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Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM

Omnia M Badawy, Hannan Hassan, Heba A ELBakey, Maha Mosaad
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a major health problem in Egypt. Her-2/Neu gene is routinely assessed for all breast cancer patients primarily by immunohistochemistry. At National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Flourescence In Situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of Her-2/Neu gene is carried out for Her-2/Neu score 2 and for some cases of score 3 (particularly those assessed outside NCI). The test is performed essentially on the primary tumor. However, some situations require testing on corresponding lymph node metastases...
May 10, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Mojgan Alaeddini, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam
Transforming growth factor-β has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ski and SnoN are negative regulators of transforming growth factor-β/Smad pathway with both prooncogenic and antioncogenic functions in different cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of Ski and SnoN in OSCC for the first time. Smad4 was also evaluated in these tumors. Clinical data on 61 primary OSCCs were gathered, and the specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against SKI, SnoN, and Smad4 and scored semiquantitatively...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Vaishali Aggarwal, Ashim Das, Amanjit Bal, Radhika Srinivasan, Reena Das, Gaurav Prakash, Pankaj Malhotra, Subhash Varma
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has a heterogenous biological behavior, and the western literature has reported activating oncogenic mutations in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88), in conjunction with B-cell receptor signaling pathway genes, CARD11 and CD79B as the driving force for activating the NF-κB pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. The mutation profile of MYD88 genes was evaluated by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of 97 patients [DLBCL (N=55), non-DLBCL lymphomas (N=30), reactive lymphadenopathy (N=10), and 2 cases of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (positive control)]...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Newton A C S Wong, Philippe Taniere, Shaun Walsh, Andrew Wallace, Daisuke Nonaka, Thomas Jones, David Gonzalez
A unique cohort of chemo-naive gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with double-primary tyrosine kinase mutations was characterized particularly to determine whether coexistent mutations represent a single mutational event. Up to 2013, 4 UK centers reported 9 GISTs with 2 primary tyrosine kinase mutations. In each of 8 cases validated by next generation sequencing, both mutations were present in the same allele of the same exon (KIT exon 11 or 17, or PDGFRA exon 18). One case showed the second mutation only on some of the mutant alleles...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Suéllen Trentin Brum, Ana Paula Demasi, Rafael Fantelli Stelini, Maria Letícia Cintra, Vera Cavalcanti de Araujo, Andresa Borges Soares
Endoglin, known to be expressed in proliferating vessels, is of worth when evaluating microvessel density as a prognostic factor in many types of malignancies, including some subtypes of leukemia cells. In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, endoglin is associated with adverse outcome. In bone marrow, endoglin identifies the repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Mast cells are a component of normal tissue and play an important role in the regulation of several processes, including inflammation and neoplasia...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Marko Klarić, Herman Haller, Alemka Brnčić Fischer, Emina Babarović, Aleksandra Prijić, Senija Eminović
Hyaluronan controls cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation, and it is involved in tumor invasion. The extracellular matrix containing hyaluronan regulates cell behavior via cell surface receptors such as CD44 and receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168). We investigated the expression of CD44 and RHAMM in tissue samples of endometrial cancer and the relation of their expression with clinicopathologic parameters of patients. In order to evaluate the value of CD44 and RHAMM as prognostic factors, we investigated the relation of their expression with patients' survival...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Vanina S Fishkel, Fernando C Monge, Felicitas M von Petery, Karen E Tapper, Teresa M Peña, Florencia Torres, Fernando A Poletta, Jorge F Elgart, Alejandra Avagnina, Valeria Denninghoff
The detection of high-grade intraepithelial lesions requires highly sensitive and specific methods that allow more accurate diagnoses. This contributes to a proper management of preneoplastic lesions, thus avoiding overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of immunostaining for p16 in the morphologic assessment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 lesions, to help differentiate between low-grade (p16-negative) and high-grade (p16-positive) squamous intraepithelial lesions. The direct medical cost of the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 morphologic lesions was estimated...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Llucia Alos, Leonardo Rodriguez-Carunchio, Albert Brugués, Carla Fuster, Magda Pinyol, Susana Puig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Feng Hou, Duan-Bo Shi, Yun-Qing Chen, Peng Gao
Increasing evidence supports an important role for the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) gene and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the progression of human cancers by enhancing cancer cell metastasis and proliferation. However, the relationship between HER2 and MAPK signaling pathways in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In the present study, dual in situ hybridization was performed to detect HER2 gene amplification and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the mRNA expression of members of the MAPK signaling pathway, including rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF), extracellular regulated signal-activated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in 112 primary GC tissue samples...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Veronika Buxhofer-Ausch, Maidah Sheikh, Christoph Ausch, Simone Zotter, Heike Bauer, Marina Mollik, Angelika Reiner, Andreas Gleiss, Walter Jäger, Christian Sebesta, Stephan Kriwanek, Theresia Thalhammer
The abundance of OATP4A1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) might be related to tumor progression. This was studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded samples obtained from 178 patients (43 patients with a relapse within 5 y) with early-stage CRC. Positivity for OATP4A1 in tumor cells and noncancerous mucosal cells was proved by double-immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against OATP4A1 and keratin 8, whereas antibodies against appropriate CD markers were used to identify immune cells. Automated microscopic image analysis was used to measure the percentage of OATP4A1-positive cells and OATP4A1 staining intensity in tumor, immune, and adjacent normal-looking mucosal cells separately, as well as in the mucosal and immune cells of 14 nonmalignant tissue samples...
