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Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM

Elena Guanziroli, Alessandro Del Gobbo, Antonella Coggi, Luigia Venegoni, Daniele Fanoni, Giulia Ercoli, Francesca Boggio, Stefano Veraldi, Stefano Cavicchini, Emilio Berti, Stefano Ferrero, Raffaele Gianotti
Spindle or epithelioid melanocytic (Spitz) nevi usually affect children or adolescents and growth in the face or the lower extremities. Histologically, they may show cytoarchitectural atypia and mitotic figures that could represent diagnostic pitfalls with malignant melanoma. Atypical spitzoid tumors (AST) indicate lesions that microscopically show intermediate characteristics between benign nevi and malignant melanoma. Nestin expression has been evaluated in benign nevi and malignant melanoma, but no studies on its role in Spitz lesion have been elaborated so far...
September 12, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Khalid Amin, Dina El-Rayes, Dale Snover, Tetyana Mettler, Rachel I Vogel, Mahmoud A Khalifa
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a well-established morphology adjunct enabling pathologists to make accurate diagnoses. Metastases to the liver is a common scenario where pathologists may rely heavily on IHC in their interpretation. We conducted this study to audit the patterns of IHC utilization in malignant liver biopsies in 3 practice types (academic, community, and expert) as an initial step toward developing best practice guidelines. A total of 1100 specimens were analyzed and the association between the availability of history of other malignancies and the practice type on IHC utilization was studied...
September 5, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Ali G Saad, Zakaria Grada, Barbara Bishop, Hend Abulsayen, Mohamed Hassan, Adolfo Firpo-Betancourt, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Mostafa Fraig, Siraj M El Jamal
Classifying diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) according to the cell-of-origin (COO) was first proposed using gene expression profiling; accordingly, DLBCL is classified into germinal-center B-cell type and activated B-cell type. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based classification using different algorithms is used widely due to the ability to use formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Recently, newer techniques using RNA expression from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded were introduced including the nCounter NanoString platform assay...
September 1, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Eri Matsuki, Olga L Bohn, Siraj El Jamal, Janine D Pichardo, Andrew D Zelenetz, Anas Younes, Julie Teruya-Feldstein
There are multiple prognostic indicators for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including the international prognostic index (IPI), and gene expression profiling (GEP) to classify the disease into germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes, the latter harboring inferior prognosis. More recently, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were found to have prognostic implications in DLBCL. However, consensus is yet to be reached in terms of the significance of each...
August 13, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Nirali M Patel, Heejoon Jo, David A Eberhard, Xiaoying Yin, Michele C Hayward, Matthew K Stein, David Neil Hayes, Juneko E Grilley-Olson
Neoplastic cellularity contributes to the analytic sensitivity of most present technologies for mutation detection, such that they underperform when stroma and inflammatory cells dilute a cancer specimen's variant fraction. Thus, tumor purity assessment by light microscopy is used to determine sample adequacy before sequencing and to interpret the significance of negative results and mutant allele fraction afterwards. However, pathologist estimates of tumor purity are imprecise and have limited reproducibility...
August 10, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Gilbert Bigras, Simon Mairs, Paul E Swanson, Didier Morel, Raymond Lai, Iyare Izevbaye
Pembrolizumab is an FDA-approved immune-checkpoint (IC) inhibitor that targets programmed cell death protein PD-1, and recent phase III trials have demonstrated its superiority over chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligibility for treatment with Pembrolizumab is based on demonstration of PD-L1 expression on tumoral cells using the approved companion test 22C3 PharmDx (Dako). Access to the drug depends on a tumor proportion score (TPS) expressing the PD-L1 protein above predetermined cutoffs...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Huina Zhang, Min Han, Kavita R Varma, Beth Z Clark, Rohit Bhargava, David J Dabbs
PURPOSE: Recommendations for standardization of breast biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) led to the creation of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines to provide continuous guidance. Included in these recommendations is the "ongoing assay assessment procedures." We report these biomarker metrics as there is a dearth of published information on this topic...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Haifen Ma, Jihong Yu, Jingjing Tang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of liver-intestine cadherin (LI-cadherin) and CDX2 (caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2) in cytology specimens of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in serous cavity effusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The serous cavity effusion samples that were suspected of tumor metastasis in the last 5 years were made into paraffin-imbedded cell blocks, a total of 180 cases, including 97 cases of pleural effusion, 78 cases of ascites, and 5 cases of pericardial effusion...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Christina H Wei, Felicita E Baratelli, Guang-Qian Xiao, Michael N Koss, Wafaa Elatre
BACKGROUND: Distinction of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) from other chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonitides, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and connective tissue diseases, is critical due to varied biological and clinical outcomes. However, their histologic overlaps often pose diagnostic challenges. A recent study suggested an association of herpesvirus saimiri infection with IPF. Productive viral infection is associated with coexpression of pirated mammalian protein cyclin D1, shown to be overexpressed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the regenerating alveolar epithelium in IPF but not in normal lungs...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Angeliki Theodosi, Dimitris Glotsos, Spiros Kostopoulos, Ioannis Kalatzis, Vassiliki Tzelepi, Panagiota Ravazoula, Pantelis Asvestas, Dionisis Cavouras, George Sakellaropoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to study the textural and color changes occurring in the epithelial gland tissue with advancing colorectal cancer (CRC), utilizing immunohistochemical stain for AIB1 expression biopsy material. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical material comprised biopsy specimens of 67 patients with a diagnosis of CRC. Two experienced pathologists used H&E-stained material for grading CRC lesions and immunohistochemical (IHC) stain for AIB1 expression...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Pii B Baltzarsen, Jeanette B Georgsen, Patricia S Nielsen, Torben Steiniche, Magnus Stougaard
