expression profiling; accordingly, DLBCL is classified into germinal-center B-cell type and activated B-cell type. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based classification using different algorithms is used widely due to the ability to use formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Recently, newer techniques using RNA expression from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded were introduced including the nCounter NanoString platform assay...
September 1, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Qing Zhang, Kun Liu, Wensheng Yang, Wei Shao, Dan Liu, Haitao Lan, Tianhai Ji
Many tumors, especially gliomas, contain an isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation that can be used for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Our study aimed to develop a new reliable detection assay for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations for clinical diagnosis based on the allele-specific (AS) coamplification with lower denaturing-polymerase chain reaction (COLD-PCR) and probe melting curve analysis (PMCA). The method includes 3 elements allowing for the sensitive detection of low-abundance mutations: (1) PCR amplification of the target fragments with AS primers; (2) COLD-PCR; and (3) PMCA for differentiating the different mutations after amplification...
October 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Vivekanand Singh, Michelle Manalang, Meenal Singh, Udayan Apte
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. Although survival of patients has improved significantly over the last 2 decades, a significant number of patients do not respond to standard chemotherapy. We conducted a pilot study to understand if there was immunophenotypic difference between tumors that respond well to chemotherapy versus that do not. We selected 10 cases of HB from children presenting at our hospital. All patients had initial tissue diagnosis, underwent chemotherapy followed by surgical resection...
October 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Anthony Wong, Chelsea Sykora, Lewis Rogers, Jennifer Higginbotham, Jiwu Wang
Revealing the spatial arrangement of molecules within a tissue through immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an invaluable tool in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Choosing both the appropriate antibody and amplification system is paramount to the pathologic interpretation of the tissue at hand. The use of single domain VHH nanoantibodies (nAbs) promise more robust and consistent results in IHC, but are rarely used as an alternative to conventional immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. nAbs are originally obtained from llamas and are the smallest antigen-binding fragments available...
October 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Anna M Valentini, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Marianna Di Maggio, Maria L Caruso
Cetuximab and panitumumab monoclonal antibodies are a milestone in the history of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and point toward future directions for personalized treatment. Recent studies have shown that broader RAS testing is needed to select patients for targeted therapy. The objectives of our study were to identify the prevalence of RAS mutations and evaluate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in KRAS exon 2 wild-type (WT) mCRC patients, correlating the findings with objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival...
September 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Yun Sol Jo, Min Sung Kim, Nam Jin Yoo, Sug Hyung Lee
MYH11 functions as a contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. In cancers, an oncogenic fusion CBFB/MYH11 and frameshift mutations have been reported. Truncating mutants of MYH11 exhibited increased ATPase and motor activity, suggesting their roles in energy balance and movement of cancer cells. MYH11 gene has a mononucleotide repeat (C8) in the coding sequences that could be a mutational target in the cancers exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI)...
September 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Mohamad Mazen Gafeer, Kareem Hosny Mohammed, Claudia Ormenisan-Gherasim, Fahad Choudhary, Momin T Siddiqui, Cynthia Cohen
BACKGROUND: Programmed death receptor and programmed death ligand (PD-L1) are immunoregulatory proteins. Nonsmall cell lung cancer bypasses the immune system through the induction of protumorigenic immunosuppressive changes. The better understanding of immunology and antitumor immune responses has brought the promising development of novel immunotherapy agents like programmed death receptor checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of PD-L1 in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), comparing 2 different technologies: immunohistochemistry (IHC) by 2 methods versus RNA in situ hybridization (RISH)...
September 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
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