May 3, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Giuseppina Improta, Angela Pettinato, Estrid Høgdall, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Simona Vatrano, Filippo Fraggetta, Gian Franco Zannoni
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (oCCC) is a distinctive subtype of ovarian carcinoma, with peculiar genetic and environmental risk factors, precursor lesions, molecular events during oncogenesis, patterns of spread, and response to treatment. Because of low response to chemotherapy and poor prognosis in advanced stages, there is growing interest in investigating the molecular pathways involved in oCCC development, in order to individualize novel/molecular targeted therapies. Until now, the main molecular genetic changes associated with oCCC remain to be identified, and, although several molecular changes have been reported in clear cell tumors, most studies have analyzed a limited number of cases; therefore, the true prevalence of those changes is not known...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Pavandeep Gill, Christopher Naugler, Marie S Abi Daoud
Ber-EP4 has been the traditional immunostain used for the detection of basaloid skin tumors. Recently, MOC-31 has shown be superior to Ber-EP4 in the detection of basosquamous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and many centers are now using both Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 antibodies together to detect these lesions. The objective of this study was to compare the utility of using both Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 immunostains in the detection of basaloid skin tumors and to better characterize the previously unknown staining properties of MOC-31 in cutaneous lesions...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Yizhe Sun, Jinhai Deng, Peng Xia, Wei Chen, Lu Wang
Transmembrane 74 (TMEM74), a transmembrane protein as an autophagy inducer, has been proven to promote tumor cell (including cervical cancer cell line HeLa and hepatic carcinoma cell line HepG2) proliferation by triggering autophagy. To further determine the role of TMEM74 in cancer, we performed immunohistochemical staining on tissue array, and the results showed that TMEM74 exhibited significantly higher expression in several tumor types, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and squamous carcinoma...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Basma M Basha, Eric D Hsi
INTRODUCTION: Vascular transformation of sinuses (VTS) is an uncommon and benign lesion, defined by conversion of lymph node sinuses into complex, anatomizing and endothelial-lined channels. Despite the name of VTS, which implies a change in differentiation from lymphatic to vascular endothelium, very few studies have systematically examined VTS with modern immunohistochemical markers commonly used in clinical laboratories. It is unclear whether endothelial cells in VTS display pure vascular or lymphatic differentiation, or both...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Sebastian Fernandez-Pol, Lisa Ma, Rohan P Joshi, Daniel A Arber
Here, we utilize a high throughput sequencing panel that covers several genes known to be recurrently mutated in certain T-cell lymphoma subtypes as well as genes frequently mutated in other hematolymphoid malignancies, including myeloid neoplasms. This panel was applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 84 biopsies from 78 patients selected for this study. The biopsies included ones a with a diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma (n=79), including peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS; n=26) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL; n=13), as well as 5 cases of atypical T-cell proliferations...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Yang Li, Yang Liu, Guangxi Wang, Yuxiang Wang, Limei Guo
The Hedgehog pathway was recently shown to be involved in vascular development and neovascularization in human embryogenesis and disease. However, the role of Hedgehog pathway in modulating tumor angiogenesis is still unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with immunohistochemical staining and compared the immunoreaction data with various clinicopathologic characteristics...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Daniel G Eichberg, Simon Buttrick, Kyle White, Sakir H Gultekin, Ricardo J Komotar
Hemangioblastomas are benign tumors of undetermined origin, and account for up to 2.5% of all intracranial tumors. They may occur either sporadically or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas are pathologically diagnosed by gross and microscopic morphology, with further support of the diagnosis conferred by a characteristic immunohistochemistry profile including PAX8 negativity. Although renal hemangioblastomas have previously been reported to be PAX8 positive, CNS hemangioblastoma positive PAX8 expression has never been reported...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Hany Sakr, James R Cook
Aggressive lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations ("double hit" lymphomas, DHL) represent a distinct diagnostic category in the updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The diagnostic yield of MYC immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the identification of DHL is currently uncertain. MYC IHC was performed in 272 consecutive cases of aggressive B-cell lymphoma, and results correlated with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC translocations. Among 156 patients with IHC and FISH data, MYC IHC identified MYC translocations with 89% sensitivity, 38% specificity, 92% negative predictive value, and 29% positive predictive value...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Diana Salagean, Catherine Streutker, Hala Faragalla, Kiran Jakate
Distinguishing primary diffuse-type gastric carcinoma (PDGC) versus gastric involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma (mBC), particularly the lobular subtype, is difficult on histology alone. Both can appear morphologically similar. GATA3, a novel transcription factor, is used in certain scenarios as an immunohistochemical marker of breast origin. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of GATA3 in differentiating PDGC and mBC and how it compares to another breast marker, BRST2. We retrospectively stained 40 cases of PDGC and 10 control cases of mBC from upper gastrointestinal tract specimens for antibodies: GATA3, BRST2, CDX2, and estrogen receptor...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Julia Garcia-Reyero, Nerea Martinez Magunacelaya, Ainara Gonzalez Pereña, Sara Marcos Gonzalez, Nuria Teran-Villagra, Ainara Azueta, Ana Batlle, Sonia Gonzalez de Villambrosia, Jose Revert Arce, Santiago Montes-Moreno
Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the central nervous system (CNS) is an aggressive subtype of DLBCL with characteristic clinicopathologic features. Relapse outside the CNS involving extranodal locations has been found in a fraction of cases (16%). Here we describe a case of DLBCL arising in the CNS that relapsed 18 months after the initial diagnosis in the testis and bilateral adrenal glands. Both tumors showed equivalent morphology, phenotype, cytogenetic features, and clonal relationship. Somatic mutation analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated MYD88L265P mutation in both tumors and de novo CD79B Y196S mutation exclusive to the relapse...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
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