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Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM

James M Shiflett, Betty L Herrington, David A Joyner, Ali G Saad
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive malignant primitive neoplasms that commonly occur in children younger than 2 years of age. The prognosis is generally dismal with a median survival time of <1 year. The majority of AT/RT occur in the posterior fossa and less frequently the supratentorium. Primary pediatric spinal AT/RT are exceedingly rare and only 15 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a very unusual case of primary spinal AT/RT extensively involving the spinal cord from T11 down to the cauda equina...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Francesco Pierconti, Esther D Rossi, Maurizio Martini, Emilio Sacco, Pier F Bassi, Luigi M Larocca
The occurrence of inked margins with crush artifact derived from the electrocauterization in radical prostatectomy and/or the presence of crushed areas with distorted glands in prostatic samples after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) can induce a significant interobserver variability during histopathologic evaluation of specimens. The specific immunostaining for basal cell markers 34BetaE12 and p63 and for alfa-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in neoplastic cells is commonly used as an ancillary tool to establish benign and malignant glands...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Bharathi Vennapusa, Brian Baker, Marcin Kowanetz, Jennifer Boone, Ina Menzl, Jean-Marie Bruey, Gregg Fine, Sanjeev Mariathasan, Ian McCaffery, Simonetta Mocci, Sandra Rost, Dustin Smith, Eslie Dennis, Szu-Yu Tang, Bita Damadzadeh, Espen Walker, Priti S Hegde, J Andrew Williams, Hartmut Koeppen, Zachary Boyd
Cancer immunotherapies, such as atezolizumab, are proving to be a valuable therapeutic strategy across indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and urothelial cancer (UC). Here, we describe a diagnostic assay that measures programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, via immunohistochemistry, to identify patients who will derive the most benefit from treatment with atezolizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody. We describe the performance of the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and the ability to stain both tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC), in NSCLC and UC tissues...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Jiang Su, Zhongzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects and ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are one of the most common types of CHDs. Genes involved in homocysteine/folate metabolism may play important roles in CHDs. Methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine. METHODS: We investigated whether a polymorphism (A2756G) of the methionine synthase and 2 polymorphisms (A66G and C524T) of the MTRR gene are associated with VSDs...
December 29, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Eric Loo, Parisa Khalili, Karen Beuhler, Imran Siddiqi, Mohammad A Vasef
The B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase with a key role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. An activating missense mutation in codon 600 of exon 15 (V600E) of BRAF gene has been identified in multiple neoplasms including melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Patients with BRAF V600E-mutated melanoma respond to FDA-approved BRAF inhibitors. In addition, subsets of other BRAF V600E-mutated tumors may also benefit from BRAF inhibitor therapy...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Krayem, Nathalie Meuleman, Dominique Bron, Busser Hélène, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are nonhematopoietic cells that can be isolated from several adult and fetal tissues. MSC present specific features as the capacity to support hematopoiesis and to regulate immune response. Thus, the use of MSC as a cell therapeutic product in the field of immune-hematology is of great importance. In this review, we focused on human MSC and discussed their immune-hematologic properties and their translation toward therapeutic clinical applications. Thus, these features hold great promise for cell-based therapy and are of important relevance for the field...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Andrée-Anne Grosset, Kevin Loayza-Vega, Éloïse Adam-Granger, Mirela Birlea, Blake Gilks, Bich Nguyen, Geneviève Soucy, Danh Tran-Thanh, Roula Albadine, Dominique Trudel
Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining is a well-established technique in histopathology. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) interpretation is done exclusively with hematoxylin counterstaining. Our goal was to investigate the potential of H&E as counterstaining (H&E-IHC) to allow for visualization of a marker while confirming the diagnosis on the same slide. The quality of immunostaining and the fast-technical performance were the main criteria to select the final protocol. We stained multiple diagnostic tissues with class I IHC tests with different subcellular localization markers (anti-CK7, CK20, synaptophysin, CD20, HMB45, and Ki-67) and with double-staining on prostate tissues with anti-high molecular weight keratins/p63 (DAB detection) and p504s (alkaline phosphatase detection)...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Benjamin D Ramos, Stefan Brettfeld, Ryan S Berry, Joshua K Routh, David R Martin, Joshua A Hanson
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is an accurate marker for conventional colorectal carcinoma (CRC), although its sensitivity and specificity in mucinous tumors from the colon and other sites remains unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of SATB2 expression detected by immunohistochemical assay, as a marker of primary CRC in mucinous adenocarcinomas. SATB2 immunohistochemical stains were performed on whole sections from 63 conventional CRCs (controls), 47 mucinous CRCs (mCRC), and 182 noncolorectal mucinous tumors...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Wei Xing, Nicholas Mai, Karen Dresser, Benjamin J Chen
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is cell surface glycoprotein that regulates the cellular immune response and serves as a targetable immune checkpoint molecule. Previous studies have demonstrated consistent expression of PD-L1 by Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, as well as nonmalignant tumor-infiltrating macrophages in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Bone marrow involvement by CHL is uncommon, being present in 5% to 10% of cases, but indicates Ann Arbor stage IV disease. Given the mixed inflammatory infiltrate that characterizes CHL, detection of RS cells in small bone marrow biopsies may be difficult...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Ede Birtalan, Kornel Danos, Bianka Gurbi, Diana Brauswetter, Judit Halasz, Violetta Kalocsane Piurko, Balazs Acs, Biborka Antal, Reka Mihalyi, Anna Pato, Zoltan Fent, Gabor Polony, Jozsef Timar, Laszlo Tamas
Despite great enthusiasm towards immunotherapy, reliable biomarkers are still lacking. The importance of subsets based on human papillomavirus (HPV) status is supported by a growing body of evidence. However, role of other possible subgroups such as anatomic localization of primary tumor remains controversial. Our objective was to investigate immune cell infiltrate and checkpoint inhibitor proteins in above-mentioned head and neck cancer subsets. Archival tumor samples of 106 laryngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were stained with PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, and CTLA-4 antibodies...