Telomerase is reactivated in most cancers and is possibly an early driver event in melanoma. Our aim was to test a novel in situ hybridization technique, RNAscope, for the detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and to compare the mRNA expression of melanomas and benign naevi. Furthermore, we wanted to see if hTERT mRNA could be a diagnostic or prognostic marker of melanoma. In situ hybridization for the detection of hTERT mRNA was performed on FFPE tissue of 17 melanomas and 13 benign naevi...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Geetika Singh, Immanuel Pradeep, Shipra Agarwal, Adarsh Barwad, Amit Dinda
Paraffin immunofluorescence is a well established "salvage" technique in renal pathology when representative glomeruli are not found in the fresh frozen tissue sent for routine direct immunofluorescence studies. A step of enzymatic digestion of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy exposes the antigenic immune complexes and allows staining with fluorochrome-tagged antibodies. We explored the utility of the technique of paraffin immunofluorescence outside the kidney in certain specific scenarios including extra renal amyloid and duodenal macroglobulinemia...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Fabien Forest, Arnaud Patoir, Pierre Dal-Col, Vanessa Da Cruz, Florian Camy, Marie-Laure Stachowicz, Sophie Bayle-Bleuez, Pierre Fournel, Georgia Karpathiou, Michel Péoc'h
Treatment for lung adenocarcinoma frequently diverges from standard treatment in older patients. Clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of lung cancer in patients over 75 years old have not been fully described. The aim of our work was to describe the rate of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and HER2 mutations, and ALK rearrangement and pathologic characteristics in patients with lung adenocarcinoma over 75, compared with patients below 75 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2 cohorts: a histopathologic cohort of all consecutively resected lung adenocarcinoma in our institution for patients over 75 (n=54, from 2006 to 2017) compared with patients below 75 years old (n=148, from 2014 to 2017) and a molecular cohort of all stage IIIb or IV lung adenocarcinoma from 2009 to 2017 (n=1611)...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Changyin Feng, Qiaoling Zheng, Yinghong Yang, Meifang Xu, Yuane Lian, Jianping Huang, Yiting Jiang
PURPOSE: Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3B (APOBEC3B) is known as a source of mutations in multiple cancers. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors. However, the expression and significance of APOBEC3B in GEP-NENs remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 158 cases of GEP-NENs, including 78 cases of biopsy or endoscopic submucosal dissection resection specimens and 83 cases of surgical resection specimens were collected in this study...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Rosario Barranco, Francesco Ventura
The postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is one of the main problems in forensic practice, especially in cases in which death occurs soon after (from minutes to a few hours) the onset of the ischemic damage. Several authors have highlighted the possibility to overcome the limits of conventional histology in this diagnosis by utilizing immunohistochemistry. In the present research, we examined over 30 scientific studies and picked out over 20 main immunohistochemical antigens analyzed with a view to enabling the rapid diagnosis of early myocardial infarction...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Katerina Cizkova, Pavla Flodrova, Romana Baranova, Jakub Malohlava, Matthew Lacey, Zdenek Tauber
Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry (ICC) play an irreplaceable role in research and diagnostics. It is well known that antigen retrieval (AR) can, as a technique, have beneficial outcomes on immunohistochemistry results when using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The main purpose of AR is to break protein crosslinks which are formed during formalin fixation. Although AR was originally designed for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, the usefulness of AR in ICC has been described in previous studies...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Adriana Handra-Luca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Maher A Sughayer, Farah Alnaimy, Anas M Alsughayer, Naim Qamhia
Immunohistochemical assays for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are either required or recommended to guide therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Four commercially available immunohistochemical assays are currently available as either complimentary or companion diagnostic assay for their counterpart therapy. Harmonization or exchangeability of one assay for the other is a highly sought for goal. The aim of this study was to compare one assay, 22C3, with another, SP263, and examine whether they can be exchanged one for the other...
July 17, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Sarah Wedden, Keith Miller, Ian M Frayling, Teresa Thomas, Alina Chefani, Karolina Miller, Angela Hamblin, Jenny C Taylor, Corrado D'Arrigo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has many subtypes with different prognoses and response to treatment. Patients must be characterized to access the most appropriate treatment and improve outcomes. An increasing number of biomarkers are required for characterization but are not in routine use. We investigated whether CRC can be stratified routinely within a small district general hospital to inform clinical decision making at local multidisciplinary team meeting/tumor board level. We evaluated mismatch repair (MMR) and EGFR signaling pathways using predominantly in-house immunohistochemical (IHC) tests (MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, BRAF-V600E, Her2, PTEN, cMET) as well as send away PCR/NGS tests (NRAS, KRAS, and BRAF)...
July 5, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Anna M Valentini, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Marianna Di Maggio, Maria L Caruso
Cetuximab and panitumumab monoclonal antibodies are a milestone in the history of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and point toward future directions for personalized treatment. Recent studies have shown that broader RAS testing is needed to select patients for targeted therapy. The objectives of our study were to identify the prevalence of RAS mutations and evaluate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in KRAS exon 2 wild-type (WT) mCRC patients, correlating the findings with objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival...
September 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
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