December 21, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Keluo Yao, Weiqiang Zhao, Saeed Bajestani, Alejandro Gru, Gregory Otterson, Konstantin Shilo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Kevin Pelland, Stephanie Mathews, Anitha Kamath, Paul Cohen, S David Hudnall, Claudiu V Cotta, Mina L Xu
AIMS: Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma (MGZL) is a rare entity with morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features intermediate between classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). It is challenging to differentiate from CHL and PMBL. A specific dendritic cell gene expression profile can distinguish CHL and MGZL from PMBL. We hypothesized that the dendritic markers fascin and CD123 may be helpful in distinguishing MGZL from CHL and PMBL. We also investigated programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in MGZL, which may have therapeutic significance in this difficulty to treat tumor...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Fernanda Herrera Costa, Vivian Narana Ribeiro El Achkar, Victor Costa, Isabela Paladini, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Yasmin Rodarte Carvalho, Estela Kaminagakura
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) may develop malignant characteristics and transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a range of 1% to 2% of cases. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with carcinogenesis, but its mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. ALDH1A1 and 2, isoenzymes responsible for aldehyde oxidation involved in ethanol metabolism may be associated with the development of malignant head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 in oral leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia (OLP) and OSCC...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Dane C Olevian, Reetesh K Pai
Most major professional medical organizations advocate universal screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal carcinoma; however, some allow for a selective screening approach based on clinicopathologic factors including assessment of histologic features of mismatch repair protein deficiency (MMRD). We performed a prospective evaluation for histopathologic features of MMRD in colorectal carcinomas that underwent universal screening for Lynch syndrome to evaluate the ability of histology to predict MMRD. In total, 947 resected colorectal carcinomas over a 5-year period were prospectively analyzed for histologic features of MMRD and for DNA mismatch repair protein abnormalities...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Kim Greg Mayhall, Estelle Oertling, Eleanor Lewin, John Schmieg, Helena LeBeau, Tong Wu, Byron Crawford
Smoothelin is a cytoplasmic protein expressed in differentiated smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation of smoothelin has previously been reported in gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle tumors, but has yet to be studied in smooth muscle tumors of uterine and other soft tissue origin. DOG1 expression is reported to be specific for GI stromal tumors; however, variable expression has been reported in leiomyosarcomas (LMS) depending on site of origin. Overexpression of p16 is common in LMS of uterine and other sites of origin, but has not been correlated with tumor grade...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Zenobia Ayesha Mohamed Haffajee, Beena Kumar, Glenn Francis, Martyn Peck, Tony Badrick
The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) Anatomical Pathology provides a comprehensive External Quality Assurance (EQA) exercise to review the reporting of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in-situ hybridization (ISH) breast markers through an audit of clinical results. The aim of this exercise was to provide information regarding the quality of breast marker testing within clinical laboratories from 2005 to 2015. This comprehensive audit included estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 marker reporting...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Michael Punsoni, Joseph H Friedman, Murray Resnick, John E Donahue, Dong Fang Yang, Edward G Stopa
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in Parkinson disease (PD), often preceding neurological manifestations; however, early diagnostic utility of GI biopsies remains controversial. Studies suggest aberrant deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) follows step-wise progression in central nervous system though histologic interpretation of normal and aberrant staining patterns have shown variable results. This study examines whether GI α-syn mRNA expression combined with standard α-syn immunohistochemical staining enhance the role of GI biopsy in PD...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Edwin R Parra, Pamela Villalobos, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales
Preliminary data suggest that tumor expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein in human cancers, as determined by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, may predict clinical response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. PD-L1 is not a specific tumor marker and its expression is also observed in various nonmalignant cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, causing confusion in immunohistochemistry analysis when these inflammatory cells are overlapping with tumors cells...
November 13, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
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